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What is the purpose of POLARIZATION INDEX (PI) value?

It is used to evaluate the degree of dryness of windings. It depends on free ions in

insulating material. Initially for a new insulator free ions are less and hence more
resistance will be more. For old insulation initially free ions will be more depend on age
and material and hence resistance will be less. So the PI value for new insulation will be
more and for old insulation it will be less.

What is the purpose of tan-delta measurement?

Insulation in electrical system has parameters such as Capacitance, Die-electric
loss, and Power factor. By detecting the changes in these parameters failures can be
exposed. In this tan-delta test measured quantities are dissipation factor, power factor,
capacitance and dielectric power loss.
The very purpose of this test is to detect moisture content in the insulation. This detects
moisture and void in the insulation. This indicates amount of ionization.

What is IR and PI value? Why it is measured?

IR It is the ratio of the DC voltage applied between the terminals and ground to
the resultant current. When the DC voltage applied three components flow,
a) A charging component flows into the capacitance of the winding.
b) A polarization or absorption current involving in the insulation molecular mechanism.
c) A leakage component over the surface between exposed conductor and ground which
is highly dependent on the state of dryness of the winding.
The first two current components decay with time. The third component is determined
by the presence of moisture or ground fault and relatively constant with time. Moisture
may be with in the insulation or condensed on the end windings or connection surfaces,
which are often dirty. If this leakage current is larger than the first two components then
the total charging current will not change significantly with time. Thus to determine how
dry and clean the winding, IR is measured after one minute and after 10 minutes. The
ration of the 10 minutes reading over the one minute reading is called the PI (Polarization
PI value detects relative condition of insulation with respect to moisture and other

When will you say that the CT is saturated?

When checking the CT with the secondary injection method a 10% increases in
the voltage causes a 50% increase in the current the CT is said to be saturated.

What is knee point?

Knee point is the region, where 10% increase in flux causes 50% increase in
exciting ampere-turns.

What is the problem anticipated due to CT saturation?

The CT will not be able to drive the current through the circuit causing non
operation of relays. In some other case when the currents in the two phases are compared
for relay operation the relay may operate due to unbalance.
How can you de-saturate the CT?
Pass ac current through the primary and vary the current from zero to maximum
with secondary in shorted condition. Pass dc current in the secondary and vary it from
zero to maximum.

Why CT should not be open circuited?

Very high voltage will be induced in secondary due to less back emf resulting in
the failure of the insulation.

What do 10p15 mean?

When the current passed through the CT is 15 times the rated current then the
secondary current will have a composite error of 10%

Where CT secondary of 1A we are using?

For long distance current transmission, to reduce the IR drops.

Define knee point voltage.

The voltage applied to secondary of CT keeping the primary open at which 10%
increase in voltage causes 50% increase in excitation current.

What is differential protection?

It is the current balance type protection, in which vector difference between
current entering the winding is used for relay operation.

What is Local Breaker Back up protection?

In case of local breaker fails to operate during fault due to mechanical failure this
protection will protect the system from sever damage. It will trip all the other breakers in
that bus after time delay.

What is meant by tan-delta measurement?

It is the tan of the angle between the capacitive current and the total current.
Ic - capacitive current
Ir - resistive current
I - total current
As the value of tan delta increases the resistive component of the current in
increasing. Hence it shows a weak insulation.

What is meant by over fluxing of transformer?

When the voltage is increased and the frequency is reduced the transformer will
draw high magnetising current. This will result in higher core loss and subsequent heating
of core and ultimate failure of transformer. Hence over fluxing protection is provided for
the transformer.
Why ICT are used? (INTERPOSING CT)
To correct the system primary CT errors in case of high current faults out side CT
zone (ICTs primary CT is 800/1, but in fault current may go to thousands of amps.This
ICT will take care of those errors.
a) Matching the ratios.
b) Matching the phase angle differences

How CT is connecting in ckt?

If the primary of CT is delta connected load the CT will be in star connection and
vice versa. This is because to have square root 3 time compensation.

What are the various tests on transformers?

a) Tan delta and capacitance dissipation factor
b) Tests on cooling fans
c) Tests on OLTC
d) Vector group test
e) Short circuit test
f) Open circuit test
g) Insulation resistance test
h) Turns ratio test
i) Winding resistance test.

Why megger value of 1 minute is less than 10-minute value?

After 10 minutes the high voltage applied makes the molecules such a way that
stabilised in a good insulation. If insulation is weak it leads to more leakage current due
to high potential.

What is meant by Dielectric strength?

The maximum electrical potential gradient that a material can withstand without
rupture usually specified in volts/millimeter of thickness. This also has known as
dielectric strength.

What is the purpose of the CVT?

To provide synchronising signal
To provide voltage indication
To facilitate the carrier communication

What is the purpose of wave trap?

Carrier communication signals are sent through the lines. These are high
frequency signals. This signal should be prevented from entering the switchyard. The
wave trap is LC ckt, which is tuned for 50 Hz. Since it is connected in series with the line
it will effectively block the carrier signal entering into the switchyard.
What is the purpose of lightning arrestor?
Due to lightning and switching surges high voltages are induced in the lines. If
equipments. Connected is subjected to this high voltage the insulation will fail. In order
to avoid the failure of insulation the LA is used. When the la is subjected to high voltage
it will conduct and discharge the current to the earth.
(It will divert the over voltages to earth and protect the substation)

What is the station ground resistance?

Less than 0.5 ohms.

What is the purpose of anti-pumping relay?

When closing signal continuously exists even after the closing of the breaker the
anti-pumping relay will be picked up and it will not allow the breaker to close back in
case of tripping of the breaker.

What is switchgear?
Equipment which is used for switching controlling and protecting an electrical

How Arc quenching is done?

When fault occurs depending on design element melts at one point and arc starts
and a transient current is super imposed on prospective current. When the sum of two is
zeroing the arc is quenching.

What is lock out relay?

It is the relay to prevent the closing of circuit breaker after tripping (protection)
without attention of the operator.

What are the properties of SF6 gas?

This is inert gas. Odorless, non-toxic, colourless, stable, non-inflammable and
density is more hence high dielectric strength. The special property of this gas is Electro
negativity. This gas attracts electrons to form ve ions and ve ion are havier than
electrons and more slow in conduction, so that resistance in medium is increases and gets
arc get extinguishes.

Why armouring done?

For mechanical strength, protect against damage by impact of an object.

What is Megger?
The megohmmeter, commonly called a megger for short, is used to measure very
high resistance values. It is primarily used to test the insulation of conductors. To
measure high resistance values, a high voltage is applied, either by the use of a
handcranked generator or electronic power supply.