You are on page 1of 5

Eastern Visayas State University

Graduate School

MIDTERM EXAM
MSIT 215-Multimedia

GRACELY J. CARSON

Instruction.
I. Provide an example of any multimedia application that uses a lossy and
lossless compression. From your given example, show the process on how it
is compressed.
>> The MP3 format is one that uses lossy compression. This means that it
loses some of the audio information found in the original to make the
compressed file much smaller. The information that lossy compression loses
is the information deemed least important to the file. In music, this tends to be
the very high and very low frequencies that are not considered to add as
much to the music as the range of frequencies in between.
>> Briefly, here’s how MP3 (and most other compression schemes)
work. The process employs a combination of digital technology and the
science of aural perception (psychoacoustics) to remove data bits from the
original digital file that are considered to be essentially inaudible. These
bits can include frequencies beyond the normal threshold of human
hearing, sounds that are masked by other sounds, and various other
“redundant” sonic information.
The point of contention with this whole concept is just how much of that
data is truly inaudible. While some bits can be removed with little
consequence, much of what gets stripped away can subtly affect our
perception of how things sound. While moderately compressed files can
deliver near-CD quality sound, too much compression can remove elusive
qualities that can make a difference to how we perceive music on a
subconscious level.
With any compression, some audio quality loss is inevitable. Very high
frequencies are typically the first data to be eliminated, and while in theory
these sounds are inaudible, their loss can rob your music of its subtle
overtones, presence, dynamic range and depth of field.
The audio resolution and sonic quality of an MP3 is determined by the
bit rate at which it’s encoded. The higher the bitrate, the more data per
second of music. As you’d expect, a higher bitrate creates better quality
audio, along with a larger file.

2. Let us take a hypothetical set of sample points: 00000000000000000000012345432100000000000000000123456787656789 876 As you can see the silent area takes up a large part of the file. Generally speaking. massively reducing the file size: (21-0)123454321(17-0)123456787656789876 Another technique used by FLAC files is Linear prediction. since rarely are both talkers speaking simultaneously. While the resulting file size is smaller than using a higher bitrate. Rates below 128 kbps are usually not recommended for anything other than spoken word recordings. or variable bit rate. To do this it uses run length encoding. VBR examines the data as it’s encoding. sometimes VBR encoding can end up compromising the audio fidelity of delicate material like a solo acoustic guitar or vocal. or higher preserve most of the original sonic information. since it offers a smaller file size with relatively minimal loss. This is useful in two-way communications. There are lossless compressed file formats out there such as FLAC which compress the WAV file into data generally 50% the original size. using a lower rate for simple passages and a higher rate for more complex ones. or 1 kbps. which looks for repeated patterns in the sound file. making them a better bet for music you care about. 256 kbps. The encoding rate to be used for each speech frame is determined by an "activity measure" selected to monitor how much energy occurs in the frame. >> WAV files don't involve any compression at all and will be the size of files that you have calculated already. instead of recording these individually we can set data to state how many silent samples there are in a row. How to encode and decode a speech? >> The speech is encoded using different methods. 128 kbps (kilobits per second) is considered the bit rate at which an MP3 begins to exhibit artifacts of data compression. This approach partitions the sampled speech into frames (of typically 20 ms) and each frame is encoded at a rate of 8. 4. II. and instead of recording each pattern separately. Bitrates of 192 kbps. Another alternative is to encode using a VBR. so that while one talker is . it stores information on how many times the pattern occurs in a row. Not coincidently. One method is variable- rate coded-excited linear prediction (VCELP). it’s also the rate many websites use for downloads.

and so on. >> Yes. Why speech synthesis is important? Aside from text-to-speech conversion. etc. III. Audio data captured by legally authorized telephone wiretaps. How does it behave to any multimedia applications? >>A police investigation of a large-scale drug operation. Speech synthesizers are also important to the visually impaired and to those who have lost their ability to speak. The lattice rescoring is a form of multi-pass decoding. This algorithm is used in some cellular telephone systems. >> The speech decoding process can be performed based in either single- pass or multi-pass approach. The decoding involves synthesizing sinusoids for the encoded frequencies and amplitudes. c. In this approach the speech is also partitioned into frames. d. b. e. and each frame is analyzed using the DFT to determine pitch and harmonic frequencies. Image data consisting of still photographs taken by investigators. the rate used to encode the sound from the other talker can be kept to a minimum. This investigation may generate the following types of data a. Several other examples can be found in everyday life. Another method is called improved multiband excitation (IMBE) speech coding. Structured relational data containing background information. it can be the process in which a speech decoder generates the speech signal based on the parameters it has received through the transmission line. Document data seized by the police when raiding one or more places. in which the lattice is generated in the first pass using simple and low order knowledge sources and the rescoring is performed in the second pass using higher order knowledge sources. .. can use TTS to deliver answers to the customers. speaking. in theory. of the suspects involved. and carefully maintaining continuity of phase between one frame and the next. or it can be a procedure performed by a computer to estimate some kind of a presentation of the speech signal given a text input. and using hands-free functions through a voice interface in a car. For example. mean any kind of synthetization of speech. IV. another example of a speech synthesis is a telephone inquiry system where the information is frequently updated. The magnitude of the amplitude spectrum is then (coarsely) quantized and encoded and the phase is not encoded. are there any example of a speech synthesis? >> By speech synthesis we can. Video data captured by surveillance cameras that record the activities taking place at various locations. such as listening to the messages and news instead of reading them. back records. Present about multimedia database management system.

” § By examining the answer of the above query. Rocky hopes to find other people who have previously interacted with the victim. Show your interactive product even just the concept of it. Its purpose: . Give the following: 1. V. Create an interactive product using multimedia. § Query: "Retrieve all images from the image library in which “Big Spender” appears. Rocky thinks the assault was by someone known to the victim. § Query: “Find all video segments in which the victim of the assault appears. § He wants to find the identity of the person in the picture." Video Query: § Police officer Rocky is examining a surveillance video of a particular person being fatally assaulted by an assailant. One example to site is an interactive website. Heterogeneous Multimedia Query: § Find all individuals who have been photographed with “Big Spender” and who have been convicted of attempted murder in South China and who have recently had electronic fund transfers made into their bank accounts from ABC Corp. the assailant's face is occluded and image processing algorithms return very poor matches. f. However. Title: Disaster Risk Reduction Awareness and Management Application for Secondary Schools Students 2. Geographic information system data remaining geographic data relevant to the drug investigation being conducted. Possible Queries Image Query (by example): § Police officer Rocky has a photograph in front of him. § Query: “Retrieve all images from the image library in which the person appearing in the (currently displayed) photograph appears” Image Query (by keywords): § Police officer Rocky wants to examine pictures of “Big Spender”.

. as well as the DRRMO. and b. 5. and after disasters. a. Provide guidance to Secondary Schools students on how to act before. How can it be used: The end-users will open the application and will be directed to a gallery of different disasters. Facilitate immediate and efficient information flow during disasters and emergencies. and after disaster. teachers. What is its learning outcome once end-users or clients will use it or try it: The end-users will be able to learn and apply the measures on what to do before. Who will be benefitted: This app will benefit the students. during. 3. 4. during.