Submitted by: Manish Gupta Manish Chauhan

Submitted To

We would like to express our gratitude to ERNET India and Ms. Tejal Tiwary for letting us work on the project titled Research on Mobile Networking. We would also like to thank Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies for offering this excellent MBA program. We would like to thank the faculty, administrative and technical staff who has bestowed much help and patience during the internship. We would also like to express our deepest appreciation to all our friends and family for their unwavering support and faith in us. Lastly, we would like to thank everyone else who has helped us in one way or another in making this research possible.

Ernet India
Education and Research Network (ERNET), India is an autonomous scientific society of Ministry of Communication & information technology (Govt. of India). ERNET has made a significant contribution to the emergence of networking in the country. It practically brought the Internet to India and has built up national capabilities in the area of net-working, especially in protocol software engineering. It has not only succeeded in building a large network that provides various facilities to the intellectual segment of Indian society—the research and education community, it has over the years become a trendsetter in the field of networking. It has not only succeeded in building a large network that provides various facilities to the intellectual segment of Indian society--the research and education community, it has over the years become a trendsetter in the field of networking. UNDP has lauded ERNET as one of the most successful programmes it has funded. The Govt. of India has committed itself to further strengthen the project by including it in the 9th Plan with the allocation of funds and by creation of a new organizational set-up in the form of a Society. The Science community of the country has also recognized ERNET's contribution--both for infrastructure services as well as for R&D. The Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet has adopted ERNET as the platform for launching an S&T network in the country.

How it began
ERNET was initiated in 1986 by the Department of Electronics (DoE), with funding support from the Government of India and United Nations Development Program (UNDP), involving eight premier institutions as participating agencies--NCST (National Centre for Software Technology) Bombay, IISc (Indian Institute of Science) Bangalore, five IITs (Indian Institutes of Technology) at Delhi, Bombay, Kanpur, Kharagpur and Madras, and the DoE, New Delhi. ERNET began as a multi protocol network with both the TCP/IP and the OSI-IP protocol stacks running over the leased-line portion of the backbone. Since 1995, however, almost all traffic is carried over TCP/IP.

 ERNET was alloted Class B IP address 144.0 by InterNIC in 1990. .  In 2000 POP infrastructure was upgraded. 64 kbit/s Internet gateway link was commissioned from NCST Mumbai to UUNet in Virginia near Washington DC.  Initially UUCP mail was only service started by ERNET.  All IITs.  In 1998 ERNET India was registered as Autonomous Society.6 kbit/s leased line by 1992. The activities at ERNET India are organized around five technology focus areas:  National Academic and Research Network. Research and Development and Training are integral parts of ERNET activities.  Research and Development in the area of Data Communication and its Application.16.  Human Resource Development in the area of High-end Networking.  In 1999-2000 new terrestrial high speed backbone was setup. Focus of ERNET is not limited to just providing connectivity.  First leased line of 9.6 kbit/s was installed in Jan’1991 between Delhi and Mumbai.0. IISc Bangalore. DOE Delhi and NCST Mumbai were connected by 9. Subsequently Class C addresses were alloted to ERNET by APNIC. but to meet the entire needs of the educational and research institutions by hosting and providing relevant information to their users.  Campus-wide High Speed Local Area Network History of ERNET:  ERNET started with Dial-up network in 1986-87.  Educational Content.Focus: ERNET is largest nationwide terrestrial and satellite network with point of presence located at the premiere educational and research institutions in major cities of the country.  Satellite WAN was setup in 1993.  In 1992.

OSI etc. commissioning and testing of SATWAN hub and the installation of VSATs. private sector R&D organisations. Network infrastructure and services set up. Govt. 1100 institutes are ERNET users under different schemes.e.  Content development.  Generating man power at different levels. providing state-of-the-art communication infrastructure and services to Academic and Research institutions. and various other non-commercial organizations.  Research and development. NGOs.  Training and Consultancy. i. & multi-protocol capability provided. Objectives:  ERNET operations. including:  Installation.  Seamless interconnection of LAN-WAN segments.  Providing an insight into emerging issues such as ATM networks.  Deployment of TDM/TDMA based VSAT network for Internet access. .) well understood. and information infrastructure.  Provision of the whole range of Internet services. Today. organisations.  Making the world of standards (TCP/IP. networked multi-media. Achievements: Foundation of national capability building in the area of computer networking laid through:  Setting up of a chain of core groups at the participating agencies with a minimal setof lab facilities and creation of skilled manpower to carry out R&D.  Design. maintenance and operation of large Campus LANs.

The group of frequencies can be reused in other cells. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. If there is a single plain transmitter. circular or some other irregular shapes. The increased capacity in a cellular network. via base stations.Mobile network A mobile network is a radio network distributed over land areas called cells. etc) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network. provided that the same frequencies are not reused in adjacent neighboring cells as that would cause co-channel interference. This means that. comes from the fact that the same radio frequency can be reused in a different area for a completely different transmission. This enables a large number of portable transceivers (mobile phones. Mobile networks offer a number of advantages over alternative solutions: • • • • increased capacity reduced power usage larger coverage area reduced interference from other signals An example of a simple non-telephone Mobile system is an old taxi driver's radio system where the taxi company has several transmitters based around a city that can communicate directly with each taxi. Unfortunately. there is inevitably some level of interference from the signal from the other cells which use the same frequency. there must be at least a one cell gap between cells which reuse the same frequency. in a standard FDMA system. although hexagonal cells are conventional. compared with a network with a single transmitter. square. pagers. even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission. which can be hexagonal. only one transmission can be used on any given frequency. The concept In a Mobile radio system. each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver known as a cell site or base station. Each of these cells is assigned multiple frequencies (f1 . a land area to be supplied with radio service is divided into regular shaped cells. .f6) which have corresponding radio base stations.

In a simple taxi system. the distributed transceivers can select one cell and listen to it. adjacent cells must utilise different frequencies. D is calculated as . they will try other channels until they find one that works. As the drivers moved around. The elements that determine frequency reuse are the reuse distance and the reuse factor. With FDMA. the taxi driver manually tuned to a frequency of a chosen cell to obtain a strong signal and to avoid interference from signals from other cells. The drivers know which frequency covers approximately what area. Time division multiple access. The reuse distance. however there is no problem with two cells sufficiently far apart operating on the same frequency. Frequency reuse The key characteristic of a cellular network is the ability to re-use frequencies to increase both coverage and capacity. the transmitting and receiving frequencies used in each cell are different from the frequencies used in each neighbouring cell. when invited by the base station operator (in a sense TDMA). but achieves the same result. frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) were developed. When they do not receive a signal from the transmitter. As described above. Cell signal encoding To distinguish signals from several different transmitters. however. Other available methods of multiplexing such as polarization division multiple access (PDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA) cannot be used to separate signals from one cell to the next since the effects of both vary with position and this would make signal separation practically impossible.In the simple case of the taxi company. is used in combination with either FDMA or CDMA in a number of systems to give multiple channels within the coverage area of a single cell. The taxi drivers only speak one at a time. The principle of CDMA is more complex. they would change from channel to channel. each radio had a manually operated channel selector knob to tune to different frequencies.

the same frequency can be used. Cells may vary in radius in the ranges (1 km to 30 km). Common values for the frequency reuse factor are 1/3. 7. The boundaries of the cells can also overlap between adjacent cells and large cells can be divided into smaller cells . Some current and historical reuse patterns are 3/7 (North American AMPS).where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster. Directional antennas . and 3/4 (GSM). each with different direction. but certainly in other nearby cities. 1/7. If the total available bandwidth is B. 1/9 and 1/12 (or 3. While N is shown as 1 in this example. each cell can only utilize a number of frequency channels corresponding to a bandwidth of B/K. a taxi system may not have any frequency-reuse in its own city. 4. the base station site can serve N different sectors. Depending on the size of the city. but this is compensated for by the ability to use a frequency reuse factor of 1. and the different base stations and users are separated by codes rather than frequencies. 9 and 12 depending on notation). In other words. 6/4 (Motorola NAMPS). on the other hand. adjacent base station sites use the same frequencies. for example using a reuse pattern of 1/1. that does not mean the CDMA cell has only one sector. but rather that the entire cell bandwidth is also available to each sector individually. It is 1/K (or K according to some books) where K is the number of cells which cannot use the same frequencies for transmission. The frequency reuse factor is the rate at which the same frequency can be used in the network. In a big city. frequency-reuse could certainly be in use. In case of N sector antennas on the same base station site. 1/4. and each sector can use a bandwidth of B/NK. Code division multiple access-based systems use a wider frequency band to achieve the same rate of transmission as FDMA. A reuse pattern of N/K denotes a further division in frequency among N sector antennas per site. N is typically 3.

Cellular telephone frequency reuse pattern. or Routing Area if a data packet session is involved). Paging messages can be used for information transfer. Paging takes place by sending the broadcast message to all of those cells. for example in mobile telephony systems. which repeat every 3 cells. a cellular map can be redrawn with the cellular telephone towers located at the corners of the hexagons where three cells converge. Each tower has three sets of directional antennas aimed in three different directions and receiving/transmitting into three different cells at different frequencies. This provides a minimum of three channels for each cell. commonly. The numbers in the illustration are channel numbers. The details of the process of paging vary somewhat from network to network. Although the original 2-way-radio cell towers were at the centers of the cells and were omni-directional. This can be used directly for distributing information to multiple mobiles. Large cells can be subdivided into smaller cells for high volume areas. but normally we know a limited number of cells where the phone is located (this group of cells is called a Location Area in the GSM or UMTS system. This is called paging. This happens in . Broadcast messages and paging Practically every cellular system has some kind of broadcast mechanism. the most important use of broadcast information is to set up channels for one to one communication between the mobile transceiver and the base station.

when the taxi moved away from a first tower and closer to a second tower. Modern mobile phone networks use cells because radio frequencies are a limited. All of the cell sites are connected to telephone exchanges (or switches) . the taxi driver asked the base station operator to repeat the message on a different frequency. Movement from cell to cell and handover In a primitive taxi system. switching from one cell frequency to a different cell frequency is done electronically without interruption and without a base station operator or manual switching. A cellular network is used by the mobile phone operator to achieve both coverage and capacity for their subscribers. shared resource. . Typically. A mobile phone is a portable telephone which receives or makes calls through a cell site (base station). Cell-sites and handsets change frequency under computer control and use low power transmitters so that a limited number of radio frequencies can be simultaneously used by many callers with less interference. Example of a cellular network: the mobile phone network The most common example of a cellular network is a mobile phone (cell phone) network. the taxi driver manually switched from one frequency to another as needed. which in turn connect to the public telephone network. in CDMA systems for sending SMS messages. and in the UMTS system where it allows for low downlink latency in packet-based connections. If a communication was interrupted due to a loss of a signal. In a cellular system. Radio waves are used to transfer signals to and from the cell phone. This is called the handover or handoff. as the distributed mobile transceivers move from cell to cell during an ongoing continuous communication. Large geographic areas are split into smaller cells to avoid line-of-sight signal loss and to support a large number of active phones in that area. The mobile unit then automatically switches from the current channel to the new channel and communication continues. The exact details of the mobile system's move from one base station to the other varies considerably from system to system (see the example below for how a mobile phone network manages handover). or transmitting tower. a new channel is automatically selected for the mobile unit on the new base station which will serve it.pagers.

and Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN). GSM Structure of a 2G cellular network A simple view of the cellular mobile-radio network consists of the following: • A network of Radio base stations forming the Base station subsystem. notably the US. the term "cell phone" is in some regions. Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT). while in rural areas. satellite phones are mobile phones that do not communicate directly with a ground-based cellular tower. the range could be as much as 5 miles. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).In cities. each cell site may have a range of up to approximately ½ mile. but may do so indirectly by way of a satellite. used interchangeably with "mobile phone". Evolution-Data Optimized (EV-DO). There are a number of different digital cellular technologies. 3GSM. However. a user may receive signals from a cell site 25 miles away. . It is possible that in clear open areas. including GSM. Digital AMPS (IS-136/TDMA). General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Since almost all mobile phones use cellular technology. CDMA. including: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). and AMPS (analog). Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

Radio channels effectively use the transmission medium through the use of the following multiplexing schemes: frequency division multiplex (FDM). the network will command the mobile unit to switch to the new channel and at the same time switch the call onto the new channel. call set up. In IS-95 inter-frequency handovers and older analog systems such as NMT it will typically be impossible to test the target channel directly while communicating. multiple CDMA handsets share a specific radio channel.• • • The core circuit switched network for handling voice calls and text A packet switched network for handling mobile data The Public switched telephone network to connect subscribers to the wider telephony network This network is the foundation of the GSM system network.Cellular frequency choice in mobile phone networks . Corresponding to these multiplexing schemes are the following access techniques: frequency division multiple access (FDMA). If there is no ongoing communication or the communication can be interrupted. Once a new channel is found. it is possible for the mobile unit to spontaneously move from one cell to another and then notify the base station with the strongest signal. There are many functions that are performed by this network in order to make sure customers get the desired service including mobility management. time division multiplex (TDM). With CDMA. This means that there is almost always a brief break in the communication while searching for the new channel followed by the risk of an unexpected return to the old channel. the handset sets up radio links with multiple cell sites (or sectors of the same site) simultaneously. and space division multiple access (SDMA). This is known as "soft handoff" because. code division multiplex (CDM). The signals are separated by using a pseudonoise code (PN code) specific to each phone. Any phone connects to the network via an RBS in the corresponding cell which in turn connects to the MSC. and space division multiplex (SDM). the mobile station will search for a new channel to attach to in order not to drop the call. The MSC allows the onward connection to the PSTN. there is no one defined point where the phone switches to the new cell. code division multiple access (CDMA). time division multiple access (TDMA). Cellular handover in mobile phone networks As the phone user moves from one cell area to another cell whilst a call is in progress. registration. and handover. In this case other techniques have to be used such as pilot beacons in IS-95. The link from a phone to the RBS is called an uplink while the other way is termed downlink. unlike with traditional cellular technology. As the user moves from one cell to another.

the signal becomes corrupted and eventually unusable. become possible. one floor of a building. Higher frequencies are a disadvantage when it comes to coverage. Low frequencies. The receiver requires a certain signal-to-noise ratio.GSM frequency bands The effect of frequency on cell coverage means that different frequencies serve better for different uses. and the power of the transmitter cannot be increased any more. and the same frequency can be used for cells which are practically neighbours. GSM 1800 (1. This is true especially in CDMA based systems. but it is a decided advantage when it comes to capacity.g. As the interference (noise) rises above the received power from the transmitter. In certain cases they may mark the site of the transmitter. In CDMA-based systems. As the receiver moves away from the transmitter. serve very well for countryside coverage. in others it can be calculated by working out the point of strongest coverage. One can see examples of cell coverage by studying some of the coverage maps provided by real operators on their web sites. Pico cells. such as 450 MHz NMT. Cell service area may also vary due to interference from transmitting systems. covering e. cell breathing.8 GHz) starts to be limited by structural walls. GSM 900 (900 MHz) is a suitable solution for light urban coverage. the power transmitted is reduced.1 GHz is quite similar in coverage to GSM 1800. UMTS. the effect of interference from other mobile transmitters in the same cell on coverage area is very marked and has a special name. both within and around that cell. at 2. .

traffic capacity and cell size. and channel holding time analysis. Teletraffic engineering is a necessary field in telecommunications network planning to ensure that network costs are minimised without compromising the quality of service delivered to the user of the network.Coverage comparison of different frequencies Following table shows the dependency of frequency on coverage area of one cell of a CDMA2000 network: Frequency (MHz) Cell radius (km) Cell area (km2) Relative Cell Count 450 48. This field of engineering is based on probability . spectral efficiency and sectorization.3 1800 14.9 7521 1 950 26. Important aspects of cellular traffic include: quality of service targets. Mobile radio networks have traffic issues that do not arise in connection with the fixed line PSTN.2 CELLULAR TRAFFIC This article discusses the mobile cellular network aspect of teletraffic measurements.9 2269 3.2 2100 12. traffic capacity versus coverage.0 449 16.0 618 12.

fast fading and interference from other signals. so this will also increases the number of base stations. The cost of equipment can also be cut down by reducing the number of base stations through setting up three neighbouring cells. A high C/I ratio yields quality communication. excessive interference is created. Mobile radio networks are operated with finite. as well as other telecommunications networks. degrading the C/I ratio for other traffic and reducing the traffic capacity of the radio subsystem. Quality of Service targets At the time that the cells of a radio subsystem are designed. dominant coverage area. This method is called cell splitting (and combined with sectorization) is the only way of providing services to a burgeoning population. limited resources (the spectrum of frequencies available). the more base stations will be needed to service the customers. The number of base stations for a simple cellular network is equal to the number of cells. dropped call rate. A good C/I ratio is achieved in cellular systems by using optimum power levels through the power control of most links. with the cells serving three 120° sectors with different channel groups. C/I. Reduction of the cell radius enables the cell to accommodate extra traffic. A mobile handset which is moving in a cell will record a signal strength that varies. handover failure rate. overall call success rate. The traffic engineer can achieve the goal of satisfying the increasing population of customers by increasing the number of cells in the area concerned. C/I is too low and QoS targets are not met.theory and can be used to analyse mobile radio networks. Signal strength is subject to slow fading. This simply works by dividing the cells already present into smaller sizes hence increasing the traffic capacity. resulting in degradation of the carrier-to-interference (C/I) ratio. Traffic load and cell size The more traffic generated. These resources have to be used effectively to ensure that all users . When carrier power is too low. When carrier power is too high. for: traffic congestion and blocking. Quality of Service (QoS) targets are set.

) The maximum traffic capacity of sectored antennas (directional) is greater than that of omnidirectional antennas by a factor which is the number of sectors per cell (or cell cluster). CDMA cellular systems can allow an increase in traffic capacity at the expense of the quality of service. Let a case of Code Division Multiple Access be considered for the relationship between traffic capacity and coverage (area covered by cells). and Ac is Area of cell. enabling frequency re-use by successive clusters of cells. (The number of channels is directly proportional to the number of cells. If that cell covers an area Ac. This is because the power radiated backward from a directional base station antenna is minimal and interfering with adjacent cells is reduced. This results in traffic congestion and some calls being lost when traffic gets heavy. . See Cellular concepts. according to Walke. Walke defines spectral efficiency as the traffic capacity unit divided by the product of bandwidth and surface area element. Sectorization is briefly described in traffic load and cell size as a way to cut down equipment costs in a cellular network. brought about the development of cells in mobile networks. the quality of service is consistently maintained. This need to carefully use the limited spectrum. In FCA the number of channels in the cell remains constant irrespective of the number of customers in that cell. The density of channels will be . When applied to clusters of cells sectorization also reduces co-channel interference. FDMA. and is dependent on the number of radio channels per cell and the cluster size (number of cells in a group of cells): where Nc is the number of channels per cell. BW. that is. BW is the system bandwidth.g. Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) is used to allocate channels to customers. A better way of channel allocation in cellular systems is Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) which is supported by the GSM. and each user has bandwidth B then the number of channels will be BW/B. DCA is a better way not only for handling bursty cell traffic but also in efficiently utilising the cellular radio resources. Since a cell is allocated a group of frequency carries (e. this range of frequencies is the bandwidth of that cell. CDMA. the channel density decreases. Systems that efficiently use the available spectrum have been developed e. f1-f7) for each user. This formula shows that as the coverage area Ac is increased. DCA allows the number of channels in a cell to vary with the traffic load. DCS and other systems. SDMA). hence increasing channel capacity with little costs.receive service. Traffic capacity versus coverage Cellular systems use one or more of four different techniques of access (TDMA. the GSM system. In TDMA/FDMA cellular radio systems.g.

The mobility of the user and the cell shape and size cause the channel holding time to have a different distribution function to that of call duration (call holding time).Channel holding time Important parameters like the carrier to interference (C/I) ratio. . One of the papers in Key and Smith defines channel holding time as being equal to the average holding time divided by the average number of handovers per call plus one. As a result. Channel holding time is not easily determined explicitly. but it gives an approximation. different models exists for modelling the channel holding time distribution. Usually an exponential model is preferred to calculate the channel holding time for simplicity in simulations. hence it is considered when planning the network. Practically. a good approximation of the channel holding time is usually sufficient to determine the network traffic capability. spectral efficiency and reuse distance determine the quality of service of a cellular network. Channel holding time is therefore less than call holding time if the MS travels more than one cell as handover will take place and the MS relinquishes the channel. Channel Holding Time is another parameter that can affect the quality of service in a cellular network. This difference is large for highly mobile users and small cell sizes. Since the channel holding time and call duration relationships are affected by mobility and cell size. it is not possible to determine exactly the channel holding time. In industry. The exponential model may not be correctly modelling the channel holding time distribution as other papers may try to prove. channel holding time and call duration are the same. It must be mentioned that it is not an easy task to calculate the channel holding time. call holding time and user's movements have to be determined in order to implicitly give channel holding time. (This is the time a Mobile Station (MS) remains in the same cell during a call). for a stationary MS and large cell sizes. This model gives the distribution function of channel holding time and it is an approximation that can be used to obtain estimates channel holding time.

transmission and reception over the air interface and many other tasks related to the radio network. The BSS carries out transcoding of speech channels. paging. . allocation of radio channels to mobile phones.Base station subsystem The base station subsystem (BSS) is the section of a traditional cellular telephone network which is responsible for handling traffic and signaling between a mobile phone and the network switching subsystem.

and manages operational states of each TRX. contains the equipment for transmitting and receiving radio signals (transceivers). There are vendors which build their BTSs so the information is preprocessed. the Abis interface. Typically a BTS for anything other than a picocell will have several transceivers (TRXs) which allow it to serve several different frequencies and different sectors of the cell (in the case of sectorised base stations). antennas. A BTS is controlled by a parent BSC via the "base station control function" (BCF). There are vendors in which the BTS is a plain transceiver which receives information from the MS (mobile station) through the Um (air interface) and then converts it to a TDM (PCM) based interface. The BCF provides an operations and maintenance (O&M) connection to the network management system (NMS). and equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications with the base station controller (BSC). The BCF is implemented as a discrete unit or even incorporated in a TRX in compact base stations. or BTS. A solar-powered GSM base station on top of a mountain in the wilderness of Lapland Base transceiver station The base transceiver station. as well as software handling and alarm collection. Ireland. The functions of a BTS vary depending on the cellular technology used and the cellular telephone provider.Two GSM base station antennas disguised as trees in Dublin. and sends it towards the BSC. .

Antenna combiners are implemented to use the same antenna for several TRXs (carriers). only a small number of frequencies are being broadcast). The advantage in this case is less load on the expensive Abis interface. This signalling makes use of a channel known as the broadcast control channel (BCCH). at spacing of ten or more wavelengths apart. each pointing in different directions.target cell lists are generated and even intracell handover (HO) can be fully handled. This increases the traffic capacity of the base station (each frequency can carry eight voice channels) whilst not greatly increasing the interference caused to neighboring cells (in any given direction. and the sequence in use for a particular cell is continually broadcast by that cell so that it is known to the handsets. the more TRXs are combined the greater the combiner loss will be. for GSM 2G+ the modulation type is GMSK. Sectorisation By using directional antennae on a base station. Some amplification of the received signal as it leaves the antenna is often used to preserve the balance between uplink and downlink signal . This information allows the handsets to identify the network and gain access to it. The BTSs are equipped with radios that are able to modulate layer 1 of interface Um. which specify eight TDMA timeslots per radio frequency. Typically these directional antennas have a beamwidth of 65 to 85 degrees. Typically two antennas are used per sector. This allows the operator to overcome the effects of fading due to physical phenomena such as multipath reception. it is possible to sectorise the base station so that several different cells are served from the same location. A TRX transmits and receives according to the GSM standards. this involves the rapid switching of voice traffic between TRXs in a sector. A TRX may lose some of this capacity as some information is required to be broadcast to handsets in the area that the BTS serves. Frequency hopping is often used to increase overall BTS performance. while for EDGE-enabled networks it is GMSK and 8-PSK. Up to 8:1 combiners are found in micro and pico cells only. A hopping sequence is followed by the TRXs and handsets using the sector. Several hopping sequences are available.

Typically a BSC has tens or even hundreds of BTSs under its control. A BSC is often based on a distributed computing architecture. a full switching center. for some vendors.Base station controller GSM transmitter The base station controller (BSC) provides. . It also provides all the required data to the operation support subsystem (OSS) as well as to the performance measuring centers. The BSC handles allocation of radio channels. this means that networks are often structured to have many BSCs distributed into regions near their BTSs which are then connected to large centralised MSC sites. The BSC is undoubtedly the most robust element in the BSS as it is not only a BTS controller but. as well as an SS7 node with connections to the MSC and serving GPRS support node (SGSN) (when using GPRS). Redundancy often extends beyond the BSC equipment itself and is commonly used in the power supplies and in the transmission equipment providing the A-ter interface to PCU. A key function of the BSC is to act as a concentrator where many different low capacity connections to BTSs (with relatively low utilisation) become reduced to a smaller number of connections towards the mobile switching center (MSC) (with a high level of utilisation). with redundancy applied to critical functional units to ensure availability in the event of fault conditions. Overall. and controls handovers from BTS to BTS (except in the case of an inter-BSC handover in which case control is in part the responsibility of the anchor MSC). the intelligence behind the BTSs. classically. receives measurements from the mobile phones.

decreasing network infrastructure costs. are stored in the BSC. and the coding used by the world's terrestrial circuitswitched network. Although transcoding (compressing/decompressing) functionality is defined as a base station function by the relevant standards. It performs some of the processing tasks of the BSC. In some of Ericsson's systems it is integrated to the MSC rather than the BSC. GSM uses a regular pulse excited-long term prediction (RPE-LTP) coder for voice data between the mobile device and the BSS.711) upstream of the BSS. RPE-LPC coding results in a data rate for voice of 13 kbit/s where standard PCM coding results in 64 kbit/s. This data is obtained directly from radio planning engineering which involves modelling of the signal propagation as well as traffic projections. receiving levels for cell border calculation. When the traffic is not voice but data such as fax or email. frequency hopping lists. Packet control unit The packet control unit (PCU) is a late addition to the GSM standard. This subsystem is also referred to as the transcoder and rate adaptation unit (TRAU). The reason for these designs is that if the compression of voice channels is done at the site of the MSC.The databases for all the sites. the transcoder also has a buffering function so that PCM 8bit words can be recoded to construct GSM 20 ms traffic blocks. Because of this change in data rate for the same voice call. Some vendors have implemented it in a stand-alone rack using a proprietary interface. the number of fixed transmission links between the BSS and MSC can be reduced. Some networks use 32 kbit/s ADPCM on the terrestrial side of the network instead of 64 kbit/s PCM and the TRAU converts accordingly. the Public Switched Telephone Network. In Siemens' and Nokia's architecture. including information such as carrier frequencies. The allocation of channels between . but pulse code modulation (A-law or μ-law standardized in ITU G. the transcoder is an identifiable separate sub-system which will normally be co-located with the MSC. power reduction levels. Specifically. but for packet data. Transcoder The transcoder is responsible for transcoding the voice channel coding between the coding used in the mobile network. there are several vendors which have implemented the solution outside of the BSC. the TRAU enables its rate adaptation unit function to give compatibility between the BSS and MSC data rates.

voice and data is controlled by the base station, but once a channel is allocated to the PCU, the PCU takes full control over that channel. The PCU can be built into the base station, built into the BSC or even, in some proposed architectures, it can be at the SGSN site. In most of the cases, the PCU is a separate node communicating extensively with the BSC on the radio side and the SGSN on the Gb side.

BSS interfaces
Image of the GSM network, showing the BSS interfaces to the MS, NSS and GPRS Core Network Um The air interface between the mobile station (MS) and the BTS. This interface uses LAPDm protocol for signaling, to conduct call control, measurement reporting, handover, power control, authentication, authorization, location update and so on. Traffic and signaling are sent in bursts of 0.577 ms at intervals of 4.615 ms, to form data blocks each 20 ms. Abis The interface between the BTS and BSC. Generally carried by a DS-1, ES-1, or E1 TDM circuit. Uses TDM subchannels for traffic (TCH), LAPD protocol for BTS supervision and telecom signaling, and carries synchronization from the BSC to the BTS and MS. A The interface between the BSC and MSC. It is used for carrying traffic channels and the BSSAP user part of the SS7 stack. Although there are usually transcoding units between BSC and MSC, the signaling communication takes place between these two ending points and the transcoder unit doesn't touch the SS7 information, only the voice or CS data are transcoded or rate adapted. Ater The interface between the BSC and transcoder. It is a proprietary interface whose name depends on the vendor (for example Ater by Nokia), it carries the A interface information from the BSC leaving it untouched. Gb Connects the BSS to the SGSN in the GPRS core network.

COW in parking lot of the Rose Bowl, Pasadena, California for the 2005 Rose Bowl game, with its own power generator

A cell on wheels, usually referred to as a COW, is a mobile cell site that consists of a cellular antenna tower and electronic radio transceiver equipment on a truck or trailer, designed to be part of a cellular network.

Expanded or emergency service
COWs are used to provide expanded cellular network coverage and/or capacity at special events such as major sporting events (Super Bowl, World Series, Rose Bowl), major conventions, or in disaster areas where cellular coverage either was never present (e.g., in a wilderness area where firefighters have set up a command center during a major forest fire) or was compromised by the disaster (e.g., in the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina). Following the September 11 attacks on New York City in 2001, 36 cellular COWs were deployed< by September 14, 2001 in Lower Manhattan to support the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and provide critical phone service to rescue and recovery workers. COWs provided cellular service in Southwest Florida the aftermath of Hurricane Charley in 2004 with most of the area's stationary cell towers destroyed.[2] 26 Cell on Wheels towers were put in place in Washington, D.C. for the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009 to handle the millions of extra people and calls in the city, especially on and near the National Mall. Many telecommunications companies also use COWs for long-term placement when financing or infrastructure considerations prevent building a permanent site at the location. For instance, a carrier may have approved the placement of a cell site for coverage reasons, but the remaining budget is inadequate to fund the construction for a fiscal quarter or even longer. An engineering team may be able to place a COW on location to provide immediate coverage with few costs other than leasing, electricity, and backhaul. The decision to use a COW for an extended period of time may also be driven by the property owner. Installations on government or military facilities may be granted only on a temporary basis, and may require the use of non-permanent facilities.

A COW may also be referred to as a site on wheels (SOW) or mobile tower unit (MTU) Not all portable communication centers are created equally. Many are nothing more than a cargo trailer or box that has been modified to hold communication equipment and have an antenna tower. Tower types vary from one manufacturer to another; guyed vs. unguyed, methods of deploying the tower, whether it meets TIA/EIA specifications. Many COWs do not protect their sensitive equipment from the effects of lightning or power surges. The backhaul to the network can be via terrestrial microwave, communication satellite, or existing wired infrastructure.

CIAB (Cell-in-a-Box)

Cell in a box (CIAB)
Related to a COW is a CIAB (cell in a box). Like COWs, CIABs provide temporary service with temporary equipment. The main difference is that a CIAB is typically placed for a longer period of time than a COW. COWs may also be known as COLTs by some companies, standing for "cell on light trailer". These are in most respects the same as a COW but may have a taller tower that collapses in a nested fashion, tilting to ride perpendicular to the trailer.

A cell site is a term used to describe a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed on a radio mast or tower to create a cell in a

Cell phone traffic through a single cell mast is limited by the mast's capacity. It may also be limited by local geographical or regulatory factors and weather conditions. for example). for those technologies that can handle it . cell sites are grouped in areas of high population density. although many cell site antennas are mounted on buildings rather than as towers.e. Generally. in areas where there are enough cell sites to cover a wide area.e. control electronics.the range within which mobile devices can connect to it reliably is not a fixed figure. at a single site. to minimize interference problems with other sites. Operation Range The working range of a cell site . and colloquial British English synonyms are "mobile phone mast" or "base station". A synonym for "cell site" is "cell tower". The transmitter's size. A cell site is composed of a tower or other elevated structure for mounting antennas. The transmitter's rated power. even a site hosting just a single mobile operator may house multiple base stations. making a GSM phone call while in a car or train). The term "base station site" might better reflect the increasing colocation of multiple mobile operators. and therefore multiple base stations. The array setup of panels may cause the transmitter to be directional or omnidirectional. Preserved treescapes can often hide cell towers inside an artificial tree or preserved tree. In GSM networks. It will depend on a number of factors. there is a finite number of calls that a mast can handle at once. a GPS receiver for timing (for CDMA2000 or IS95 systems). digital signal processors. the range of each one will be set to: • • Ensure there is enough overlap for "handover" to/from other sites (moving the signal for a mobile device from one cell site to another. each to serve a different air interface technology (CDMA or GSM. In practice. These installations are generally referred to as concealed cell sites or stealth cell sites. including • • • • • The frequency of signal in use (i. the underlying technology). Ensure that the overlap area is not too large. regular and backup electrical power sources. and one or more sets of transmitter/receivers transceivers. This limitation is .cellular network. and sheltering. Depending on an operator's technology. the technically correct term is Base Transceiver Station (BTS).g. with the most potential users.

a GSM Tower can replace between 2 and 50 miles of cabling for fixed wireless networks. In suburban areas.0 mi) due to encroachment of intermediate objects into the wide center fresnel zone of the signal. Depending on terrain and other circumstances. the maximum distance can vary from as little as 5 kilometres (3. but the limiting factor is really the ability of a low-powered personal cell phone to transmit back to the mast. Some cellphones perform better . it is possible to get between 50 to 70 km (30-45 miles). the range of this mast has to be limited so that it covers an area small enough not to have to support more conversations than the available channels can carry. Just as a car radio changes from one local station to a completely different local station with the same frequency when you travel to another city. A cellphone may not work at times. masts may be as close as ¼½ mile apart. Due to the sectorized arrangement of antennas on a tower.another factor affecting the spacing of cell mast sites. such as GSM.g. CDMA and iDEN have no built-in limit.1 mi) to 8 kilometres (5. which is imposed by technical limitations. hills or other structures. a traffic jam or a sports event. masts are commonly spaced 1-2 miles apart and in dense urban areas. Cellular networks are designed to create a mass communication solution from a limited amount of channels (slices of radio frequency spectrum necessary to make one conversation) that are licensed to an operator of a cellular service. then there will be a signal on the phone display but it is blocked from starting a new connection. based on a tall mast and flat terrain. Channel reuse The concept of "maximum" range is misleading. The other limiting factor for cell phones is the ability of the cell phone to send a signal from its low powered battery to the mast. have a fixed maximum range of 40km (23 miles). e. Too many people may be trying to use the cell mast at the same time. the same radio channel gets reused on a cell mast only a few miles away. When the terrain is hilly. but it may also not work because the phone is in a location where there is interference to the cell phone signal from thick building walls. To overcome this limitation. The area sometimes needs to be limited when a large number of people live. however. drive or work near a particular mast. because it is too far from a mast. The signals do not need a clear line of sight but the more interference will degrade or eliminate reception. Cell masts always reserve part of their available bandwidth for emergency calls. it is possible to vary the strength and angle of each sector depending on the coverage of other towers in view of the sector. As a rough guide. it is necessary to repeat and reuse the same channels at different locations. To do this. in a cellular network. the signal of a cell mast is intentionally kept at low power and many cases tilting downward to limit its area. The maximum range of a mast (where it is not limited by interference with other masts nearby) depends on the same circumstances. Some technologies. Objects intruding into the fresnel zone between radio transmitters and receivers can greatly affect signal strength.

in Lake Worth.than others under low power or low battery. Another method using angle of arrival (AoA). possible when in range of at least two cell sites. Florida.[citation needed] Cell phone tower power emission . As the user moves towards a mast it picks the strongest signal and releases the mast from which the signal has become weaker. it was required that at least 95% of cellular phones in use on 31 December 2005 support such service. but it is available to devices that do not have GPS receivers and where the GPS is not available. In the United States. Geolocation Cellular geolocation is less precise than the GPS. for emergency calling service using location data (locally called "Enhanced 911"). produces intermediate precision. Completed in December 2009 at Epiphany Lutheran Church. in which case the location is only known to be within the coverage of that site. The base station controller (a central computer that specializes in making phone connections) and the intelligence of the cellphone keeps track of and allows the phone to switch from one mast to the next during conversation. Precision is highest where trilateration is possible (where a device is within range of at least three cell sites) and lowest where only a single cell site can be reached. Many carriers missed this deadline and were fined by the Federal Communications Commission. typically due to the ability to send a good signal from the phone to the mast. this 100' tall cross conceals equipment for T-Mobile. that channel on that mast becomes available to another user. The precision of this system varies widely.

A generator may be included for use where network electrical power isn't available. The average energy received over the entire earth is about 250 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day. or COW Although cell antennas are normally attached to permanent structures. COWs are also used at permanent cell sites—as temporary replacements for damaged equipment. the average electromagnetic energy received from the Sun is 25. So. carriers also maintain fleets of vehicles.01 Watt per square meter. that serve as temporary cell sites. says: "For example. called cells-on-wheels (COWs). Temporary set-up Cell on wheels. The entire idea of a "cell" phone system is to create small "cells" that don't interfere with each other. during planned outages.S. the FCC. and to augment capacity such as during conventions. measurement data obtained from various sources have consistently indicated that "worst-case" ground-level power densities near typical cellular towers are on the order of 1 µW/cm2 or less (usually significantly less). . on a day with no clouds. There is no temptation to use more power.The U. and the system may have a wireless backhaul link allowing use where a wired link is not available. government agency. ignoring clouds." That is 0.000 times that received near a cell phone tower.

AMPS. GSM had already been running for some time on US PCS (1900 MHz) frequencies. for example. lower frequencies allow carriers to provide coverage over a larger area. the analog AMPS standard that used the Cellular band (800 MHz) was replaced by a number of digital systems. the air interface technology it uses) and IS-136 (often known as D-AMPS. The cellular frequencies are the sets of frequency ranges within the UHF band that have been allocated for cellular phone use. Some European countries (and Japan) adopted TACS operating in 900 MHz. initially used the 900 MHz band too.S. local carriers received licenses for 450 MHz frequency to provide CDMA mobile coverage. as IS95 networks do not exist in most of Europe. and are usually referred to as tri band and quad band phones. Mobile networks based on different standards may use the same frequency range. Digital AMPS.) In the U. the first widespread automatic mobile network was based on the NMT-450 standard. In Nordic countries of Europe. while higher frequencies allow carriers to provide service to more customers in a smaller area. one can find both AMPS and IS-95 networks in use on the same frequency in the same area that do not interfere with each other. Moreover. N-AMPS and IS-95 all use the 800 MHz frequency band. As demand grew. mobile providers encountered a problem because they couldn't provide service to the increasing number of customers. Due to historical reasons. however. This portability is not as extensive with IS-95 phones.) Eventually. The UHF band is also shared with Television. for the transmission and reception of their signals. And. the air interface technology it uses. systems based upon the AMPS mobile phone model were popular. The first commercial standard for mobile connection in the United States was AMPS. with such a phone one can travel internationally and use the same handset. The GSM standard. or "UHF". In Russia and some other countries. including IS-95 (often known as "CDMA". Europe. Wi-Fi and Bluetooth transmission. Many GSM phones support three bands (900/1800/1900 MHz or 850/1800/1900 MHz) or four bands (850/900/1800/1900 MHz). They had to develop their existing networks and eventually introduce new standards. or world phones. and Asia. which was in the 450 MHz band. This is achieved by the use of . Initially. which appeared in Europe to replace NMT-450 and other standards. often based on other frequencies. IS-136 on these frequencies was replaced by most operators with GSM. D-AMPS. (Generally speaking.. which was in the 800 MHz frequency band. or "TDMA". radio frequencies used for cellular networks differ in the Americas.CELLULAR FREQUENCIES All cellular phone networks worldwide use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum designated as Ultra High Frequency. some NMT-450 analog networks have been replaced with digital networks using the same frequency. As mobile phones became more popular and affordable. carriers acquired licenses in the 1800 MHz band.

The Cellular band (869-894 MHz) is divided into 2 frequency blocks (A and B). License (A or B) is granted for a Major Trading Areas (MTAs). Frequency bands used in the United States Current / Planned Technologies Band SMR iDEN 800 AMPS. GSM. DVB-H 700 MHz Unknown 3G. 1710-2025 MHz. A mobile operator (or other interested parties) must bid on each trading area individually. 896-901. The PCS band (1850-1990 MHz) is divided into six frequency blocks (A through F). IS-136 (D-AMPS). MediaFlo. License (C to F) is granted for a Basic Trading Areas (BTAs).different channels to carry data. 3G GSM. 4G 4G Frequency (MHz) 806-824 and 851-869 824-849. There are 306 Metropolitan Service Areas and 428 rural service areas. Frequency bands recommended by ITU UMTS frequency bands ITU-R approved in June 2003 the following bands to the terrestrial Mobile telecommunication IMT-2000: 806-960 MHz. Go to Wireless Advisor for a listing of the network operators for a given ZIP-code. 935-940 1850–1910 and 1930–1990 698-806 1. depending on the settings of the carrier's base station. 2110-2200 MHz and 2500-2690 MHz. IS-95 (CDMA). The US is then divided geographically into a number of Trading Areas. Each block is between 10 MHz and 30 MHz bandwidth. IS-136 (DCellular AMPS). The AWS bands. There are 51 MTAs and 493 BTAs in the United States. 869-894. and 21102155 MHz. IS-95 (CDMA). A bidder can use the frequency spectrum for whatever purpose he wants. Each trading area consists of one or more counties. 3G PCS 3G. The spectrum was divided into blocks: A blocks were for Cellular Market .4 GHz 1392–1395 and 1432–1435 AWS 1710–1755 and 2110–2170 BRS/EBS 2500–2690 The usage of frequencies within the United States is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The actual frequency used by a particular phone can vary from place to place. were for 1710-1755 MHz. auctioned in the summer of 2006. 4G.

0 0 . Most widely used channelization and frequencies The following chart presents graphically the forward link (base station to mobile) frequencies and channelization most prevalently used in today's cellular communication systems.810 GSM Frequency band usage is defined in ETS 05.1023 GSM-R (R-GSM) 900 876. and broadcast technologies such as MediaFlo and DVB-H.0 .340 GSM 850 850 824. The winners have not yet announced what technology they intend to deploy on this spectrum.0 .1910.457. based on existing cellular (1G) licenses. usually comprising of large portions of single states. and other government agencies.880.849.894.960.0 .0 .925.293 GSM 400 480 478.1785.8 . and F blocks covered huge areas of the country. More bands are under consideration for auction by the FCC.0 921.0 1930.0 . 4G.973 DCS 1800 1800 1710. These are currently used by DoD.0 128 .960.0 1805.6 259 . Other Regions System Country Uplink Downlink . 2x10 MHz for F.124. with Verizon Wireless and AT&T Mobility winning the majority of available spectrum.486. typically several states at a time. D.467.1880.0 306 . 975 .915.0 488.0 1 .915.05.Areas. NASA. Qualcomm and Echostar were winners of a significant amount of broadcast-oriented spectrum.0 .0 512 .0 .885 PCS 1900 1900 1850. The 700 MHz band was auctioned in early 2008.0 869. larger than CMAs. E. but it is expected to host a range of 3G.8 . and covered 2x5 MHz for D and E blocks.0 .6 460.251 GSM 900 (P-GSM) 900 890.0 925. Cellular and PCS bands are also used in other countries in the Americas.0 .4 .0 .0 .4 . and were 2x10 MHz. B and C blocks (2x10 MHz and 2x5 MHz respectively) were for Basic Economic Areas.0 935.496.124 GSM 900 (E-GSM) 900 880.0 512 . Frequency bands used by GSM Main article: GSM frequency bands System Band Uplink Downlink Channel Number GSM 400 450 450.1990.0 .0 955 .

2–429.0 512–810 P-GSM.0–849.8–496.4–467.2–959.8 935.0–959.0–959.6 259–293 480 478.5 GSM frequency bands GSM frequency bands or frequency ranges are the cellular frequencies designated by the ITU for the operation of the GSM for mobile phones.6 460.0 306–340 710 698. GSM-1800 and EGSM/EGSM-900 GSM-900 and GSM-1800 are used in most parts of the world: Europe. Extended GSM-900 Band (includes Standard GSM-900 band) R-GSM.4–876.005.0 488.0–894.0 915.0 dynamic 1800 1710.0 128–251 900 890.0–716.8 1–124 900 880.2–389.2–419.0 851.5-467.CDMA fff CDMA CDMA CDMA-450 China Japan S.2–1879. TETRA-GSM GSM-900.0 1930. which succeeded 3GPP TS 05.2–914.0–914.5 462.4–457.05: System T-GSM-380 T-GSM-410 GSM-450 GSM-480 GSM-710 GSM-750 T-GSM-810 GSM-850 P-GSM-900 E-GSM-900 R-GSM-900 T-GSM-900 DCS-1800 PCS-1900 • • • • Band Uplink (MHz) Downlink (MHz) Channel number 380 380.0–866.4–921. There are fourteen bands defined in 3GPP TS 45.2–1784. 0-124 900 876.0 438–511 810 806.0 dynamic 750 747. In South and Central America the following countries use the following: . Korea Sweden 2300–2400 915-925 860-870 1750–1780 1840–1870 452.0–821.0–1910.0–914.8 420.8–486.2–399. 0-124 900 870.8 512–885 1900 1850.8 921.0–762. Railways GSM-900 Band (includes Standard and Extended GSM-900 band) T-GSM. Middle East.0–1990.8 955–1023.5-457.0 869.0–746.8 390.0 dynamic 850 824.8 975–1023.8 dynamic 410 410. Africa.8 dynamic 450 450.0 728.0 777.8 925. Oceania and most of Asia. Standard or Primary GSM-900 Band E-GSM.0–792.8 1805.

which uses 876–915 MHz (uplink) and 921–960 MHz (downlink). Older phones with "GSM 900" may not support EGSM. The GSM specifications also describe 'railways GSM'.) Mobile Communication Services on Aircraft (MCA) uses GSM1800.GSM-850. adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is E-GSM In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. providing 374 channels (channel numbers 512 to 885). uses 880–915 MHz (uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink). while being called PCS in Hong Kong (not to mix up with GSM-1900 which is commonly called PCS in the rest of the world. GSM-900 and 1900 El Salvador . GSM-R.• • • • Costa Rica .GSM-850. Channel numbers 955 to 1023. This 'extended GSM'. providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. E-GSM. Most newer phones with "GSM 900" do support EGSM. GSM-850 and GSM-1900 . GSM-R provides additional channels and specialized services for use by railway personnel. All these variants are included in the GSM-900 specification. 1800 and 1900 Guatemala . GSM-1800 GSM-1800 uses 1710–1785 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base tranceiver station (uplink) and 1805–1880 MHz for the other direction (downlink). GSM-1800 is also called DCS (Digital Cellular Service) in the United Kingdom. it is just not listed that way since it is assumed that newer phones support it. GSM-900 and 1900 GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink). 900. Phones described as having "EGSM" or "EGSM 900" support both the original GSM 900 band and the extended band.GSM-1800 Brazil . Duplex spacing is 95 MHz.GSM-850.

• GSM-850 uses 824–849 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 869–894 MHz for the other direction (downlink). and can coexist with. or 478. Overall. It operates in either 450. It uses the same band as.4–467. where the 450 MHz NMT band exists. it either still runs NMT. Channel numbers are 512 to 810. PCS is the original name in North America for the 1900 MHz band. Channel numbers are 128 to 251. However. The term Cellular is sometimes used to describe the 850 MHz band. Eastern Europe and Russia prior to the introduction of GSM.4– 457. and many other countries in the Americas. It is an initialism for Personal Communications Service.GSM-850 and GSM-1900 are used in the United States.6 MHz paired with 460. Benelux. • GSM-1900 uses 1850–1910 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 1930–1990 MHz for the other direction (downlink).6 MHz (channel numbers 259 to 293). old analog NMT systems. NMT is a first generation (1G) mobile phone system which was primarily used in Nordic countries. GSM-850 is also sometimes called GSM-800 because this frequency range was known as the "800 MHz band" (for simplification) when it was first allocated for AMPS in the United States in 1983. GSM Association claims one of its around 680 operator-members has a license to operate a GSM 450 network in Tanzania. it has not seen commercial deployment. because the original analog cellular mobile communication system was allocated in this spectrum. currently all active public operators in Tanzania use GSM 900/1800 MHz. Canada. Alpine Countries.8–496 MHz (channel numbers 306 to 340).8– 486 MHz paired with 488. GSM-450 Another less common GSM version is GSM-450. GSM-450 is a provision. or its been replaced by CDMA. GSM frequency usage across the world The Americas .

Europe.In North America. and both Ecuador and Panama use GSM-850 exclusively(Note: Since November 2008. Frequency compatibility problems can be avoided through the use of multi-band (tri-band or. quad-band). Soon some countries will use GSM-850/900/1800/1900 MHZ like the Dominican Republic. In Canada. 1800 and 1900 bands giving good coverage in Europe and allowing limited use in North America. At least GSM-900 band must be supported to be compatible with many operators. especially. the 1900 MHz band is paired with 2100 MHz to form the IMT-compliant 2100 MHz band for 3G services. Venezuela and Brazil use GSM-850 and GSM-900/1800 mixing the European and American bands. GSM-1900 is the primary band used in urban areas with 850 as a backup. phones. GSM-900 is most widely used. most telephones support multiple bands as used in different countries to facilitate roaming. In Brazil. GSM-1900 and GSM-850 are also used in most of South and Central America. European tri-band phones typically cover the 900. GSM-900/1800/1900 or GSM-850/900/1800. Often these . while North American tri-band phones utilize 850. Middle East and Asia most of the providers use 900 MHz and 1800 MHz bands. Panama starts to have an operator running 1900 service). allowing for global use (excluding non-GSM countries such as Japan). Fewer operators use DCS-1800 and GSM-1800. also known as a world phone. Dual-band phones can cover GSM networks in pairs such as 900 and 1800 MHz frequencies (Europe. In the United States. regulatory requirements determine which area can use which band. Trinidad & Tobago and Venezuela. and GSM-850 being the primary rural band. GSM850/1800/1900. These are typically referred to as multi-band phones. Asia. GSM-850/900/1900. Multi-band and multi-mode phones Today. some others use 3. supporting all four major GSM bands. 1800 and 1900 for widespread North American service but limited worldwide use. Australia and Brazil) or 850 and 1900 (North America and Brazil). Middle East and Asia In Europe. A dual-band 900/1800 phone is required to be compatible with almost all operators. Some countries in the Americas use GSM-900 or GSM-1800. The result is a mixture of usage in the Americas that requires travelers to confirm that the phones they have are compatible with the band of the networks at their destinations. A new addition has been the quad-band phone. GSM operates on the primary mobile communication bands 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. There are also multi-mode phones which can operate on GSM as well as on other mobile phone systems using other technical standards or proprietary technologies.

10113 9262 .2620 Channel Number (UARFCN) 9512 . TDMA-800. GSM-850 and legacy TDMA-1900. UMTS-TDD UMTS-TDD is designed to operate in the following bands: Frequencies (MHz) 1900 . UMTS frequency bands In telecommunications. it would still be considered tri-band UMTS. like many other devices on the market. as the hardware is limited to supporting any 3 bands at one time. not quint-band. the various UMTS bands are deployed as follows: .1910 1930 .13088 Frequency bands deployment Further information: List of UMTS networks In general. making it both multi-mode and multiband.1990 1910 . as HSPA runs atop UMTS. For example.phones use multiple frequency bands as well.9938 9562 . it would not be considered a "mode" by strict definition. UMTS frequency bands are the radio spectrum frequencies designated for the operation of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) / High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) / High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) / HSPA+ / system for mobile phones.1930 2570 . and AMPS-800. may also become available in a UMTS I/II/IV or 2100/1900/850MHz combo. Further.1920 2010 .9538 9662 . one version of the Nokia 6340i GAIT phone sold in North America can operate on GSM-1900.9588 10062 .2025 1850 .9638 12862 . Note that while the Nexus One.

other parts of South America. New Zealand (XT Mobile Network). India. European/Asian tri-band phones typically cover the 900. being tri-band/quad-band in GSM/GPRS/EDGE does not imply the same support for UMTS. Poland Band VIII (W-CDMA 900) in Europe. Guatemala. New Zealand (ITU Region 1 and ITU Region 3). and Venezuela (Digitel GSM) Multi-band Further information: List of HSPA mobile phones. the dual-band combo of 1700/2100 is also becoming popular there. Asia. List of UMTS networks Today. most mobiles support multiple bands as used in different countries to facilitate roaming. Canada. These are typically referred to as multi-band phones. parts of Asia (ITU Region 2 and ITU Region 3). Venezuela. or wireless cellular signal booster. 1900 and 2100MHz bands giving good coverage in Europe and allowing very limited use in North America. a type of bi-directional amplifier (BDA) as commonly named in the wireless telecommunications industry. 1900 and 2100MHz for widespread North & South American service and good coverage for worldwide use thanks to the popularity of the 2100MHz spectrum. Brazil. Middle East. Note however. cell phone repeater. Mobilicity and Vidéotron) Band V (W-CDMA 850) in Australia (Telstra NextG Network). With the recent release of AWS spectrum (band IV) in North America. Israel[2]. Australia (Optus and Vodafone regional/country 3G networks). Oceania or 1900/850MHz (bands II/V) in North and South America. the USA. Dual-band phones can cover networks in pairs such as 2100/900 (bands I/VIII) in Europe.• • • • • Band I (W-CDMA 2100) in Europe. AWS versions of phones support normally 900/1700/2100 allowing for North American coverage on AWS enabled networks and roaming coverage on 2100MHz and on forthcoming 900MHz overlays in Europe and Asia. supporting EDGE to ensure data coverage where HSPA still lacks coverage. Asia. Asia. that while a phone may have overlapping GSM & UMTS frequency support. is a device used for boosting the cell phone reception to the local area by the . Africa. as was the case with many early 2100MHz-only UMTS devices. Costa Rica. Most UMTS phones also operate on GSM as well. CELLULAR REPEATER A cellular repeater. Australia (all carriers' metropolitan networks). while North American tri-band phones utilize 850. New Zealand (ITU Region 1) and Brazil (part of ITU Region 2) Band II (W-CDMA 1900) in North America and South America (ITU Region 2) Band IV (W-CDMA 1700 or Advanced Wireless Services) in the United States (T-Mobile USA) and Canada (WIND Mobile.

which is then transmitted to an amplifier unit which amplifies the signal. The systems usually use an external. to attenuation from obstacles). directional antenna to collect the best cellular signal. This is due to the combination of the poor network coverage in some areas.the advantage of using a monopole antenna is that the signal will be equally distributed in all directions (subject. Typical components External directional antenna Although some of the less expensive models do not include an external directional antenna they are crucial to providing significant signal strength gain. Other advantages of cellular repeaters include an increase in the cell phone's battery life and a lower level of radiation emitted by the handset .usage of a reception antenna. Generally speaking the larger the external antenna the better the signal . but are much smaller. a signal amplifier and an internal rebroadcast antenna. Internal rebroadcast antenna The better systems will generally include an internal monopole antenna (although the type of antenna is far from standardised) for rebroadcasting the signal internally . due to its proximity to the phone. Modern cellular repeater amplifiers rebroadcast cellular signals inside the building. of course.more than 60 million lines. providing significantly improved signal strength. so are suitable for commercial as well as home use. and retransmits it locally. and the large scale departure from the land-line system. The CTIA – The Wireless Association (formerly the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association) had predicted that by 2007 30% of phone users in the US would be mobile only . The more advanced models often also allow multiple cell phones to use the same repeater at the same time. usually intended for use in one building. This combined with the low population density (compared with Europe and Japan) means that many people will have to use some method to improve their home signal.Because all radio antennas . This is because the antenna can be oriented and located outside to provide the best possible signal. The market for cellular repeaters is expected to grow rapidly over the coming years. These can either be fitted by professionals or will include a signal strength monitor for easy alignment. usually aligned with the nearest cell tower. These are similar to the cellular broadcast towers used for broadcasting by the network providers. correctly oriented external antenna should provide better signal than the internal antenna on any cell phone. particularly in the USA.although even a small.both caused by the lower power required to broadcast the signal to the local bi-directional amplifier.

high power repeaters (e. Even the cheaper home-use models (typically band selective) now provide 20dB .are intrinsically polarized. where could be repeater used. inserting of the attenuating environment (smart placement of the donor and service antenna. Isolation can be also improved by integrated feature called ICE (interference cancellation equipment) offered in some products (e. and the limiting maximum signal power of the amplifier (for picorepeaters typically from around 5 dBm (3. The power gain is calculated by the following equation: For repeater is needed to secure sufficient isolation between donor and service antenna. In case of poor isolation the device works but with low gain.g. delay) and consequently to shorter radius from donor site. cell phones perform best when their antennas are oriented parallel to the booster's antenna .g.2 mW)). placement of the metal mesh). . well aligned antenna. RFWindow)... Signal amplifier All models will include a signal amplifier. or house)). The isolation is possible to improve by antenna type selection. glasshouse. Also cheap models are equipped by automatic gain reduction in case of poor or weak isolation. This is due to the difficulty of filtering the correct signal out from the background noise. between donor and service antenna is wall. Standard GSM channel selective repeater (operated by telecommunication operators for coverage of large areas and big buildings) has output power around 2W.meaning the total amplification of a repeater with greater than around 50dB is likely to be useless without a good.. NodeG from Andrew) offering output power around 10W). However.although within reasonable proximity the booster's signal will be strong enough that the orientation of the cell phone's antenna will not make a significant difference in usability. in macro environment by angle between donor and service antenna (ideally 180°). e. When the isolation is lower than actual gain + reserve (typically 5-15dB) then repeaters is in loop oscillation. which will be amplified equally.in front of the donor antenna no near obstacle (like tree. metal-sheet building.reduction of reflections . and coverage is poor.g. space separation (typically vertical distance in case of the tower installation between donor and service antenna is several meters). Activating of this feature has negative impact to internal delay (higher delay => prox.smart and expensive technology of the operators) offering gain around 100dBm (ICE function is welcomed as a improvement of the radio isolation between donor and service antenna). Excellent high-power models (not home usage . +5us up to standard rep. NodeG. it should be noted that since the decibel scale is measured on a logarithmic scale a 30dB gain represents a one thousandfold signal power increase .50dB gain and many of the more expensive models provide over 50dB.

installing the repeater in a higher place than necessary. EGSM) or more bands and the repeater does not support EGSM or is only for 900GSM. Use of a poor device for signal generation.. After repeating you have better (or excellent) coverage but you can't access to network. Because of the cellular network has form principle reduced cell size (depends on the technology and activated features typically X*10 km (for standard GSM 35 km). many calls may drop).. by wall installation or suppression of side/back lobes by chimney. etc.By amplification and filtration there is some delay (typically between 5us to 15us). Additional delay form point of view of propagation means additional distance. • • Reasons for weak signal Rural areas In many rural areas the housing density is too low to make construction of a new base station commercially viable.3 km (delay of RF signal in air is 3. being shaded by buildings (e.3us/km). Repeating only part of the band. In these cases it is unlikely that the service provider will do . such as in cases where the operator is using wider band (e. urban FDD/TDD network 20 km) usage of repeater virtually moving user to bigger distance: radio distance = real distance + (repeater delay)*3. Operators can operate also EGSM or GSM900+GSM1800 layers with single BCCH (Siemens(SAG) commonly supports the BCCH feature. It depends on the type of repeater and used features.g. User is from network point of view too far. Amateur installation of the pico/mini repeaters can be harmful for many reasons: • • Poor choice of donor site may not improve signal Using the wrong antenna and improperly installing the repeater without paying attention to minimizing interference (e. In the case of improper repeater support.g.)) and without sense to donor site selection. causing noise and inter-modulation products. It is reason why somewhere with sufficient levels repeater doesn't work. There is also problem with noise amplification (especially in UL) and desensitization of the donor site.g.

even a great distance from the broadcast towers. which use lead in their roofing material will very effectively block any signal. As a result. which can reduce transmittance. cell phone waves cannot travel via the ionospohere. due to the high cost of erecting a new tower. there are often dead zones caused by destructive interference of waves which have taken different paths (caused by the signal bouncing off buildings etc. Because the frequencies which cell phones use are too high to reflect off the ionosphere as shortwave radio waves do.) These usually have an area of a few blocks and will usually only affect one of the two frequency ranges used by cell phones. Diffraction and general attenuation The longer wavelengths have the advantage of being able to diffract to a greater degree so are less reliant on line of sight to obtain a good signal. Some materials have peaks in their absorption spectra which massively decrease signal strength. Concrete floors are often poured onto a metal pan which completely blocks most radio signals. Older buildings. such as churches. This is caused by both the fact that the signal is attenuated heavily as it enters the building and the interference as the signal is reflected by the objects inside the building. hospitals and factories. so will just be heavily attenuated by the distance. Building size Large buildings. This is because the different wavelengths of the different frequencies interfere destructively at different points. often have no cellular reception further than a few meters from the outside wall. Building construction material Some construction materials very rapidly attenuate cell phone signal strength. For this reason in these cases an external antenna is usually desirable. Low signal strength is also often the case in underground areas such as basements and in shops and restaurants located towards the centre of shopping malls. See Multipath interference for more. Directional antennas are very helpful at overcoming this since they can be placed at points of constructive interference and aligned so as not to receive the destructive signal. but still attenuate significantly. such as warehouses. Any building which has a significant thickness of concrete or amount of metal used in its production will attenuate the signal. In these cases the installation of a cellular repeater will generally massively increase signal strength just due to the amplifier. In flat rural areas the signal is unlikely to suffer from multipath interference. Energy efficient windows and metal window screens are also very effective at blocking radio signals.anything to improve reception. . Some solid foam insulation and some fiberglass insulation used in roofs or exterior walls has foil backing. Multipath interference Even in urban areas which usually have strong cellular signals throughout. the only way to obtain strong cell phone signal in these areas is usually to install a home cellular repeater.

and tri-band systems cost significantly more. CDMA is analogous to the last example where people speaking the same language can understand each other. some repeaters will handle different types of network such as multi-mode GSM and UMTS repeaters however dual. This concept is called multiplexing. An analogy to the problem of multiple access is a room (channel) in which people wish to communicate with each other. in radio CDMA. while frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency. or speak in different languages (code division). To avoid confusion.Different operating frequencies Repeaters are available for all the different GSM frequency bands. but only users associated with a particular code can communicate. Similarly. but not other people. CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling. allowing the satphones to be used indoors without a clear line of sight to the satellite. Repeater systems are available for certain Satellite phone systems. CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. One of the basic concepts in data communication is the idea of allowing several transmitters to send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time. USES . since the modulated coded signal has a much higher data bandwidth than the data being communicated. which use CDMA as an underlying channel access method. people could take turns speaking (time division). Many codes occupy the same channel. This allows several users to share a bandwidth of different frequencies. each group of users is given a shared code. By contrast. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply CDMA). CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies. speak at different pitches (frequency division).

A spread spectrum technique is one which spreads the bandwidth of the data uniformly for the same transmitted power. The figure shows how spread spectrum signal is generated. The ratio Tb / Tc is called spreading factor or processing gain and determines to a certain extent the upper limit of the total number of users supported simultaneously by a base station. CDMA has been used in the OmniTRACS satellite system for transportation logistics. marketed as cdmaOne. This standard is used by several mobile phone companies. (Note: bandwidth is proportional to 1 / T where T = bit time) Therefore. This predates and is distinct from cdmaOne. Data for transmission is simply logically XOR (exclusive OR) added with the faster code. In CDMA a locally generated code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. including the Globalstar satellite phone network. Steps in CDMA Modulation CDMA is a spread spectrum multiple access technique.A CDMA mobile phone • • • • One of the early applications for code division multiplexing is in GPS. the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is much larger than the bandwidth of the original signal. Since Tc is much smaller than Tb. known as CDMA2000. The Qualcomm standard IS-2000. The Qualcomm standard IS-95. Spreading code is a pseudo-random code which has a narrow Ambiguity function unlike other narrow pulse codes. The data signal with pulse duration of Tb is XOR added with the code signal with pulse duration of Tc. the bandwidth of the data signal is 1 / Tb and the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is 1 / Tc. .

Each user in a CDMA system uses a different code to modulate their signal. This is referred to as auto-correlation and is used to reject multi-path interference. The best performance will occur when there is good separation between the signal of a desired user and the signals of other users. If the signal matches the desired user's code then the correlation function will be high and the system can extract that signal. this is referred to as cross correlation. Asynchronous CDMA . Some properties of the dot product aid understanding of how W-CDMA works. by summing the products of their respective components. If the desired user's code has nothing in common with the signal the correlation should be as close to zero as possible (thus eliminating the signal). In the case of IS-95 64 bit Walsh codes are used to encode the signal to separate different users. then and: Each user in synchronous CDMA uses a code orthogonal to the others' codes to modulate their signal. Code division multiplexing (Synchronous CDMA) Synchronous CDMA exploits mathematical properties of orthogonality between vectors representing the data strings. 1. 1). in other words. Choosing the codes used to modulate the signal is very important in the performance of CDMA systems. they do not interfere with each other. If the dot product is zero. the dot product u·v = ac + bd). An example of four mutually orthogonal digital signals is shown in the figure. For example. Vectors can be multiplied by taking their dot product. CDMA belongs to two basic categories: synchronous (orthogonal codes) and asynchronous (pseudorandom codes). the signals are channelized into 64 orthogonal signals. the two vectors are said to be orthogonal to each other (note: if u = (a. binary string 1011 is represented by the vector (1. the correlation should be as close to zero as possible. b) and v = (c. Since each of the 64 Walsh codes are orthogonal to one another. If vectors a and b are orthogonal. 0. Orthogonal codes have a cross-correlation equal to zero. d). The following example demonstrates how each users signal can be encoded and decoded. The separation of the signals is made by correlating the received signal with the locally generated code of the desired user. In general. If the code is correlated with the signal at any time offset other than zero.

The set of 4 Walsh sequences shown in the figure will afford up to 4 users.The previous example of orthogonal Walsh sequences describes how 2 users can be multiplexed together in a synchronous system. All forms of CDMA use spread spectrum process gain to allow receivers to partially discriminate against unwanted signals. where all of the transmissions originate from the same transmitter and can be perfectly coordinated. controlling the signal strength is an important issue with CDMA transmitters. Advantages of asynchronous CDMA over other techniques . an NxN Walsh matrix can be used to multiplex N users. TDMA. particularly due to the mobility of the handsets. the noise power) of the MAI increases in direct proportion to the number of users. Since it is not mathematically possible to create signature sequences that are orthogonal for arbitrarily random starting points. the mobile-to-base links cannot be precisely coordinated. rejection of unwanted signals is only partial. –v) so that they arrive at the receiver at exactly the same time. unlike synchronous CDMA. This leads to a general requirement in any asynchronous CDMA system to approximately match the various signal power levels as seen at the receiver. then the variance (e. If all of the users are received with the same power level. In CDMA cellular. as there is low correlation between the codes. or FDMA receiver can in theory completely reject arbitrarily strong signals using different codes. Signals encoded with the specified PN sequence (code) are received.. In other words. and in general. a technique that is commonly referred to as code division multiplexing (CDM). A CDM (synchronous CDMA). A PN code is a binary sequence that appears random but can be reproduced in a deterministic manner by intended receivers. These PN codes are used to encode and decode a user's signal in Asynchronous CDMA in the same manner as the orthogonal codes in synchronous CDMA (shown in the example above). this technique finds use in base-to-mobile links. This is not true for Asynchronous CDMA. If any or all of the unwanted signals are much stronger than the desired signal. Since each user generates MAI. These PN sequences are statistically uncorrelated. and require a somewhat different approach. time slots or frequency channels due to the orthogonality of these systems. Thus. and the sum of a large number of PN sequences results in multiple access interference (MAI) that is approximated by a Gaussian noise process (following the central limit theorem in statistics). while signals with different codes (or the same code but a different timing offset) appear as wideband noise reduced by the process gain. they will overwhelm it. On the other hand. Multiplexing requires all of the users to be coordinated so that each transmits their assigned sequence v (or the complement.g. the signals of other users will appear as noise to the signal of interest and interfere slightly with the desired signal in proportion to number of users. unique "pseudo-random" or "pseudo-noise" (PN) sequences are used in asynchronous CDMA systems. Gold codes are an example of a PN suitable for this purpose. the base station uses a fast closed-loop power control scheme to tightly control each mobile's transmit power.

due to the unpredictable doppler shift of the signal spectrum which occurs due to the user's mobility.e. it would require significant overhead to continually allocate and deallocate the orthogonal code. timing in the case of TDMA. asynchronous CDMA is ideally suited to a mobile network where large numbers of transmitters each generate a relatively small amount of traffic at irregular intervals. then 2N users can be accommodated with the same average bit error probability as N users that talk all of the time. allocation of a PN codes to active users. time slots and frequency slots respectively is fixed hence the capacity in terms of number of simultaneous users is limited. . but decreases the spectral efficiency. TDMA. only a practical limit governed by the desired bit error probability. timeslots or frequency bands that can be allocated for CDM. if there are N time slots in a TDMA system and 2N users that talk half of the time. Flexible Allocation of Resources Asynchronous CDMA offers a key advantage in the flexible allocation of resources i. CDM (synchronous CDMA). whereas it is a random quantity (with the same mean) for 2N users talking half of the time. each has its own challenges – power control in the case of CDMA. TDMA. and frequency generation/filtering in the case of FDMA. TDMA and FDMA have exactly the same spectral efficiency but practically. CDMA. FDMA systems must use a guard-band between adjacent channels. Since this cannot be perfectly controlled in a mobile environment.) TDMA systems must carefully synchronize the transmission times of all the users to ensure that they are received in the correct timeslot and do not cause interference. Similarly. then half of the time there will be more than N users needing to use more than N timeslots. since the SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) varies inversely with the number of users. each timeslot must have a guard-time. In the case of CDM. In other words. the advantage afforded by asynchronous CDMA is that the performance (bit error rate) is allowed to fluctuate randomly. time slots or frequency channels that can be assigned to individual transmitters. Furthermore. but decrease the utilization of the spectrum. and FDMA systems. In a bursty traffic environment like mobile telephony. which remain underutilized due to the bursty nature of telephony and packetized data transmissions. and FDMA systems cannot recover the underutilized resources inherent to bursty traffic due to the fixed number of orthogonal codes. TDMA. time-slot or frequency channel resources. with an average value determined by the number of users times the percentage of utilization. The guard-bands will reduce the probability that adjacent channels will interfere. For instance.Efficient Practical utilization of Fixed Frequency Spectrum Asynchronous CDMA's main advantage over CDM (synchronous CDMA). The key difference here is that the bit error probability for N users talking all of the time is constant. There is no strict limit to the number of users that can be supported in an asynchronous CDMA system. TDMA and FDMA is that it can use the spectrum more efficiently in mobile telephony applications (In theory. and FDMA the number of simultaneous orthogonal codes. By comparison. Suppose there are 2N users that only talk half of the time. There are a fixed number of orthogonal codes. which reduces the probability that users will interfere.

which exploits multipath delay components to improve the performance of the system. Convolution encoding and interleaving can be used to assist in recovering this lost data. which is ignored at the receiver. Frequency reuse is the ability to reuse the same radio channel frequency at other cell sites within a cellular system. producing a stronger version of the signal than a simple receiver with a single correlator tuned to the path delay of the strongest signal. Another reason CDMA is resistant to multipath interference is because the delayed versions of the transmitted pseudorandom codes will have poor correlation with the original pseudorandom code. In other words. The correlation properties of the pseudorandom codes are such that this slight delay causes the multipath to appear uncorrelated with the intended signal. A receiver cannot demodulate this transmission without knowledge of the pseudorandom sequence used to encode the data. it can easily be removed through notch filtering without much loss of information. Some CDMA devices use a rake receiver. the multipath signals will arrive at the receiver such that they are shifted in time by at least one chip from the intended signal. as long as the multipath channel induces at least one chip of delay. However. CDMA is also resistant to jamming. The jammer can either spread its energy over the entire bandwidth of the signal or jam only part of the entire signal. each one tuned to a different path delay. A rake receiver combines the information from several correlators. Since the spread spectrum signal occupies a large bandwidth only a small portion of this will undergo fading due to multipath at any given time. keeping the same PN signature sequence as long as they are connected to the system. One of the initial reasons for doing this was military applications including guidance and communication systems. CDMA can also effectively reject narrowband interference. spread spectrum techniques use a transmission bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required signal bandwidth. These systems were designed using spread spectrum because of its security and resistance to jamming.asynchronous CDMA transmitters simply send when they have something to say. Since narrowband interference affects only a small portion of the spread spectrum signal. Asynchronous CDMA has some level of privacy built in because the signal is spread using a pseudorandom code. A jamming signal only has a finite amount of power available to jam the signal. and it is thus ignored. and go off the air when they don't. CDMA signals are also resistant to multipath fading. Like the narrowband interference this will result in only a small loss of data and can be overcome. and will thus appear as another user. In the FDMA and TDMA systems frequency planning is an . Spread-spectrum characteristics of CDMA Most modulation schemes try to minimize the bandwidth of this signal since bandwidth is a limited resource. this code makes the spread spectrum signals appear random or have noise-like properties.

MOBILE PHONE . however. In a hard handoff situation. as the mobile telephone approaches a handoff. In a CDMA system the same frequency can be used in every cell because channelization is done using the pseudorandom codes. In contrast. Reusing the same frequency in every cell eliminates the need for frequency planning in a CDMA system. CDMA systems use the soft handoff. Soft handoffs allow the mobile telephone to communicate simultaneously with two or more cells. which is undetectable and provides a more reliable and higher quality signal. The best signal quality is selected until the handoff is complete. This is different from hard handoffs utilized in other cellular systems.important consideration. CDMA systems have the ability to perform soft handoffs. Since adjacent cells use the same frequencies. The frequencies used in different cells need to be planned carefully in order to ensure that the signals from different cells do not interfere with each other. planning of the different pseudorandom sequences must be done to ensure that the received signal from one cell does not correlate with the signal from a nearby cell. signal strength may vary abruptly.

the number of mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide reached approximately 4. By the end of 2009. Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones. 12. In the year 1990. for example within a home or an office. In addition to being a telephone. which only offer telephone service within limited range through a single base station attached to a fixed land line. and accessories. modern mobile phones also support many additional services. radio and GPS. The first hand held phone was demonstrated by Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973. using a handset weighing in at two kilos. cellular phone.4 million people worldwide had cellular subscriptions. 300 times the 1990 number. such as SMS (or text) messages. History . infrared. Internet access.A mobile phone (also called mobile. Bluetooth. MMS messaging. email. gaming.6 billion. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator. cell phone or handphone) is an electronic device used for full duplex two-way radio telecommunications over a cellular network of base stations known as cell sites. MP3 player. Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones. A mobile phone allows its user to make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed line phones across the world. camera. A key feature of the cellular network is that it enables seamless telephone calls even when the user is moving around wide areas via a process known as handoff or handover. only 20 years later. penetrating the developing economies and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid. whereas high-end mobile phones that offer more advanced computing ability are referred to as smartphones.

Several countries then followed in the early 1980s including the UK. initially in the metropolitan area of Tokyo. The first 1G network launched in the USA was Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the Motorola DynaTAC mobile phone. the world’s first partly automatic car phone system. Dr. 1973 to his rival. Engel of Bell Labs. 3G+ or turbo 3G. In 1981. One of the newest 3G technologies to be implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). . Norway and Sweden. this was followed by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark. a more modern version called Mobile System B (MTB) was launched. through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s. The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network. Using a modern. and had a weight of 40 kg. after a long race against Bell Labs for the first portable mobile phone. Mobile System A (MTA). Joel S. It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family.Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony. [8] . MTA phones were composed of vacuum tubes and relays.5G. In 1960. also coined 3. which was a push-button telephone. . if somewhat heavy portable handset. a Motorola researcher and executive is considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for hand-held use in a non-vehicle setting. opening for several different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success. The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. was launched in Sweden. the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and became the first nation-wide 1G network. Finland. In 1971 the MTD version was launched. Cooper made the first call on a hand-held mobile phone on April 3. which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. NMT was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming. In 1962. In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard. Mexico and Canada. Martin Cooper. Within five years. and which used transistors in order to enhance the telephone’s calling capacity and improve its operational reliability. while hand-held mobile radio devices have been available since 1973.

and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago. The common components found on all phones are: • • • • a rechargeable battery providing the power source for the phone functions an input mechanism and display to allow the user to interact with the phone. Other features that may be found on mobile phones include GPS navigation. but manufacturers also try to differentiate their own products by implementing additional functions to make them more attractive to consumers. as well as functions such as playing music and taking photos. All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped to between devices. and sometimes simple applications based on generic managed platforms such as Java ME or BREW.0+ Mpx) and camcorders (video recording). built-in cameras (1. Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones. but touch screens are also found in some high end smart phones.Handset Features All mobile phones have a number of features in common. As miniaturisation and increased processing power of microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones. basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages. RDS radio receiver. music (MP3) and video (MP4) playback. video calling. The first smartphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which added PDA functionality to the basic mobile phone at the time. the concept of the smartphone has evolved. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment. is a standard phone today. the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone. such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs. alarms. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications became known as smart phones. This has led to great innovation in mobile phone development over the last twenty years. the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones. the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones. ability to watch streaming video. Some CDMA devices also have a similar card called a R-UIM. personal digital assistant functions. and offer basic telephony. with autofocus . The most common input mechanism is a keypad. memo recording. video download.

while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. Internet email and browsing and serving as a wireless modem. PTT. . ringtones. The first downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998. was launched in Finland in 2000. and in selected European markets. games. on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. delivered via SMS. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service. adult entertainment and advertising.and flash. The first mobile news service. USB (2. The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. infrared. gaming.0) and WiFi connectivity. Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Software and applications The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging. when Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ring tone service. Eventually the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems. memory card reader (SD). Nokia and the University of Cambridge demonstrated a bendable cell phone called the Morph. dual line support. Bluetooth (2.0). Other non-SMS data services used on mobile phones include mobile music. downloadable logos and pictures. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa. Mobile news services are expanding with many organisations providing "on-demand" news services by SMS. instant messaging. i-Mode. which today is the world's largest mobile internet service. gambling.

In addition. and the first wireless charger was released for consumer use. portable batteries. or a dynamo.Power supply Mobile phone charging service in Uganda Mobile phones generally obtain power from rechargeable batteries. There are a variety of ways used to charge cell phones. wireless charging became a reality. The standard connector to be adopted by 17 manufacturers in the Open Mobile Terminal Platform including Nokia. many mobile phone manufacturers have agreed to use the MicroUSB connector for charging their phones. Motorola and Samsung is to be the micro-USB connector (several media reports erroneously reported this as the mini-USB). the GSM Association announced that they had agreed on a standard charger for mobile phones. In 2009. Having a standard charger for all phones. and added: "Based on . means that manufacturers will no longer have to supply a charger with every new phone. mains power (using an AC adapter). Standardization of Micro-USB connector for charging Starting from 2010. including USB. cigarette lighters (using an adapter). The mobile phone manufacturers who have agreed to this standard include: • • • • • • LG Motorola Nokia Research In Motion Samsung Sony Ericsson On 17 February 2009. on 22 October 2009 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced that it had embraced micro-USB as the Universal Charger Solution its "energy-efficient one-charger-fits-all new mobile phone solution". The new chargers will be much more efficient than existing chargers.

lithium ion batteries are sometimes used." Charger efficiency The world's five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in November 2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient chargers The majority of energy lost in a mobile phone charger is in its no load condition. the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydride. such as Power Integrations and CamSemi.03 W (30 mW) no load power. when the mobile phone is not connected but the charger has been left plugged in and using power. To combat this in November 2008 the top five mobile phone manufacturers Nokia.the Micro-USB interface. Battery Formerly. as they have a low size and weight. now claim that the five star standard can be achieved with use of their product. Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-polymer batteries as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion. LG Electronics. . including solar cells and Coca Cola. as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-hydride batteries do. the main advantages of this being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid. Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with alternative power sources. A number of semiconductor companies offering flyback controllers. Sony Ericsson and Motorola set up a star rating system to rate the efficiency of their chargers in the no-load condition.5 W and going up to the top five star rating for <0. UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or higher efficiency rating — up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrated charger. Samsung. Starting at zero stars for >0.

Most cards of the two smaller sizes are supplied as a full-sized card with the smaller card held in place by a few plastic links. most popular miniature version has the same thickness but a length of 25 mm and a width of 15 mm. and has one of its corners truncated (chamfered) to prevent misinsertion.76 mm). The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) used to identify a subscriber on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers). it can easily be broken off to be used in a device that uses the smaller SIM. with Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient selling the first 300 SIM cards to Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. .60 mm × 53. a list of the services the user has access to and two passwords (PIN for usual use and PUK for unlocking). SIM cards are available in three standard sizes. security authentication and ciphering information. The first SIM card was made in 1991. The first is the size of a credit card (85. temporary information related to the local network. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit.SIM card Subscriber Identity Module and Removable User Identity Module Typical mobile phone SIM card GSM mobile phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card. to function. The newest incarnation known as the 3FF or micro-SIM has dimensions of 15 mm × 12 mm. A SIM card contains its unique serial number. internationally unique number of the mobile user (IMSI). The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device. The newer.98 mm x 0.

The cost to unlock a phone varies but is usually very cheap and is sometimes provided by independent phone vendors. the Service Provider typically locks this data with a Master Subsidiary Lock (MSL). These manufacturers accounted for over 80% of all mobile phones sold at that time. This lock may be disabled so that the phone can use other Service Providers SIM cards.Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their memory. From there. to prevent the phone being accidentally disabled or removed from the network.6% 3. new emergency numbers.8%.6% 25.9%) and Motorola (4.6% 3.0%).8% Gartner Q1/2010 35.3% [20] IDC Q1/2010 36.4% 3. .3% [19] 8. and over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscribers by the end of 2009 (source wireless intelligence). A similar module called a Removable User Identity Module is present in some CDMA networks. with a global device market share of 37. However. The phone however. The world's largest mobile operator group by subscribers is UK based Vodafone. Sony Ericsson (4.7%).6% In mobile phone handsets. There are over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production worldwide.0%).0% 20. LG Electronics (11. new Service Provider numbers. followed by Samsung (21. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each. new Authentication Key or A-Key code.2% 3.6% 21. and a Preferred Roaming List or PRL. notably in China. Most phones purchased outside the US are unlocked phones because there are numerous Service Providers in close proximity to one another or have overlapping coverage. The MSL applies to the SIM only so once the contract has been completed the MSL still applies to the SIM.1% 29. information can be added including: a new number for the phone. is also initially locked by the manufacturer into the Service Providers MSL. Source Date Nokia Samsung LG Sony RIM Others References Electronics Ericsson 9. Nokia was the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones. in Q3/2009. Mobile phones in society Market share Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007 The world's largest individual mobile operator is China Mobile with over 500 million mobile phone subscribers. The MSL also locks the device to a particular carrier when it is sold as a loss leader. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu.

CECT. jokes. Trium. including keeping in touch with family members. It is prevalent in urban India. Some people carry more than one cell phone for different purposes. Sagem. Matsushita. In 2006 the total value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that often is kept secret from other family members. Toshiba and Vidalco. It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print. TV content and advertising.. from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes. Cinema. Soon other media content appeared such as news. Sharp. conducting business. The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema. and found that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate than on the internet and 90 times more accurate than on TV. Huawei. videogames. Radio. Uses Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes. Recordings. The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to identify and track Alpha Users or Hubs. long-distance calls. Philips. Two types of sharing which exist are "conspicuous" and "stealthy" . Audiovox (now UTStarcom). and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Recently unique content for mobile has been emerging. or roaming. Media The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringtones were sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. These phones may be used to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings. Pantech Wireless Inc. Panasonic. Sanyo. such as for business and personal use. NEC. SK Teletech. international calls. AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass media. such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. T&A Alcatel. TV and PC screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). Kyocera. Qualcomm Inc. horoscopes. HTC Corporation.. Sierra Wireless. Cell phone sharing is a phenomenon which exists around the world. Research In Motion Ltd.. TV and Internet the first six). Palm. The value of music on phones was worth 9. as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among their members.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007. Fujitsu. the most influential members of any social community. Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media.Other manufacturers include Apple Inc. (RIM). There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones. Multiple SIM cards may also be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls." video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones. Mitsubishi Electric.

Although the cell phone is the sole property of one individual. it can actually be an opportunity to engage in reciprocal obligations. Phone sharing does not only take place because of its economic benefits. There it is not uncommon for a village to only have access to one cell phone. Privacy Cell phones have numerous privacy issues associated with them. and are regularly used by governments to perform surveillance. a writer can write just about as easily. An example of conspicuous sharing takes place when someone calls the friend of the person they are trying to reach in hopes of being able to talk to that individual. anywhere. The geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not). using a technique known multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. Paul Levinson. Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. The mobile phone has also been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society. These devices are often old phones that are donated and refurbished to meet the victim's emergency needs. An example of cell phone sharing occurs in Burkina Faso. This type of cell phone sharing is an important for the small villages in Burkina Faso because it allows them to keep up with the expectations of the globalizing world. Law enforcement and intelligence services in the UK and the US possess technology to remotely activate the microphones in cell phones in order to listen to conversations that take place nearby the person who holds the phone. it is the expectation that other members of the village are allowed to use the cell phone to make necessary calls.. Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo! and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka..sharing. such as a teacher or missionary. Although some may consider this a burden. but also often due to familial customs and traditional gender roles. in Information on the Move (2004). This cell phone is typically owned by a person who is not natively from the village. The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel. for example: • • • • Organizations that aid victims of domestic violence may offer a cell phone to potential victims without the abuser's knowledge. Child predators have taken advantage of cell phones to secretly communicate with children without the knowledge of their parents or teachers. the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the novels as a whole. . as a reader can read" and they are "not only personal but portable". says ".nowadays. stealthy sharing occurs when an individual uses another's cell phone without their knowledge.

instead using the device for a legal purpose such as the phones' incorporated controls for car stereo or satnav usage – either as part of the cars' own device or directly on the mobile phone itself. allowing hands-free use. harassment and bullying. This can mean that drivers may be stopped for using their device illegally on a phone call. long-term "proof" has been impossible and that use should be restricted. argue that because mobile phone use is recently introduced technology. Many mobile phones are banned in . Although in many countries the law enforcement official may have stopped the driver for a differing offence. Use while driving Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Egypt. causing threats to the schools security. rather those who have banned hand-held use only. distractions to the students and facilitating gossip and other social activity in school. for lack of due care and attention in relation to their driving. Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones –often more like mobile computers in their available uses– it has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials in being able to tell one usage from another as drivers use their devices. while the technology is still new. although this is currently disputed by the World Health Organization. for example. Certain countries. Schools Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. This is more apparent in those countries who ban both hand-held and hands-free usage.Restriction on usage Main article: Mobile phone radiation and health There exists a community which believes mobile phone use represents a long-term health risk. including France. Japan. Israel. such as the US based group Bioinitiative. with forthcoming mobile phone usage recommendations in 2010. Portugal and Singapore ban both hand-held and hands-free use of a mobile phone whilst many other countries –including the UK. Because of this. France. many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. or monitored closely. and many US states– ban handheld phone use only. Groups of scientists. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident. as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by visually looking at the driver. have warned against the use of cell phones especially by minors due to health risk uncertainties. Cases like these can often only be proved otherwise by a check of the mobile operators phone call records to see if a call was taking place during the journey concerned. Schools set restrictions on the use of mobile phones because of the use of cell phones for cheating on tests. when in fact they were not.

and streamed multimedia can be given to users on a "Anytime. data. and at much higher data rates than previous generations. also known as Beyond 3G. They usually connect to the same networks as regular mobile phones. The radio interface in these systems is based on allIP packet switching. an external antenna and loudspeaker for hands free use. Unlike mobile phones. multi-carrier modulation schemes. MIMO diversity. which are not shared. It may perhaps also be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan area network technologies that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile users. public restrooms and swimming pools due to the built-in cameras that most phones now feature. which in turn connects to a conventional land line for calling. A recently published study has reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety. Comparison to similar systems Car phone A type of telephone permanently mounted in a vehicle. The officially accepted. and 1 Gbit/s to stationary devices defined by the ITU-R 4G systems may be based on the 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) cellular standard. ITU ratified standards-based 4G networks are not expected to be commercially launched until 2011. aims to provide broadband wireless access with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices. Sprint's 4G is seen as a marketing gimmick as WiMax itself is part of the 3G air interface.4 Mbit/s. Future evolution: Broadband Fourth generation (4G) The recently released 4th generation. . Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) and channel-dependent scheduling. Sprint in the US has claimed its WiMax network to be "4G network" which most cellular telecoms standardization experts dispute repeatedly around the world. The handsets connect wirelessly to a base station. offering peak bit rates of 326.school locker room facilities. Anywhere" basis. A 4G system should be a complete replacement for current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to provide a comprehensive and secure IP solution where voice. these often have more powerful transmitters. cordless phones use private base stations (belonging to the land-line subscriber). Cordless telephone (portable phone) Cordless phones are telephones which use one or more radio handsets in place of a wired handset.

Additionally. Several vendors have developed standalone WiFi phones. for example. however wireless varieties do exist. IP Phone This type of phone delivers or receives calls over internet. which in turn relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. A single satellite can provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. These phones may not be mobile. and news reporters at disaster sites. . Notably. Satellite phone This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite. they may require a mains power supply. Radio phone This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone network.Professional Mobile Radio Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone systems. some cellular mobile phones include the ability to place VoIP calls over cellular high speed data networks and/or wireless internet. such as mountain climbers. the European digital PMR standard. their use is typically limited to people in remote areas where no mobile phone coverage exists. the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. to implement public mobile networks. LAN or WAN networks using VoIP as opposed to traditional CDMA and GSM networks. the majority of these IP Phones tend to be connected via wired Ethernet. Similar attempts have even been made to use TETRA. or they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a PSTN phone call. Since satellite phones are costly. In business. mariners in the open sea.

599 issued 1994. Because of these properties. Foschini refine new approaches to MIMO technology. Their US Patent No. etc. MIMO technology has attracted attention in wireless communications. MIMO is a current theme of international wireless research. 1976). Kaye and D. developed the first commercial system in 2001 that used MIMO-OFDMA technology. and Marvell) have fielded a MIMO-OFDM solution based on a pre-standard for IEEE 802. In 1996. Iospan Wireless Inc.MIMO In radio. Wireless standards In the commercial arena. van Etten (1975.11n WiFi standard. Airgo Networks had developed a pre-11n version based on their patents on MIMO. Following that in 2006.A. 5.) have . In 2005. History of MIMO Background technologies The earliest ideas in this field go back to work by A. which considers a configuration where multiple transmit antennas are colocated at one transmitter to improve the link throughput effectively. Also in 2006. where spatial multiplexing is a principal technology to improve the performance of MIMO communication systems.345. It achieves this by higher spectral efficiency (more bits per second per hertz of bandwidth) and link reliability or diversity (reduced fading). because it offers significant increases in data throughput and link range without additional bandwidth or transmit power. or MIMO (commonly pronounced mymoh or me-moh).R. Iospan technology supported both diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. George (1970) and W. Samsung. is the use of multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance. Jack Winters and Jack Salz at Bell Laboratories published several papers on beamforming related applications in 1984 and 1986. Greg Raleigh and Gerard J. several companies (Beceem Communications. It is one of several forms of smart antenna technology. several companies (including at least Broadcom. Bell Labs was the first to demonstrate a laboratory prototype of spatial multiplexing in 1998. Intel. Runcom Technologies. multiple-input and multiple-output. Principle Arogyaswami Paulraj and Thomas Kailath proposed the concept of spatial multiplexing (SM) using MIMO in 1993. on Spatial Multiplexing emphasized applications to wireless broadcast.

Because there is no channel knowledge. Precoding is multi-layer beamforming. it is considered to be all spatial processing that occurs at the transmitter. precoding. All upcoming 4G systems will also employ MIMO technology. Note that precoding requires knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter. In diversity methods a single stream (unlike multiple streams in spatial multiplexing) is transmitted. If these signals arrive at the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures. a high rate signal is split into multiple lower rate streams and each stream is transmitted from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. spatial multiplexing or SM. the receiver can separate these streams. Diversity Coding techniques are used when there is no channel knowledge at the transmitter. there is no beamforming or array gain from diversity coding. Spatial multiplexing can be used with or without transmit channel knowledge. Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). In (singlelayer) beamforming. . but in typical cellular conventional beams are not a good analogy.developed MIMO-OFDMA based solutions for IEEE 802. and precoding is used. and diversity coding. In spatial multiplexing. Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple antenna links to enhance signal diversity. Functions of MIMO MIMO can be sub-divided into three main categories. the transmit beamforming cannot simultaneously maximize the signal level at all of the receive antennas. In the absence of scattering. creating parallel channels free. Several research groups have demonstrated over 1 Gbit/s prototypes. The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser in the number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver. the same signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with appropriate phase (and sometimes gain) weighting such that the signal power is maximized at the receiver input. in the narrowest definition. Spatial multiplexing requires MIMO antenna configuration. beamforming results in a well defined directional pattern. The benefits of beamforming are to increase the signal gain from constructive interference and to reduce the multipath fading effect. In more general terms.16e WIMAX broadband mobile standard. The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full or near orthogonal coding. When the receiver has multiple antennas. Spatial multiplexing can also be combined with precoding when the channel is known at the transmitter or combined with diversity coding when decoding reliability is in tradeoff. but the signal is coded using techniques called space-time coding.

The antenna separation at the receiver is heavily space constrained in hand sets. the research on multi-user MIMO technology has been emerging. Freescale. MU-MIMO is being treated as one of candidate technologies adoptable in the specification by a lot of companies including Samsung. Philips. Ericsson. • Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) o In recent 3GPP and WiMAX standards.g. o single-input single-output (SISO) is a radio system where neither the transmitter nor receiver have multiple antenna. Alcatel-Lucent. While full multi-user MIMO (or network MIMO) can have higher potentials. since MU-MIMO is more feasible to low complexity mobiles with small number of reception antennas than SU-MIMO with the high system throughput capability. o Single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) is a degenerate case when the transmitter has a single antenna. Qualcomm. • SISO/SIMO/MISO are degenerate cases of MIMO o Multiple-input and single-output (MISO) is a degenerate case when the receiver has a single antenna. Principal single-user MIMO techniques o Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (BLAST). Foschini (1996). see also V-blast o Per Antenna Rate Control (PARC). 802. Huawei. Ericsson (2004) Some limitations o The physical antenna spacing are selected to be large-multiple wavelengths at the base station. Guess (1998). Lozano (2001) o Selective Per Antenna Rate Control (SPARC).Forms of MIMO Multi-antenna types MIMO communications Up to now. TI. e. multi-antenna MIMO (or Single user MIMO) technology has been mainly developed and is implemented in some standards. from its practicality the research on (partial) multi-user MIMO (or multi-user and multi-antenna MIMO) technology is more active. . Huang. Intel. Gerard. Varanasi. J. though advanced antenna design and algorithm techniques are under discussion. et al. Chung.11n (draft) products. Refer to: Advanced MIMO • • Multi-user types Recently.

multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO).16m (WiMAX evolution to meet the ITU-R's IMT-Advance requirements). PU2RC is included the system description documentation (SDD) of IEEE 802. MIMO Routing o Routing a cluster by a cluster in each hop. High-Speed Packet Access plus (HSPA+) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) standards take MIMO into account.16e standard incorporates MIMO-OFDMA. where the problems created by multi-path channel are handled efficiently. and therefore it is typically combined with Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) or with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) modulation. The IEEE 802. The IEEE 802. • Applications of MIMO Spatial multiplexing techniques makes the receivers very complex. . MIMO is also planned to be used in Mobile radio telephone standards such as recent 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards. i. such as pairing spatially distinguishable users with codebook based spatial beams. where the number of nodes in each cluster is larger or equal to one. Efficient user scheduling. MIMO routing is different from conventional (SISO) routing since conventional routing protocols route a node by a node in each hop.e. 2) Employ advanced precoding techniques SDMA represents either space-division multiple access or super-division multiple access where super emphasises that orthogonal division such as frequency and time division is not used but non-orthogonal approaches such as super-position coding are used. released in October 2009. recommends MIMO-OFDM. to fully support cellular environments MIMO research consortia including IST-MASCOT propose to develop advanced MIMO techniques. Moreover. Recently..o o o PU2RC allows the network to allocate each antenna to the different users instead of allocating only single user as in single-user MIMO scheduling. are additionally discussed for the simplification of wireless networks in terms of additional wireless resource requirements and complex protocol modification. Enhanced multiuser MIMO: 1) Employ advanced decoding techniques.11n standard. In 3GPP. The network can transmit user data through a codebook-based spatial beam or a virtual antenna. • Cooperative MIMO (CO-MIMO) o Utilizes distributed antennas which belong to other users.

Mathematical description In MIMO systems. momentarily causing distortion and ultimately symbol errors. a transmitter sends multiple streams by multiple transmit antennas. Referring to information theory. the ergodic channel capacity of MIMO systems where both the transmitter and the receiver have perfect instantaneous channel state information is where ()H denotes Hermitian transpose and ρ is the ratio between transmit power and noise power (i. that is where are the diagonal elements of . transmit SNR). If the transmitter has no channel state information it can select the signal covariance to maximize channel capacity under worst-case statistics. the receiver gets the received signal vectors by the multiple receive antennas and decodes the received signal vectors into the original information. A narrowband flat fading MIMO system is modelled as where and are the receive and transmit vectors.e. respectively. Then. the ergodic capacity is mostly times larger than that of a SISO system. The transmit streams go through a matrix channel which consists of all NtNr paths between the Nt transmit antennas at the transmitter and Nr receive antennas at the receiver. The optimal power allocation is achieved through waterfilling. MIMO Testing MIMO signal testing focuses first on the transmitter/receiver system. which means and accordingly Depending on the statistical properties of the channel. The random phases of the sub-carrier signals can produce instantaneous power levels that cause the amplifier to compress. Signals with a high PAR (peak to average ratio) ratio can cause amplifiers to compress unpredictably . respectively. μ is selected If the transmitter has only statistical channel state information. then the ergodic channel capacity will decrease as the signal covariance can only be optimized in terms of the average mutual information as The spatial correlation of the channel have a strong impact on the ergodic channel capacity with statistical information.. is zero if its argument is negative. and and are the channel matrix and the noise vector. and such that . The optimal signal covariance is achieved through singular value decomposition of the channel matrix and an optimal diagonal power allocation matrix .

based papers were presented among 420 other wireless communication papers. R. Knowing the quality of the signal channel is also critical. approximately 130 MIMO. MIMO literature Principal researches Papers by Gerard J. This is called a closed-loop MIMO system. such as a vector signal generator (VSG). Conversely. the transmitter needs to understand the characteristics of the channel. Foschini and Emre Telatar have shown that the channel capacity (a theoretical upper bound on system throughput) for a MIMO system is increased as the number of antennas is increased. A text book by A. Baltimore). Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) There exists a fundamental tradeoff between diversity and multiplexing in a MIMO system . Paulraj.during transmission. such as a vector signal analyzer (VSA). Gore has published an introduction to this area. A channel emulator can simulate how a device performs at the cell edge. it is required to adjust the phases and amplitude of each transmitter. Renaissance Harborplace Hotel. To correctly form a beam. a calibrated transmitter. Some of those papers take into account multi- . The transmitter then can apply the correct phase and amplitude adjustments to form a beam directed at the mobile device. This basic finding in information theory is what led to a spurt of research in this area. Those about MIMO treat not only antenna processing but also various wireless technologies over MIMO configurations. can add noise or can simulate what the channel looks like at speed. Nabar and D. The phone then sends back the channel characteristics to the transmitter. Research trend In the IEEE international VTC 2007 fall conference (30 September – 3 October 2007. A known signal is sent to the mobile device that enables it to build a picture of the channel environment. To fully qualify the performance of a receiver. proportional to the minimum number of transmit and receive antennas. For beam forming. Understanding the channel allows for manipulation of the phase and amplitude of each transmitter in order to form a beam. Gans. and channel emulator can be used to test the receiver under a variety of different conditions. OFDM signals are very dynamic and compression problems can be hard to detect because of their noise-like nature. or spatial processing. Foschini and Michael J. This process is called channel sounding. the transmitter's performance under a number of different conditions can be verified using a channel emulator and a calibrated receiver.

For example. . it is not limited to wireless communication. Multi-user type techniques consider multiple active users as a basic unit of multiple element processing while multi-antenna type techniques consider multiple antenna elements. It can be used for wire line communication as well.user MIMO in addition to multi-antenna MIMO. Given the nature of MIMO. a new type of DSL technology (Gigabit DSL) has been proposed based on Binder MIMO Channels.

Cellular routers range from simple SOHO network oriented devices through rugged industrial units with advanced features. Typical examples are the radio systems used by police forces and fire brigades. They can be deployed as a primary WAN link to a location where wired connections are not cost-effective. or standards such as NXDN intended for general commercial use. TETRA and APCO 25 which are designed for dedicated use by specific organizations. can also be used as a secondary or business continuity plan should the primary cabled link fail. mobile. base station. Key features of professional mobile radio systems can include: • • Point to multi-point communications (as opposed to cell phones which are point to point communications) Push-to-talk.Cellular router Cellular routers are routers that provide shared Internet access by incorporating a cellular data modem and providing traditional interfaces like Ethernet and WiFi. or can be used in moving vehicles to provide Internet access while in motion. Professional Mobile Radio Motorola HT1000 hand-held two-way radio Professional Mobile Radio (also known as Private Mobile Radio (PMR) in the UK and Land Mobile Radio (LMR) in North America) are field radio communications systems which use portable. Operation of PMR radio equipment is based on such standards as MPT-1327. release to listen — a single button press opens communication on a radio frequency channel . and dispatch console radios.

particularly in radio. Signal strength In telecommunications. In broadcasting terminology. For those users with their own licences they naturally have to pay for the licence and the cost of purchase and maintenance of that equipment. For very low-power systems. 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu).1 mV/m: the minimum strength at which a station can be received with acceptable quality on most receivers . are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m). Now facilities such as DTMF and CTCSS provide additional calling selection. Typically. although ranges somewhat less than this are more usual. such as mobile phones. especially when antennas are not as high. coverage may extend up to distances of 50 kilometres. As there is no incremental cost for the transmissions that are made. The base station site can also be located at a position that will give optimum radio coverage. In this way a single base station with a number of different channels can be run by one operator for a number of different users and this makes efficient use of the base station equipment. signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm).• • • Large coverage areas Closed user groups Use of VHF or UHF frequency bands Introduction When Private or Professional Mobile Radio (PMR) first started the systems simply consisted of a single base station with a number of mobiles that could communicate with this single base station. it is expressed in voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna. The base station may be run by the user themselves or it may be run by an operating company who will hire out channels to individual users. Because the antenna may be mounted on a high tower. but instead there is a rental for overall use of the system.0 mV/m: frequently considered the edge of a radio station's protected area in North America 40 dBµ or 0. Licenses are allocated for operation on a particular channel or channels. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength. Examples • • • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference may occur on some receivers 60 dBµ or 1. The user can then have use of these channels to contact the mobile stations in their fleet. signal strength refers to the magnitude of the electric field at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. and private lines can be provided to connect the users control office to the transmitter site. individual calls are not charged. such as those used in broadcasting. These systems are still in widespread use today with taxi firms and many others using them for communication. Highpowered transmissions.

2.3. Cell towers at corners of hexagon cells 3. Frenkiel (Bell Labs). E. London. Chapter 2. 1979 4. Walke.References 1. Bernhard H. 1976. Institution of Electrical Engineers.1_Chandler. John Wiley and Sons. chapter 12. protocols and traffic performance.144.int/ITU-D/imt-2000/Meetings/Slovenia/Presentations/Day %203/3. UK. LTD West Sussex England.411 -. 5.itu. Flood. 2002. Mobile Radio Networks: Networking. Telecommunication Networks.S. issued March 13. filed Sep 22. http://www. Patent 4. J. U.pdf . 1997.Richard H.Cellular Radiotelephone System for Different Cell Sizes -.

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