You are on page 1of 63


(International Multi Journal)

By CFTRA Global
A peer Reviewed Refereed e-Journal
Vol. 1 No. 1 August, September, 2014

Edited by Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

Edited by Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

ISBN: 81-86067-20-5

Copyright @CFI 2014. Publishers: CF International,

D903, Sarthak Tower , Ramdeo Cross Road Satellite
Road, Ahmadabad - 380015.

Price INR 900/-

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored

in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the
prior permission of the publishers. The entire responsibility regarding
views and originality is of individual writers and CFI holds no
responsibility for the same. Legal Jurisdiction, Nagpur.
CFTRA is one of the fastest growing non profit organization to promote research activity in
the world has a unique opportunity of being ranked high amongst of premier research
promoting body. We believe in creating research environment by promoting publication of
scholarly articles. Research articles in this collection have been meticulously reviewed and
DR J. JOHN SEKAR in his article Role of L1 in Promotion of English Language
Learning interrogates the practice of L1 use in English language classrooms by both
teachers and learners for a smooth move from L1 (MT) to L2 (English) and quantifies the
outcome in terms of linguistic and communicative abilities. The hypothesis that L1 can
promote English language learning is validated.
Dr. H. R. Anulawathie Menike, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Kelaniya,

Sri Lanka writes on Development Strategies Implemented under the Open Economic
Policy and Its Impact on the Economy of Sri Lanka (From 1977 to 2007)
According to her a sharp development is remarkably observed in the fields of education,
health services, nutrition, housing facilities, infrastructure facilities etc.The highest rate of
unemployment in the country before 1977 has been reduced under the open economic policy.
Sarala Devi Manukonda writes on Digital Media And Digital Culture leading us towards
a Digital Society: Lessons from Canada to India and opines; though many changes have
taken place in the uses and forms of communication introduced by technology into the
domain of culture, it is remarkable that almost no research programme is investigating the
digital audience and its use of cultural digital technology.
Dr. JVN MALLIKARJUNA study Human Rights in Vulnerable Groups : A case
Study of the Visually Challenged in Higher Education concludes that in Free Culture
it is the time to stop fighting the copyright wars against what Internet has changed in our
lives in the sense of culture. Let us give the vulnerable group of VC persons Right to
Education, employment, marriage, settlement, self-reliance and self-sustenance. It is the
collective duty of every abled citizen to protect vulnerable citizens.
S. Odelu Kumar
Suppressed Motherhood as Reflective Narration in Gogu Shyamalas Father May Be An
Elephant and Mother Only A Small Basket, But explores the inherent beauty of the lives
of the lowercases and opines that it is like a celestial light that draws the upper castes
towards the lower castes and makes the confluence of the communities complete.
I have analysed The Mahabharat and Julius Caeser reveal that lack of emotional intelligence
is the key ingredient which should be the basis of any education system in the article Value-
Based Technical Education: An Approach for Holistic Development of Society
Lessons from the History.In another article, Need of New Teacher for Students (Case
study of RTM Nagpur University students) I have stated the appalling condition of
English Language of Nagpur University undergraduate students.

Dr. Neelam Tikkha


The book is dedicated to Dr. S .N Buhariwala , my guide who

has always guided me like a shining star in the darkest of

My parents and my daughter Dr. Ishita Tikkha .

Dr. Mrunalini Fadnavis , who has been a silent source of

inspiration, which helped me to revive my research instinct
and take it further.

Dr. Neelam Tikkha


1. Role of L1 in Promotion of English Language Learning 16

Dr. J. John Sekar

2. Value-Based Technical Education : An Approach for 7 - 12

Holistic Development of Society Lessons from the History
Neelam Tikkha

3. Development Strategies Implemented under the Open 13 - 26

Economic Policy and Its Impact on the Economy of Sri Lanka
(From 1977 to 2007)
Dr. H.R. Anulawathie Menike

4. Human Rights in Vulnerable Groups : A Case Study of the 27 - 32

Visually Challenged in Higher Education
Dr. JVN Mallikarjuna

5. Digital Media and Digital Culture Leading us Towards a 33 - 40

Digital Society : Lessons from Canada to India
Sarala Devi Manukonda

6. Need of New Teacher for Students (Case Study of RTM 45 - 50

Nagpur University students)
Neelam Tikkha

7. Women Empowerment Through Films : A Comparative 51 - 54

Study of Two Hindi Films
Somak Sen
Role of L1 in Promotion of English Language Learning
DR J. John Sekar
Head (UG) & Associate Professor
PG & Research Department of English
Dean, Curriculum Development & Research
The American College

Pedagogically and epistemologically, the use of L1 in English language classes has
always been suspected due to colonial hangover. No imported method from the West has
borne fruits chiefly because they are not based on approaches to second language
teaching/learning that recognize the Indian grassroots bilingual or multilingual reality.
Pedagogically, the exploitation of L1 in ELL classroom enables and motivates learners to
learn English in a non-threatening atmosphere while epistemologically it is enriching and
complimenting their linguistic repertoire. This paper interrogates the practice of L1 use in
English language classrooms by both teachers and learners for a smooth move from L1 (MT)
to L2 (English) and quantifies the outcome in terms of linguistic and communicative abilities.
The hypothesis that L1 can promote English language learning is validated.
Background to the Study
The use of L1 in the English language classroom either by the teacher or by the
student appears to be a contentious issue. It needs an urgent attention of the teacher and the
researcher alike in multilingual India. Though English is pedagogically claimed to be a
second language, it is a foreign language to most of the Indian learners from the middle class
and rural India. Moreover, the majority of Indians start learning English after they have
thoroughly learnt their L1. They cannot wish away their proficiency in L1 and willingly
become infants (languageless) while learning English. The main objection to the use of L1
is that it encourages the learner to use the GT method and discourages the learner to use the
language (CLT). Almost all the English teachers in India are non-native speakers and they
can use L1 liberally as a teaching strategy to enable students who lack communicative
competency. The use of L1 by the teacher and by the learner therefore needs to be examined
differently. Researchers and teachers who oppose the use of L1 as a teaching or learning
strategy fear that it will not only not promote communicative competency but also not
accelerate the much desired shift from L1 to L2. The use and exclusion of L1 mainly pertains
to teaching methodology. Those who favour its use are understood to owe allegiance to the
GT method while those who oppose its use are branded as practitioners of the Direct Method.
The issue and question at hand is its use for promotion of learning and not teaching English.
The answer ought to come from the most important stakeholders (learners).
Review of the literature
The argument that the use of L1 has a limited role to play in the second language
acquisition is developed by Brown (2000: 138), Nunan (1999: 73), Dornyei (1995: 58),
Holliday (1994: 7), and Carter (1987: 153). There have been several research findings from
the teaching methodology point of view on advantages and disadvantages of using L1.
Advantages seem to outweigh disadvantages since L1 has an active, facilitative, beneficial

role to play in teaching English as a second or foreign language. One of the earliest
advocates of mother tongue use is Atkinson (1987) where he affirms its use in accuracy-
oriented texts. Noor (1994) concludes that L1 is a determinant in second language
acquisition. Schweers (1999) is of the opinion that a second language can be learnt through
raising awareness to the similarities and dissimilarities between L1 and L2. Auerbach
(1993) claims that the use of L1 provides a sense of security and allows learners to express
themselves. Harmer (2009) lists out three major advantages of using L1: communication
with students who lack functional knowledge of English, teaching lexis & grammar, and
maintaining social ambience of the classroom. Krashen (1981) advocates the minimal use of
L1 for the routes of learning L1 and L2 are same. In his Linguistic Interdependence
Hypothesis, Cummins (1979) develops an argument that L1 linguistic knowledge and skills
that a child possesses can be extremely instrumental to the development of corresponding
abilities in the L2.
Research Questions
The present paper makes an attempt to address the following research questions:
1. Does the use of L1 minimize exposure to English?
2. Does the use of L1 have a salutary effect on learners?
3. What is the attitude of teachers and learners on the use of L1 in English classrooms?
The following hypothesis was constructed for validation:
The use of L1 can promote English language learning
Research Design & Results
Classroom observation followed by a focussed group discussion with course teachers,
and two questionnaires constructed on the basis of observation and discussion for
administration among randomly selected undergraduate students and teachers were used as
research tools for investigation. Teaching and learning General English both in a regional
medium and an English medium Economics Major class was audited thrice each. The skills
meant to be imparted were conversational skills, English sounds, and conversations in
During auditing, it was noticed that students faces brightened up when the teachers
resorted to Tamil for teaching, explaining, and interacting with students. Teachers heavily
relied on the use of Tamil while eliciting responses from learners, giving instructions to them,
explaining lexical and grammatical points, cracking jokes, checking learners comprehension,
and using idiomatic expressions. Tamil was used in classes of both mediums. Students
seemed to welcome the use of Tamil and during conversation outside the class it was noticed
that they found in its use a facilitating role. They felt relaxed without any iota of the usual
anxiety and fear psychosis that normally characterize students in English language classes.
They seemed to voluntarily engage themselves in conversation activities and to boldly clarify
doubts about English sounds in contrast to those of Tamil. The use of Tamil provided a kind
of liberal, relaxed, non-threatening ambience in the class and it promoted a sense of security
and safety for students to learn English. Their linguistic and cultural identity was kept in tact.
However, teachers had some reservation about using Tamil liberally during the course of
teaching since they had a sense of guilt about using it; yet they had to resort to its use for the
sake of students. They feared that the opportunities to expose students to English would

After pilot study, two questionnaires were finalized for administration among students
and teachers on the use of L1 in the English classroom. The subjects were 100 students
drawn from different majors at the undergraduate level and 20 teachers of English. Student
questionnaire consisted of 10 questions and teachers questionnaire 13 statements. Both were
constructed on a two-point Likert scale of yes and no. Student subjects excluded those
who belonged to the classes audited.
The following results can be gleaned through the study:
From students point of view:
1. L1 use boosts learners confidence & increases their comprehension;
2. Its use alongside English helps realize the structural similarities & dissimilarities;
3. It saves their time to learn new vocabulary and other language items;
4. Its use creates a stress-free ambience to move toward learning English; &
5. They want English classes to be binlingual.
Teachers point of view
1. L1 cannot be used effectively for learning English;
2. It has limited facilitative aspects;
3. It is not a determinant for success in English;
4. Its use can be a starting point for teachers to establish communication with the weaker
students; &
5. Its use minimizes learners opportunities to use English;
Students questionnaire
No Questions Yes No
(%) (%)
1 Do you prefer the use of mother tongue in English classes? 68 32
2 Does the use of L1 build your confidence? 92 8
3 Does it help you to be aware of similarities & dissimilarities between 84 16
MT & English?
4 Does it help you increase your comprehension? 82 16
5 Does it help you understand new vocabulary easily? 70 30
6 Does it save time in learning new language items? 70 30
7 Do you get a sense of security to use English if you mix MT? 78 22
8 Does the use of MT create non-threatening atmosphere to learn 76 24
9 Do you like your English teacher to use MT in the class? 74 26
10 Does the use of MT enable you to smoothly move toward fluency in 78 22

Teachers Questionnaire
No Statement Yes No
(%) (%)
1 L1 use in English classes is more effective than L2 only 56 44
2 L1 use in English classes has a limited role to play 84 16
3 L1 has facilitative aspects in English classes 60 40
4 L1 use is determinant for success in L2 40 60
5 L1 use raises students awareness of structural (dis)similarities of L1 70 30
& L2
6 L1 can be used to initiate communication with students who cannot 90 10
use English
7 It saves a lot of time in teaching vocabulary 88 12
8 Grammar teaching is easier with the use of L1 64 36
9 Learners identity is kept intact if Tamil is used 72 28
10 L1 use minimizes learners exposure to English 92 8
11 Code-mixing & -switching classes is a refection of social realities 58 42
12 L1 use is a waste of precious little time of both teachers and students 34 66
13 L1 use can be avoided since L2 learning follows the same route 22 78
Attitudes of teachers and students toward the exploitation of mother tongue in English
classes in India and their feedback on its use need to be very carefully examined through
empirical study to ascertain the claims made for and against its use elsewhere. Advantages
and disadvantages of using L1 in ELL classrooms depend on the time and quantum of its use.
A judicious balance ought to be maintained so that the main purpose of English classes can
be achieved: acquisition of communicative competence. The use of L1 should be seen as a
means rather than an end. Teachers are often faced with a number of questions to which they
dont have any convincing answer in the absence of action research results to support or
refute them. Some of them are a) Is the use of L1 pedagogically (in)appropriate? b)To what
extent can L1 be made use of? c) Does it create awareness of how languages are differently
structured? d) Do students benefit? e) Isnt the teacher the sole model & source of English? f)
Is it an inhibitive factor? Much can be said subjectively for and against these questions.
An important colonial legacy in the field of English language teaching in India is
related to the methodology. Direct method or English-only method somehow has acquired
legitimacy in the mind of teachers though in reality GT method has proved to be
indispensable. These two colonial practices seem to be quite prevalent in independent India
now and to prevent CLT to be effectively implemented. This colonial hangover maintains a
strong hold over teachers psyche to the extent that they are unable to accept the bilingual
reality in which they are expected to impart English language education to those who have
already acquired L1 which has facilitative aspects to learn English. Teachers tend to argue
that learners should maximize opportunities to expose themselves to English use as
frequently as possible through meaningful interactions between teachers and themselves and
among themselves.

The use of L1 in English classrooms is closely related to the methodological question
of how L2 can be or should be taught. The question has no easy answers acceptable to all.
Innumerable research studies and ever-increasing methods of teaching and learning L2 have
been generated though neither one nor all of them are suitable to learners with different
cultural backgrounds. While advocates a cautious, enlightened, eclectic approach to
teaching L2, Brown (2000: 14) asserts that
there are no instant recipes. No quick and easy method is
guaranteed to provide success. Every learner is unique. Every
teacher is unique. Every learner-teacher relationship is unique, and
every context is unique.
It is imperative that teachers with such an open-minded attitude should approach the question
of the calculated use of learners L1 in English classrooms. Total elimination of L1 is neither
desirable nor possible. Teachers ought to keep in mind Krashens comprehensible input
that cautions against the wasted opportunity to use target language by resorting to the use of
L1 with lots of time constraints. It is not uncommon to hear the colonial practise of imposing
fine on students if they use L1 in classrooms by teachers even in the 21 century. Such
teachers strongly believe that the use of L1 does not promote rich TL environment and in fact
it deprives learners of valuable input in L2.
The use of L1 in the English classroom can promote English language learning in a
variety of ways. Both learners and teachers can use both languages to elicit language and to
check comprehension. According to Atkinson, questions like how do you say ----- in
English? or statements like Ive been waiting for 10 minutes in Tamil are quicker and
foolproof than any other methods to check comprehension. Placing L1 equivalents alongside
English words would help learners memorize new vocabulary. Hence, the pairing of L1
equivalents for English vocabulary can be a superior approach. The other side of the
argument from teaching fraternity is that vocabulary ought to be learnt in contexts. The use
of L1 can go beyond individual words and short sentences to the discourse level
The following suggestions can be given some seriousness in an attempt to pedagogically and
epistemologically empower English language teachers:
1. English language teachers can be oriented in fields of applied linguistics like
Contrastive Analysis;
2. The use of L1 can be incorporated into the text;
3. In-service training can be offered on bilingual language education;
4. English language teachers ought to carry out action research on methodological issues
arising out of the use of L1 in English classes; and
5. Bilingual dictionaries can be tried for teaching and learning purposes.
The hypothesis stands validated in the study. It is teachers who ought to decide the
quantum and frequency of L1 use in English classes depending on the needs of students.
Through a contrast analysis, teachers should prepare an inventory of language items whose
teaching might require the use of L1. Teachers should accept the linguistic reality of English
language learners using L1 and make use of their knowledge of L1 as a site for scaffolding to
learn English.

Auerbach, E. 1993. Reexamining English only in the ESL classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 27:
Atkinson, D. 1987. The mother tongue in the classroom: A neglected resource? ELT Journal, 41:
Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Carter, R. A. (1987) Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic Perspectives. London: Allen and Unwin.
Dornyei, Z. 1995. On the teachablility of communication strategies. TESOL Quarterly, 29:55-84.
Harmer, J. 2009. The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman.
Holliday, A. 1994. The house of TESEP and the communicative approach: the special needs of state English language
education. ELT Journal, 48.1: 3-10.
Krashen, S. 1981. Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
Noor, Hashim H. 1994. Some implications of the mother tongue in second language acquisition. Luingusitica
Communicatio, 6.2:
Nunan, D. 1999. Second language teaching & learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
Schweers, C.W. 1999. Using L1 in the L2 Classroom. English Teaching Forum, 37.2:

Value-Based Technical Education: An Approach for
Holistic Development of Society Lessons
from the History
Neelam Tikkha
Confidence Foundation
Cell: +91-9422145467
We are achieving stars, our phones are becoming smart and every day innovation is leading
to a new growth intellectually and economically. We are carrying our workstations with us.
The improvements we see are more inclined towards physical comforts. We have not only
smart phones but smart houses. However, this process has turned man into a spiritless
animal though, powerful in brain. Man is turning into zombie or a machine. Man has also
started a run on ruining the environment and making it more fragile. Man is digging his own
grave. The analysis of the situation would reveal the basic problem is the greed of the
mankind and unsustainable growth. Man has been reflecting callous attitude towards others
and environment. This study focuses on the missing link in the education system that has led
to the denigration of the self and environment in the light of famous historical tragedies like
the epical The Mahabharat and Julius Caeser .
The analysis of the The Mahabharat and Julius Caeser reveal that lack of emotional
intelligence is the key ingredient which should be the basis of any education system. The
method of study is analysis of thee two scriptures in the light of emotional Intelligence.
Man is becoming spiritless animal but, is becoming powerful in brain. Education without
values is a house without inhabitants. In true spirit of the term education should be value
based and holistic in approach. The analysis of the The Mahabharat and Julius Caeser
reveal that lack of emotional intelligence is the key ingredient which should be the basis of
any education system.

We are achieving stars, our phones are becoming smart and every day innovation is
leading to a new growth intellectually and economically. We are carrying our workstations
with us. The improvements we see are more inclined towards physical comforts. We have not
only smart phones but smart houses. However, this process has turned man into a spiritless
animal though, powerful in brain. Man is turning into zombie or a machine. Man has also
started a run on ruining the environment and making it more fragile. Man is digging his own
grave. The analysis of the situation would reveal the basic problem is the greed of the
mankind and unsustainable growth. Man has been reflecting callous attitude towards others
and environment. This study focuses on the missing link in the education system that has led
to the denigration of the self and environment in the light of famous historical tragedies like
the epical The Mahabharat and Julius Caeser .
Many CEOs have achieved Golden parachute. Reuters reports:

The three directors - Watsa, BlackBerry Chairwoman Barbara Stymiest
and long-time board member John Wetmore - decided to boost Heins' basic
salary and incentive bonus, as well as sharply increase the size of the equity
awards that he would receive if he loses his job in the event of a takeover.
The new contract that Heins signed in May tripled his compensation to an
estimated $55.6 million if there is a change of control at BlackBerry, up
from $18.9 million previously, according to a securities filing on May 21.
To be sure, the $55.6 million figure is based in part on BlackBerry's share
price in early March, and the stock has fallen by more than a third. i
This raises a question in the minds of people about the justification of awarding
Golden Parachute. Technology has been increasing day by day but value based holistic
approach is lagging far behind. There is a big question which is being raised: Is this progress
of mankind sustainable? Man has behaved like a scorpion biting his own sting. It has left the
ecosystem fragile. A recent example is the tragedy at Kedarnath which is a manmade disaster.
The man in his greed has dug its own grave. It is seen that the present education lags in
emotional intelligence which is highly essential in inculcating values for sustainable growth
of self and the society.
The publication of the book by Goleman (1995) was ground breaking in the study of
Emotional Intelligence. It made the popular notion of viewing the experience and
expression of emotions as a domain of intelligence. It proved that to get the best out of a
person, it is essential to know the Emotional quotient of the individual. The publication of
the book by Goleman (1995) was ground breaking in the study of Emotional Intelligence. It
made the popular notion of viewing the experience and expression of emotions as a domain
of intelligence. It proved that to get the best out of a person, it is essential to know the
Emotional quotient of the individual.
If we look into the history, we come to know the importance of Value based
Education. History has been the biggest teacher. The two tragedies The Mahabharat and the
tragedy in the life of Julius Ceaser are two glaring examples in the history of mankind which,
have resulted due to the lack of emotional Intelligence.
The Mahabharat will powerfully substantiate the significance of emotional
intelligence. The seeds of Mahabharat are sowed due to lack of emotional intelligence. It is a
dark chapter in the history where, lack of emotional intelligence brought a colossal
destruction of a dynasty, which was magnificent and powerful.
Devwrat the son of Shantanu and Ganga vows to remain celibate, so that the marriage
of Satyawati and Shantanu takes place and his father is happy. Satyawati had lived in the
hope that she is going to be the queen and suddenly Shantanus marriage with Ganga and a
grown up son, who is a great warrior, comes in front of her, who would be the future king of
Hastinapur. This shatters her dream which she has lived with all along. She becomes highly
unsecured and possessive of everything. The epical war Mahabharat could have been
averted if Devvrat was not introduced as yuvraj on day one of his entry into the life of
Satyawati but gradually after he had developed bonding with Satyawati.
Bhishms renouncing his rights to the kingdom makes him lose his title as Shantanus
son . He is always refered to as Ganga putr.
The second seed of poison is sowed when Bhishm wins in proxy, three daughters of
King Kashi- Amba, Ambika and Ambalika for Satyawatis son Vichitaraveer who, dies
while he was being crowned as King. This also could have been averted if Bhishm had

thought about the feelings of three women who would be married to an alcoholic and an
incapable person.
The third seed of poison is sowed when, he refuses to marry Amba and break his vow.
She is pushed to commit suicide. Even Satyawati does not order Bhishma to marry Amba and
break his vow. Human factor is insignificant for Mahamhim Bhishm in front of his vow. The
vow is followed literally and not in spirit.
Fourth seed of poison is sowed when the two queens Ambika and Ambalika are
forced to have children by the law of levirate from Satyawatis illegitimate son Rishi Ved
Rishi Ved Vyas has an awful appearance so Ambika and Ambalika get scared. The
former closes her eyes and the other turns pale during the forceful sex act by Rishi Ved Vyas.
So Ambika delivers a blind prince and Ambika a weak prince. Rishi Ved Vyas also has sex
with a maid who also delivers a baby boy who is brilliant called Vidur. The maid willingly
has sex since she needs a baby and finds this a means to satisfy her desire for a child. Hence,
Vidur is born brilliant like Rishi Ved Vyas.
Bhishm commits another mistake by elevating the son of a maid equal to the other
two princes born out of queens.
The fifth mistake he commits is that , Dhritrashtra was brought up with the idea that,
the entire kingdom had been waiting for him to be crowned as King since, the kingdom of
Hastinapur had been kept vacant without a king after the death of Vichitra Veer for twenty
five years. In fact, he is named Dhritrashtra by Acharya stating clearly that the birth of the
king had been awaited for twenty five years.
Next, mistake was when Gandharis consent for marrying a blind prince was not taken
and rather she has been made to understand that she is marrying a - to be crowned King.
Next, on the day of crowning Dhritrashtra as King, Vidur puts up an objection in the
name of dharma, that an incomplete person cannot be made a king since he would not be
able to empathize with his people. Dhritrashtra was blind but his other senses were very
powerful. He was very valiant and his sense of smell and hearing were very strong. He could
fight with two elephants at one time. He had all the qualities of a good fighter. His blindness
never came in the way of his movements. Gandhari rightly puts, that her Arya is not
incomplete but different. Dhritrashtra was victimized for being disabled which proved to be
the last straw on camels back and made him cruel. The rest is history. The entire Mahabharat
could have been averted if everyone was dealt with emotional intelligence. Bhishm was a
great warrior, an honest man like Brutus in Shakespeares Julius Ceaser but, he was poor in
Emotional Intelligence. Despite having all the qualities and intelligence, lack of emotional
quotient brings doom .
Now a days the multinational corporate houses are testing for emotional intelligence
as well since Intelligence quotient is a starting point but retention comes from EQ. Every
organization wants a super executive. The CTC of many companies go in million dollars and
is linked with the growth of the company. An executive poor in EQ will not be able to project
as an appropriate leader to his team. Therefore, the need of the hour is to train the students in
a way that Emotional intelligence is increased. The students should be best suited to handle
challenges in real life at work and personal front. Education should help them relate their
learning with real world demands.
According to Goleman Emotional Intelligence, . . . seems to be largely learned, and it
continues to develop as we go through life and learn from our experiences . . .ii As such EI is

a factor or quality that can be learned or developed through proper training and guidance.
Goleman suggests five characteristics of Emotional Intelligence:
1. Understanding ones emotions;
2. Knowing how to manage them;
3. Ability to delay gratification
4. Understanding others emotions or empathy
5. Managing relationship.
Goleman strongly believes that emotional intelligence is precondition for leadership.
The people who are able to manage their emotions can manage others as well. Secondly,
leaders who understand others emotions can know ways to increase the expectation of their
The responsibility of a teacher of language is to develop :
Self-Awareness: Once a person introspects he is be able to recognize his emotions and is
able to handle them more appropriately and judiciously. This also helps him understand his
positive characteristics, strengths, negative traits and weaknesses.
Self-Regulation: When a person becomes aware of one self, he is capable of managing and
controlling his feelings in a better and apt manner. The person becomes more responsible and
develops positive characteristics of being innovative, agile, and holds on strongly to inherent
traits like veracity and integrity.
Motivation: If the levels of Emotional quotient are improved a person turns more positive
and feels confident to face the challenges and accept failures and limitation. He learns lessons
from his failures, instead of crying over things that, cannot be undone. He does not blame
others, or flounder in sorrow but, moves on swiftly and tries to overcome the situation in a
positive manner. Optimism, perseverance, determination, discipline and cooperation become
the traits of person with high Emotional Intelligence.
Empathy: Self awareness leads to an awareness and understanding of others that leads to
more fruitful relationships. Group qualities are fostered and aids in the overall development
of the individual as well as the group or institution.
Adeptness in Relationships: Healthy and long lasting relationships require good levels of
Emotional Intelligence. Empathy is the crucial factor in committed relationship for long term.
Self awareness is like a chocolate topping on the ice cream. It helps to understand the feelings
of others better. It also helps to take proper steps to an amicable and complementary decision.
It helps to avoid conflict and confrontation. Managerial ability, team work, leadership quality
get accrued as a result by forming and maintaining relationships.
Communication has emotions and feelings as integral factors. Language students must be
made aware of the emotional content of any language and help to develop finesse in the
language in the various cultural nuances. The emotional factor can only be imbibed through
proper recognition and employment of correct EI.
Social Skills: Correct use of language is a necessary and crucial factor in developing
effective and successful social skills. We live in a society, and interact regularly in various
community groups with different hierarchy for example: family, friends, colleagues, bosses,
juniors, and business associate. The communication happens to be the key to various doors to
make or break relationship.

Enthusiasm: When language is learnt with the focus on Emotional Intelligence with the
culture of the learner at the root then, the learner finds learning interesting. The learning helps
him relate with the real life experiences. Familiarity with the inherent cultural nuances of
the language helps the learners to be more happy towards the language learning process and
they feel comfortable to transfer it in their practical life and relations.
Expression: Expression charged with right emotions sets the ball to rolling to build up
interesting communication for the individuals involved in the process. It helps to spot and
use correct language to communicate the message effectively and efficiently.
Bonding: Proper language aided with awareness for Emotional Intelligence helps the person
to bond better and interact with great efficiency and skill. It helps to develop great ties both at
personal and professional front.
A higher level of EI in the language teacher gives him/her the pre-
requisite awareness and sensitivity towards the students mental status
and their apprehension, making him/her more students oriented and
better equipped to handle their emotional requirement. A sensitive and
aware teacher will always utilize his/her EI to make the learning process
more learners oriented, through innovative and sensitized methods of
teaching. It will enable him/her to handle the students hesitation, fear
and lack of enthusiasm, and overcome the same. He/she can incorporate
various strategies and methods to cultivate a higher level of EI amongst
the students and this is possible only when the teacher himself/herself
has the requisite EI level. iii
The role of EI is crucial not only for the language classroom and the language learning
process but is an important life skill that an individual requires to succeed in life.
Learning with its roots in Emotional Intelligence prepares a student to express his efficiency
and expertise or skills effectively. Emotional competence is very important as Goleman puts
it; An emotional competence is a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that
results in outstanding performance at work. iv
The competition in the market has increased so much that it has made corporate
houses think hard to acquire workforce with strong emotional intelligence for being really
successful. EI or emotional intelligence thereby helps and contributes to a more conducive
learning experience within the precincts of the language classroom as well as in the world
outside. Contemporary global market is flooded with an abundance of skills and expertise but
it is the presence of soft skills and EI that adds an edge to ones expertise and potentiality.
The foremost thing in language learning before embarking on any novel method is to
understand the aim of learning the language, which in this case is English. Inclusive of the
personal and professional aspects of our lives, the basic aim of language learning is to
communicate; to interact socially and EI is the key to engender a positive, fruitful and
effective interaction.
In fine, if Bhishm had high Emotional quotient Mahabharat would not have been
written. The lesson learnt is that other qualities are zero in comparison to emotional
Intelligence. Hence, it is essential to base learning and teaching process on Emotional
Intelligence so, that the development of emotional intelligence takes place. Emotional
Intelligence based teaching is very useful since it helps develop faith and confidence in the
students. It develops a trust factor and an unbreakable bond gets developed. Students like
teachers who love and care for their emotional feelings. Emotional Intelligence is very
significant and efficiency can increase many folds if, social skills based on emotional

awareness are developed within students they can become better managers and more
Man is becoming spiritless animal but, is becoming powerful in brain. Education
without values is a house without inhabitants. In true spirit of the term education should be
value based and holistic in approach. The analysis of the The Mahabharat and Julius Caeser
reveal that lack of emotional intelligence is the key ingredient which should be the basis of
any education system.
To put it in the words of Daniel Goleman; The aptitudes you need to succeed starts with
intellectual horsepower- but people need emotional competence, too, to get the full potential
of their talents. The reason we dont get peoples full potential is emotional incompetence.v
The parents and teacher should try to shape character rather than future. Instead of guiding
what children should do, parents should develop confidence in their children to face everyday
challenges confidently.
Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence . New York: Bantam Books, 1995.
Dr. G.A. Ghanshyam ,Tarun Patel Emotional Intelligence: The Key To Language Learning And Social Interaction , :
Daniel Goleman, Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books , New York 1998.
Daniel Goleman, Working With Emotional Intelligence,p.26.

Baron H. 1996. An evaluation of some psychometric parameters: a response to Barrett, Kline, Paltiel & Eysenck. Journal of
Occupational and Organizational Psychology 69: 2123.
Barrett PT., 1996.
Barrett PT, Kline P, Paltiel L, Eysenck HJ. 1996. An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the concept 5.2
Occupational Personality Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 69: 119.
Barrett PT, Petrides KV, Eysenck SBG, Eysenck HJ. 1998. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: an examination of the
factorial similarity of P, E, N and L across 34 countries. Personality and Individual Differences 25: 805819.
Bentler PM. 1990. Comparative fix indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin 107: 238246.
Beyer S. 1998. Gender differences in self-perception and negative recall biases. Sex Roles 38: 103133. Cooper, Joan T. et
al., Undergraduate Programs, Nova Southeastern University, 3301 College Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314, U.S.A.
Goleman, D. Emotional Intelligence . New York: Bantam Books, 1995.
Goleman, D. Working with Emotional Intelligence, Bantam Books , New York 1998.
Mayer JD, Salovey P. 1997. What is emotional intelligence? In Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence:
Educational Implications, 2nd edn, SaloveyP, SluyterD (eds). Basic: New York; 331.
McCrae RR. 1994. Openness to experience as a basic dimension of personality. Imagination, Cognition and
Personality 13: 3955.
McCrae RR, Zonderman AB, Bond MH, Costa PT Jr, Paunonen SV. 1996. Evaluating replicability of factors in the revised
NEO personality inventory: confirmatory factor analysis versus procrustes rotation. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 70:552566.
Mehrabian A. 2000. Beyond IQ: broad-based measurement of individual success potential or emotional
intelligence. Genetic Social and General Psychology Monographs 126: 133239.
Schutte Nicola S., Malouff, John M et al. Development and validation of a measure of emotional
Intelligence, Personality and Individual Differences, PERGAMON, 2 5 (1998)1 67-177.

Development Strategies Implemented under the Open
Economic Policy and Its Impact on the Economy
of Sri Lanka (From 1977 to 2007)
Dr. H. R. Anulawathie Menike
Senior Lecturer
Department of Economics,
University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
E-mail :

From the latter part of 1950s to 1977 in Sri Lanka, inward-looking economic
development policies and import substitution industrialization strategy were given priority.
There was increased government intervention and state regulation of economic activities in
this period. Since 1977, the government has been deregulating, privatizing and opening up
the economy to international competition. The main objective of this study is to examine the
impact of outward-looking development strategy on the economy of Sri Lanka. The study
exposes that under the outward-looking development policy, the country was able to acquire
a great success and a noteworthy accomplishment in the growth of economy than inward-
looking economic policy introduced in before 1977. Specially, Sri Lankan economy has been
performing relatively well, with continuous increase in GDP per capita and an increase in
exports of goods, and also it has managed to reduce poverty. The highest rate of
unemployment in the country during the period 1950 to 1977 has been reduced under the
open economic policy. Apart from that, a sharp development is remarkably observed in the
fields of education, health services, nutrition, housing facilities and infrastructure facilities
Key words : Open economic policy, Economic growth, Development strategies, Sri Lanka.

There are many contributors to economic growth. Export is considered as one of the
very important contributors among others. In 1950s and 1960s, most of the developing
countries followed the import substitution policy for their economic growth. Since the mid-
1970s, in most developing countries, there has been considerable shift towards export
promotion strategy. This approach postulates that export expansion leads to better resource
allocation, creating economies of scale and production efficiency through technological
development, capital formation, emplyment creation and hence economic growth. The
economic growth and development of any country will entirely depend on the practices of the
economic policies actively by the governments in power and on the success or failures on
such efforts. Since Sri Lanka political independence in 1948, the inward-looking economic
policy has been introduced and after 1977, it changed into an outward-looking economic
policy (Dunham and Kelegama, 2005, p.22). Therefore, the year 1977 was seen as an
important juncture after gaining independence in advancing economic and social policies of
the country. During the period outward-looking development strategies, several long term
result-oriented policy reformations were introduced. Therefore, more gains could be achieved
through the open economic policies than that of through the closed economic policies.

The Objectives
1. to examine the main strategies implemented for the economic growth in Sri Lanka
after the trade liberalization in 1977.
2. to investigate the impact of outward-looking development strategies on the economy
of Sri Lanka during the period 1977-2007'
Data and Methodology
The study mainly based on secondary data. The data were collected from available
literature, research papers, survey reports etc. related to the topic covering the period from
1977 to 2007. Further, this study employed a descriptive analysis with a policy discussion for
the data analysis.
Literature Review
Stryker and Pandolfi (1997) have been studied about impact of outward-looking
policy reform on economic growth and poverty. The result show that the very importance of
outward- looking policy in promoting trade economic growth and poverty alleviation. Todaro
and Smith (2011) noted that the outward-looking development policies will focus on export
promotion and integrating with and opening up to the world. Harrison investigated the
association between openness and economic growth. The study concluded that the correlation
between these two variables was strong. Hasson and Kamrul (2005) investigated the casual
relationship between trade openness and economic growth and the structure of international
trade for Bangladesh. The study explored that there was long run unidirectional equilibrium
relationship between trade openness and economic growth. Abdullah Iftikhar (2012) have
been studied about trade liberalization and economic growth. The results show that in the
long run trade is a great contributor to economic growth of Bangladesh. According to the
Deraniyagala and Fine (2001), import substitution strategy is less attractive for export
expansion to generate positive influence on economic growth.
The Open Economic Policy in Sri Lanka
After having followed the import substitution policy for over a period of two decades,
by 1977 the balance of payment situation was not sound and Sri Lanka faced foreign
currency problems and a scarcity of essential food items. Not only that, the unemployment
rate exceeded 20%. The capitalistic government which came to power in 1977 had to face
these problems. They had to change the previously followed policy viz. import substitution
policy to an Export-led (Export Oriented) Policy. It means the closed economic policy which
was followed up to then was given up and changed over to liberal economic policies which
paved the way to a trade dominated environment. If this arrangement is defined further, the
open economy facilitates the local and foreign private sector to be associated with the local
economy and such economical activities to be referred to the external. In this situation, the
involvement by the government with regard to the economy lessens gradually and the free
economic policy is put into practice. With this arrangement, the monopoly which was in the
hands of the government was relaxed and an atmosphere was created whereby the private
sector could compete with the government. The reason is that the government was made to
understand that strict intervention into the economic activities by the government will not be
helpful in reaching the expected targets in the economic development. As an example, it
could be seen that during the periods where the private sector was offered better incentives, a
higher rate of growth in the economy was shown.

The Main Strategies Implemented for Economic Growth under the Open Economic
1. Export Diversification Program
When considered as a whole, under the import substitution policy based on the export
diversification program, only a slight difference has taken place in the export and import
structure from 1950s up to the period of 1977. But with the introduction of the open
economic policy in 1977 under the industrialization policy concerned with exportation, a
considerable change could be observed in the export and import structure. Under the
facilitation of the open economic policy, the government gradually left its performances on
the economy and was limited to be in the position of mediator. The main objective of the
outward-looking development strategy is to achieve a higher level of Economic performance.
Generally, the government since 1977, embarked on a massive investment program
consisting mainly of projects involving large amounts of capital and long development
periods. It was expected that the private and foreign sectors would supplement the
government's development effort relatively quick and high yielding investments. There is a
vast difference between the economic policies which prevailed prior to 1977 and that of after
1977, when deep attention is paid to the export and import structure of Sri Lanka.
Table 1 Composition of export and import in Sri Lanka 1950-2007
Year Exports as % of total Imports as % of total
Agricultural Industrial Other Consumer Intermediate Investments
exports exports exports goods goods goods
1950 93.7 - 6.3 51.0 10.1 38.9
1955 91.7 - 8.8 51.7 16.4 31.9
1960 90.5 - 9.5 61.0 20.3 18.1
1965 93.8 - 6.2 52.8 28.1 17.6
1970 91.7 - 8.3 55.4 20.0 23.6
1975 78.7 13.2 8.1 50.5 36.0 12.4
1980 61.8 33.0 5.2 29.9 45.7 24.0
1985 52.5 39.5 8.0 19.4 54.3 19.2
1990 36.3 52.2 11.4 26.4 51.8 21.7
1995 21.8 75.4 2.8 18.5 54.6 22.4
2000 18.2 77.6 4.2 17.3 53.5 23.6
2006 18.8 78.2 4.0 19.0 58.0 22.2
2007 18.6 79.0 3.8 18.8 58.2 22.9
Sources: Abeyratne and Rodrigo, 2002
Annual reports of Central Bank of Sri Lanka

The table 1, evident that the importance of agricultural exports lies at a lower degree
than that of industrial exports under the open economic policy. In the 1950s, over 90% of
exports comprised plantation crops, which constituted the backbone of the economy at the
time. A remarkable change in the export structure was reported only after the mid 1970s in

the liberalized trade regime. The dominance of agriculture in the structure of exports that
accounted for 78.7% of the total in 1975 was replaced by industrial exports that accounted for
79.0% in 2007.
Along with the changing export composition in the liberalized trade regime, the
structure of the imports too changed. Throughout the period until the mid 1970s, over half of
the total imports were consumer goods. Out of this percentage 45% was foodstuffs. In the
post liberalized trade regime this has been replaced by an increasing share of intermediate
goods, which accounted for 58% of the total imports. Out of this percentage 9% was
2. Agricultural Development Policies
Agriculture is the dominant sector in the economy of Sri Lanka. It has always
contributed over 25% to the GDP. Yet agricultural sector would, even today, occupy a
significant position in the national economy (Pieris, 1997, p.35). The first change in
agricultural policy strategy came about after the political change in 1956. The key
agricultural development policy of the 1977 regime was the Accelerated Mahaweli
Development Program (AMDP) that enabled a further large extent of land to be settled by the
diversion of the Mahaweli River (Sandaratne, 2004, p.195) and various programs are being
organized after 1977 to develop the local agricultural sector. As a whole, over the last sixty
years, agriculture has continued to play the leading role in the economy of our country
(Ranaweera, 1998, p.85). With regard to the paddy cultivation, as a result of the approaches
followed by, especially after 1977 to improve the production activities, there had been a vast
improvement in paddy production. Accordingly, extent of cultivated land, the productivity
and the entire production have shown a noticeable increase.
The main reason for such a progress is positively due to the expansion of paddy
cultivated lands through the irrigational schemes namely, Accelerated Mahaweli
Development Scheme, Inginimitiya Scheme, Lunugamvehera Scheme and Udawalawa
Scheme Phase two.
3. Industrial Development Policies
After 1977, the government initiated action to develop the industries managed by the
private sector while promoting the same with the collaboration of the local and foreign
industrial areas. The main target of the industrial policy was to achieve a speedy growth in
the industries sector within an environment of the open economic policy. Therefore, the
monopoly of the state sector was lessened enabling the private sector to continue with their
business activities with a higher competitive environment. Much concentration was focused
on receiving foreign private investments. Accordingly, foreign investments were encouraged
by offering various kinds of attractive incentives and minimizing the administrative problems
and delays. The following relief was proposed to encourage local and foreign private sector
investments: Relaxation of imports, implementing floating currency ratio system, establishing
bank branches abroad, implementing regulations to control trade unions, providing tax
relieving and tax interval
removing foreign currency control rules, establishing Investment Promotion Zones, granting
permission to foreign private investors to transfer their profits and dividends to their own
countries, developing of infrastructure facilities, removing limitations on ownership of lands
and housing, providing production subsidies, implementation of policies on bank loans,
providing institutional facilities such as Greater Colombo Economic Commission, Sri Lanka
Board of Investments, Export Development Board, Sri Lanka Export Loan Insurance
Corporation etc.

As a whole, under the export oriented industrialization policy, the annual growth rate
of the industrial sector was seen over and above the average growth rate of the gross national
production. As such, the industrial sector has contributed much towards the gross national
production, employment opportunities and the income from exports. During the period 1950
to 1977, the annual growth of the industrial sector was 3.4%. According to the Annual Report
of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka (1978), it has developed up to 7% after 1977. Table 2 shows
that after 1977, the importance of the relative contribution towards the gross national
production by the agricultural sector has been reduced and that of the industrial sector has
Table 2 Percentage of partial contribution to the GDP 1977-2007
Year Agriculture Industrial Service
sector sector sector

1977 26.8 22.6 50.6

1982 26.8 26.9 46.3

1992 21.7 29.7 48.6

2002 20.1 27.0 52.9

2003 19.1 26.7 54.2

2004 18.1 26.8 55.1

2005 17.4 27.4 55.2

2006 16.8 27.0 56.2

2007 16.4 27.0 56.6

Source: Annual Reports of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka

As mentioned earlier, the economy is dependent on the agriculture, industry and

service sectors. Table 2 shows, in recent years, the importance of agriculture has declined
with the sector accounting for about 16% GDP. The services sector is now the largest
component of GDP at over 57%, including transportation, communications, financial services
and tourism. The industrial sector accounts for about 27% of GDP, including manufacturing
in textiles and garment, food and beverages, and chemical, petroleum, rubber and plastic
Furthermore, under the export oriented industrial policy, the employment opportunities
have increased through the development in the industrial sector. During 1950s, out of the
entire employment structure, 7.4% claimed to be from the industrial sector and by 1971 it had
developed up to 9% and increased up to 26% in 2008.

Table 3 Employment and unemployment in selected years

years Sectoral share employment as % of total Participation Unemployme

rate nt rate
Agriculture* Industrial Services**
1963 52.6 9.1 38.0 32.7 16.6
1971 50.1 9.3 40.0 35.4 18.7
1973 54.6 9.2 35.7 33.9 24.0
1978/79 52.0 12.5 34.3 38.0 14.8
1981/82 50.5 12.3 35.5 34.3 11.7
1986/87 47.7 13.4 37.0 38.1 15.5
1990*** 46.8 13.3 38.4 61.9 15.9
1992*** 42.1 13.1 43.2 48.2 14.6
1994*** 39.5 14.3 45.4 48.7 13.1
1996*** 37.4 14.6 46.5 48.7 11.3
1998*** 40.3 14.2 43.6 51.7 9.2
2000*** 35.7 16.8 46.8 50.7 7.7
2004*** 32.8 26.0 41.2 55.7 8.1
2008*** 32.4 26.3 41.3 55.7 5.2
Sources: Abeyratne & Rodrigo, 2002
* Includes Forestry and Fishing
** Includes Construction Consumer finance and socio-economic survey 2003/2004
***Data Excluding Northern and Eastern Provinces

The available data, as summarized table 3, show the long-term trends in labour force
participation, sectoral share of employment and unemployment. According to this table, it
could be seen that there had been less employment opportunities in the agricultural sector
while it is much more in the industrial and service sectors. The labour force participation rate
shows a significant increase during the past four decades. Generally, this pattern of change
can be attributed to the demographic trends and education policies of the country.
The share of employment in agriculture, which remains above 50% of total number
employed, did not reflect a significant change in the restrictive trade regime of the 1960s and
the 1970s. The share of employment in agriculture has subsequently declined in the 1980s
and the 1990s. The factors contributed to the reduction of employment opportunities in the
agricultural sector were, declining of the relative importance of the agricultural sector,
increase of the labor productivity, the flexibility between the income and the demand of food
productions and the instability in the agricultural income. Also, during the period 1978/79-
2004, the employment opportunities in the industrial sector have increased by around 30%.
While the employment opportunities of the private sector had been in the rise, it could be
observed that there had been a decline of employment opportunities in the government sector.
The reasons for the reduction of employment opportunities in the government industrial
sector are the non-intervention of the government towards the economic activities after 1977,
privatization of government owned industries and offering retirements to government

employees in the industrial sector (Hettiarachchi, 2007). As a whole, the level of employment
in Sri Lanka could be classified as 13% in the government sector and 42% in the private
sector while the self employment level remains at a percentage of 31%. The changes in the
rate of unemployment correspond to the differences in growth performance between the pre
1977 restrictive trade regime and the post 1977 liberalized trade regime. Until the 1970s the
rate of unemployment had increased. The highest rate of unemployment in the post
independence history of the country was estimated at 24% in 1973. The 1990s were marked
by a substantial decrease in the unemployment rate, which was at 5.2% in 2008.
4. Economic and Social Welfare Policies
Apart from the above development strategies, the investments and interventions
towards the development of the economy by the other relevant sectors have had a remarkable
influence to the economic development of Sri Lanka. In the meantime, enhancing human
development, the welfare programs implemented to eliminate poverty during the past few
decades and their achievements appear to be very important. When a country is striving for
its economic development, while increasing the economic growth rate, there should be
arrangements to develop the living status of the population too positively. But the
governments which came to power have made their greatest effort to bring the living
conditions of the people by enhancing the health, nutritional, educational and housing
conditions to a considerable advancement. From that time itself, the governments have
controlled and performed these activities but after 1977 with the introduction of strategic
policies based on the trade market, the contribution from the private sector of these divisions
was seen to be encouraged. As such, it could be well observed that there had been a positive
growth in the welfare activities after 1977. These welfare activities which were in practice for
a long period of years were performed without any discrimination between the rich and poor,
in order to enrich the quality of nutritional conditions of the entire population. These
programs were confined mostly to the poor only during the past few decades. When
considering the upkeep of the nutritional, educational, health and housing development
conditions of the present day generation, it could be well perceived that the attempts made to
enhance the living conditions of the people have been fruitfully successful.
4.1 Health
Although there were limited amenities during the time of Independence, the health
facilities were offered to the population but confined only to the urban areas. A considerable
percentage of the state income is being utilized for the health sector along with foreign aid
and the service is maintained continuously in a highly and positive and successful manner. As
such, when attention is paid to the health criteria of the country, it could be well observed that
there is a remarkable development in the health sector. Those criteria are similar to that of
developed countries. The reasons for such advancements are the intervention of local and
foreign private sectors and the investments made for the health sector after 1977 by the

Table 4 Health Conditions of Sri Lanka 1948-2007

life Expectancy Government

Year No. of No. of No. of Nursing Infant Maternal
for health
Hospitals Beds Doctors Staff mortality mortality
Total Male Fem services
rate (per rate (per
ale (as a % of
1000) 1000)
1948 247 18949 701 907 92 8.3 - - - 1.84
1953 267 21371 773 1827 71 4.9 58.2 58.8 57.5 1.81
1963 295 32312 1436 4422 56 2.4 61.7 61.9 61.4 2.15
1971 332 38521 2120 5003 45 1.4 65.7 64.2 67.1 2.09
1981 386 42275 1964 6805 30 0.6 69.8 67.8 71.7 1.18
1991 365* 41782* 2934 9934 18 0.4 71.9 69.5 74.2 1.40
2001 585 58883 7235 15061 12 0.1 74.0 71.7 76.4 1.33
2007 619 62197 11442 22088 11 0.1 74.8 72.8 76.9 1.92
*Except Northern Province
Sources: Department of Census & Statistics: Administrative Reports of the Department of Health:
Annual Reports of Central Bank of Sri Lanka

According to Table 4, it is clear that the health sector has achieved a considerable
development. It was due to the government being directly involved in the activities, such as
Health Education, Health infrastructure and widening of hospital net work, enhancement of
medical-co services, supply of medical equipment, providing medical and surgical
specialized services, regularizing the vaccination systems and introducing prevention
methods etc. In the same way, after 1977, private sector also attended to participate in
providing health supplies which was a great contributory factor for the development in the
health sector. After 1977, the main strategic policy of the government to reduce the
expenditure incurred by offering free medical services to the public was to take action to
widen the health service alternatives for the people.
4.2 Education
The main development project of the governments which came to power after 1977
was to improve the status of education in the country. According to the report of
C.W.W.Kannangara in 1944, all the students have to be offered free educational facilities up
to level of university education. As a result of the educational reforms, during the early
periods after the country gained independence, opportunities were open even for the children
of poor families to rise up to enjoy the levels of higher education. Every government which
ruled the country after gaining independence set apart a considerable percentage from the
government budget for the services such as, providing free lunch for school children,
introducing scholarships, supply of free school books and free uniforms for students and
improving the infrastructure facilities in schools etc. Investment in education produces a wide
array of economic and social benefits including higher human capital and earnings, improved
occupational attainment, and social mobility, increased female labour force participation and
superior family health levels and child nutrition outcomes (The World Bank, 2005). The
education sector of the country mainly consists of general education, university education and
vocational education. Despite the fact that has achieved a remarkable progress in general
education, achievements in vocational and university education are still far behind the

international levels (Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2008). The key issues in the education
system are related to equity, quality, efficiency and effectiveness. The Ten-Year vision has
identified these issues very clearly. A Compulsory Education Ordinance of 1997 stipulates
that all children between the ages of 5 to 14 years old must receive an education. As a result
of these reforms it could seen that at present there is a noticeable improvement in educational
field of the country.
Table 5 Form of Education in Sri Lanka 1948 2007

General Education University Education Literacy Government

rate expenditure
for education
Year No. of No. of No. of No. of No. of No. of ( as a % of
Govt. students teachers students lecturers graduates GDP)
1948 3091 1177695 32704 1611 121 200 - 2.95
1953 3449 1548197 47426 2392 193 312 65.4 2.90
1963 4936 2482613 81109 5706 435 973 71.6 4.43
1971 8585 2828070 94858 12239 1109 3489 78.5 4.15
1981 9521 3451358 135869 17656 1609 3197 87.2 2.38
1991 9998 4258698 177231 28260 1811 5386 86.9 2.45
2001 9891* 4337258 198397 48061 3268 8896 92.0 2.02
2007 9678* 4111000 221000 66996 4304 12005 93.0 2.59
* Excluding non-functioning school
Sources: Department of Census & Statistics: Central Bank of Sri Lanka;
Administrative Reports of the Dept. of Education: University Grants Commission

4.3 Housing Development

Among the developments, which took place after the introduction of open economic
policy in 1977, the increase of the number of houses and their improvement is very
important. The main reason for the same is after 1977, the government was much involved in
the housing development activities and presently the private sector too contributes to the
development of housing schemes. Specially, with the increase in income levels and changing
the life styles, the private sector has emerged as the major provider of houses for middle and
high income people while the government continues to be involved in providing housing
facilities for low income households and specific groups. Furthermore, The National Housing
Development Authority (NHDA) has continued to engage in providing shelter to the needy
4.4 Eliminating Poverty and Enhancing Nutrition
Sri Lanka being a beautiful island known as the pearl of the Indian Ocean is one of
the smallest of the South Asian nations. As a developing country, Sri Lanka also faces the
problems of poverty. It is estimated that around 15.2% of the population being poor but,
around 45% out of total families are being covered under the safety net programmes funded
by the government (Samurdhi Division, 2006).
When discussing the factors which contributed to the economic growth and
development before 1977, the governments which ruled the country concentrated on
increasing the qualities of living conditions of the people. Accordingly, even during the

period 19481977, the nutritional level of the people was in a fair position. All the
governments, since Independence, have made their greatest effort to eliminate poverty and
upkeep the nutritional level of the people. Various programs such as food subsidy program,
Janasaviya program, and Samurdhi program etc' are being implemented after 1977 for
eliminating poverty and enhancing nutrition by the government.
4.5 Investments for Infrastructure facilities and services
In order to speed up the economic growth and development, it is very important
that services in respect of infrastructure facilities contribute the most. It was the same during
the period of gaining independence with regard to the developments of the infrastructure
aspects of the irrigational process. Along with such facilities, improvements in transportation
provided by highways and railways were in a satisfactory manner. Modern communication
amenities and monetary services were mainly centered towards the urban areas. Every
government which came to power was interested in developing the infrastructure facilities to
suit the rate of the increasing population and the expanding economy. With such efforts, Sri
Lanka has achieved a considerable progress in providing infrastructure amenities at present.
Roads are the backbone of the transportation system. Efficient transportation system
will always assist towards the enhancement of the growth of the economy of a country.
Transportation is mainly utilized for use of the people for their required movements and
goods to be moved on to the necessary destinations and vice versa. It plays a vital role in the
development of the economy. Out of these, providing employment opportunities, earning
foreign currency and facilitating public coordination are vital in this procedure. During the
past 6 decades after gaining Independence, to meet the constant demand for the transportation
of goods and personnel, highways have expanded with a comparable equality towards the
Communication and mass media sector too have shown a very high development.
Postal Service, Telecommunication Service, Broadcasting Service, and the Television net
work and newspapers have developed in the field of telecommunication and mass media to a
very high degree. This growth is due to the various schemes implemented by the
governments which came to power after the Independence to develop the communication and
mass media services. With the liberalization of the economy after 1977, the need to develop
the telecommunication services was felt very strongly. Therefore, the telecommunication
technology has reached a very high level of development at present.
4.6 Development Projects
Post liberalization beginning development projects (Mahaweli Development Project,
Free Trade Zone, Housing Development Project with Roads-Telecommunication etc.)
contributions were large to increase the employment ratio on favorable level. Post
liberalization policies continuously favored to increase the commercialized environment in
country. In response to these changes, varies expansion reasoned to absorb unemployed
generation, in particular, female expansion increased considerably.
4.7 Free Trade Zones (Investment Promotion Zones)
In its overall strategy to promote the country's development, the government has
assigned a place of special importance to the three lead projects: the Free Trade Zone (FTZ),
the Accelerated Mahaweli Development (AMD), and the Housing and Urban Development
Programme. These projects would have considerable effect on employment generation,
agricultural development and self-sufficiency in food, hydro-power generation, export
growth, and enhanced foreign exchange earnings (Balakrishnan, 1980, p.895). The main
thrust of government policy is to concentrate on the establishment of Free Trade Zones or
Investment Promotion Zones for the creation of a new and dynamic export-oriented industrial
sector, assisted by foreign capital with local collaboration.
Katunayake Investment Zone which was inaugurated in 1978 has expanded up to
Biyagama and Koggala by now. These investments zones which provide employment
opportunities to millions of people and contribute to the economic development to a greater
extent are administered by the Board of Investment of Sri Lanka. There are various objectives
in establishing these Investment Promotion Zones. Some of the targets among those are,
stabilizing and accelerating the economic development, strengthening and widening the
economic structure, enhancing the incentives for the foreign investments etc. At the same
time, there is a garment factory program established under the Divisional Secretariat basis
and facilities are offered to such industries too.
5 Impact of inward-looking development strategies and outward-looking
development strategies on the economy of Sri Lanka
During the period 1951-1977, the average economic growth was 3.8%. From 1966 to
1970 when the government exerted to relax the economy to certain extent , a very high
standard of the economy was shown and the Gross Domestic Production (GDP) grew up to
an average growth of 5.3%. When the government intervened strictly towards the economy
during 1971-77 the rate of growth fell lower as 2.9% (Table 6). The adverse effects of the
price hike of petroleum in 1973 which led to unsound economical situations internationally
too paved the way to this state of affairs (Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 1998: Pieris, 1997,
Table 6 Growth Rate of GDP 1951-77

Year Average Economic

1951 1955 4.3
1956 1960 2.6
1961 1965 3.6
1966 1970 5.3
1971 - 1977 2.9
Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 1998

But, as shown in table 7, it is evident that the average economic growth rate of Sri
Lanka had increased twice over after 1977 with the liberalization of the economy than that of
prior to 1977. The reason for the same is growth of the local and foreign economic affairs
after 1977 in the private sector and due to the increasing of socio-economic infrastructure

Table 7 Average Growth Rate of Gross Domestic Production 1977-2007

Year Average Year Average

Economic Economic
Growth Growth
1977 1983 5.8 2003 5.9
1984 1990 3.9 2004 5.4
1991 1996 5.1 2005 6.2
1997 2000 5.3 2006 7.7
2001 -1.5 2007 6.8
2002 4.0
Source: Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Reports

Since the major liberalization of the economy in 1977, Sri Lanka's economy achieved
an average growth of around 5% with a relatively higher inflation. According to table 7, the
reason for the average economic growth rate to be at lower level during 1984-90 is the
commencement of ethnic war in the North and East Provinces and spreading of civil struggles
internally in the country. However, a negative growth of 1.5% was recorded in 2001, because
of global economic slowdown, drought weather conditions and some failures in the security
establishments, i.e. the ethnic war in the North and East (Central Bank of Sri Lanka, 2008).
After 2002 there had been a gradual average improvement in the economic growth rate. That
situation has contributed towards the development of employment opportunities in the
country. Similarly, the population growth rate in our country is lower than other developing
countries. Therefore, the per capita income in Sri Lanka has increased than other developing
countries in the world. The per capita income in 1980 had been US$ 273 which became 1241
in 2005 and in 2007 it has gone up to 1634. This position is a clear example for the direct
improvement of the per capita income.
Sri Lankan liberalization constitutes of three phases as a whole. The first phase of
liberalization (19771989), the second phase of liberalization (19891994) and the third
phase of liberalization (from 1994 onwards) (Patabandige, 2005, P.64). Under these reforms,
the overall outcome of the increase in gross domestic investment and other measures taken
were reflected by an increase in the average growth. Thus GDP grew, on average by 6.2% per
annum during the first five years (19781982) following the trade liberalization as compared
to the lower GDP growth rate of 2.9% recorded in the previous control era of 19701977.
The industrial sector performance in the post- liberalization period (1977-2000) was also
substantially superior to that of the pre-1977 import substitution regime. During the pre 1977
era, the average annual growth of the manufacturing sector was 1.1%, whereas it increased to
4.6% during the period 1978-82 and to above 6% during the rest of the period.
In the immediate aftermath of the 1977 reforms, employment generation in Sri Lanka
increased substantially as evidenced by the reduction of the rate of unemployment from 20%
in 1977 to 11% by 1981/1982. According to korale (1988), 175,000 to 200,000 employment
opportunities were generated annually during the period 19781982. Mega construction
projects such as Mahaweli, Housing etc. accounted for nearly half of the total employment
increase over the period 197882. Also, Expansion of the service sector, due to liberalization

of trade and payments, increased job opportunities for a large amount of persons in areas such
as import trade, transport, tourism etc.
When we concern about last five decades, there was a greater economic stability in the
post 1977 period than during the 1950s. The changing sectoral composition of GDP
(production and employment) is also another criterion on which to measure the progress of
economic development. Table 9 shows how the sectoral composition of GDP and the
structure of employment changed during the post independence period.
Table 8 Composition of GDP and Employment
Year Composition of GDP (%) Composition of labour force (%)
Agriculture Industry Services Agriculture Industry Services
1950 45.8 20.4 41.7 61.2 10.2 28.6
1963 44.4 19.9 41.5 52.6 9.4 38.0
1971 36.8 24.9 44.3 50.1 9.6 40.2
1981 32.9 23.1 47.8 45.3 11.0 43.7
1991 27.5 23.7 50.4 42.5 16.1 41.4
2000 20.5 27.6 52.0 36.0 17.6 46.0
2007 11.7 29.9 58.4 31.3 26.6 42.1
Source: Annual Reports of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka; Ratnayake, 2004

Above table shows that on eve of independence, the economy is predominantly

agricultural. The economy was dominated by agricultural and related activities, with nearly
half of the GDP derived from agriculture and fishing. More than 60% of the labour force was
engaged in the primary sector, i.e. agriculture, fishing etc. 28% of the labour force was
employed in the service sector. However, the relative importance of agriculture has declined
by more than half from 46% in 1950 to 12% in 2007. The contribution rate of the service
sector increased from 42% in 1950 to 58% in 2007. This change has largely occurred since
the post 1977 period as a result of extensive policy reforms towards export-oriented
According to the forgoing discussion the average growth rate of the economy of the country
had increased twice over after 1977 with the liberalization of the economy than that of prior
to 1977. Similarly, per capita income too has improved and the savings and investment ratio
too has strengthened. Apart from that a sharp development is remarkably observed in the
fields of education, health services, nutrition, housing facilities, infrastructure facilities etc. In
recent years, the importance of agriculture has declined with the sector accounting for about
16% GDP and the service sector is now the largest component of GDP at over 57%. Also,
during the period 1950 to 1977, the annual growth of industrial sector was 3.4% has
developed up to 7% after 1977. The highest rate of unemployment in the country before 1977
has been reduced under the open economic policy.

Abeyratne S and Rodrigo C (2002), "Explaining Growth Performance in Sri Lanka: Fifty Years in Retrospect 1950-2000",
South Asian Network of Economic Research Institutes (SANEI), New Delhi, India.
Abdullah I (2012), Trade Liberalization and Economic Growth: Whats the empirical Relationship in Bangladesh? IOSR
Journal of Business and Management, Vol.1, Issue 6, pp. 23-33.
Balakrishnan N (1980), "Economic policies and Trend in Sri Lanka", Asian Survey, Vol.20, No.9, University of California
Press, pp. 891-902.
Bajwa S and Siddiqi M.W (2011), Trade Openness and Its Effect on Economic Growth in South Asian Countries: A Panal
Data Study, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5. No. 2.
Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Annual Reports, Various Years. Central Bank of Sri Lanka, Colombo.
Department of Census and Statistics, Census Reports, Various Years.
-----------------------------------, Demographic and health Survey Reports, Various Issues, Department of Census and Statistics,
Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Deraniyagala S and Fine B (2001), New Trade Theory Versus Old Trade Policy: A Continuing Enigma, Cambridge
Journal of Economics, Vol, 25,
Dunham D and Kelegama S (2005), "Stabilization and Adjustment: A Second Look at the Sri Lankan Experience 1977-93",
Sri Lankan Economy: An Introduction, Edited by N.V.Chowdary, The ICFAI University Press, Hyderabad, India.
Fernando L (1997), "Development Planning in Sri Lanka", Dilemmas of Development: Fifty Years of Economic Changes in
Sri Lanka, Edited by W.D. Lakshman, Sri Lanka Association of Economists, Colombo, pp. 101-126.
Harrison (1996), Openness and Growth: A Time Series Cross Country Analysis for Developing Countries, National Bereau
of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 5221.
Hasson and Kumrul A.F (2005), Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Search for a Causal relationship, South Asian
Journal of Management, Retrieved on 25th December 2010.
Hettiarachchi U (2007), Economy of Sri Lanka after 1977, Sarasavi Printers, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Korale R.B.M (1988), Demographic Trends and Projections, Sri Lanka in the Year 2015, First Annual Sessions of the
Organization of Professional Associations, Colombo.
Patabendige A (2005), "Productivity and Labour Absorption in the Sri Lankan Manufacturing Industry: How Much
Difference Does Trade Liberalization Make?", Sri Lankan Economy: An Introduction, Edited by N.V. Chowdary, ICFAI
University Press, Hyderabad, India, pp. 58-75.
Pieris M.P (1997), "Economic Growth and Structural-Institutional Change Since Independence", Dilemmas of
Development: Fifty Years of Economic Changes in Sri Lanka, Edited by W.D. Lakshman, Sri Lanka Association of
economists, Colombo, pp. 28-54.
Ranaweera N.F.C (1998), "Fifty Years of Agriculture in Sri Lanka", Fifty Years of Sri Lanka's Independence: A Socio-
economic Review, Edited by A.D.V de S. Indraratna, Sri Lanka Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SLISES),
Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp. 85-99.
Ratnayake P (2004), "Economic Policy Changes in Sri Lanka: Impact on Foreign Trade, Investment, Foreign Aid and
Economic Performance", Lost Opportunities: Sri Lanka's Economic Relationship with Japan, Karunaratne & Sons Ltd.,
Homagama, Sri Lanka, pp. 1-49.
Sandarathne N (2004), "Agricultural Development: Controversial Issues", Economic Policy in Sri Lanka: Issues and
Debates, Edited by Saman Kelegama, Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, Colombo, pp. 195-212.
Samurdhi Division (2006), "Ministry of Nation Building and Estate Infrastructure Development", Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Todaro M.P and Smith S.S (2011), Economic Development, Eleventh Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Printice Hall.
Udayakantha K.K.S (2008), "Determinants of Higher Economic Growth in Sri Lanka: An Overview", Conference on
Fundamental & Operational Research for Development, National Centre for Advanced Studies in Humanities and Social
Sciences (NCAS), Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Human Rights in Vulnerable Groups : A case Study of
the Visually Challenged in Higher Education


M.A; Ph.D.
HoD, Dept. of English
Bhavans New Science College
Narayanguda, Hyderabad.

In a human rights sense, certain population groups often encounter discriminatory treatment
or need special attention to avoid potential exploitation. These populations make up what can
be referred to as vulnerable groups. The new United Nations Convention on the Rights of
People with Disabilities- ... Is to promote, protect and ensure full and equal enjoyment of all
human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities and to promote
respect and ... their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.
In this age of equality of opportunity and treatment to disabled person, while human
beings are interdependent and interrelated without discrimination, the need for persons with
disabilities must be guaranteed their full enjoyment of fundamental freedom and human
Some human rights advocates dislike the separation of particular groupsfor special
treatment. In reality without providing additional protection to certaingroups, it becomes too
easy to discriminate. Forthat reason, human rights principles have created the concept of
vulnerable groups
My paper while presenting a case Study of the Visually Challenged in Higher Education, the
most vulnerable group of Human Rightsappeals to every citizen to recognize, promote,
protect and ensure the need for equal human rights to the disabled persons against backdrop
of clash of human rights and right to intellectual property.

In a human rights sense, certain population groups often encounter discriminatory
treatment or need special attention to avoid potential exploitation. These populations make up
what can be referred to as vulnerable groups. The new United Nations Convention on the
Rights of People with Disabilities- ... Is to promote, protect and ensure full and equal
enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities and
to promote respect and ... their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis
with others. [Resolution7/9.Human Rights of persons with disabilities. Also found in the
UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
In this age of equality of opportunity and treatment to disabled person, disability is
an evolving concept. While the world is turning into a global village and while human beings
are interdependent and interrelated without discrimination, the need for persons with
disabilities must be guaranteed their full enjoyment of fundamental freedom and human

rights.There are varying disabilities and various definitions of disabilities. Every disability
bears fundamental difference/s from other disabilities. The disability results from poor
interaction and attitudinal barriers of people and hinders the disabled persons from full and
effective participation in society on equal basis with others.

Recognizing the importance of accessibility of the disable persons to physical,

economic and cultural situations, to health, education, information and communication and
enable them enjoy all human rights, and further improve their living conditions particularly
disabled women and girls who are subject to multiple discrimination, my paper while
presenting : A case Study of the Visually Challenged in Higher Education , the most
vulnerable group of Human Rights appeals to every citizen in every country and developing
country to recognize, promote, protect and ensure the need for equal human rights to the
disabled persons against backdrop of clash of human rights and right to intellectual property.
Of the disabled persons, the most vulnerable group to be protected is the blind and visually
impaired. According to Oxford Dictionary a blind person is someone who is unable to see
because of injury, disease, or a congenital conditionAlso, when it comes to technicalities
such as providing health and medical services, education/ employment/ financial aid
statistically the data assessment of the visually impaired are difficult to be defined.
Apart from the visual impairment and blindness, hundreds of visually challenged
suffer from other disabilities to access reading. Reading disabilities are demonstrated by
atypical reading behaviors and presumed cognitive irregularities. These effects could be
attributed to a range of factors or conditions, and necessary conditions could likely include
multiple factors.70 One of the main disabilities caused by neurological problems is dyslexia.
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Dyslexia is a
brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read.
Dyslexic people need special methods compatible with their condition to be able to read.
Today there are technologies, which provide dyslexic persons read by the use of text-to-
speech. The visually challenged and the visually impaired community deserve equal
enjoyment of accessible formats of copyrighted material or standard printed materials.
The present article deals with the unsatisfactory access of the blind and visually
impaired persons to accessible copyrighted materials and to protect and ensure their full
freedom and their right to intellectual property. Several Human Rights Groups and their
efforts to help the visually challenged are being studied. After examining the series of
protests by the Human Rights groups to provide copyrighted standard materials, my paper
investigates the World intellectual Property Organization Draft Treaty for Improved Access
for the Blind, Visually Impaired and Other Reading Disabled Persons to Copyrighted
Materials. It also examines the Organizations contribution to human rights and right to
intellectual property. My article supports the Draft Treaty as a useful tool of better access for
the visually impaired community, and offers a hybrid solution to the legal clash of human
rights and right to intellectual property in creation of a human rights framework for
intellectual property rights.
Throughout the world, less than five percent of the books published annually are
available to the blind and visually impaired persons. Further, they are deprived from
accessible formats such as Braille, audio, and large print. To reproduce these works under
copyright protection for the blind and visually impaired persons requires a sanction from the
copyright holder and this bears high expenses to undertake the procedure. So the situation is
dismal and discriminating.
While the visually impaired persons ask for prompt measures, the development of the
new technologies and internet facilitates an emergence of Access to Knowledge Movement as
if the VIPs are highlighting the concerns of the blind community. To equalize the
opportunities for VIPs in 2009 the Draft Treaty for Improved Access for the Blind, Visually
Impaired and Other Reading Disabled Persons to Copyrighted Materials, WIPO was
proposed and has been negotiated since then.

My article while raising the question of inadequate and unsatisfactory access of the
blind and visually impaired people to copyrighted material pleads better access for visually
challenged while respecting enforcement of VIPs human rights, through the WIPO Draft
Treaty to achieve the goal. Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever
our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or
any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination.
These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

The principle of universality of human rights and freedom is the cornerstone of

international human rights law. This principle is reiterated in numerous international human
rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions. Also, the 1993 Vienna World Conference
on Human Rights notes that it is the duty of States to promote and protect all human rights
and fundamental freedoms, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems. All
States have ratified at least one, and 80% of States have ratified four or more, of the core
human rights treaties, reflecting a concrete expression of universality. In short fundamental
human rights enjoy universal protection by customary international law.

The principle prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color and so on. The
principle of equality, as stated in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is:
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.However, a Systematic
segregation of visually challenged children from mainstream schools leads to discrimination
and denial of access to education.
A case study shows visually challenged students arebeing denied admission in
Intermediate/ UG as they usually fail to compete with the abled. With drop in pass & many
colleges gradually stopped admitting visually challenged students. A college in the city of
Hyderabad which usually admitted 40 to 60 VC students continued BA course but eventually
stopped admitting VC students when the overall result of the college was affected. Later there
was a complete close down of admissions and the VC students had to join BJRGDC in HPP-
TM. It was appalling when the audit inspecting groups from Osmania University and
Commissionerate of College Education raised objections over the failure of the college to
provide basic infrastructural facilities and academic aids like CD players, audio lessons,
access to computer education and Internet to the VC students. The VC students were not even
providedspecial voice based mobile phones to record the lessons. Here, Educational
institutions play an important role They must come forward to run, support , make
adjustments and give opportunity to the VC students which is their right as equal to the abled
and allow the Visually challenged to develop fully in their life.
The main rights to be focused for the VC are the allocation of resources and human
rights education. Though there has been a significant shift in advancement and empowerment
of the blind and visually impaired persons on the principle of equality which forms the core
of the human rights vision, the Right to education gives them right to equality and right to

progress. The rights of persons with disabilities defined by(United Nations, 1975) arepersons
with disabilities are entitled to measures designed to enable them to become as self-reliant as
possible (Para. 5); to provide medical, psychological, and functional treatment, including
prosthetic and orthotic appliances (Para. 6); to provide social rehabilitations, educational
vocational training, counseling, placement services, and other services to assist in social
integration (Para. 6);to provide economic and social security and a decent level of living.
People with disabilities have the right to secure and retain employment or to engage in a
useful, productive, and remunerative occupation and to join trade unions (Para. 7); live with
their families and to participate in all social, creative, or recreational activities (Para. 9); to
protect against exploitation and treatment of a discriminatory, abusive, or degrading nature
(Para. 10).
However the circumstances proposed in the declaration on persons with disabilities
particularly the visually challenged, are often sabotaged by people in power. As a result
social workers& Human Rights groups find their job frustrating. While VC persons do not
get the needed services, they face interstate and interregional differences, besides poor access
to health and health services. VC women, children and aged are the most vulnerable groups
and need more attention. Most VC children are deserted or abandoned by their parents. If the
child is a girl the desertion is more. The families sometimes leave the child at welfare schools
to claim Governmental scholarship. Abandoned, VC children usually end up in hostels and
are exploited. Their human rights are violated at every stage of their growth.
It is deplorable that only 1% is reserved under PHC forthe VC students who have to compete
with the abled ones. If they succeed in school and college education theyhave less scope in
higher education for the situation is even bleaker. The needs of Visually Challenged are:
1. Need for Braille and training in Braille to pursue professional studies.
2. Hygiene is a major concern.Need for special physical facilities, like hand bars in
restrooms and privacy. Alsoneed for special transportation facilities in bus/ rail.
3. Girl students need a safe environment and support staff to assist insanitation activities.
Girls hostels need to be guarded by security from sexual exploitation(after a recent case
of a staff recording the girls in washroom on his mobile and circulating the mms. It was
reported on a TV channel in a sting operation). The situation is worse when the girls
being sexually exploited are not even aware of whats happening.
4. New colleges with Special courses/VC friendly curriculum must be provided
5. Audio based CBT is recommended for VC students at UG level as the existing Gen
English advantages the abled students.
6. The Govt. of AP provides CD players and MP3 players for VC students with the content
prepared by University/ State Board.Interestingly, one NGO, Samrita trust, headed by
Mr. Sharma, a retired air force officer, prepares audio CDs for the VC students to read,
play, replay and revise their lessons simultaneously.
7. VC students need scribes to write their exams, which is a major problem. In mega cities
single announcement on FM radio solves the problem, but it is unresolved in towns and
villages. Besides scribes do not usually choose to go to towns and villages.

8. After Graduation What? As most VC students stay in hostels they prefer to fail rather
than complete their Degree as they have no place to go and must vacate the hostels.
Hence the majority VC students discontinue their studies in final year. They take a break
and seek admission in a college in another district under the same university.
9. With little support coming for VC students pursuing school education, Radio Mirchi
came forward to customize the content of the school syllabus as part of its Corporate
Social responsibility. Many readers were invited to read, the response being good, it
recorded lessons from 6th to 10th in both Telugu and English media and handed over the
CDs to a VC Trust of Devnar School. When Devnar School produced exemplary results
of the pass % from 40% to 80% many other schools adopted the mass media method to
cater to the needs of VC.
10. There is great need to increase Vocational training institutes for VC persons so that they
become economically independent. Govt. is making Higher Education possible to the
VC students if the student has less than 70% blindness.But in spite of increasing
educational opportunities to the VC students, employment marriage, settlement, self-
reliance, self-sustenance appears bleak. It is the collective effort of every citizen to help
this vulnerable group of VC socially, culturally and morally.
Knowledge famine of blind and visually impaired to copyright materials as a result
of clash of copyright and VIPs hasbeen analyzed in the present paper. The general
interaction of intellectual property and human rights being narrowed down due to the clash of
copyright and human rights and consequent limited access has been dealt in the second part
of the article. Since the main aim of the paper is to explore the role of the WIPO Draft Treaty
required for such evaluation has been analyzed in next part of the article. A number of human
rights groups and their significant role in VIPs lives have been referred to. The facts have
been effectively established and commented on. The General Comment No. 17 as one of the
key elements of A2K (ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE) movement with its guidelines was
specifically underlined.
Finally, WIPO Draft Treaty and its advantages both for the visually impaired as well
as the alleviation of the general human rights and intellectual property by creating a human
rights framework was examined. The research paper illustrates that the Draft Treaty works as
an umbrella encompassing all the human rights of VIPs infringed by lack of access to
copyrighted works.
Finally as Lawrence Lessig suggests in Free Culture it is the time to stop fighting the
copyright wars against what Internet has changed in our lives in the sense of culture. Let us
give the vulnerable group of VC persons Right to Education, employment, marriage,
settlement, self-reliance and self-sustenance. It is the collective duty of every abled citizen to
protect vulnerable citizens.
Some human rights advocates and critics dislike the separation of particular groupsfor
special treatment. This violates the notion that because human rights apply to everyone, no
individual or group merits special attention. In theory, that makessense. In reality, however,
without providing additional protection to certaingroups, it becomes too easy to discriminate
or otherwise exploit those groups. Forthat reason, human rights principles have created the
concept of vulnerable groups.

Chatterjee, Chandrima and Sheoran, Gunjan, Vulnerable Groups In India, The Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied
Themes (CEHAT), Satyam Udyog: Mumbai, 2007 accessed on 8th March, 2014

Human Rights and vulnerable groups, sage publications, 05-Reichert-4902.qxd 3/13/2006 4:18 PM Page 77 to 101. accessed on 8th march, 2014

ChaudhuriLeni (2006), The Disabled: Health and Human Rights, Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes
(CEHAT), Mumbai

Richard Baltander, Education, Labour Market and Incomes for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired,
(Stockholm University, Sweden, 2009)

Oxford Dictionaries, available at, visited


National Institute of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke Website, available at, visited on 22-03-2014

Cultural Spaces: Canada and India

Digital Media And Digital Culture leading us towards a

Digital Society: Lessons from Canada to India
Sarala Devi Manukonda,
Lecturer, SDM Siddartha Mahila Kalasala, Vijayawada

Digital Media technologies are playing a central role in culture and society in this
21st century. They provide the structures in which individual identities form, social relations
manifest, political discourse occurs and economic power flows. These technologies are
presently so pervasive in society that it is difficult to distinguish social structure from forms
of digital communication. Not much research has gone into the theoretical concepts that
explain the linkages between Culture and Technological Constructs. Individual identity
formation in digital media, community and audience construction online and visual culture
are all issues that arise due to the influence of Digital media on the social fabric which is
now a networked public sphere. Digital media has also had its effect on economic,
democratic and political spheres. New digital technologies are shaping and are being shaped
by culture, new business models and society in a reciprocal manner. However, availability
and access to digital infrastructure and barriers to equality and quality of use, have led to
widening disparities among digital haves and have-nots. However education and access
to culture and digital media can help in reducing the inequalities and cultural institutions
and their partners in education and social intervention, have a role to play. Canada is a
country highly evolved in integrating digital media technologies into production, distribution
and consumption of cultural content and is poised to be leader in creativity and innovation.
Canadian public policies on Digital Media and Digital Culture are well researched and are
positioned to play a leading role in shaping the global digital economy and India has lessons
to learn. For India will then comprehend the enormity of the problems it faces on the Digital
Divide and which are compounded by its multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-lingual social
fabric, in shaping a digital society. This paper attempts to understand the impact of Digital
media and culture on society and brings Canadian perspectives into the Indian realm, as it
forges ahead into the Digital Society of this 21st century.

Key words : Digital media, digital infrastructure, digital skills, digital divide, digital content, digital economy, social media,
digital society, ICT, Massive Open Online Courses, inter-cultural learning spaces and inter-cultural education

Digital Media
India is the third largest internet user after China and the United States, with around
17 Crore users as per TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India), with three-fourths of
them under 35 years of age and seven out of eight accessing the net from their mobile phones.
Mobile phone based usage is a key component of Indian internet usage and the recent
growth is being driven by mobile internet usage, Nilotpal Chakravarti, Internet and Mobile
Association of India. 25% of the total time spent on the net is on social media, especially on
Face Book and another 23% on e-mail. Google is the most
popular search engine with 90% and has the most unique
visitors. LinkedIn and Twitter the next most popular.
Online reservations on the Indian Railways website are
very popular and online domestic retail and news is
picking up in popularity, with Yahoo News on the lead.
With 2.7 million views The Girl and the Autorickshaw an
online film is a hit, T-Series is among the top 100 channels
globally on You Tube and 75 million viewers were online
to watch IPL last year. Internet and telecom companies are
reaping serious revenues, 27,000 crores in 2012 with 80%
of it from entertainment products online. 227 million
Indian were online, however Chinese online presence
outnumbers Indians by a ratio of 5:1 and Brazil outpaced
Indias internet growth last year. If not in volume, US is
the largest revenue generator from digital media with
around US $ 37 billion in 2012. "While content is being
consumed in Indian languages, lack of interface at both
hardware and software levels, does create an impediment for a large non-English-speaking
population to adequately utilize video services including YouTube," says Sharma of Google
India. India ranks third in the world in watching videos online and fourth in the world in
watching videos on phone, with around 430 minutes per month. The eco-system of the Rs.
83,000 crore media and entertainment industry is slowly but surely turning digital.
Digital Divide
A Digital Revolution has taken place and Digital Media technologies are playing a
central role in culture and society in this 21st century. Digital media technologies are a vast
landscape of hardware and software with many different uses and applications- viz. social
networking, video sharing, blogging, digital products and services, retail purchase, banking,
enterprise management, educational learning and content management systems, etc. Social
media applications are altering social behaviour through dialogue, discovery and sharing
Digital information or content is becoming the creative infrastructure for the
knowledge economy and educational and cultural activities. But most of the content on the
internet is in English, almost 55% of the total content on the net. This invariably creates
multi-layered divides among the populace, regarding the availability and accessibility to
infrastructure, types and quality of usage and barriers to equal access and use. This is highly
accentuated in a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic and multi-lingual country like India, where
digital media are fast transforming the social fabric and shaping the digital society of the 21st
century. The disparities between the digital haves and have-nots are not easy to eliminate
and needs much understanding of this Digital Divide before they can be holistically tackled.
Canada leads in its research into Digital divides a term for many issues viz. infrastructure,
access, use, impediments to use and digital literacy and skills. Digital technologies come in
different forms and provide different services. Hence their pattern of penetration into the
society varies accordingly. Research done for Statistics Canada, Science, Innovation and
Electronic information Division, Govt. of Canada, reveals that there is no single pattern
either across groups or overtime. Technology penetration into society varies based on
interests, incomes, education, age, gender, geographical location, etc. However all new
technologies are subject to a divide in their initial years after introduction, but as the
technology reaches saturation, the gap between the haves and have-nots reduces. With every
passing year more people use the internet, there are more haves and less have-nots. When
groups are delineated by income or education or other variable, each group has its own
penetration rate. The relative divide is very big for newer technologies and drops for
saturated technologies. Divides can also regress after a certain level of saturation. Planners,
Administrators and Non-Governmental Organizations require to know, the more pertinent
information of whether the gap is widening or closing and the same can investigated into
using analytical techniques like Lorenz Curve. Canadian findings conclude that the
Digital Divide is generally closing, but progress is mainly made by the upper middle class.
The lowest income group continues to lose ground and the gap appears too big to close
easily. However the research also finds that this remains true with many technologies in their
early stages of adoption and it remains true to that the rate of growth of internet use at lower
incomes is higher than that of higher incomes. But the composition of income groups itself
changes over time and it is not the same individuals or the same groups of families that
comprise them. It has been found that affordability is critical, but that does not explain the
sizeable proportion of non-users at the highest income levels. Other variables too change over
time due to evolution of technologies, falling prices, social norms and more. Ultimately the
Digital Divide is about outcomes and impacts. The fundamental digital divide is not
measured by the number of connections to the internet, but by the consequences of both
connection and lack of connection, Castells, The Internet Galaxy, 2001.
India has lessons to learn from the progress being made by Canada to understand the
digital divide and find solutions for an inclusive digital society. Canada is bi-lingual, but
India being highly multi-lingual has much to do. Literacy rate is around 75% and basic
education is still unavailable to 25% of Indias children. This is compounded by the disparity
in male and female child education 82% male but only 65% female children above the age
of 7 years are literate. However it is heartening that the gap is reducing, but the bridge across
the digital divide appears at present too far, unless India gets its act together. Governmental
initiatives and efforts towards universalization of digital education have not progressed much
Digital Content
In a digital world content is the king and realizing its importance Canada is
investing heavily in the creation of and access to Canadian creative content made by
Canadians, designed to inform, enlighten and entertain and is reflective of Canadian linguistic
and ethno-cultural diversity. The Government of Canada along with private funding is
investing around $450 million a year in programmes to develop native digital content. These
programmes support the creation of content on multiple platforms and are leading to new
partnerships and experiments among various creators, viz. gamers and producers, software
developers and distributors, interactive media producers, telecommunications companies and
broadcasters, book publishers, music producers, technology developers and consumers. These
types of alliances will foster development of new products and services that will improve
prosperity in the digital economy. Government of Canada also invests in supporting the
creation of content for under-represented communities, including official linguistic
minorities, aboriginal and ethno-cultural minorities. The Canada Media Fund, The Canada
Interactive Fund, The Canada Book Fund, The Canada Music Fund and The Canada
Periodical Fund are all initiatives of the Canadian Government to support the creation,
production and dissemination of Canadian digital content. Canada believes that its digital
content advantage will position it as a global destination of choice for creativity and
Canada has only two official languages whereas India has thirteen and this will
definitely have a bearing on the digital divide. In a country like India, one of the faster ways
of bridging the digital divide will be to have digital content available in Indian languages.
Governmental efforts at content creation in Indian languages are mainly for administrative
purposes and in some cases educational. India has to wake up to the fact that unless content
development is indigenous, it will lack appeal and use and will actually widen the digital
divide. The Canadian example is surely enlightening and there sure are many lessons in it for
Digital Culture
As with everything else in this digital age, literature, art and culture too are getting
digitized. Books and novels have become e-books and video games, radio and TV have
become multimedia podcasts on You Tube, musical and recoding instruments have become
programs and apps on laptop/smart phone and paintings and printmaking have become
computer graphics and design. Digital media viz. - online communication, digital recording
devices and editing tools, social media like Face book and Twitter, web 2.0 applications like
Wikipedia, Flickr, etc. - transform all culture into an open source. This opening up of
cultural techniques, conventions, forms and concepts is the cultural effect of digital culture.
Digital culture permits and requires everyone to be a creator, a collaborator, and a publisher
of digital content.
Reliable access to broadband network connectivity has been identified as a significant
tool for creating collaborative relationships within the digital art community. CA*net or
CANARIE or Canadian Network for Advancement of Research, Industry and Education, a
Canadian Government supported non-profit organization, maintains the second fastest
national network in the world to support education and research bodies across Canada. Art
organizations and artists too are connected to CA*net 4, which provides them with
infrastructure to a) Strengthen vulnerable project-based remote collaborations that are
distributed across the country, b) Promote transfer of knowledge and technology between the
disciplines and across the country, c) Promote the sharing and distribution of knowledge and
technological resources including tools and human infrastructure, d) Provide the new media
research community across disciplines with increased opportunities and support for inter-
disciplinary research collaboration, e) Provide opportunities to bring innovative Canadian and
international cross-disciplinary new media research to the Canadian public. Documentation
and archiving of digital art then becomes a crucial activity and the Centre for Research and
Documentation (CR+D) along with several independent labs and galleries have taken it up.
India has lessons to learn from Canadas experience in promoting Artistic innovation and
creative collaboration with industry, expanding access to digital skills development through a
broad based approach to accessibility of education and training, across communities, using
community-based organizations too in the delivery system. Leveraging the opportunities
provided by the digital economy, for the development of regional, rural and remote
communities, designing policies and programmes that include local existing networks and
organizational resources to increase their capacity to educate and retain talented creators in
their locations, etc are some of the other areas of expertise India can seek from Canada.
The Indian Council of Cultural Research (ICCR), the apex body for culture in India
and helps formulate and implement policies pertaining to Indias cultural relations, to foster
mutual understanding between India and other countries and promote cultural exchanges with
other peoples. ICCR conducts a number of laudable programmes and festivals across the
globe to promote Indian culture, including Year of India in Canada in 2011, manages many
Chairs in universities abroad and even gives out an annual international award The
Jawaharlal Award for International Understanding. However it had overlooked the
importance of promotion and dissemination of the arts within the country, the training in arts
at all levels of society, the digitization of all art forms, understanding digital culture and the
contribution and significance of culture and art to the digital economy. It is precisely these
issues that the Department of
Heritage, Government of Canada (the counterpart of ICCR in Canada), has been
working on to enable their citizens to be successful in the digital economy of the future.
ICCR and the Government of India have much to ponder about, other than providing for
digital infrastructure, which is the least of the worries.
Digital Society
The capacity for production and flow of manufactured goods defined prosperity in the
industrial economy. Similarly, the capacity to create, improve, innovate with, and apply
knowledge will define prosperity in a digital economy. The industrial age was defined by
mega-corporations and mass production, and digital age will be defined by digital tools and
connectivity. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) alone does not alone create
the digital economy, but the personal and networked nature of digital and social media is the
Achieving a knowledgeable Internet citizenry is unlikely to be resolved through a solely
technical approach that focuses only on infrastructure without any consideration of the social
processes and institutions in which peoples Internet uses are embedded (Hargittai, 2010).

India is surely progressing towards a digital society, with the kind of ICT
infrastructure that is being built painstakingly by the Government of India. The National
Policy on Education NPE- NCERT, 1986 sensed the need for media support in education,
which has only enlarged over the years. In 2010 Government of India unveiled an Android
based tablet computer Aakash Tablet, a low cost computing device (Starts at Rs. 2,500), and
the Aakash-2 tablet in 2012 (Rs.4,500), meant to be progressively distributed to all school
and college students across the country. A tablet based educational programme called the
Aakash iTutor, which combines the best of classroom learning and self-study has been
made available. The programme is smartly defined as a learning amplifier and provides
access to real time high quality videos lectures, self-study materials, self-assessment tools,
feed-back mechanism and many more useful features that help students, including
synchronous and asynchronous learning. The Working Group on Higher Education of the
Planning Commission, Government of India, in its XIth Five Year Plan had decided to spread
the coverage of ICT to all the 360 Universities and 17625 colleges in India, with provisions
for Access to global, multimedia educational resources; Collaborative communication
networks among faculty and students; Access to e-journals and e-books; Development and
Maintenance of e-libraries; Digitization of all Doctoral thesis; Development and
Maintenance of non-book material catalogues and Video-conferencing facilities and Training.
The frame-work is laid or being laid in a phased manner to digitalize the entire educational
process. This in itself is a herculean task in a society still reeling under 25% illiteracy.
However access and affordability are not the only defining factors for digital literacy and
competency, but nature of use and limitations for use are crucial factors affecting digital
Research on the uses of ICTs in Canadian schools has yielded incontrovertible evidence
that despite a massive expenditure on the provision of hardware, software, and connectivity,
our capacity for educational innovation mediated by digital tools has proven resistant to
development efforts (Bryson, 2006).
Here again the Government of Canada, takes the lead in developing Strategies for
Sustainable Prosperity Building Digital Skills for tomorrow. It developed a knowledge
synthesis project based on web-based collaborative networks like the Massive Open Online
Courses (MOOCs). The distributed nature of knowledge, growing prominence of networked
learning, need for learning activities to include both synchronous and synchronous
components are some of the aspects taken into consideration while designing MOOCs.
Knowledge creation is through socio-cultural processes, as per the needs, desires and past
experiences of the learners. MOOCs attract participants through their interest in a topic and
their relationships with its facilitators. In many respects a MOOC parallels a traditional
network of scientists and researchers with the exceptions that its membership is much more
open, potentially much larger, and it is much more flexible in its potential to take up and
respond to issues, questions, and problems on an ad-hoc basis.
A MOOC invites open participation in the processes through which that knowledge is
created. That includes an invitation to the skills through which networks are created to apply
the knowledge generated. Developing one's personal knowledge and presenting it through a
coherent reflection or contribution, whether by means of blog posts, concept maps, video or
another tool, leads to a high-level digital literacy. The capacity to contribute to and create a
productive collaborative network is an important literacy for navigating MOOCs and the
digital economy in general. Learners get more out of courses when they a) enter with basic
digital literacies, and b) are learning within what Vygotsky (1978) would call their zone of
proximal development, rather than delving into an entirely new discourse or field. Having
some pre-existing familiarity with the topic offers points of orientation and meaning-making
within the course, and affords a learner currency in the transactional, networked interactions
of a MOOC.
To a large extent, then, a MOOC is a reflection of a society in which citizens are
active agents in the processes through which knowledge is created and disseminated. They
share the processes of knowledge work and not just the products. Facilitators model and
display sense making and way finding in their disciplines. They respond to critics and
challenges from participants in the course. Instead of sharing only their knowledge as is done
in a typical university course, they share their sense making habits and their thinking
processes with participants. A MOOC juxtaposes epistemology with ontology: the medium
is the message, as McLuhan (1964) had famously said. But, The medium is not the message
in a digital world . it is the embodiment of it said Negroponte (1995).
In 2011, 32.7% of the worlds population had access to the internet, for a total of 2.28
billion individual users. Current forecasts indicate that by 2015 the percentage will rise to
slightly over 40% of the worlds population. However, very less is known about nature and
types of technology and internet usage and their effects on culture and the rise of digital
culture. Studies of the practices of internet users are overwhelmingly focused on the
instrumental tasks associated with the technologies in question, but much more rarely
address user aims or social, cognitive, and education benefits in other words, the creation of
social capital.
But these are the variables that would make it possible to measure whether and how
computer use contributes (or not) to individual empowerment. These variables are also much
more difficult to measure than simple functional tasks. While numerous studies have
measured the skills required to perform basic technical or instrumental functions (such as the
ability to send a message, use a peertopeer network, make an online purchase, download
films or music, or to create a web page, a personal website, or a blog), they only rarely and
with difficulty measure the qualitative benefits of computer use for the individual, whether it
be finding information that is useful socially or professionally, getting a job, passing an
examination, increasing knowledge and resources in other words, to measure how
technologies increase life chances, and whether individuals are equal with respect to the uses
of technology and its richer functions.
Research shows that the ability to use digital tools is at present very unevenly
distributed. Lack of this ability is perceived psychologically as an obstacle by the more
disadvantaged social groups, and objectively as a barrier to social life and individual
empowerment, because there is such a difference in the practices of the digitally educated,
who can make use of the full potential of the internet, and the digitally marginalized, who
utilize computing resources in a much more limited way for relatively poor types of use,
primarily leisure and entertainment.
The Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics (CFCS) establishes a conceptual
foundation for the measurement of both the economic and social dimensions of culture. It
goes beyond recognizing the economic activity of formal or institutionalized culture to
include the informal non-market activity of culture creation and use. The direct and indirect
economic effects of culture are measured by calculating expenditures by consumers on
culture goods and services, including purchases of consumer products or spending at
activities that charge fees.

There is then the question of understanding, sensitizing, designing and providing
inter-cultural learning spaces in all our schools, colleges and universities for providing inter-
cultural education, both nationally and globally as per the UNESCO guidelines.
Though many changes have taken place in the uses and forms of communication
introduced by technology into the domain of culture, it is remarkable that almost no research
programme is investigating the digital audience and its use of cultural digital technology.
Studies of the practices and profiles of cultural internet users are still rare, or are based on
samples that are too small to be statistically significant. Moreover, to save on costs and
simplify the methodology, studies are more and more often based on self selecting samples
from online questionnaires, which are very prone to bias (over or undercoverage bias,
selfselection by respondents, etc.). There are also no studies of economic models of
computer use and of the human, economic, and skills resources associated with the
introduction of these new tools into cultural institutions. Few countries explore the impact of
the spread of computer use on cultural organizations, management, jobs, and professions and
Canada is one. India has surely lessons to learn on Digital Media and Digital Culture, for it to
progress towards a Digital Society.

Theme paper on Building a digital media arts culture for Canada, submitted by Independent Media Arts Alliance,
published by Govt. of Canada, URL -
George Sciadas (2002), The digital divide in Canada, Catalogue no. 56F0009XIE, ISBN: 0-662-32945-7, Statistics Canada,
Government of Canada
Theme paper on Digital Media creating Canadas digital content advantage, submitted by Digital economy- planning and
coordination, Industry Canada, published by Govt. of Canada, URL -
Alexander McAuley, Bonnie Stewart, George Siemens and Dave Cormier (2010), Massive Open Online Courses: Digital
ways of knowing and learning, created by Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and University of Prince
Edward Island.
Dr Paul Martin, Richard Morris, Angela Rogers, Dr Viv Martin and Steven Kilgallon (2012), Encouraging Creativity in
Higher Education; The Creativity Centre, University of Brighton, UK.
UNESCO (2006), Guidelines on Inter-cultural Education, Education Sector, United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization.
Anne Krebs, head of studies and research department of the Louvre museum, Chair of the ENCATC - thematic Area -
Museums in Europe (2012), Education and access to digital culture:
The current situation and future directions for European culture, a paper commissioned by the Education & Learning
Working Group, European Commission.
Canadian Conference of the Arts (2010), Arts and Culture in the Canadian National Strategy for a Digital Society, Prepared
for the Department of Canadian Industry: Digital Economy Consultation, Govt. of Canada.
Posted by Sara Morais and Subhashish Panigrahi (2013), Digital Humanities for Indian Higher Education, A multidisciplinary
Consultation paper, hosted by HEIRA, CSCS, Tumkur University, the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai
the Center for Cultural Studies (CCS) and Access To Knowledge Programme of Centre for Internet and Society (CIS),
consultation was held at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, July 13, 2013.
Indian Council for Cultural Relations, link, URL,
Kenneth Keniston and Deepak Kumar (2003), The Four Digital Divides, Sage Publishers, New Delhi.
Canadian Framework for Culture Statistics (CFCS) 2011, Social and Economic benefits of Culture, Conceptual Framework
for Culture Statistics, Statistics Canada, Govt. of Canada

Suppressed Motherhood As Reflective Narration in Gogu
Shyamalas Father May Be An Elephant and Mother
Only A Small Basket, But
S. Odelu Kumar
Lecturer In English
Government Degree College

Human nature has undergone a sea change in the last two decades. The desire to
acquire more and more beyond the levels of satisfaction has entered the psychic residue of
human beings. Man in his mad rush for material possessions has turned a blind eye to both
nature and his fellow beings. Unmindful of the consequences and bypassing all the ethical
and social obligations he has turned to exploiting nature on large scale ,causing catastrophe
for himself and his fellow beings. Nature, the most vulnerable source of all the precious and
prime possessions has become mans most sought after source of exploitation. As woman is
perceived to be the part of Nature (prakruthi) she too is not spared by man. Vulnerable
sections of women and girls are exploited physically and assaulted sexually in unspeakable
terms. The bitter irony of the age is on one hand the intellect is growing and on the other hand
the mind is shrinking! When the dichotomy widens between these ,anarchy prevails in the
society and harmony suffers at every stage.
The feminist movements of the late twentieth century have provided the women
writers with an ample ground for exploration of the problems and issues being faced by them.
Women writers in Telangana too have ventured into the field and established a mark for
themselves exploring the age old problems of gender, caste, oppression and suppression.
Gogu Shyamala hailing from Tandur region of Western Telangana is one such writer who
explores the problems of Patriarchy in the subaltern (Dalit) communities and makes her
protagonists (women and girls) invulnerable in the face of continuous onslaught of anti
human caste forces.
Gogu Shyamala edited two books:Nallapoddu: Dalitha Sthreela Sahityam 1921-2002
(Black Dawn: Dalit Womens Writings 1921-2002) and Nallaregatisallu: Madiga Madiga
Upakulala Aadolla Kathalu in 2006(Furrows in Black Soil:The Stories of Madiga and
Madiga Subcaste Women,2006)In 2011 she published a biography of a Dalit woman
politician, T.N.Sadalaxmi ;in 2012 , a collection of short stories Father May Be an Elephant
and Mother Only a Small Basket, But.., all in Telugu.The title Father May Be an Elephant
and Mother Only a Small Basket, But is a Telugu saying which means that a humble
Mother is far better than a Father who may be like an elephant. It is a collection of twelve
short stories translated by individual translators. All the twelve stories deal with the notion of
Motherhood in the context of an unassumed, rural, suppressed and oppressed environs of a
subaltern community. Of the twelve stories six stories portray the tortuous devaluated saga of
the motherhood and the other six portray the subjugated but intuitive child characters that are
also under the care of the Mother. The narration of these stories is at times intrepid, jovial and
captivating. The image of the mother and her endurance in facing the odds in the backdrop of
the caste ridden social life is parallel to none. The motherhood in all of these stories finds a

full expression teeming with boundless love and affection though haunted down by the
vagaries of caste conflicts.
The narrative technique of the stories is not a very tight and binding one says Pramod
K Nayar who reviewed the book .But it is full of mirth and natural idiom of the Dalit
community which captivates the reader. The characters are the common women, children and
men whom we encounter in our daily life in the tradition separated castaway, subdued
communities of Dalits of the Telangana state. The narratology is so impressive that the slang,
the colloquialism, the idiom, the song are all well woven to give a familiar yet unknown local
colour to the world of the characters in their little world. Obviously the writer focuses on
the Motherhood as the very first chapter opens with the playfulness of children who eagerly
await their mothers to return from fields at the sunset and rain bringing cheerful drops. But
the same rain turns out to be a cup of woes to the Mother and the entire family of the narrator
a little later as the rain lashes their home and the little belongings with its tapa tapa tan
tan tin tin music. She rues at the roof of the ruined house and says The house has become a
sieve .Where should I put what ?The sieve is symbolic of her life and the entire family whose
burden she is shouldering .But she is not cowed down by the cataclysms caused by both
nature and man. The Mothers kulla or the traditional cap made of used clothes is a
metaphor that speaks of Mothers innate love for her family. The theme of Motherhood is
intrinsically woven from the first story to the last story and it makes the twelve stories
interconnected as a single canvas. She portrays the Mother as enduring, courageous,
opinionated, yet affectionate towards her progeny and sometimes full of fury unleashing her
wrath against the male domination of the upper castes. The Mother is not only at the centre of
entire life of the community but also influences the whole cultural paradigms of Keri
(street). She nurtures her children and takes care of the family, she sings songs to motivate
other workers in the fields to enhance productivity, suggests husband to mend ways in times
of necessity ,knows how to use a sickle to smoothen delivery of a pregnant woman in the
fields, shores up the entire community to face the challenges from the upper castes either in
protecting the land from being grabbed or saving the children from being pushed into the age-
old anti human practice of jogini which has been prevalent in the region.Kancha Ilaiah in
his, Why I Am Not a Hindu, says The woman in the productive sector is the real Goddess,
not the woman in the upper castes who does not even know how to sow seeds or cultivate
lands.Shyamala with her narrative technique elevates the ordinary caste-ravaged woman of
the Dalit community to the status of Ilaiahs real Goddess.
It is with astonishment we find the Mother rise up to the occasion when the father
abandons the family of seven, fearing backlash from the affluent sections of the village on
the pretext of a theft of agricultural produce of a landlord. She tells her children that their
father had gone to city to earn money for the family .But ironically he returns empty handed.
He had left home with clothes on his body and came back in rags bemoans one of the elderly
neighbouring women. In the absence of the family head, Mother shoulders the responsibilities
of the entire family not caring the humiliations and the insults. The writers intention is
apparently to take the motherhood to epic stature as she uses capital letter M every time when
referring to Mother. Not withstanding the bitter woes, she receives harsh blows from her
husband when she refuses to give him money for toddy after his return to the home. She bears
all this with dignity and composure honouring the family tradition.Patriachy is annihilated by
passive resistance!
Sayamma and Ellamma are the other two women who perform the village rituals and
eke out their lives. The village landlord grabs Sayammas land and turns her pauper. She
waits for a chance and demands her land back if she were to perform the annual village ritual
to ward off evil. When the landlord turns adamantine she pounds upon him and shatters his
world of prestige and honour in the presence of the other landlords. He realises that Sayamma
is not a woman of ordinary mettle. Ellamma is a Chindu performer .She faces atrocities from
the upper caste lumpens, but maintains her poise and motivates her children to continue the
tradition of the family. The writer invokes the Myth of Jambavan to establish a fact that
foundations of the civilisation in the sub continent are common both for upper castes and
lower castes but in course of time some forces with vested interests created a division
between them.
In the Village Tanks Lament, Mother Nature bemoans her plight caused by the
reckless upper caste persons. They have exploited Mother Nature and ruined her. But she has
a hope that the singing-working people of the community can revive her to the original
pristine glory. The brutal nature of the exploiting community in ruining the lives of the
subalterns is exposed. In spite of the cruelties caused to her, she remains dauntless pinning
hopes on the working class of the village. The name of Ellamma as a protagonist takes place
in three stories evoking the name of Goddess of Ellamma who is viewed as the protector of
the subaltern community. In another short story Ellamma rises to the position of a proud
owner of twenty acres of land with grit and courage wading through many obstacles put forth
by the upper caste village administrative mechanism. But with her sheer intelligence and
courage of conviction she wins over them and remains a source of inspiration for the entire
community of the lower castes.
Balamma ,Shyamamma and Ellamma are the three girl protagonists for whom their
Mothers are an eternal source of inspiration.Balamma is a highly work minded girl and does
not tolerate interference in her works. She even kicks at the neighbouring landlord when he
objects the flow of canal water to her fields and earns the name of Tataki. Shyamamma
faces a grave threat of being pushed to joginiby the village upper caste head. But her
parents led by her mother foil the efforts of the evil headman. After admitting Shyamamma
secretly in a hostel in the nearby town, the village headman when he comes to know, rages
with anger and thrashes her father Balappa to swooning.Shyamammas mother begs for a
glass of water but the upper caste women refuse fearing pollution of the glass. Stunned by the
apathy of the upper caste women a companion of Shyamammas mother offers her breast
milk to Balappa to save his life. Suppressed Motherhood is elevated to the noblest levels by
this rare gesture .Ellamma, another girl protagonist provides a ray of hope to the community.
A young Brahmin boy falls in love with her by seeing her agility and bucolic beauty and
remains on firm stand of marrying her in spite of being excommunicated. His stand of
marrying a Dalit girl baffles the Brahmin community and sends jitters down the lane of the
orthodox forces. This development is a bolt from the blue for them. But Ellamma with the
support from her Mother and the community does not deter from the proposal though it looks
remotely possible. The writers vision of dissolving the caste barriers is projected in the last
story with the coming together of the deeply divided communities.
Badeyya, Adivayya and Sangayya are three young protagonists who show their
intuitive skills in helping the domestic works. They look up to their Mothers for nourishment
and guidance in many ways.Badeyya has assumed the name as he is the first boy from the
community to join the school. He is saddened deeply to see why his mother should not wear
chappals in the presence of the village landlord. He is so intuitive that one day he prepares a
pair of chappals for his mother who had an injury to her foot in the fields. Motherhood
awakens the latent talent in him. Adivayya is a name given to the boy as he was born in the
forest. He learnt many skills swiftly .He is good at learning. But he is made to sit on the floor
in the school while others sit in the benches. He is at loss as to know why he is made to sit on
the floor. His intuition is crushed by caste equations of the village. But his learning
capabilities are not subjugated.Sangayya is another young boy who is good at swimming. He
teaches swimming to four teachers who come to the village for attending a function. The
amazing talents in the village children perplex the teachers. The innocent childhood in all of
these young boys and girls finds abundance of playfulness in the lap of nature and in the lap
of their Mothers but much to their chagrin it is smothered in the hands of the upper caste
forces who nurture misanthropic feelings against them.
The social milieu in which the child characters live is full of odds and obstacles.
Their intuitive growth is hindered and hampered by both domestic and societal violence. The
beauty and innocence are crushed in them by the violent upper caste forces. The domestic
turbulences unleashed by the family head ,often the father in this case, and the hostile, anti-
human, misanthropic conditions prevailing outside the domestic sphere throw the fragile
child lives out of gear often forcing them to take protective shelter under the basket of
motherhood. The Mother as the title of the book suggests is not only a protector but also acts
as a wise guide to the children as in the image of a hen coming to the rescue of her chicken
when eagles try to kill them for their prey.
The subtle techniques of the narration in the stories take the Motherhood to the lofty
levels that can be compared only to the epic women protagonists of the literary canon. The
Mother in the stories bears violence, torture, denigration and devaluation with endurance and
humility yet rises to the occasion in providing the egalitarian enlightenment with her little
world of knowledge and education of the surroundings. With her selfless ways of living and
providing succour to her children and her family she epitomises the element of love and care
towards her progeny. Mother transcends the petty and narrow concerns of hatred, jealous,
misunderstanding that breed violence in the family. Her mother in-law is flattened by the
grace and gestures being shown upon her. It is a rare example outside the community.
Shyamala does not like to compare her Mother to any mythological protagonist as she has
made it clear in her interview with Eligedi Raj Kumar, I am of the opinion that patriarchy
has devaluated women both inside and outside family. She wants to create a new myth for
her Mother. The writer relives both as a child and as a mother in her narratives and captures
the natural spirit of living as a woman who is treated as nature itself.Shyamala hopes to
reverse the tradition of patriarchy which according to her has smothered women ,denied her
natural space in the family and society .She also hopes to have a mingling of the two streams
of cultural traditions of upper castes and lower castes forgetting the differences and forging
ahead with unity of all castes and communities, thus heralding a universal humanity. The
title of the last story Deepasundari is suggestive of the change that is likely to take place in
the minds and hearts of the upper caste forces. The inherent beauty of the lives of the
lowercases is like a celestial light that draws the upper castes towards the lower castes and
makes the confluence of the communities complete.

1. Father May Be an Elephant and Mother Only a Small Basket, But.. Gogu Shyamala, 2012; Navayana Publishing,New
2. Writers In Conversation,Vol.1, no.1 Feb-2014. (Interview with Gogu Shyamala by Eligedi Raj Kumar)
3. Why I Am Not a Hindu,Kancha Ilaiah, Samya,Calcutta,1996.
4. Review of Father May Be an Elephant and Mother Only a Small Basket, But.. by Pramod K Nayar, .

Need of New Teacher for Students
(Case study of RTM Nagpur University students)
Prof. Neelam Tikkha
12 & 13 June 2014


English has become a night mare for a number of speakers of other languages. Problem is
even further grave with students from villages who are not able to discriminate between
thing and think or between fair, fare. It is more of a problem for students from villages
because teachers are also incapable of teaching correct English. My experience as an
examiner has made me see the appalling condition of the undergraduate and post graduate
students. They are not able to comprehend the meaning of punctuation and when punctuation
exercise is given they write a paragraph on the topic. Students make meaningless sentences
with incorrect word orders and there is a mass failure. A student of BA- I writes Dr.
Babasaheb Ambedkar was a beautiful woman. There is no doubt as far as student from
Maharashtra is concerned that he knows the gender of Dr. B. R Ambedkar, definitely the
problem should be with understanding the word woman. If the basics are so poor, how can a
strong tree grow? First whiff of wind will rock the foundations of English Language in India.

This paper deals with challenges faced by learners and teachers of English. It also highlights
the solution to improve the standards of English language.


English has become a night mare for a number of speakers of other languages. It is a
grave situation since even reaching to undergraduate level students are not able to
discriminate between thing and think or between fair, fare , cute and cut, lend and
land, seen and since, know and no, drown and drawn , he and hi, flor and
floor , population and pollution the list is endless.
It is more of a problem for students from villages, because teachers are also incapable
of teaching correct English. My experience as an examiner has made me see the appalling
condition of the undergraduate and post graduate students. They are not able to comprehend
the meaning of the word punctuation and when punctuation exercise is given they write a
paragraph taking cue from the lines that are given.
A student of BA- I writes Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was a beautiful woman. There
is no doubt as far as student from Maharashtra is concerned that he knows the gender of Dr.
B. R Ambedkar, definitely the problem should be with understanding the word woman. A
student, in an answer to the question What was Buddhas discovery under the Bo tree?
wrote Gautam Buddha people tree (BA-I). It is a clear indicator that there is confusion
between Peepal and people. Students make meaningless sentences with incorrect word
order. Then the answer sheets are full of grammatical errors. A student of BA II is unable to
fill in even the blank spaces with correct grammar and the answers that they give are:
When he walking along the road, a lorry ran over him.
He having a car.
I would resign if I will be you.
I learning languages since I was in school.
It rains when he came in.
The match began at 9:30 tomorrow morning.
Kalidas will be lived 2000 years ago.
It would be an eye sore and cacopsis to list out the errors made by the student. This is
not the condition of one or two students but, 98 percent students write in a similar fashion.
The essay on pollution by a student of BA-11 goes like this:
Pollution is very bad dirty in the man of life . thank God men is not fly,
the sky and earth . Pollution bad is the veical, water pollution, soil
pollution, earth noise pollution, paper pollution etc.
the water pollution is the different Karkhan . air pollution is two willer ,
four willer dirty is bad pollution condition the man life heart and body
sycal is not continuous start the man. Is the sty for the root than is very
bad Condition pollution is only there is air pollution .Water pollution man
life tribal two hear between the man life and man is cant the alive in
So man Important the frees air puery water .pure soil so man is alive and
not the long time .
Pollution and pollution effect of life . Man creat a pollution and her body
the man of very bad condition in the city. The pollution is very bad and
her body, the man of very bad condition in the city the pollution is very
bad condition of India.
It is evident that the student is not only poor in grammar but, also in punctuation.
He is even unaware of capitalization. If this is the condition of Capitalization then
coma and full point are a distant dream.
One would roll with laughter if one was to read the letter written by another
student :
What are you doing Anita? My hous My birthday party to was you family
inviting whear birthday party to was you family inviting her attend youre the
about cousin, whear birthday the most like you. I would , party of the city sakoli
the two different principal rittelin and any friend inviting you and any day friend
inviting you. The match begins the high. I have to the samdil. So bid I . not was
many the along the road a so the you birthday party. You so well come my
birthday party. I how so to mach attend youre my birthday party . I how so to
much attend youre my birthday party. I how so to much other youre my birthday

party. I him the Anita sisters to welcome And family .Pap and you cousin inviting
him atleast my birthday party.
There will be dinner and music. Many of over friends will be present in the party.
You company on the ocation will be a source of great pleasure to us all. So it is my
earnest request that you will be present in the party.
More expecting eager to meet you.
Thank/ you
Your over
It is disgusting to even go through this mail full of mistakes.
If one was to read the application or an informal letter would feel great sorry for the
universities that are churning out unemployable youth and leaving them frustrated.
The condition is same with literature student. It is shameful to read sentences like this
written by literature students: In Shakespeares drama there is Antony play the very
important role.
I wonder, the need of wasting time and money by the university on getting paper
scrutinized and moderated when 98% students write crap. Examiner has to labour more as
compared to the labour put in by the student in writing the exam.
Another, factor that is increasing this pathetic condition is the myth and actual
practice of most teachers. It has been fitted into the minds of the students that no examiner
would read the answer sheets and the students must just keep on filling pages with crap.
Another, practice that has been promoted is the practice of writing summary. Whatever may
be asked in the question the student can get good marks by writing summary, which has
been dictated by the teachers and memorized by the students.
The students are in helpless state since they have nobody to look up to teachers
themselves are poor in grammar and notes available are of poor quality. If we see the popular
notes that are available they are so bad that they are adding to the misery of students since
they are memorizing incorrect English which is adding to their problem. For Example : The
notes for final year that are available commits following blasphemy:
Dr. Gardner had proposed to Mrs. Prout to marry her
The urban man is eager to enjoy the pleasures of nature as they are available in a
countryside. (Ananymous)
Students also make mistake in writing for example p and b and d and g are written in
such a way that it is confusing.
If the basics are so poor, how can a strong tree grow? First whiff of the wind will rock the
foundations of English Language in India.
My experience of valuing and moderating university exam papers has made me think the
future of students. There has been an increase in number of students who have acquired
degree but do not deserve one. It is seen that number of youth that can be employed are very
Kyle Wiens, CEO of the iFixit online also has zero tolerance approach, but he
differs slightly in his perception of zero tolerance approach. According to him
those poor in grammar deserve to be passed over for a job even if they are
otherwise qualified for the position and says that, I won't hire people who use
poor grammar. He believes that language is a face of any organisation and on the
Internet platform poor grammar will hamper communication, which in turn will
waste time and money would be lost.
He further strongly adds that:
everyone who applies for a position at either of my companies, iFixit
or Dozuki, takes a mandatory grammar test.if job hopefuls cant
distinguish between to and too, their applications go into the
bin.grammar is relevant for all companies. Grammar is credibility,
especially on the internet. In blog posts, on Facebook statuses, in e-
mails, and on company websites, your words are all you have. They are
a projection of you in your physical absence. Good grammar makes
good business sense If it takes someone more than 20 years to
notice how to properly use its, then thats not a learning curve Im
comfortable with. So, even in this hyper-competitive market, I will pass
on a great programmer who cannot write.
Good programmers are more than just code monkeys; according to
Stanford programming legend Donald Knuth they are essayists who
work with traditional aesthetic and literary forms. (Tumblr)The point:
programming should be easily understood by real human beings not
just computers.
And just like good writing and good grammar, when it comes to
programming, the devils in the details.Grammar is my litmus test. All
applicants say theyre detail-oriented; I just make my employees prove
it. (Wiens)
People who cannot discriminate between their / there/ theyre are not fit for any job.

Figure : U no Hire me (Wiens)

Kyle Wiens has an interesting take on the value of good grammar he writes in the Harvard
Business Review:
Grammar signifies more than just a persons ability to remember high school
English. Ive found that people who make fewer mistakes on a grammar test also make fewer
mistakes when they are doing something completely unrelated to writing like stocking
shelves or labeling parts (Bennetts)
In general communication, errors can be ignored if the context is able to clarify the
meaning for example a teenage on the chat writes my message alert is not working . It is

not difficult to make out that his mobile alert is not working. But, in the IT industry, for
example, the writer of a Use Case needs to be hundred percent sure that the message he is
trying to convey to the programmer reflects precisely what the customer demands.

Figure : A UML Use Case Diagram for the interaction of a client ( the actor ) and a
restaurant ( the system) (Anonymous)
There are a number of challenges before the teachers of undergraduate and
postgraduate teachers. It is highly important that schools should have recorded lectures of
experts through which language should be taught. For example what is done in the Open
University like IGNOU. Gujarat has started knowledge consortium. If this problem is not
tackled at school level it is highly difficult to tackle at college level, since students do not
attend colleges and no strict discipline can be enforced on them for there are a variety of
options and there is always a risk of losing students to other college. College teachers have to
do marketing and run for admissions advertising from door to door distributing pamphlets.
This is the very reason strictness cannot be imposed on students.
Students are aggressive by nature and do not listen to teachers. They are aware that it
is the need of the institute not so much theirs. The good thing is that the students are attracted
towards new technology hence, if this source is tapped then some results can be expected. In
some advanced countries like England children will learn from twitter the interviews of
famous personalities. ( Twitter the New Teacher ) Teachers should decide that students who
fail to achieve a particular standard or writes summary should not be allowed to clear the
exam. At least, this will help them to prepare for future employment.
It is highly essential that burden of teaching should be shifted on technology and
teacher should remain the facilitator. Good English, knowledge of using internet and of
computer are backbone for success. If a person fails in any of these the state is comparable to
being diseased and it is like as if he suffers from virus which will militate against his success
and kill his chances of getting good job. It is very important to have interesting content
designed in a lucid manner and should have application value, so that students feel interested
and love to read. The content should be common all over India prepared by experts and
delivered through satellite. It is also important that working should be in English in all
government offices so that students are left with no option of avoiding studying English.
Anonymous. Wikpedia. 2 March 2014. 2 March 2014 <>.
Anonymous. Easy Notes B. A Final, Jai Om Hari Nath Publications, 2013.
BBC WORLD NEWS , Twitter The New Teacher ,7th May, 2014.
Bennetts, Ben. "Things Unrespeted." 18 January 2013. 2 March 2014 < I Wont Hire People Who Use
Poor Grammar. Heres Why. from the Harvard Business Review ,18 January 2013 .>.

Hugh Stretton, Australia Fair. UNSW Press, 2005.
St. Louis Globe-Democrat, March 17, 1885.
Stephanie Hackert, "A Discourse-Historical Approach to the English Native Speaker." World Englishes--Problems,
Properties and Prospects, ed. by Thomas Hoffmann and Lucia Siebers. John Benjamins, 2009.
Tumblr, Ajay. "More Than 95 Theses." 20 July 2012. Blog. 7 May 2014 <, July20,2012.>.
Van, Ans( ed.).Tongue to World Language." The Handbook of the History of English, Kemenade and Bettelou Los.
Blackwell, 2006.
Wiens, Kyle. "I won't hire people who use poor Grammar ." Harvard Business Review 8 Jan 2012: np.
Suzanne Romaine, "Global English: From Island

Women Empowerment Through Films : A Comparative
Study of Two Hindi Films
Somak Sen
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Expressive Cultures, Media and Communication
Himgiri Zee University, Dehradun
E Mail:

Introduction :
A film is the outcome of various social events. People see films for entertainment, and
the content of their entertainment is often based on social events. Nowadays many films are
released at regional level as well as national level which are based on different topics.
Women empowerment is one of them. Characterisation as well as portrayal of ladies in some
films is done in such way which indicates uplift of women in the society in terms of moral,
social and ethical values. This is an attempt to upgrade the social position of women in a
male-dominated society, which can be considered as one of the step stones of women
empowerment. This article would focus on two Bollywood based films namely Gulaab
Gang and Mardaani, where women empowerment as well as role of female has been
projected in such a form which can challenge any male-dominated society. India is a country
where male domination has been in practice since time immemorial. In such a country, the
projection of women in a bold form which can be categorised completely different from the
prevailing status, certainly raises the eye brows. Though these types of films are not new, but
these two films have been chosen basically for their plot and projection of female figures in
recent days.
Mardaani, a Hindi film, produced by Aditya Chopra and directed by Pradeep Sarkar,
was released on August 22, 2014 and mainly focussed on the role of a woman police
inspector against social evils and finally the achievement of victory. Gulaab Gang, was also
a Hindi film, produced by Anubhav Sinha and directed by Soumik Sen, released on March 7,
2014, portrays the group of a few self reliant women, who protects themselves from
contemporary social evils and at the same time shows the ways to earn livelihood in an
independent way. These two films are different from each other in one context the purview
of legal aspects. If Gulaab Gang projects the women empowerment in an illegal way, the film
Mardaani represents a particular woman as the role model of the future women generations in
a legal way.
Plot analysis
In Mardaani, Rani Mukherjee alias Shivani Shivaji Roy, the lead actress is a police
inspector who shows her bravery and skill to smite away evils from the society. In no case,
she is less competent than any of her male counterparts, whether in action, merit as well as
performance. Her sole aim to save the girls from child sex trafficking from a particular
underworld gang achieved success while she became able to bust the kingpin of the
trafficking channel.
The film Mardaani depicts one of the growing social evils of our country child sex
trafficking. Presently, India is considered as the hub of this crime throughout the world. As

per the records of the National Crime Record Bureau, nearly 40000 girls are abducted every
year in India. One girl child gets kidnapped in this country in every eight minute. Though
these are the information presented at the climax of the film, the main plot of the film is
based on the similar story. A girl named Pyari, known to Rani Mukhjerjee got abducted from
an orphan-home. While Rani came to know about her abduction, she and her teammates tried
their best to grab the kingpin of this gang and finally became able to get success.
The movie begins with the scene where Rani Mukherjee, the Senior Inspector of
Police, Crime Branch, Mumbai, in disguise of a normal woman, clad in saree, enters in to the
den of an infamous rogue and nabbed him. In the first half of the movie, while Rani
Mukherjee controls an eccentric mob, engaged in violence; her words are just like a dare
devil inspector. Apne papa ko mere nam thik se bol..ukhar.. ukhar jo ukhar lega (Tell you
father my name whatever you can) this type of statement presents the view that
a woman, if empowered properly, can be no less powerful than a male counterpart in terms of
controlling law and order.
While getting the culprit of the trafficking gang over a telephonic conversation, {To
tu us racket ka baap hai (So you are the father of the racket)}, Rani Mukherjee posed a
vibrant feminine character which unveils her super-cop quality. While challenging the
kingpin of the trafficking gang, Ranis bold versions like Pyari ko tere ghar se leke jaungi,
lekin ayoungi jarur (I shall take away Pyari directly from your home, but I would definitely
come) represents the superhuman capability of a woman which earlier used to be put in a
mans lips.
The entire plot of this film is based on busy streets of Mumbai and Delhi where crime
takes place in new formats every now and then. Veiled in the cover of colourful civilization,
the rich urban Mumbaikaars and Delhities (popular terms of the residents of Mumbai and
Delhi respectively), face modified version of crime very often. In such scenario, women
empowerment is not new. But to deal with infamous goons and political honchos at crucial
level and that is even by a woman inspector is certainly praiseworthy. During the shootouts at
the blind lanes of Delhi at midnight, befooling the auto rickshaw driver and travelling
through bus holding an external iron rod, Rani Mukherjee undoubtedly raises the status of so-
called traditional posture of Indian woman.
Gulaab Gang is just the opposite presentation of women than in Mardaani. Here a
gang of rural-ladies, led by Madhuri Dixit alias Rajjo acts as a terrible force against all kinds
of social malpractices done against women sect. The list includes dowry, rape, social dignity,
oppression, domestic violence, post-marital torture, etc. Based in the rural areas of Madhya
Pradesh, the film rightly represents the condition of average women and their distress in the
society. Amid such a scenario, the Gulaab Gang executes its agenda. The name is Gulaab
Gang because the members of this gang wear pink coloured (colour of rose) sarees. That is
their identity. Sometimes, the women, clad in pink sarees and armed with country made sharp
weapons, surround the district magistrate office for fulfilling the demands which have been
pending for long, or sometimes rescue victims of post marital domestic violence, or even
assist police to nab the plunderers, etc. While shouting bhaag (rush) after beating the
plunderers black and blue, Madhuri emerges as an antagonist of the entire social system,
which is villainous to the women sect. While saying words like Are apne liye ji, jo beet gai
to baat gayi, the tomboy character aka Divya Jagdale eptimosies the fact that women can
live without the help of a man too in such a world through her own expertise. This is the
beginning of the women domination in this film. As the members of the Gulaab Gang enter
the house of a post-marital domestic violence victim, the conversation followed by a physical
action Ab to na ayegi is ghar pe, ab jitno paise mile hai byaz samet lata dio ek hapte ke
andar, nai to itto mar mare hai, ke asli bap se sakal mila ne me zindegi bit jaye.. projects the
valiant posture of ladies in society. Here I would like to draw the traditionally rich Indian
culture of worshipping ladies as the Devi mata (Goddess). India is a country in the world
where many deities in the form of women are getting worshipped. A similarity has been
found in this perspective where the marginalized section worships Madhuri and her Gulaab
Gang as their sole guardian.
After teaching a lesson to a brutal husband in front of the public, Madhuri says
Humare yaha gara ko sagun mana jata hai (we prefer number eleven as gift). This was
actually the very representation of the English proverb Tit for tat, slapping eleven times a
person who used to torture his wife brutally even after marriage for dowry. Words like tango
ke beech me lath marenge na (would kick between your legs..) present the ruthless images
of women who can be equalised to those male in terms of committing violence.
At the same time, Juhi Chawla as Sumitra Devi plays the role of a shrewd politician
who can do anything to meet her interests. While controlling her party mans temperament
by saying sawan ka mahina, pawan kare sor (Wind usually gets violent during the
monsoon), Juhi represents the very image of the top brass politicians, who know very well
how to control the party men as well as rivals at a single time. Basically Juhi is the centre of
all political power in this film against whom finally Madhuri and her Gulaab Gang would
contest politically. Both of them (Madhuri and Juhi) hardly care the law and order to meet
their goals, which is generally parctised by many Indian politicians in reality. Both Juhi and
Madhuri become rivals of each other while Madhuri denies forming an alliance with Juhis
political party. Despite getting several requests in a political way from the end of Juhi
Chawla, Madhuris stand as a friend of the oppressed section and foe of the ruling section
even portrays her ultra communist ideologies. Pragmatism always prevails above moral and
ethical values in a complex society. The similar circumstance gets approved in this film also.
The planned murder of one of Madhuris most loyal member of Gulaab Gang proves the
womens entrapment into male chauvinism as well as political conspiracy. The film reaches
its climax with a violent warfare between the Gulaab Gang members and the political goons
led by Juhi. The subsequent events describe the arrest of Madhuri as well as Juhi Chawla and
their imprisonment, though Madhuri has been projected as a pioneer of social reforms.
As this article is mainly focusing on women empowerment in terms of the projection
of women sect valiantly, we should express in brief what mainly empowerment speaks of. In
the communication studies, the word empowerment has been used in different perspectives
and for many times. The word empowerment is inextricably related to the word power. It is
impossible to trace the importance as well as significance of empowerment without
understanding the power. Foucault (1980) suggests that power is only meaningful in social
relations. Jo Rowlands states that power has many dimensions power over (controlling
power), power to (generating new possibilities without domination), power with (collective
power), power from within (spiritual strength that inspires and energizes others), etc.1 In both
the movies (Gulaab Gang and Mardaani), all these kinds of powers have been reflected at
different contexts. If Mardaani reflects the power over, Gulaab Gang projects rest forms of
power. If we go deeply, we can find that in Gulaab Gang, the fight between different
perspectives of power is mainly between two classes - marginalised and policy makers.
Whereas in Mardaani, it is the projection of real power in terms of personal empowerment
i.e. developing individual consciousness and confidence to confront oppression) (Jo
Rowlands 1998). 2 In conclusion, I must say that such films can certainly work for the
advancement of the women sect through the acknowledgement of women empowerment
throughout the society.
1 and 2: Steeves, Leslie.H & Melkote, Srinivas. R. Communication for development in the third world. Sage Publications
India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. Second edition, 2103. pp 36.
3. Mardaani, a Hindi film, dialogues from the main movie, released in 2014.
4. Gulaab Gang, a Hindi film, dialogues from the main movie, released in 2014.