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2.1 Definition of Alternating Current

The alternating current is an electric current which reverses direction with a frequency so
that it is called AC current (Alternating Current). In alternating current, GGl and current have more
than one direction or direction as a function of time. Source Alternating current is alternating
current generator. The alternating current generator consists of a square bucket rotated in a
magnetic field. Alternating current is Differentiated between alternating current sinusoidal pattern
and non sinusoidal pattern

Sinusoidal pattern non- sinusoidal pattern

The alternating current source is a generator, an alternating current generator consisting of

a rectangular coil that is rotated in a magnetic field. The electric motion force (GGL) generated by
the generator changes periodically according to the sine or cosine functions. GGL sinusoid is
produced by a rotating coil with a fixed angular rate. The resulting voltage is a sinusoidal voltage
with the following equation:

= NBA sin t or = m sin t

m = NBA = maximum electric force
N = Number of coil rolls
A = coil area
B = magnetic induction
= angular frequency
Electrical loads in alternating current can be resistor (R), capacitor (C) and inductor (L).

2.2 Effective Value (Root Mean Square), Average Value, and Maximum value

The effective value of alternating current is the value of alternating current and voltage
equivalent to direct current and voltage to produce the same amount of heat and through a
resistor in the same time. the relationship between the effective current and voltage with
maximum current and voltage is given by:

The average value of an alternating current is a value that is considered equivalent to a

direct current which keeps the same amount of electrical charge at the same time. The
magnitude of the average voltage and current strength is formulated

Vm = maximum voltage (V) Ief = effective current (A)

Vef = effective voltage (V) Vr = average voltage (V)
Im = max current (A) Ir = average current (A)
2.3 Resesive, Inductive and Capacitive Circuits

a. Resistor

A circuit consisting of a resistance R conected with an AC current source is called a

resistive circuit. Look at the picture below.

In the resistive circuit, the voltage and current will have the same phase as shown in the
curve figure above. In the resistive circuit apply the formula :

And the relationship between Vm and Im:

V = momentary voltage (V) = frequency

I = momentary current (A)
= Period
R = resistance (ohms)
= 2 =
= the angular velocity
b. Inductive Circuits (L)

The inductive circuit is a circuit consisting of an inductor connected to the AC voltage. In

the inductive circuit, the phase difference between voltage and current is / 2 with a voltage
preceding a current of / 2 or you can call its current / 2 overdue from the voltage. As in
the following graph

In the inductive circuit, when the current on the inductor changes, an electric force will
develop between the ends of the inductor whose magnitude is formulated :

The amount of current and voltage in the inductive circuit is formulated

If the resistance in the inductive circuit through which the alternating current is defined as
the inductive reactance (XL) then XL is formulated :

L = inductance inductor
Vmax = maximum voltage on inductor (Volt)
VL = voltage between the ends of the inductor (Volt)
c. Capacitive Circuits (C

Capacitive circuit consists of capacitor C which is connected with AC voltage. In a

capacitive circuit, the phase difference between the voltage and current is / 2 with the
current preceding the tang of / 2. The graph is as follows:

If the resistance in the capacitive circuit through which the alternating current is
interpreted as a capacitive reactance Xc then the magnitude Xc can be formulated as

The amount of current and voltage in the capacitive circuit is formulated

And the relationship between Vm and Im:

XL = capacitive reactance (ohms)

C = capacitor capacity (C)
d. Impedance (Z)

A conductor in an alternating current circuit has a resistance, inductive reactance, and a

capasitive reactance. To simplify the problem, we observe an alternating current circuit
inside which is composed of a resistor R, a coil R, an inductive coil L and a capacitor C.
According to the ohms law, the voltage between the ends of the circuit:

V = VR + VL + VC

With the vector sum is obtained:

. = ( 1 )2 + 2

2.4 RL, RC and RLC circuits

The RL, RC, LC and RLC circuits are combinations of resistors, inductors and / or
capacitors arranged in series. Before discussing the above four types of circuit above, it is
necessary to know first that the current and the applied voltage are the effective current (Ief) and
the effective voltage (Vef). While in the recessive, inductive and pure capacitive circuits in the
previous discussion using maximum current and voltage.

a. Series circuit between R and L

If the resistor and indukor (R and L) series assembled and connected to a source of tension
was back and forth the applicable formula
b. Series circuit between R and C

If the resistance and capacitor (R and C) are coupled series and then connected to an
alternating voltage source then

c. Series circuit R, L, and C

If the resistance, the inductor, and the capacitor are strung together then connected to a
voltage source back and forth then
If XL> Xc then the circuit is inductive, because q is positive
2. If Xc> XL then the circuit is capacitive, because q is negative
3. Apbaila XL. = X c then the circuit is resistive, resonance Z = R, q = 0 with the
frequency and velocity of resonance angle formulated

L = inductance of inductor (H)

C = capacitance of capacitor (F)