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RAYMOND A. DECARLO, FELLOW, IEEE, MICHAEL S. BRANICKY, MEMBER, IEEE,

STEFAN PETTERSSON, AND BENGT LENNARTSON

Invited Paper

This paper introduces the concept of a hybrid system and some ples include disk drives [56], stepper motors [57], the onoff

of the challenges associated with the stability of such systems, behavior of a furnace [24], [25], a VSTOL aircraft [58], etc.

including the issues of guaranteeing stability of switched stable Example 1: For a simplified model of a manual transmis-

systems and finding conditions for the existence of switched

controllers for stabilizing switched unstable systems. In this sion [57], let denote the ground position of a car, the

endeavor, this paper surveys the major results in the (Lyapunov) engine RPM, and control the throttle position. The

stability of finite-dimensional hybrid systems and then discusses simplified (hybrid) dynamics are

the stronger, more specialized results of switched linear (stable

and unstable) systems. A section detailing how some of the results

(1.1a)

can be formulated as linear matrix inequalities is given. Stability

analyses on the regulation of the angle of attack of an aircraft and (1.1b)

on the PI control of a vehicle with an automatic transmission are

given. Other examples are included to illustrate various results in

this paper. where when , denotes the

KeywordsHybrid systems, linear matrix inequalities, stability, gear shift position, and is some function of . Equation

stabilizability, switched systems. (1.1b) comes in four flavors depending on the decision of the

external agent, who controls . Hence, the hybrid system

consists of four distinct dynamic motions (four distinct CT

I. INTRODUCTION

state models) indexed by and concatenated in some way to

Loosely speaking, hybrid systems consist of continuous produce an overall dynamic motion.

time (CT) and/or discrete time (DT) processes interfaced This paper overviews current results on the stability of hy-

with some logical or decision-making process. The con- brid systems and, within the narrow confines of switching

tinuous/discrete time (C/DT) component might consist among a finite set of possible motions, the stabilization of hy-

of differential/difference equations or continuous/discrete brid systems. For other overviews, see [4][8] and [26]. The

time state models. The logical/decision-making (LDM) following two examples motivate the rich challenges and un-

component might be a finite automaton or a more general foreseen surprises intrinsic to the stability of hybrid systems.

discrete event system [1]. The C/DT processes affect the Example 2 [49]: Consider the autonomous state dy-

state transitions of the LDM, and the LDM processes affect namics where

the dynamic motions of the C/DT processes [2], [3]. Exam- and

R. DeCarlo is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Purdue Uni- Both and are stable, having identical eigenvalues

versity, West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA (e-mail: decarlo@ecn.purdue.edu).

M. Branicky is with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Com- . Define the switching function

puter Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA as follows:

(e-mail: mb@ieee.org).

S. Pettersson and B. Lennartson are with the Control and Automation Lab-

oratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gteborg S-412 96, Sweden if and

(e-mail: stp@s2.chalmers.se; bl@s2.chalmers.se). (1.2)

Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9219(00)06465-3. if and

For any given initialization, this function specifies a rule with

memory for switching the dynamic motion of the system be-

tween and . For and any , the state

trajectory diverges to (Fig. 1), showing that switching be-

tween two asymptotically stable systems can produce an un-

stable trajectory.

Switching between two asymptotically stable systems

as above can occur in the control of the longitudinal dy-

namics of an aircraft with constrained angle of attack (see

Example 4). Two questions arise: a) what classes of stable

systems admit a stable state trajectory for all switching

sequences and b) what switching sequences always result in

stable trajectories? If there exists a common Lyapunov func- Fig. 1. Unstable state trajectory of switched stable systems.

tion for a set of stable -matrices, the resulting system

is stable for all switching sequences [26], which answers

question a). A partial answer to question b) is intuitive: Example 3 [30], [50]: Again, consider the autonomous

If switching among asymptotically stable systems is slow state dynamics , where and

enough, one would expect a stable response. Stability here

is characterized by a traditional Lyapunov function (1.3a)

that measures the system energy. Mathematically, is

continuous and differentiable,1 , and and

if and

if . Further, if , , then the state will (1.3b)

converge to zero, implying local stability (global stability if if and

is radially unbounded) [91][93].

The fact that a common Lyapunov function guarantees Both systems are unstable as the eigenvalues of lie at zero

stability for arbitrary switching has led researchers to search and those of lie at . The phase-plane portraits

for conditions under which a common Lyapunov function of the individual systems are shown in Fig. 2.

exists. See, e.g., [27]. For switching between two stable These phase-plane trajectories can be pieced together to

linear systems in the plane, necessary and sufficient con- produce a stable state trajectory as shown in Fig. 3.

ditions for the existence of a common quadratic Lyapunov A stability analysis of this system serves to motivate many

function have been derived [28]. For families of linear ideas contained in this paper. For the system structures

and , define quadratic Lyapunov-like functions

systems (indexed by a compact set), various algebraic

properties of the family have proven to be sufficient. For and , where

example, if all of the matrices commute or have a solvable

Lie algebra, then a common quadratic Lyapunov function

exists and the system is stable under arbitrary switching. See

[26] for more details and [29] for a generalization. Finally, Quadratic Lyapunov-like functions having negative definite

sufficient conditions for a common Lyapunov function of derivative in some region of the state space always exist pro-

a quasi-quadratic form has been generalized to nonlinear vided with [30]. As such, define the regions

systems [9]. , . Thus,

The onoff behavior of a furnace exemplifies switching in , the system energy, defined by , decreases. One

between a stable system (off) and an unstable system (on) may also verify that covers the entire state space .

[24]. Under certain conditions, if a furnace locks to the Since the energy is decreasing in , the state moves closer to

on-mode, the temperature outside the furnace will contin- the origin within , as measured by the ellipsoidal level sets

uously rise, an unstable behavior. An even more complex defined by the functions . Placing the [

problem, and one dual to the problem shown in Example 2, being the actual system state trajectory] side by side results

is that of switching between two unstable systems to produce in an overall piecewise continuous and piecewise quadratic

a stable trajectory, as illustrated in Example 3. Lyapunov-like function whose energy ultimately decreases

to zero as per Fig. 4.

The ideas a) that the union of the -regions covers the

state space; b) that in each -region there are one (or more)

(quadratic) Lyapunov-like functions whose energy decreases

1Continuous and differentiable is the classical and customary assumption

along the system state trajectories; and c) that these possibly

on the Lyapunov function V (1) due apparently to the fact that system dy-

namics have often been described by continuous and differentiable vector multiple Lyapunov-like functions can be pieced together in

fields. This, however, is not required. See, e.g., [94] and [95]. Work in hybrid some way to produce a global (nontraditional) Lyapunov

systems generally avoids this assumption as in Theorem 4.1 in [2] and, of function whose overall energy decreases to zero along the

course, throughout this paper. More recently, because one may be switching

among unstable systems, the phrase multiple Lyapunov functions has ap- system state trajectories underlie the main results of this

peared. paper.

This paper is organized as follows. Section II briefly

introduces the model of a hybrid system used throughout

the paper, while illustrating the representation by the lon-

gitudinal control of an aircraft and the PI cruise control of

a vehicle with an automatic transmission. Careful stability

analyses of these examples are set forth in Section VI.

In between, in Section III, we overview the development

of the main stability results for finite-dimensional hybrid

systems. These results are specialized for switched linear

systems in Section IV. In Section V, a numerical approach

for the stabilization of such systems is formulated and set

forth as the solution of a linear matrix inequality (LMI).

Fig. 2. Dashed line is phase-plane portrait if x_ = A x ; solid line Example 3 is revisited and solved via the LMI approach,

is phase-plane portrait of x_ = A x. also in Section V.

Two of the earliest hybrid system models were those of

Witsenhausen [63] and Tavernini [64]. However, in the last

decade or so, hybrid system modeling has evolved dramat-

ically beginning with Peleties and DeCarlo [50], [65][68]

and continuing with Stiver et al. [69], [70], Alur et al. [71],

Nerode et al. [72], [73], DogruelOzguner [74], Branicky

[51], [75], [76], and, more recently, Pettersson et al. [49],

[77], [78]. A review of these models is beyond the scope of

this paper. Nevertheless, the pertinent fruit of the modeling

evolution can be summarized by the dynamics

Fig. 3. State trajectory resulting from switching between A and

A ; the lines x = 0:5x and x = 0 0:25x lie in

. \ (2.1a)

(2.1b)

(2.1c)

either a continuous control input or some external (refer-

ence or disturbance) signal to the continuous-time part of the

system, represents a discrete state that

indexes the vector fields that determine , is a

discrete event (possibly control) input, and is a

discontinuous transition function behind which lies a whole

set of undescribed logical and/or discrete-event system dy-

namics. In many cases, serves as the control, as in Ex-

ample 1. A special case of model (2.1) is the autonomous

Fig. 4. Energy profile of the switched system with trajectories

shown in Fig. 3. model, in which and are not present, as in Ex-

amples 13. In particular, for Examples 2 and 3, ,

Example 3 illustrates the stability and stabilizability of two , with the transition func-

linear time invariant systems with state spaces in the plane tions defined in (1.2) and (1.3b). The autonomous model also

. An exhaustive analysis of various properties of switched results when and are explicit (feedback) functions

systems with state vectors in was set forth in Loparo et of the state.

al. in [31] and [32]. More recently, using a geometric ap- Example 4: The highly simplified longitudinal dynamics

proach, Xu and Antsaklis [33], [34] were able to obtain nec- of an aircraft can take the form [51], [59]

essary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stabilizability

of two-switched LTI systems with state spaces in . Char-

acterizing the stability and stabilizability of switching among (2.2a)

families of nonlinear systems presents a much more chal- where is the constrained angle of attack and is

lenging task. For the most general results in this area, see the pitch rate. The output equation is

Branicky [1], [6], [10], Michel et al. [2], [3], [8], and Pet-

tersson and Lennartson [11], [12], [49]. The substance of

(2.2b)

these results is described in Section III.

where , is the normal acceleration, and the

control variable is the angle of the elevator measured

down from the horizontal with the aircraft. The control ob-

jective is twofold: track the pilots reference normal acceler-

ation while maintaining the safety constraint that the angle

of attack must be less than . To simultaneously achieve

both objectives (to the extent possible), we define a switched Fig. 5. Automaton illustrating discrete state transistors.

max control law

The constant is chosen to balance fast convergence with

(2.3) small overshoot; the discrete gains , , ,

are chosen to insure a smooth ride and satisfy

where

(2.9a)

(2.4) inputs and b) for any change in the discrete state at, say,

, the state is reset discontinuously (a so-called state

Here, is the output of a controller designed to stabilize jump) so that

the aircraft about , and is a control designed to make

track . Roughly, the max control law acts to track (2.9b)

the pilots reference using the elevator except when to do so

would cause the safety constraint to be violated. also to ensure a smooth ride.

Example 5 [49]: The simplified dynamics of a car (mass A stability analysis of Examples 4 and 5 is given in Sec-

) with an automatic transmission having velocity on a tion VI.

road inclined at an angle is

III. GENERAL STABILITY RESULTS FOR HYBRID SYSTEMS

dale of system stability for the past century. Demonstrating

(2.5b) stability depends on the existence and/or construction of

an appropriate (continuous and differentiable) Lyapunov

where the discrete state (energy) function that may not exist (as per Example 3) or,

are the transmission gear ratios normalized when it does exist, may be difficult to construct. For hybrid

by the wheel radius , is an appropriate constant, is the systems, demonstrating existence and/or constructing a

angular velocity of the motor, and is the torque generated classical Lyapunov function only worsens, at best. Yet, the

by the engine, an input to the model. The discrete state tran- intrinsic discontinuous nature of a hybrid system strongly

sition function is suggests using multiple Lyapunov-like functions con-

catenated together to produce a nontraditional (piecewise

if and continuous and piecewise differentiable) Lyapunov function

as in [1][5], [13], [24], [26], [30], [35], [36], [49][52],

if and and [57]. Using multiple Lyapunov functions (MLFs)

to form a single nontraditional Lyapunov function offers

(2.6) much greater freedom and infinitely more possibilities for

where and are preset angular velocities of the en- demonstrating stability, for constructing a nontraditional

gine, as illustrated by the automaton of Fig. 5. Lyapunov function, and for achieving the stabilization of

A PI cruise controller (of the torque) that must also com- the hybrid system (2.1), which we now restrict to the special

pensate for the nonlinear load forces is (autonomous) form

(2.7) (3.1)

for a reference velocity and a proportional control is piecewise continuous (from the right), implying that there

. This leads to combined/reduced vehicle- are only a finite number of switches per unit time.2

cruise controller dynamics 2B definition, piecewise continuous means a finite number of discontinu-

ities per unit interval with well-defined left- and right-hand limits at each dis-

continuity point. From the right further requires continuity from the right.

(2.8a) Theoretically, one can allow for infinitely fast switching, which brings the

problem to the realm of hybrid sliding mode control. Practically speaking,

this is to be avoided because of the finite bandwidth of actuators and the un-

(2.8b) desirability of exciting (unmodeled) high-frequency dynamics of the system.

One of the early results of hybrid system stability for linear

switched systems was developed by Peleties [5], [50] for

system (3.1) when . Briefly, define a family of

Lyapunov-like functions , each associ-

ated with the vector field . A Lyapunov-like

function for the system and equilibrium point

(the state space) is a real-valued function

(with continuous partial derivatives) defined over the

region satisfying the conditions:

i) positive definiteness: and for

; often ;

ii) negative definite derivative: for

(3.2)

Note that is precisely the set of for which (3.2) holds. solid line (upper curves) shows example of weakening condition

Theorem 3.1: Suppose that , the state space. 2

(3.2)(3.4); squares initiate V , circles initiate V , s initiate V .

For , let be switching times for which

, and suppose there exists such that

vector fields, , when activated, overcome this small in-

crease. Thus, the relaxation of condition (3.2) allows greater

(3.3) freedom for the designer to prove stability and to construct

It follows that system (3.1), with and stabilizing switching sequences. Michel et al. have devel-

switching function , is globally asymptotically stable [5], oped and formulated their ideas and results in a quite gen-

[26]. eral setting capable of handling the diverse motions/behav-

Condition (3.3) of Theorem 3.1 is illustrated in Fig. 4. iors found in finite as well as infinite dimensional hybrid dy-

Branicky set forth the first nonlinear generalization [10], namical systems [2], [3], [8], [16]. Related issues with regard

[51]; other significant extensions are in [8], [14], and [15]. to systems with discontinuous jumps in the state (impulse ef-

Theorem 3.2 [10], [51]: Given the -switched nonlinear fects) can be found in [17][19].

system (3.1), suppose each vector field has an associated A further extension of the above results is formalized in

Lyapunov-like function in the region , each with equi- Pettersson and Lennartson [11], [12], [49], where the one

librium point , and suppose . Let be a pair for each vector field is relaxed to allow mul-

given switching sequence such that can take on the value tiple pairs , for each vector field .

only if , and in addition Note there is no requirement that . In addition,

they have relaxed the assumptions of globally Lipschitz to

(3.4) locally Lipschitz and the condition that for all to

for only a subset of the vector fields. The proofs

where denotes the th time that vector field is used in [1], [6], [8], [51], and [52] extend with some routine

switched in, i.e., . Then (3.1) is modifications by viewing each new pair as a dis-

Lyapunov stable. tinct discrete state. We will see applications of this idea in

Fig. 6 illustrates the meaning of condition (3.4) and a more Section VI.

general result due to Ye et al. [2], [8], [15]. Beginning with All of the above theorems can be strengthened to produce

different assumptions, this more general result assumes a asymptotic and exponential stability [1], [2], [8], [11], [15],

so-called weak Lyapunov function for , in which condition [49], [51], [52]. An example is Theorem 3.3.

(3.2) is replaced by Theorem 3.3 [49, Theorem 4.1]: If for each ,

, a vector field can be selected such that ,

(3.5) and any resulting sliding motion dynamics are given by Fil-

ippovs convex combination definition [94], then the origin

where : is a continuous function that satisfies 0 of the closed-loop system is stable in the sense of Lya-

, and where is any switching instant when system punov. Additionally, if there exists a constant such

is activated, i.e., . Here, the energy that , then the origin 0 of the closed-loop

over each time interval for which system is active remains system is exponentially stable.

bounded in the sense of condition (3.5), potentially allowing Implicitly, the above theorem provides a methodology for

the system energy to increase in these ranges. Since switching between vector fields to achieve a stable trajec-

, the result by Ye et al. permits tory. Other generalizations are possible. MLF theory can be

to be activated for . extended to the case of multiple equilibria (a different equi-

Intuitively speaking, one might expect that the system en- librium point for each vector field ) and the case where the

ergy could increase for short periods of time provided other index set is an arbitrary compact set [1].

Note that the restriction that there are a finite number A. Switching Among Stable -Matrices

of switches in finite time does not necessarily exclude Suppose the , , are stable, i.e., all eigen-

sliding-like motions.3 Indeed, sliding motions may be in- values in open left-half complex plane. If all the share

corporated by defining each such motion and its associated a common Lyapunov function, , such that

equivalent dynamics [94] as an additional system to which , , then the system is exponentially

we can switch. We then merely check the conditions of the stable for all switching sequences [26], [80]. Exponential sta-

theorems as before. For more on sliding in the context of bility means that there exist constants and

hybrid systems, see [49], [53], [54], [96]. such that

The general results presented above give sufficient

conditions for hybrid stability. Such sufficient conditions (4.2)

often lead to powerful design rules, as per the sufficiency of

Lyapunovs classical theorem [91][93] in adaptive control The above conditions on are equivalent to

theory [97]. In the adaptive control area, plants sometimes for all . See [26] and [98] for more details.

have large uncertainty necessitating controllers designed for Finding such and is an area of continued research. Ap-

different admissible models; the hybrid control problem is to proaches when the commute can be found in [26], [28],

switch among these controllers to achieve stabilization [4], and [39]. Lie-algebraic conditions (a major research direc-

[26]. Various rules have been proposed for the stabilization tion) can be found in [29] and [40], [41]. However, the ex-

of diverse hybrid systems, notably in [37], [49][55]. As istence of a common quadratic Lyapunov function, although

an example of these results, Pettersson and Lennartson sufficient, is not necessary for stability [9]. Further, in [42],

[11], [12], [49] proposed the following implementation of Hespanha and Morse show that if the on-average switching

Theorem 3.3. is slow, then stability is guaranteed.

Min-Projection Strategy: For specific ,

choose the vector field according to the criterion B. Switching Among Possibly Unstable -Matrices

. If at least one has eigenvalues

Thus, one strategy that may stabilize a hybrid system is to in the open right-half complex plane, then switching se-

pick the vector field that causes maximal descent of a partic- quences exist that destabilize system (4.1). Existence

ular energy function(s), here . Another strategy to and construction of stabilizing switching sequences become

stabilize a hybrid system is to select vector fields according critically important. If the set contains an asymptotically

to the Lyapunov function with the smallest value as in [38] stable , then any switching sequence that eventually

and [54]. A similar approach is given in [37]. Other view- latches fixedly onto stabilizes system (4.1). Hence, for

points on the stabilization of hybrid systems can be found in the remainder of this section, we have the following.

[4], [13], [26], and [31][34]. Assumption 4.1: Each has eigenvalues in the

The necessity of the existence of Lyapunov functions for closed right-half complex plane.

switched and hybrid systems is being energetically explored. Thus, we seek an answer to the question of exis-

Such converse theorems can be found in [3] and [9]. tence of switching sequences resulting in quadratic

stability and, when possible, a feedback mechanism,

IV. STABILITY AND STABILIZATION OF LINEAR , for stabilization. By quadratic

SWITCHED/HYBRID SYSTEMS stability, we mean that there exists a quadratic function

Switching among different system structures is an essen- ( , i.e., is positive definite and

tial feature of many engineering control applications. Exam- symmetric), an , and a switching sequence such

ples include gain scheduling, switched dc-to-dc power con- that

verters, pulse width modulation control, switched capacitor

networks, and vibration suppression in structures using vari- (4.3)

able stiffness. See, for example, [60][62]. This section sur-

veys some of the important results for linear -switched When , i.e., , then the results of

systems, i.e., those satisfying [30], [35], and [36] lead to the following.

Theorem 4.1: There exists a switching sequence such

(4.1a) that system (4.1) is quadratically stable iff there exists

(4.1b) such that

systems, stronger results than those presented in Section III

are possible. Particular choices for the switching function is a stability matrix, i.e., eigenvalues of lie in the open

(4.1b) are set forth. left-half complex plane.

Conditions for finding are in [35], with the caveat

3For a sliding mode to exist on a lower dimensional manifold, the vector

that general convex combinations are NP-hard [99], [100].

fields must point toward the manifold and drive any state deviations back to

the manifold. Hence, motion in an invariant space is a sliding-like motion, (A brute force approach is simply to plot the eigenvalues of

but not necessarily a sliding mode. for .) When exists and is

known, then for arbitrary , one can construct yet there exists a stabilizing . Example 3 with the ,

[79], [86] satisfying , given by (1.3a) is one such example: the system

is stabilizable but no common exists. General structural

conditions on the -matrices that guarantee stability remain

open questions. Results in this direction can be found in [38]

i.e., for appropriate switching , satisfies and [43][45]. The main thrust appears to be the existence

condition (4.3) above. of solutions to coupled Lyapunov equations as in [38], [43],

In order to construct a piecewise continuous (from the and [45]. However, in the absence of structural conditions,

right) , quadratically stabilizing system (4.1), define for the min-projection strategy in Section III provides a means

, positive definite matrices for constructing a stabilizing switching strategy when appro-

priate and are known. Application of the min-projec-

(4.5) tion strategy to Example 3 results in a convergence rate much

faster than illustrated in Fig. 3.

and -regions

Related work using output feedback for stabilization can

be found in Feron [36], Liberzon [46], and Savkin et al. [47].

(4.6)

Here, we need to point out that covers the state space V. STABILITY CONDITIONS AS LINEAR MATRIX

and . Further, for sufficiently small (user chosen) INEQUALITIES

, define two (quadratic) switching surfaces

The critical challenge in practical hybrid system applica-

(4.7a) tions is finding appropriate Lyapunov functions that satisfy

the stability conditions. Unfortunately, no general methods

(4.7b)

are available. However, for switched linear systems as in the

previous sections, there is an LMI [79] problem formulation

Theorem 4.2 [30]: Quadratic stabilization of system (4.1)

results when using the following hybrid switching rule: for constructing a set of quadratic Lyapunov-like functions

[11], [80][86]. Existence of a solution to the LMI problem

1) (initialization) at activate system so that is a sufficient condition for hybrid system stability. A real

; advantage here is that LMI problems admit efficient and re-

2) when and (4.8) liable numerical solutions with standard packages [87], [88].

For the case when one desires to guarantee stability for

3) when and . all switching sequences among asymptotically stable -ma-

The switching rule of (4.8) stabilizes without generating a trices, then the LMI problem is to find satis-

sliding mode since the hyperplanes defined by the fying , for . It then follows

do not overlap. For the strategies that may result in a sliding that the set is exponentially stable for all

mode, see [35] and [36]. switching sequences [80], [81], [83]. Conversely, if there

The necessity of condition (4.4) in Theorem 4.1 does not exist positive definite matrices, , , such that

generalize for . Nevertheless, we can state the fol-

lowing theorem [30], [35].

(5.1)

Theorem 4.3: Let satisfy Assump-

tion 4.1. A sufficient condition for the existence of to

produce a stable satisfying system (4.1) is that there then the above matrix does not exist [80], [81]. Existence

exist a stable convex combination of the -matrices, i.e., of satisfying (5.1) means there exists a destabilizing

there exist , , such that switching sequence.

The general hybrid stability LMI formulation is much

more complex. Broadly speaking, the problem entails

(4.9)

searching for Lyapunov-like functions whose associ-

ated -regions cover the state space. Specifically, the

is a stability matrix. methodology begins with a sufficiently rich (user-chosen)

Condition (4.9) implies that for a suffi- partitioning of the state-space into potential -regions.

ciently small period , the spectral radius of Each -region must be defined by, or covered by, a region

is less than defined by a quadratic form. Presuming that each -region

one. The condition given in [20, Theorem 1] follows. For is defined by a quadratic form, the search for appropriate

all practical purposes, this pulse-width modulation scheme Lyapunov-like functions is formulated as an LMI problem.

results in an average control that asymptotically stabilizes Physical insight, a good understanding of the LMI problem,

system (4.1). and brute force are often required to choose an acceptable

Unfortunately, finding the convex combination of (4.9), partitioning. To generate a partitioning that admits a solu-

even when it exists, is NP-hard [99], [100]. Moreover, there tion, we permit the use of several Lyapunov-like functions

is a large class of systems for which (4.9) is never satisfied, for each vector field.

Let denote a region where one searches for a in the By introducing a new unknown variable , there is po-

quadratic Lyapunov-like function that satisfies tentially more freedom in finding a and satis-

the stability condition fying the unconstrained relaxed condition

(5.5)

(5.2)

intrinsic to the numerical (LMI) software [87]. A solution

with the understanding that several vector fields can be

to the relaxed problem is also a solution to the constrained

used in . Additionally, the LMI problem formulation re-

problem [79].

quires that whenever there is movement to an adjacent region

A solution to (5.5) insures that the system energy is non-

, which uses the Lyapunov-like function , then

increasing in the region . Condition (5.3), that

at states where the trajectory passes from

(5.3)

to can, using local quadratic Lyapunov-like functions,

be expressed by

at those states where the trajectory passes from to .

Unlike the results set forth in Section III, this LMI problem

formulation requires the stronger condition that the overall (5.6)

Lyapunov-like function must always be nonincreasing. This

requirement necessitates the need for multiple (local) Lya- The states where this condition must be satisfied also have

punov-like functions for each vector field. The concatena- to be expressed or contained in regions characterized by

tion of these Lyapunov-like functions, if they exist, produces quadratic forms. As above, this new region-based constraint

a piecewise quadratic and piecewise differentiable (nontradi- can be replaced with an unconstrained LMI condition using

tional) Lyapunov function. the -procedure.

The stability condition of (5.2) for a specific Lya- There is one final requirement: the Lyapunov-like function

punov-like function must only be satisfied in the local has to be positive definite, i.e., locally, i.e., in .

region, for example, in . To constrain the stability condi- This quadratic form condition can again be converted to an

tions to local regions, two steps are involved. First, the region unconstrained condition using the -procedure.

must be expressed or contained in regions characterized by Instead of verifying stability, exponential stability can be

quadratic forms, . Examples of such quadratic shown by imposing slightly stronger conditions on the en-

forms are cones and ellipsoids. If a polyhedral region is ergy decrease. By finding upper and lower bounds on the

described by half-planes Lyapunov-like functions, and lower bounds on the rate of en-

ergy decrease, exponential stability is guaranteed [49], [86].

and Going through the steps described above, with the search for

an upper bound of the convergence rate, exponential stability

and

of hybrid systems with linear vector fields can be verified by

and the following LMI problem.

LMI Problem: Let denote the identity matrix. If there is

then the quadratic form characterizing the region is obtained a solution to subject to:

by multiplying the two half-planes together 1)

;

2) ;

where 3) ;

(5.4) 4) ;

where denotes the number of different local Lyapunov-like

In [49], [80][86], and [89], it is also shown how more gen- functions, then the equilibrium point 0 is exponentially stable

eral quadratic forms may be used to express hyperplanes and in the sense of Lyapunov.

polyhedra. The left-hand side of the second condition requires pos-

Second, a technique called the -procedure is applied itive definiteness of the quadratic Lyapunov-like functions.

to replace a constrained stability condition to a condition The right-hand side is introduced to find an upper bound of

without constraints [79]. To illustrate, let be a given the Lyapunov-like functions to determine an upper bound

matrix. The goal is to find such that (5.2) is satisfied, of the convergence rate. If only stability is of interest, this

i.e., right-hand side of the inequality can be neglected. The third

condition is the requirement that the energy is nonincreasing

in every region , where is the set of tuples character-

izing those vector fields allowable in region . The energy

for the region defined by . Equations (5.2) and decrease has to be less than the negative identity matrix to

(5.4) represent the usual LMI problem for stability of a linear conclude exponential stability. Stability is guaranteed if the

state model, except that we only require local validity here. right-hand side instead is zero. Finally, the fourth condition

is the requirement that the energy is nonincreasing when an-

other region is entered, where is the set of tuples char-

acterizing neighboring regions for which can possibly

travel from to .

Exponential stability is verified if there is a solution to the

above LMI problem. The variables , , , and and

matrices are unknowns, while the different s are known

matrices corresponding to the different user-generated local

regions where the conditions must be valid. A bound on the

convergence rate is

(5.7)

Fig. 7. Dashed line ( ) shows the level curves of the local

quadratic Lyapunov-like functions. Continuous trajectories cross

where is the continuous trajectory with initial state . these curves such that the energy is always decreasing, thus

verifying that the system is exponentially stable.

Because this bound depends on the user-chosen partitioning,

one must exercise caution when interpreting this conver-

gence rate; other switching sequences may result in much have been extended to synthesis for example in the case of

faster rates of convergence. piecewise linear systems [90]. Stabilization in the context

Example 6: The LMI method is illustrated for the system of linear programming and optimal control is considered in

in Example 3. To verify exponential stability, the state space [101].

will be partitioned into two different regions: the first region

corresponds to the states where the first vector field is used VI. STABILITY ANALYSIS: TWO EXAMPLES

and the second region corresponds to the states where the

second vector field is used, i.e., corresponds to and Example 4 (Continued): The flight control problem of the

to , as in Example 3. longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft set forth in example 4

The quadratic forms and re- used the max control law of (2.3) and (2.4)

stricting the Lyapunov-like functions and to the corre-

sponding local regions are given by

Herein, we examine the stability of the closed-loop system

when the tracking command . See [51] and [59] for

more details. The closed-loop system equations with the max

obtained according to (5.4) using the corresponding hyper- control law are

planes.

The trajectories pass the region boundaries in a clockwise

direction, implying the formulation of the stability condition

as at plane and at

. This is formulated as the third condition in the LMI Our analysis below presupposes that the feedback controls

problem by writing these planes as quadratic forms and using and are designed so that and are

the -procedure. stable and provide the necessary performance. This is pos-

Solving the LMI problem results in a solution sible because the controllability of is equivalent to

the ability to reassign the eigenvalues of by state feedback.

(Achieving desired performance using hybrid controllers is

a topic more complex than stability alone and is explored in

by McClamroch and Kolmanovsky in [102].) After defining

with a value of . Hence, the system is (globally) and making a change of variables, one obtains

exponentially stable. The level curves of the Lyapunov-like the following canonical form [51], [59]:

functions are shown in Fig. 7. Note that in this example, the

resulting Lyapunov-like function is always nonincreasing;

see Fig. 4.

Various extensions of the LMI problem are possible. A (6.1)

generalization to affine systems, , utilizes where , , , and are greater than zero. Fur-

a general quadratic Lyapunov function and more general ther, without loss of generality, we assume that , in

quadratic forms to handle ellipsoid regions with nonzero which case the only equilibrium point of this system is the

centers and hyperplanes with offsets [49], [79], [89]. In some origin. Global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium dy-

instances, the LMI problem can be adapted to nonlinear namics is guaranteed if for an appropriate Lyapunov function

vector fields [49], [84], [86], [89]. Incorporation of state a) the origin is the only invariant set for which

jumps is also possible [49]. More recently, LMI methods and b) as [103].

Hitherto, we have illustrated the results with quadratic Initially assuming no state jumps in , stability can

Lyapunov functions. To verify stability of this example, we be shown by a single partitioning, implying a single Lya-

claim that the noncustomary punov-like function common to all the discrete states. This

results in a solution

is a valid Lyapunov function for the system of (6.1). tion V. Hence, the hybrid system is globally exponentially

The verification has two major parts: a) is a positive stable without state jumps. In (5.7), the optimal value of

definite (p.d.) function and b) . To show that is p.d., .

it suffices to show that and when If the state jumps are included in the dynamics, they occur

. That follows from . Second, when the discrete state is changed. Trajectories satisfying the

condition cross the gear shifting lines

and from left to right

(see Fig. 7) and oppositely for . In the

operating region of this cruise controller [ is always put

to zero when a new desired velocity is given], the gear shift-

That the desired condition holds in the first case follows im-

ings will always occur from lower to higher gear when the

mediately from . For the second case, we consider

first condition is satisfied and conversely in the second case.

the two subcases and separately, which lead

Hence, the third condition of the LMI problem is formulated

directly to the desired result. Thus, is a p.d. function.

such that the energy decreases passing from gears to

To verify that , consider

satisfying and gears to satisfying

.

Consider the case when the trajectories start in the first

region. The jump condition (2.9b), becomes

Accordingly, the fourth LMI condition becomes

.

1) If and , then

.

2) If and , then which is equivalent to

.

3) If and , then

is less than or equal to

zero if and is less than zero if since

where is the (2, 2) element of . Since

( .

, the energy will decrease due to the state jumps for any

4) If and , then

quadratic function . Therefore, the same solution as

is less than or

above verifies stability.

equal to zero if and is less than zero if

However, when the trajectories start in the second region,

is.

the jump condition of (2.9b) is the same as above except that

Example 5 (Continued): Stability of the PI controlled ve- and change position. In this case, there will not exist

hicle with an automatic transmission given in Example 5 is any solution since .

verified by LMIs. By denoting and To overcome this problem and verify stability, the state

( is the integral part of the control signal, the desired torque space is further partitioned. One quadratic candidate Lya-

generated by the engine), the closed-loop dynamics in (2.8) punov-like function is associated with each of the discrete

becomes states. Solving the LMI problem leads to a solution

where , , ,

, and

for all discrete states. For a specified desired velocity

m/s , the system converges exponentially to , Hence, the hybrid system is exponentially stable also in the

illustrated in Fig. 8 and formally proven next. case of state jumps. In (5.7), the optimal value of .

bility preserving maps. Other maps are possible, and it would

seem somewhat narrow to think that Lyapunov-like maps are

sufficient to characterize stability of the variety of motions

exhibited by hybrid systems that can be chaotic [104].

The problem of asymptotic stabilization of C/DT systems

via quantized feedback is also a problem of recent interest

[48], [105][107]. The quantization condition makes this

a hybrid system problem. Of particular note are the cases

where the control engineer can 1) specify the quantization

scheme and/or 2) adaptively change the quantization levels

as a function of time.

The insights afforded by hybrid system stability investi-

Fig. 8. Phase plot of v and T during a simulation of 80 s. gations have recently led to a revisitation of the problem of

Dash-dotted lines ( 1) are the hyperplanes when the gear shifts

from lower to higher gears (i ! i + 1) and oppositely (i + 1 ! i) nonlinear sampled-data feedback [6], [15], [21][23], [108].

at the dotted lines (1 1). Dashed lines ( ) are the level curves These results are important contributions and can be nicely

of the local quadratic Lyapunov-like functions. The continuous viewed as part of the larger topic of looking at stability of

trajectories cross these curves such that the energy decreases all the

time, verifying that the system is exponentially stable. first (i.e., linear) approximations extended to the case of hy-

brid systems as in [6] with consequences for the stability of

feedback loops closed over asynchronous networks [109].

The level curves for the local quadratic Lyapunov functions There are many other issues related to hybrid system

are shown in Fig. 8. stability and stabilization. For example, besides the need for

structural stability conditions, there are computational chal-

VII. CONCLUDING REMARKS lenges related to overcoming the complexity of constructing

Control theorists and computer scientists are actively stabilizing switching sequences. See, for example, [99],

investigating all dimensions of hybrid systems, and hybrid [100], and [110][112]. More important, there is a need to

system stability remains a vibrant topic within this broad apply and extend the basic results surveyed in this paper to

community, as can be garnered from the large number of the development of systematic analysis and design tools for

references below. Within the context of this widespread practical hybrid systems. Important application areas such as

activity, this paper has surveyed results on the stability anal- automotive controls, avionics, and embedded controllers in

ysis of hybrid systems concentrating on the use of multiple general will drive the process. Indeed, we have just stepped

Lyapunov functions as extensions of the classical theory into the arena where we must confront and deal with the

[91][93]. We presented general theorems for nonlinear intrinsically hybrid nature of virtually all complex systems.

hybrid systems, stronger results for the case of switching

among linear systems, and computer tools (LMIs) for the ACKNOWLEDGMENT

verification of hybrid systems stability. In the latter case,

the existence of a solution to an LMI problem becomes a The authors would like to thank the reviewers and the ed-

sufficient condition for the existence and construction of a itor of this special issue for their highly constructive com-

stabilizing switching sequence for linear vector fields. Two ments.

extended case studies, along with a number of examples

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control systems: Explicit analysis of delay, in Proc. Amer. Control the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engi-

Conf., Chicago, IL. neering and applied physics from Case Western

[110] L. Gurvits and L. Rodman, Convergence of polynomially bounded Reserve University (CWRU), Cleveland, Ohio,

semigroups of matrices, SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Applicat., vol. 18, in 1987 and 1990, respectively. He received the

no. 2, pp. 360368, 1997. Sc.D. in electrical engineering and computer

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lems for discrete event systems, in Proc. IFAC World Congress, San Technology (MIT), Cambridge, in 1995.

Francisco, CA, 1996, pp. 353358. In 1997, he re-joined CWRU as Nord Assistant

[112] M. S. Branicky, Universal computation and other capabilities of Professor of engineering; he is currently Assis-

hybrid and continuous dynamical systems, Theoret. Comput. Sci., tant Professor of electrical engineering and com-

vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 67100, 1995. puter science at the same university. He has held research positions at MITs

[113] W. J. Rugh, Linear System Theory, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: AI Lab, Wright-Patterson AFB, NASA Ames, Siemens Corporate Research

Prentice-Hall, 1996. (Munich), and Lund Institute of Technologys Department of Automatic

Control. His research interests include hybrid systems, intelligent control,

and leaming with applications to robotics, flexible manufacturing, and con-

trol over networks.

of Philadelphia, PA, received the B.S. and M.S.

degrees in electrical engineering from the Univer-

sity of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, in 1972 and

1974, respectively. In 1976, he received the Ph.D. Stefan Pettersson received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in automation and

under the direction of Dr. R. Saeks from Texas control engineering from Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg,

Tech University, Lubbock, TX. His doctoral re- Sweden, in 1993 and 1999, respectively. His dissertation is mainly about

search centered on Nyquist Stability Theory with hybrid systems, including nonlinear and fuzzy systems, for which modeling,

applications to multidimensional digital filters. stability and design issues are treated.

He taught at Texas Tech for one year before be- After a short stay in industry, he returned to Chalmers as an Assistant

coming an Assistant Professor of electrical engi- Professor in 2000.

neering at Purdue University in the Fall of 1977 and an Associate Professor

in 1982. He has worked at the General Motors Research Laboratories during

the summers of 1985 and 1986. He is a past Associate Editor for Technical

Notes and Correspondence and past Associate Editor for Survey and Tutorial

Papers, both for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL. He is a

former Secretary-Administrator of the Control Systems Society, a member Bengt Lennartson received the M.Sc. degree in engineering physics in 1979

of the Board of Governors of the Society from 1986 through 1992, and from and the Ph.D. degree in automatic control in 1986, both from Chalmers Uni-

1999 through 2002. He was Program Chairman for the 1990 IEEE Confer- versity of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

ence on Decision and Control (Honolulu, HI), and was General Chairman of In 1989, he became an Associate Professor at the Control Engineering

the 1993 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (San Antonio, TX). He Laboratory at Chalmers, and since 1999, he as been Professor of the chair

has written three books, has numerous journal and conference publications, of automation at the Department of Signals and Systems. He is also Vice

and has various contributed book chapters. His research interests include Dean of the School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering and Director

variable structure control of nonlinear systems, biomedical modeling and of undergraduate studies in automation engineering. His main areas of in-

control, hybrid and discrete event systems, numerical linear algebra as ap- terest include robust, sampled-data and PID control, as well as discrete event

plied to control and stability problems, decentralized control of large scale and hybrid systems, especially for manufacturing applications. Currently, he

systems, and analog and analogdigital fault diagnosis of circuits and sys- is focusing on the development of a general architecture for flexible produc-

tems. tion systems.

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