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CAUSES AND FACTORS OF ANTI-AMERICANISM IN PAKISTAN

RESEARCH SCHOLAR

Hamad Khan
NDU-PCS/M.P-14/S-211

Research Supervisor
Dr.Khurram Iqbal

Department of Peace and Conflict Studies


Faculty of Contemporary Studies
National Defence University
Islamabad, Pakistan
2016
CAUSES AND FACTORS OF ANTI-AMERICANISM IN PAKISTAN

M.PHIL THESIS

RESEARCH SCHOLAR
Hamad Khan
NDU-PCS/M.P-14/S-211

This Dissertation is submitted to National Defence University, Islamabad in


Partial fulfillment for the degree of Masters of Philosophy in Peace and Conflict
Studies 2016

Research Supervisor
Dr.Khurram Iqbal

Department of Peace and Conflict Studies


Faculty of Contemporary Studies
National Defence University
Islamabad, Pakistan
2016
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION

We hereby recommend that the dissertation submitted by Mr. Hamad Khan, title Causes and
Factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistanbe accepted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the degree of M.Phil in the discipline of Peace and Conflict Studies.

________________________

Supervisor

_________________________

External Examiner

Countersigned by

___________________________ _________________________

Controller Examination Head of Department

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SCHOLARS DECLARATION

I, Hamad Khan, Registration No. NDU-PCS/M.P-14/S-211, student of M.Phil program in Peace


and Conflict Studies at National Defence University, Islamabad solemnly declare that the study
titled Causes and Factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistan is my own work and that, to the
best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by
another person. This study was not submitted already and shall not be submitted in the future to
obtain a degree from same or another University or institution.

_____________________

Hamad Khan

M.Phil (Peace and Conflict Studies)

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SUPERVISORS CERTIFICATE

The dissertation titled Causes and Factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistan by Hamad


Khan, Registration No. NDU-PCS/M.P-15/S-211 has been completed under my supervision and
is submitted to meet the requirements of M.Phil degree in the discipline of Peace and Conflict
Studies.

_______________________

Dr. Khurram Iqbal

National Defence University,Islamabad

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DEDICATION

I solemnly dedicate my dissertation work to my loving parents, for their endless


support and encouragement, without them, this would not have been possible. A
special gratitude to my supervisor and teachers, who guided and supported me at
every step, backed me enough to reach its completion.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank the one above all of us, the Omnipresent God, for his blessings
and mighty grace over me. Secondly, it would not have been possible to write this thesis without
the help and support of the kind people around me. It is a pleasure to thank all of those who
made this possible.

I express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Dr.Khurram Iqbal for the continual support of
my research, for his patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. His guidance
helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis.

My heart felts thanks to my parents, brothers and friends. They were always supporting and
encouraging me with their best wishes. Prayers, love, and care of my mother and father have
always been the key to my success. A special thanks to my caring and sweet friend FarmanUllah,
Hamid khan and Hassan Javed Khan, who helped me a lot in the completion my work.

Last but not the least my warmest thanks to my friends, Kosar Khan, Mohammad Ali,Sundas
Sajjad, Jamil Ahmad Sheikh, Ambreen, Faisal, Mahnoor, Sheraz, Junaid and Bilal for their
company and prayers.

Hereby, with the completion of this study, it gives me the pleasure to express my appreciation
towards all those who helped me in completing this research work, especially the respondents
who took their time out to help me, reach its end.

Hamad Khan

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ABSTRACT

This study aims at exploring the causes and factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani society.
Pakistani society is influenced by a number of elements that contribute towards its general
negative view of the United States. Despite the fact that all through Pakistans history, total
dispositions towards the United States have never overwhelmingly positive, it hit the skids
following the 9/11. This study makes the quantitative comparison and analysis of Anti-
Americanism in between the modern educational institutions and Islamic seminaries. This study
specifically analyses the Global war on Terror and Anti-Americanism in Pakistan and its impacts
on the domestic situation of Pakistan. The events that are analyzed in this research are focused
around the Post 9/11 Anti-American sentiments in Pakistan. Semi-Structured Questionnaire has
been used for the survey from the respondents. The statements and questions asked in the
questionnaire were designed to quantify and compare the determinants of Anti-American
sentiments between the modern educational institutions and Islamic seminaries of various
schools of thought. Sample of this study constitutes of University students and Madrassa
students. The findings suggest that both the Madrassa and university students as the mainstream
line of Pakistani society have the equal level of Anti-American sentiments with logical and
balance views about it. The study also reveals that the United States can improve its relations
with the Muslim world, especially Pakistan, if it stops interfering in the affairs of the Muslim
countries. They stressed Pakistan to look for other options in terms of Russia and China. So, the
overall study concludes that Anti-American sentiments are equally prevalent among both
Madrasa and University students.

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Table of Contents
Certificate of Completion .................................................................................................................... i
Scholars Declaration ......................................................................................................................... ii
Supervisors Certificate ..................................................................................................................... iii
Dedication.........................................................................................................................................iv
Acknowledgement..............................................................................................................................v
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................vi
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms .....................................................................................................x
List of Tables .....................................................................................................................................xi
List of Figures ...................................................................................................................................xii
Chapter # 01.......................................................................................................................................1
1.1. Introduction............................................................................................................................1
1.2. Research Question...................................................................................................................2
1.3. Statement of the problem........................................................................................................3
1.4. Hypothesis ..............................................................................................................................4
1.5. Significance of the Study ..........................................................................................................4
1.6. Limitations of the Study ...........................................................................................................4
1.7. Literature Review ....................................................................................................................5
1.8. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 14
1.9. Organization of the Study....................................................................................................... 14
Chapter # 02..................................................................................................................................... 15
2.1. Theoretical Framework.......................................................................................................... 15
2.2. Research Methodology.......................................................................................................... 19
2.2.1. Participant observation................................................................................................... 20
2.2.2. Questionnaire ................................................................................................................ 20
2.2.3. Case Study ..................................................................................................................... 21
2.2.4. Sampling ....................................................................................................................... 21
2.2.4.1. Simple Random Sampling ........................................................................................ 21
2.2.4.1. Snowball Sampling.................................................................................................. 22
2.2.5. Data Tabulation and Analysis .......................................................................................... 22

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2.3. Area Profile................................................................................................................................ 22
2.3.1. History ............................................................................................................................ 23
2.3.2. Introduction.................................................................................................................... 23
2.3.3. Government.................................................................................................................... 23
2.3.4. Union Councils ................................................................................................................ 24
2.3.5. Area and Population ........................................................................................................ 24
2.3.6. Climate ........................................................................................................................... 24
2.3.4. Tribes............................................................................................................................. 25
2.3.5. Economy........................................................................................................................ 25
2.3.6. Transport....................................................................................................................... 25
2.3.7. Health............................................................................................................................ 26
2.3.8. Education ...................................................................................................................... 26
Chapter # 03..................................................................................................................................... 27
Global War on Terror and Anti-Americanism in Pakistan ..................................................................... 27
3.1. Introduction............................................................................................................................... 27
3.1.1. The U.S. Theory of Mistrust.................................................................................................. 30
3.1.2. Pakistans Rationale of Dishonesty........................................................................................ 31
3.2. United States Influence and Pakistans Foreign Policy (2001-2014), Responsible for Worsening the
Internal Conditions of Pakistan .......................................................................................................... 32
Chapter # 04..................................................................................................................................... 55
Determinants of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani Society ...................................................................... 55
4.1. Manifestations of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani Society .............................................................. 55
4.2. Terrorism in Pakistan.................................................................................................................. 66
4.3. United States and its Ally ............................................................................................................ 74
4.4. Indo-US Relations and Anti-Americanism in Pakistan.................................................................... 77
4.5. US Drone Strikes in Pakistan ....................................................................................................... 80
4.6. Drone Attacks and Pakistan Government..................................................................................... 83
4.7.1.China ................................................................................................................................... 88
4.7.2. Russia ................................................................................................................................. 88
Chapter # 05..................................................................................................................................... 96
Major Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations ............................................................................ 96
5.1. Major Findings ........................................................................................................................... 96

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5.2.Conclusion.................................................................................................................................. 98
5.3. Recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 99
5.3.1. For United States................................................................................................................. 99
5.3.2. For Pakistan ...................................................................................................................... 100
Bibliography................................................................................................................................... 102
Questionnaire ................................................................................................................................ 111

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Abbreviation Subject

CIA Central Intelligence Agency

CENTCOM Central Command


CARs Central Asian Republicans

EPPA Enhanced Partnership with Pakistan Act

FATA Federally Administered Tribal Areas


GHQ General Head Quarter

GLOC Ground Line of Communication

GWOT Global War on Terror

IST Institute of Space Technology


ICMAP Islamabad Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Pakistan

ISI Inter-Services Intelligence

MAJU Muhammad Ali Jinnah University

NUML National University of Modern Languages


NUST National University of Science and Technology

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

PIEAS Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences

PIDE Pakistan Institute of Development Economics


PSF People Students Federation

TTP Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan

WTC World Trade Center


ZABIST Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology

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LIST OF TABLES

1 Table No. 1A Page 56


2 Table No. 1B Page 57
3 Table No. 2A Page 59
4 Table No. 2B Page 59
5 Table No. 3A Page 61
6 Table No. 3B Page 62
7 Table No. 4A Page 64
8 Table No. 4B Page 64
9 Table No. 5A Page 67
10 Table No. 5B Page 67
11 Table No. 6A Page 70
12 Table No. 6B Page 70
13 Table No. 7A Page 72
14 Table No. 7B Page 73
15 Table No. 8A Page 75
16 Table No. 8B Page 75
17 Table No. 9A Page 77
18 Table No. 9B Page 78
19 Table No. 10A Page 81
20 Table No. 10B Page 82
21 Table No. 11A Page 84
22 Table No. 11B Page 84
23 Table No. 12A Page 87
24 Table No. 12B Page 87
25 Table No. 13A Page 91
26 Table No. 13B Page 91
27 Table No. 14A Page 93
28 Table No. 14B Page 94

xi
LIST OF FIGURES

1 Figure No. 1A Page 57


2 Figure No. 1B Page 58
3 Figure No. 2A Page 60
4 Figure No. 2B Page 60
5 Figure No. 3A Page 62
6 Figure No. 3B Page 63
7 Figure No. 4A Page 65
8 Figure No. 4B Page 65
9 Figure No. 5A Page 68
10 Figure No. 5B Page 68
11 Figure No. 6A Page 71
12 Figure No. 6B Page 71
13 Figure No. 7A Page 73
14 Figure No. 7B Page 74
15 Figure No. 8A Page 76
16 Figure No. 8B Page 76
17 Figure No. 9A Page 79
18 Figure No. 9B Page 79
19 Figure No. 10A Page 82
20 Figure No. 10B Page 83
21 Figure No. 11A Page 85
22 Figure No. 11B Page 86
23 Figure No. 12A Page 89
24 Figure No. 12B Page 90
25 Figure No. 13A Page 92
26 Figure No. 13B Page 92
27 Figure No. 14A Page 95
28 Figure No. 14B Page 95

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Chapter # 01

1.1. Introduction

The U.S. - Pakistan relationship has been described by delicacy, doubt and misperceptions since
the conception of the Pakistan. Pakistani society is influenced by a number of factors that
contribute towards its general negative view of the United States. It includes the American
policies towards Pakistan, its traditional demand of Do-more and furthermore Pakistans own
evolving political structure. Despite the fact that all through Pakistans history, total dispositions
towards the United States have never been overwhelmingly positive, it hit the skids following the
9/11. The United States Global War on Terror (GWOT) after 9/11 gives an opportunity to look at
the effects of the American policies for Pakistan. It also gives a chance to study the American
anti-Pakistan policies in the light of the changing Pakistan domestic situation. It is important to
look the aftereffects of Anti-Americanism in order to better light up the United States foreign
policy towards the major countries in South Asia, a region of economic and geopolitical
significance. The case of Pakistan provides a special opportunity to find out and research the
notion of anti-Americanism in a key frontline state against global terrorism, where democratic
institutions have traditionally been weak, an unpredictable political history and complex
socioeconomic and ethnic divides.

It is critical to look beyond the major features and getting a better understanding of how anti-
Americanism is constructed in Pakistan. There is a little examination till date on its profound
established causes and factors in Pakistan, which makes the discussion with this important
strategic U.S. accomplice constrained and inadequate.

Americas perception about the Islamic seminaries is highly negative, which have contributed to
augment the Anti-American feelings in Pakistan. In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, the western
media targeted the madrasas and other religious schools working in the Muslim countries and
consider that they are the terrorist factories that promote and export terrorism and extremism. In
the historical consequence of the Islamist assault on America, the responses to these inquiries
appeared glaringly evident. Donald Rumsfeld (Secretary of Defence) and Colin Powell(Secretary
of the State) were not known for their concurrence on Foreign Policy matters, yet one thing they

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united upon was the danger postured by Madrasas and they portrayed madrasas as a reproducing
ground for terrorists and fundamentalists. They viewed and focused madrasas as centres of
hatred and terror incubators. Furthermore, they are responsible for propagating anti-Americanism
across the Muslim world.1 As a result of which the deep seated anti- Americanism runs
throughout the Muslim world. A large portion of Taliban pioneers, including Mullah Omer, were
prepared at Akora Khattack Madrassa. On the off chance, that its teachings have been rebuked
for moving the fierce and presenting the conservative picture of Islam. There is no sign that
Haqqania is embarrassed about its previous members. Rather, the Madrasas executive Maulana
Sami-ul-Haq, still gladly gloats that at whatever point the Taliban put out a call for warriors, he
would just shut down the Madrassa and sends his students off to battle. In various ways, Akora
khattack speaks to everything that the US policy makers are most apprehensive in this area, a
bastion of religious, scholarly and sometimes as the Taliban-military imperviousness to pax
America and all it speaks.2 In the later years, the Pakistani public protests against the American
policies have empowered the thought that particular American policies, for example, the
American drone attack program, straightforwardly prompt anti- Americanism sentiments in the
country. It is believed that there is a more intricate picture of anti-Americanism to find beyond
the mentioned western strain of thought and the study intend to investigate this phenomenon in
the context of Pakistan.

1.2. Research Question

Taking into account the significant and current nature of Pak-America relations the post 9/11
strategies that impact Pakistan and her tumultuous domestic socio-political advancement, what
are the key causes and factors of anti-Americanism in Pakistani society in the post 9/11 period?
While it cannot be hoped to achieve a decisive contention indicating a particular element that
sums up the whole of Pakistans 180 million individuals. The study is designed to distinguish the
absolute most critical determinants and how they associate with other key problems.

1
http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2005/dec/01/inside-the-madrasas/
2
Saleem Ali, Islamic Education and Canflict: Understanding the Madrassahs of Pakistan, 2005, at
http://www.uvm.edu/~envprog/madrassah/Ali-Madrassah-draft-8-15-05.pdf

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1.3. Statement of the problem

All through investigation of diverse categories of anti-Americanism, it is found that anti


Americanism is more commonly predominant among Madrassa students and because of these
sentiments, the non-state actors are gaining up backing at the grass root level. In Pakistani
society, Maulana (religious teacher) of a Madrassa and the mosque has high status and people
consider him a role model for taking guidance in every walk of life. The studies also reveal that
the meaning of non-state actor gets to be augmented in the more recent years. In Pakistan,
especially and over the world the students of the modern institutions (universities) were recorded
to involve in various terrorist activities. They consider America as a foe. They have the solid
association with religious seminaries, religious parties, and other religious pressure groups where
anti-Americanism firmly exists. A study conducted by Adeline Delavande and Basit Zafar
demonstrate that how profound are Anti-American sentiments held among Pakistani youth? They
conducted a data based trail implanted inside a survey. For this they have taken a sample of 1691
Bachelor students. The students at these educational institutions vary in their religious and
socioeconomic backgrounds. Anti- American sentiment is high in their study. The mean
favourability reported in the US is 2.58 (on a 0- 10 scale, 0 implies extremely unfavourable and
10 exceptionally ideal) which is more regrettable than the normal rating of every single other
country in which sentiments were evoked, except for India. This survey revealed that the attitude
reported for the US by students at the modern educational institutions is 3.91 and the religious
seminaries students is 2.27.3 A survey was directed by the Pew Research Centre to get Pakistani
general sentiments in regards to the developing worries on extremism, and strained relations with
US. It uncovered that 64% of the general population sees the US as a threat, while only 9%
mention it as a partner.4

3
Adeline Delavande and Basit Zafar, How deeply held are anti- American attitudes among Pakistani youth?
Evidence using experimental variation in information , Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Reports, Staff
Report No. 558, April 2012 at, www.newyorkfed.org/research_reports/sr 558.pdf
4
Pew Research Center, Global Attitudes & Trends, Growing Concerns about Extremism, Continuing Discontent
with U.S., August 13, 2009, at, www.pewglobal.org/2009/08/13/pakistan-public-opinion/

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1.4. Hypothesis

H1: Anti-Americanism is more prevalent among Madrassa students, which make them more
vulnerable to violent ideologies, espoused by terrorist organizations.

H2: Anti-Americanism is more prevalent among university students, due to which the terrorist
organizations get the technical assistance from them in the terror assaults.

1.5. Significance of the Study

Anti-American sentiments in Pakistani society are influenced by a number of elements that


contributes to its general negative view of the United States. This research is focused on the
causes and factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani society. The current study is of great
significance because it will provide the comparative analysis of anti-Americanism between the
modern educational institutions and the Islamic seminaries of various schools of thought as the
mainstream of the society. The study will identify the critical and major features to get the better
understanding of how anti-Americanism is perceived in Pakistani society.

1.6. Limitations of the Study

Due to the multi-dimensional characteristics of the subject, the scope of the study is extremely
vast. There is interplay of multiple factors at domestic, regional and international level and
detection of them in the right manner is going to be a difficult task. There is an abundance of
both primary and secondary sources of information on the issues related to anti-Americanism,
but less information is available regarding the determinants of anti-Americanism in Pakistan,
where the society level analysis has to be done especially the comparative analysis of anti-
Americanism between modern universities and other religious schools and madrasas. Beside
this, some of the madrasas showed much reluctance to share their data and viewpoint. The access
to the female madrasas is also another hurdle that had limited the study only to the male point of
view. Thus, extraction of related information and identification, and its analysis in the light of
international and national developments is going to be a challenging and difficult task.

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1.7. Literature Review

The U.S.-Pakistan relations are usually seen as transactional, episodic or reliant on expediency.
They witnessed good relations during the cold war in the 1950s in particular. Then, during the
1980s, the days of Afghan jihad and then afterward 9/11 however, in between, there have been a
long stretch when this relationship has been fairly unusual and called be a low point. Therefore,
because of these vicissitudes, people argue that they are transactional. There has been again
appears to be the beginning of the downturn in relations and seems to suggest this perspective of
relationship transactional is substantial. However, this does not need to be the destiny and fate of
this valid relationship. Pakistan is an important country in the region where the United States has
vital intrigues and stakes. Therefore, these relationships not necessarily remain in the kind of
transaction mode. But it should be based on more long terms and stronger foundations.5

Anti-Americanism is obviously flared nowadays in Pakistan, where a significant proportion of


the society espouses negative views towards the US. Anti-Americanism is typically considered
to originate from two unique sources: what America does and what America is. This refinement
is to some degree artificial in a context in which America is essentially characterized universally
by its foreign policy. The writer discussed different types of anti-Americanism explained by
political scientists named Peter Katzenstein and Robert Keohane. Four different types of anti-
Americanism in Pakistan are mentioned which include, radical anti-Americanism; it includes al-
Qaeda and its sympathizers. They want annihilation or destruction of the United States because
of what America is, what America does and to increase its global power. Socio-religious anti-
Americanism; the socio-religious category dislikes America because it is a non-Muslim country
which is doing damage to the Muslim world. Sovereign-nationalist anti-Americanism; it
concentrates on American policies seen as bringing damage towards Pakistan itself. The political
party that fits in most perfectly into this category is the PTI; with its position again drone strikes.
Liberal anti-Americanism; it concentrates on American perceived hypocrisy in saying one thing
and doing another means its double standards, particularly its failure to close Guantanamo Bay

5
Riaz Mohammad Khan, Former Pakistans Foreign Sectary, Address in Johns Hopkins School of Advanced
International Studies, Washington DC

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etc. Anti-Americanism takes different categories and classifications; however it unites a
separated nation.6

Approximately a quarter century the breakdown of the Soviet Union, one can securely suggest
that America is experiencing its most despised hour. Anti-Americanism at least in most of the
Muslim countries, today is very high. For example, the debate over the Kerry-Lugar Bill that
covered by the Pakistans electronic media, it was clear that certain lawmakers, TV anchors and
their audiences among the country always developing babbling classes, were very quick to attack
the bill, even they had not read the document. They get out of control because their single cue in
this respect was the Pakistan Armys concerns about specific conditions mentioned in the Bill.
Taking about a research paper on governmental issues of Youthful Pakistanis wrote by Dr.
Talukder Munirzaman in 1971, where majority of Pakistanis viewed America reverently and
positively in the 1950s. The paper also suggests that until 1965 war with India, Pakistan saw
America as a companion especially in context of India and Soviet Union close ties. In 1977,
under Z.A.Bhutto regime, he began to insinuate moving out of the American Camp, calling the
United States a White Elephant. For agitation and financing the religious parties, Z.A.Bhutto
accuses the jimmy carter administration in 1977. Anti-Americanism remain a tremendously
enraptured issue in Pakistan during Zia-ul-Haq autocracy in the 1980s. Most of the Industrial and
business classes along with the religious and political parties that upheld Zia, were either
straightforwardly pro- American or uncertain on the subject. This was because of the fact that
Zia extremist views which were supported by Ronald Regan administration with the military
sales and dollars during the U.S. intermediary war against socialism in the region. Thus anti-
Americanism turned out to be significantly more widespread among those against Zia. After the
judicial murder of Z.A.Bhutto, on the account of the Zia ul Haq, the anti-American sentiments
among PPP workers and students were at its climax and in 1986, when Benazir Bhutto came
back to Pakistan from exile. The group of PPP students wing, the PSF, started burning the U.S.
flag at the swarmed rally. The intensity of anti-Americanism had grown in Pakistan during late
1970s. In 1979, the U.S. consulate was assaulted by a group angered and incited by a broadcast
from Iranian State radio that had reprimanded the U.S. for building that takeover of the Kaaba
that year by group of militants. Anti- Americanism in the country retreated when the United

6
Madiha Afzal, On Pakistan Anti-Americanism, November 19, 2013, at,
http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2013/11/14-pakistani-anti-americanis m-afzal

6
States greatly separated itself from the region in 1990s, after the end of the civil war in
Afghanistan. Pakistanis got occupied with handling the intense pitiful of Afghan war in the shape
of bloody sectarian and ethnic strife. According to Hassan Askari, the post-cold war adaptation
and version of anti-Americanism in the country is the emotional reaction of most Pakistanis to
the disarray that set in after 9/11. Indeed, the present day marvels in this context has turned into
an obligatory part of populist talk in which American contribution is rebuked for everything___
from terrorist assaults, to the energy crises, even the breakage of dengue fever. 7

America has a personal stake in guaranteeing both that Pakistan has the ability to close the
incubators of extremism in the country and fulfil its commitments and responsibility in the
education sphere. To succeed in countering the adverse impacts of the madrassas that has been
commandeered by fanatics or extremists, the U.S. must give devoted aid to reforms in education
system, furthermore investigate the possibility of an expanded project intended to combat the
violence culture. This will incorporate giving both expanded social and cultural relations and
economic stability. Endeavours to battle or fight terrorism wont be successful unless they
additionally manage the hidden foundations that backing the threat. During the 1980s, referring
to Zia regime the madrassa framework experienced a complete change. Money was
subsequently taken off from bank accounts and disseminated to institutions at the local level
regarded observing of backing by religious pioneers, making new inspirations for opening new
Islamic seminaries. In the meantime, Afghanistan war brought from over the outskirt a huge
number of evacuees and the extremism of the jihad movement.8 In 1979, there were 1745
madrassas in Pakistan but in Zia regieme, his islamization policies, in order to gain legitimacy,
Afghan jihad, the entrance of soviet troops in Afghanistan and jihad against them are the main
factors due to which the number of Madrasas increased in Pakistan. 9 An expanding number of
new Madrassa were launched, currently maintained by the outside endowments by well off
people and Islamic establishments, predominantly from Saudi Arabia and Gulf countries. The
Madrassas and Islamic seminaries additionally went about as safe houses for various Youngsters

7
Nadeem F. Paracha, culture critic and senior columnist for Dawn Newspaper and Dawn.com. A history of Anti-
Americanism in Pakistan
8
Peter W. Singer, Pakistans Madrassahs: Ensuring a system of Education not Jihad, Brookings Institution
Analysis Papers 41. Washington DC, at, http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2001/11/pakistan-singer
9
. Suba, DChandran Madrassas in pakistan-I Madrassas: A brief overview, Research officer at institute of Peace and
Conflict Studies, January 25, 2000 at, http://www.ipcs.org/article/pakistan/madrassas -in-pakistan-i-madrassas-a-
brief-overview-314.ht ml

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who lost their parents in war. No consideration has been given to these religious schools by the
State that what to show and lecture as a consequence of which the Madrassa framework has
changed in viewpoint, while it has reached out in number and effect. The explanation of the
Madrassas new centrality originates from the crippling and debilitating of the Pakistani State.
The vital concern and strain with the impact of the Madrassa framework is not with the schools
in general, but rather the repercussions of the radical minority of them. About 10-15% of the
Madrassas and religious centres are associated with fanatic religious/political groups, who have
co-picked training and education for their own ends. These schools demonstrate the violent face
of Islam. Contempt is passible; jihad permits the killings of the civilian citizens. Through suicide
assaults, martyrdom is additionally lauded.10 Large numbers of the extremist Islamic seminaries
also incorporate weapons and physical training in their regime and also week by week lessons on
anti-Americanism. For long time, the students were not allowed to meet their parents and are
uneducated, young and reliant on schools. Thus, they were highly susceptible to being
programmed towards violence. The students from the Pakistani madrassas were trained from
more radical schools or madrassas to become the frontline fighters in the sectarian disputes
inside the country. For instance, inside KPK, Sindh, Baluchistan, their teachings played a vital
role in launching the Shia-Sunni conflicts not only at local level but also a real threat to the
country as a whole. The Pakistani students from the minority Madrassas were regularly sent
abroad to serve in conflicts in Kashmir, Chechnya, Afghanistan for jihad. In 1997, the Haqquania
Madrassa was totally shut down and the entire body of students were sent across the border to
fight, helping the assault to succeed. The students from the States with emergent Islamic
extremist groups which include China, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan,
Uzbekistan and Yemen also joined the minority radical extremist madrassas in Pakistan. This
internationalizes their virulent and harmful impacts.11

According to the study by Peter Bergen and Swati Pandey, Madrassas have turned into an
intense symbol as terrorist factories subsequent to the September 11 attacks, bringing out
judgment and trepidation among western nations. The word initially entered the political
vocabulary when to a great extent; Madrassa educated Taliban in Afghanistan turned into the

10
Peter W. Singer, Pakistans Madrassahs: Ensuring a system of Education not Jihad, Brookings Institution
Analysis Papers 41. Washington DC, at, http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2001/11/pakistan-singer
11
Ibid.

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tarot of a U.S. led strike in the late 2001. Although none of the September 11 terrorists were the
individuals from the Taliban, Madrassas got to be connected with terrorism in the months that
followed and the affiliation stuck. For western politicians certain type of education based on
selective and rote learning offered by some of the Madrassas, appeared to be main clarification
for the teaching of irrationality and contempt in Islamist terrorists. The 9/11 commission report
published in July 2004 described Madrassas as Hatcheries of violent extremism. In spite of the
fact that the report did not specify whether any of the 19 hijackers had gone to a Madrassa. In
2005, the sectary of Defence Rumsfeld had stressed about Madrassas that train people to be the
extremists. Furthermore, several U.S. publications tagged madrassas as hate factors and claim
that madrassas create terrorists. After the careful investigation of the major anti-western terrorist
assaults and the 79 terrorists involved in those attacks that include, the WTC bombing in 1993,
the attacks on African embassy in 1998, the September 9/11 attacks, the bombing attack on Bali
night club in 2002, the 7th July London bombing in 2005 proved the Madrassa students were
involved only in rare cases and the mastermind of those attacks hold the university degrees, none
of them had gone to Madrassa. The paper mention that within the entire sample 54% of the
terrorists were found to had have graduated from university and among them 48% attended the
schools in the west, 58% got their technical or scientific degrees. In the sample, Engineering was
the famous subject studied by the terrorists, followed by the medicine. Only 52% of Americans
can claim similar academic credentials and only 11% of the terrorists had gone to the Madrassa
with in the entire sample taken by Bergen and Pandey in their study. 12

Alexander Evans also wrote on a clear investigation of the varied roles of Madaris in the Muslim
countries and exhibited the convincing confirmation against the prominent notion that they
constitute or poses threat to the regional and international security. The study of 140 families
done by Christine Fair disagrees about the direct relation and ties between Madaris and
militancy. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with those of numerous analysts including,
Bergen and Pandey, Sagemen, Berrebi, Krueger and Malekova, Evans, Bueno de Mesquita, who
find little evidence that international terrorists have madrassa backgrounds. However the

12
Peter Bergen and Swati Pandey, The Madrassa Scapegoat, The Washington Quarterly , spring 2006, pp. 117-125

9
Madaris in FATA do seem that they support the suicide attackers from Pakistan and
Afghanistan.13

In the religious educational institutions, the medium of instruction at these schools is generally
Arabic or Urdu, although for foreigners, some of the religious educational programs use English
or Arabic. The formal Islamic education in Pakistan employ several levels at the formal religious
institutions which are systematized with the specific duration and the subject matter of education
at each level varies with sectarian orientation of Madrassa in question. Their schedule is based
on a standard, seventeen year, formal Islamic education program. Ibtedaiis the first level, also
known as primary or elementary. The level covers the early five years of education that is
equivalent to the primary level in the mainstream education. At this level, only Quran is taught.
The second stage is Mutawassitah or intermediary comprise of three years, equivalent to middle
school level in mainstream education. Here specialized curriculum is taught to produce religious
scholars called Ulama. The third stage is Dars-i-Nizami comprise of sixth levels, each two years
long. Here the students begin the Alim course.It is modified according to the particular sectarian
affiliation of the madrassa in question and they teach the different versions of curriculum. The
first of the four stages is Thanviyah-e-Ammah, followed by Thanviyah-e-khassah. The next two
stages are advanced known as Aaliyah and Alimyah, when the students complete with the
Alimyah level, it means they have completed the Dars-i-Nizami curriculum. The degree is
equivalent to M.A Islamic Studies and Arabic in the mainstream education sector. A person with
this degree is Alim. The final stage of religious study is Takmeel, equivalent to the postgraduate
studies in the mainstream education and it comprises various specialized field of studies. The
only concern of madaris in Pakistan is not only the Islamic education. In Pakistans public
schools, Islamic studies is a compulsory subject and it educates 70% of the enrolled students.
The primary focus of the madrassa is to provide the formal religious education which in contrast
educates on average less than 1% of the Pakistans full time students. The study reveals that
greater part of the poor students attend Madaris because they cannot afford the private and
public schools, 12% of the students attend madrassa comes from Pakistans rich families, the
number of students who are from well-off families by Pakistani standards are nearly about a

13
C.Christine Fair, The Madrassah Challenge; Militancy and Religious Education in Pakistan, United States
Institute of Peace Press, pp. 5,10.

10
third. The study further reveals that there are weak evidences that show that madrassa attendance
is higher among poor households than richer households, controlling for the other factors. 14

Islamic seminaries are less firmly corresponded with creating extremists than are the modern
educational institutions, where the learners from outside countries may feel estranged and
oppressed and move towards the militant Islam. The data from different studies depict that the
terrorists for launching the mega scale assaults needs not only a modern education, but also the
availability of advanced and modern equipment so the researcher argues that there is a firm
connection between terrorism and technical training, describing that the type of education is not
available at the madrassa level. Various studies reveal that the madrassas do not provide any
strategic and technical support and skills essential to attack the targets in western countries so
they must not be the western countries concern regarding their national security. This does not
mean that Islamic seminaries still do not pose threats and issues. It is, however misguided when a
national security policy concentrated on madrassa as a wellspring of terrorism. While explaining,
where are terrorists really educated? The study highlighted that the assaults made by al-Qaeda
and its associated groups are not the work done by less educated, poor students of madrassas but
it had done by the rich, educated university students provided with the technical degrees offered
and attained in the west. For example, Yousef was an electrical engineer degree holder student
when he made the bomb that was exploded underneath the WTC in 1993. In countries for
example, Pakistan, the madrassa assume a significant part in education especially in remote
areas. The accusations on madrassas only harm the education system and further enhance the
tension in the region. General Pervez Musharrafs initiative of expelling the foreign students and
dual citizens was effective in reducing the militants from Arab studying in Pakistan and to
reduce extremism but at the same time it harms the students from Afghanistan which were
largely dependent on Pakistani madrassas and leaving a large number of poor afghans without
any education. The paper was concluded with the positive suggestion that the western policy
makers should provide support to the local government of other countries to improve the modern
schools as well as madrassas. This will really help in the development of education sector and
also to combat sectarian violence particularly in Pakistan. 15

14
C.Christine Fair, The Madrassah Challenge; Militancy and Religious Education in Pakistan, United States
Institute of Peace Press, pp. 24-25,47.
15
Peter Bergen and Swati Pandey, The Madrassa Scapegoat, The Washington Quarterly , spring 2006, pp. 117-125

11
Apart from all these studies, various other studies were conducted to determine the determinants
of anti-American sentiments in Pakistan.

Pakistan is a capricious partner to the U.S. where her tough and troublesome political situation
along with the worst economic crisis will constitute it sporadically. Pakistan poses a greater
threat than Afghanistan especially in regard to the transitional terrorism. It is commonly
perceived that U.S. officials view Pakistani government as incompetent and incapable to
properly manage the critical security situation. 16

The United States army since 2004 has launched various drone attacks inside Pakistan. The
drone attacks were made to hit Pakistani Taliban and other sponsors of al-Qaeda but the drone
attacks resulted in a greater number of civilian deaths that resulted into much opposition from
Pakistanis. In 2007, a report was published in which United States accused Pakistan for using the
aid money not against the war on terror but for strengthening its power against India. The U.S.
on several occasions accused Pakistan army to tip the Taliban due to which the trust deficit was
there between the two countries. For many times Pakistan had made it clear that it paid a huge
human price in fighting the war on terror and launched various operations against al-Qaeda and
Taliban inside Pakistan, which include operation in swat valley, Bajaur , South Waziristan and
Mohmand tribal agencies, operation in Khyber agency and operation Zarb-e-Azab in North
Waziristan agency has stayed to date.17

Raymond Davis, an American working man at the Lahore US consulate shot and murdered two
people by his vehicle. Davis contends that he acted in self-defence when the men attempted to
ransack him at gunpoint. Pakistani officials and courts charged him in a murder case and
restrained the government not to release him; however, the top US authorities press the
government that the diplomatic immunity covered him from the legal exercise. Later on the U.S.
officials accepted that Davis was a CIA worker and part of the secretive group assigned with the

16
Frederick D.Barton, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the Brink: Framing U.S. policy options, Center for Strategic
and International studies, 2009, pp : 11.
17
Susan B. Epstein, Pakistan U.S. Foreign Assistance, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, at,
http://www.cq.com/pdf/crsreport-3886786.

12
responsibility to notice the militant groups in Pakistan. This incident intense the already burning
situation and create the strong resentment and anti-American sentiments among Pakistanis.18

Due to the geopolitical significance of on-going Indo-US relationship on different issues, should
be considered as an unattached substance. Verifiably the issues in the Pak-US relations emerged
after the U.S. foreign policy in India started to run parallel to its greatest advantage with
Pakistan.19

The U.S.-Pakistan relationship went into a great degree most exceedingly bad and complex stage
after degree most exceedingly bad and complex stage after the Neptune Spear(the killing of
Osama Bin Laden), the incident of Raymond Davis and different events of the same nature have
extended the evident trust of the US- policy, especially on security and foreign assistance have
adjusted the U.S. Projects and exercises all the more intimately with vital goals and nearby
realities than they had been before 2009.20

After the 2011, Abbottabad operation and attack on Salala check post, anti-Americanism was at
its climax when Admiral Mike Mullen issued the most direct and most substantial statement on
the Pakistan wrongdoing of the 2001 onward period, saying, Pakistan army and ISI support
Haqqani network in their plans of conducted September 13, truck bomb attack as well as an
assault on the U.S embassy. He further argued that they have the credible evidence of ISI
involvement in the June 28 assault on the international Kabul Hotel and a horde of other littler
but successful operations.21

Washington has not had a simple time making out of the U.S-Pakistan relationship to put it
delicately and gently. For a long time, the United States attempted to change Pakistan key focus
from contending with India and looking for more impact in Afghanistan to secure its own
internal steadiness and development in the economy. However, despite the fact that Pakistan has

18
http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr-110216004.html.
19
Sial, Pak-US. A Balance sheet of Relations, August 11, 2011, pp:8
20
Lamb, Governance and Militancy in Afghanistan and Pakistan, June 20, 2011, pp: 11,12, at,
http:csis.org/files/publication/110616_Lamb_Exec_Su m.pdf.
21
Senate Armed Services Committee hold hearing on Iraq and afghanistan, CQ Transcripts, September 22, 2011,
Gates: pakistan spy agency tried to militant group, wall street journal, October 6, 2011, How pakistan lost its top
U.S. friends, wall street journal, September 28, 2011.

13
kept on relying upon U.S. military and economic backing, it has not adjusted its conduct much.
Every State blames the other for being a tremendous friend and maybe both are correct.22

1.8. Conclusion
The literature on the study concludes that the hostile attitude of America and its Anti-American
policies flared the Anti-American feelings in Pakistani society. Different events such as
Abbottabad operation, Salala check post incident, and Raymond Davis incident and drone
attacks make America the unfavourable country in Pakistani society. Different studies also
revealed that Madrassas do not provide the technical and strategic support and skills essential to
attack the targets, but this does not mean that the Islamic seminaries do not pose threats and
problems. Because the available literature supports that Madrasas play a role in shaping the
Anti-American perception. Different studies also uncovered the facts that in various mega scale
terrorist assaults, university students were largely involved as they provide the technical support
and skills to the terrorists that madrasas were unable to provide.

1.9. Organization of the Study

This thesis is segmented into five chapters. Chapter one provides the introduction related to the
topic of the study. Chapter two covers the theoretical framework along with Research
Methodology and Area Profile of the Study. Third chapter explains the Global war on Terror and
Anti-Americanism in Pakistani Society covering different events. The chapter also explains the
Post-9/11 nature of US-Pakistan relationship, United States influence and Pakistans foreign
policy (2001-2014) responsible for worsening the internal conditions of Pakistan. It also focuses
on the causes and factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani society. Here the comparative views
were given from both the respondents of modern educational institutions and Islamic seminaries
of various schools of thought. The last chapter deals with the research findings, analysis,
conclusion and recommendations of the study.

22
Hussain Haqqani, Breaking up is not hard to do, at, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138845/hussain-
haqqani/breaking-up-is-not-hard-to-do.

14
Chapter # 02

2.1. Theoretical Framework

According to Constructivism, reality is subjective and may not be the same for every individual.
Since anti- Americanism is fed by the perceptions people hold against Americas role in world
politics. Anti- Americanism can also be explained by this school of thought.

Anti-Americanism may not be the sole factor explaining But it is also true that major voices of
anti-Americanism have sympathized with the terrorists and provided justification for their
activities by linking it with anti- Americanism. For example, Pakistan Tehreek e Insaaf chairman
Imran Khan mentioned in his book, Pakistan: A Personal History that the terrorism started in
the country after America attacked Afghanistan in 2001. He also blamed the US for most of what
has gone wrong with Pakistan.

Anti- American voices use different narratives to gather the people against America. Some
invoke religion, some use patriotism to justify attacking American forces. Thus, it can be said
that anti- American voices and terrorist sympathizers share a common enemy in the form of
America for now and are closely intervened with each other.

Anti- American views are prevalent in Pakistan. Pakistans religious seminaries are known for
flared anti-American expressions. They regularly preach and teach calls for jihad against the
America as a threat to the sovereignty of Pakistan. They think that partnership with the United
States would be risky and a threat for Pakistan. The Anti-American feelings are not only
restricted to the religious seminaries. The Pakistani society at large shows the outrage and
aggressiveness at the United States policies for the external world, especially when such
approach is seen to be threatening and disagreeable for the Muslim world. In 2004 affirmation
before a senate board, a senior US expert opined: Pakistan is presumably the most anti-
American nation right now, extending from the radical Islamists on one side to the liberals and
western elites on the other side. President Musharraf concede in an interview in 2005 that the

15
man on the street in Pakistan high and dry in the wake of serving as a vital US partner during
the 1980s.23

Madrassas are playing an important role shaping perceptions about the US. For this, many of the
Pakistans madrassas are financed and operated by Pakistan Islamist political parties such as JUI-
F (closely linked to the Taliban) as well as by multiple unknown foreign entities, many in Saudi
Arabia. Madrassas are also considered the source of anti- American jihad ideology. Christine
Fair in her survey of 141 families of militants in Pakistan has revealed that from the total only 19
were recruited from madrassas and the same number of recruits from the public sector schools.
This survey shows that madrassas are not the only supply line of militants, but also serve as the
major cells of indoctrination. The Islamic seminaries are frequently seen as in reverse and
traditional, if vital, insidious a picture that has been exacerbated by the terrorism talks about.
This view that their positive parts are totally overlooked. This does not imply that madrassas are
without issues. In reality, there are various issues that even the most fervent supports would not
contend against. Then again the inquiry to be asked as whether these are inborn issues in the
madrassa framework, that is to say, whether a conventional set up is by definition or its issues
are the depiction of madrasas post 9/11 as to a great extent aggressor establishments contends
Riaz (2008), is misrepresented, best case scenario. Sareen (2005) accuses government schools
for spreading radicalism on a mass scale. In his investigation of northern madrasas, Rana (2003),
produces different political and ideological affiliations calling terrorism a genuine threat
fundamentally because of US-Pakistan coordinated relations and efforts in 1980s. The sudden
mushrooming of aggressor madrasas in the 1980s is exclusively credited to the global political
issues of the Cold war, in what was an intentional endeavor to counter the Soviet intrusion of
Afghanistan by the USA and Pakistan is utilizing gigantic guide and as the part of the producer
making the Taliban. Dalrymple (2005) takes a view of this phenomenon on the wider range,
surveying that the Afghan Soviet war, Middle East oil boom and Saudi will teach and promote
the particular renditions of Islam prompted an ascent in madrasas everywhere throughout the
world in the mid-1980s and not simply in Pakistan. It has subsequent to wind up and built up
certainty that madrasas do have a bigger influence in spreading sectarianism and radicalism. For

23
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage/DocumentToolsPortletWindow?displayGroupName=View
points&jsid=af54611dce79e8a9cbd38c84b 5a322b7&act ion=2&catId=&documentId=GA LE%7CEJ3010654211&u
=cant48040&zid=840aa0baccfbd242b75a39edf7e27ba6

16
Riaz (2008), such examinations have a noteworthy weakness in that they do not take madrasas to
be a part of social entire, but rather the elements in themselves. He noticed that the Madrasas do
make and sustain sectarianism, yet sectarianism and militancy do not a matter of posing a danger
to the global security.24

The perceptions of and the attitudes towards the United States on the part of the madrasa teachers
and students remain highly negative. Madrasa educational modules may be said to have played
some role in creating an intellectual- ideological environment that motivates hostile, or at least,
negative attitudes towards the other on the part of the Ulama, but to claim that there is direct
connection between Anti-Americanism on one hand and education in Islamic seminaries on the
other, is at best, a tenuous proposition. First education at the religious seminaries is exclusively
focused on Islamic religious and ancillary sciences and is totally innocent of any political
content. The madrasa curriculum has been described and rightly so in our view as literalist,
legalistic, sectarian, conservative and outdated, but it is not political extremist or radical, at least
in the sense in which it is made to be these days. Second, with the same curriculum and the same
system of education, madrasa students were never shown to be anti-American until the 1990.
Third, as several national and international poll, have conclusively shown, anti-Americanism is
not something that is exclusively confined to the madrasa Ulama- or for that matter, to Muslim
alone.

The Bush administration policies with respect to middle east, the U.S. invasion and occupation
of Afghanistan and Iraq, the scandals of Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay prisons, the widely
reported stories of torture and extraordinary renditions and the general perception that global
war on terror is primarily directed against Muslims have all created an environment that seems
to have irreparably damaged the moral standing of the United States in the eyes of Muslims.
According to the survey research, the views of almost all madrasas respondents both teachers
and graduate students toward America had become less favorable since the events subsequent
to 9/11. There was also a great deal of pessimism among madrasa ulama that things would
improve. 83% of our respondents believe that American policies will not change for the better
with the new administration in 2009. However, the students were a little more optimistic (19%)

24
Sajjad, M.W., Madrasas inb Pakistan: thinking beyond terrorism-based reforms, at;
issi.org.Pk/wpcontent/uploads/2014/06/1299648777_44752615pdf

17
than their teachers (10%) that things would get better under a post- Bush administration. The
research revealed that madrasa curriculum gin its highly legalistic and conservative orientation
cannot as such be considered a contributing factor to radical ideology or extremism, the
periodical publication, emerging from the major Deobandi madrasa present another picture. The
monthly Al-Haq of Akora Khattaks Haqqaniya madrasa and the monthly Al-Bayyanat of
Binnort Town madrasa in Karachi are the two Deobandi publications that hav long inflamed
anti-shia sentiments and since the mid-1990s, have championed the cause of the Taliban with
great fervor. Unlike moderate Deobandi publications such as Al-Balagh of Dar-ul-Uloom
Karachi and Ash-Shariah of Nusrat-ul-Uloom madrasa in Gujranwala, Al-Haq and Al-Bayyanat
have been among the major anti-American voices in Pakistans religious journalism. In this they
are only surpassed by the monthly Tarjuman-ul-Quran of the Jamaat-e-Islami, the three
publications of Markaz Al-Dawa-wal-Irshad of Hafiz Saeed of Lashkar-e- Taiba and Zarb-e-
Momin of Jamia Ar-Rashid, Karachi. The Jamaat-e-Islamis official organ,Tarjyman-ul-Quran,
has been leading the charge against U.S. policies in Pakistan, Iraq,Afghanistan, Iraq and the
Middle East, especially post-9/11. A survey of 48 issues during 2004-2007 of the Deobandi
monthlics (Al-Haq and Al-Balagh) and one Barelvi zia-e-Haram, of Bhera Sharif madrasa in
Sargodha) showed that besides the usual religious topics covered in religious magazines (Quran,
Hadith, Fiqh, theology and biographies of prominent religious personalities), editorial
commentaries and articles on current political issues in Al- Haq invariably took the United States
to task for its support of Israel, brutalities in Afghanistan and Iraq and anti-islamic policies
and conspiracy to dismantle madrasa education in Muslim countries. While the Barelwi journal
Zia-e- Haram published 111 editorials, comments and articles on politics out of a total of 533, i-
e- 20.82% during 2004-2007. Only 22% of these 111 articles could be characterized as anti-
American. Al-Balagh of Dar-ul-Uloom published 92 articles and editorials comments on politics
out of a total of 493, i-e- 18%. Those that were directly critical of the U.S. policies were 25.5%
of 92 political articles. In the case of Al-Haq, there were 127 political articles and editorials out
of a total number of 337, i-e- 37.6% and 72% of the 137 political articles mentioned U.S.
policies as the main cause of what was wrong with the world, and especially the Muslim world. 25

25
Ahmad,Mumtaz, Madrasa Reforms and Perspectives: Islamic Tertiary Education in Pakistan, the National
Bureau of Asian Research, NBR Project Report, April 2009, at;
mercury.ethz.ch/serviceengine.Files/ISN/108405/ 182/1.pdf

18
The problem actually lies in the fact that the leadership in Pakistan has been using religion for
their political motives and vested interests and not in the true spirit of deliverance and
implementation.26 The problem is also coupled with the ideological teaching at the school level.
The education system and curriculum is with a lot of weaknesses and flaws. At the school level
we have been taught that India and America is our enemy. So not only at madrassas but also at
the modern education schools and centers, the perceptions are developed and designed against
America.

2.2. Research Methodology

Research methodology holds major importance in many aspects of any research. It is a good
source of getting valid, empirical data.

The research methodology for this study has quantitative dimension. Data quantification is the
main purpose of quantitative research. It allows making the generalizations from the sample of
entire population, but it is not infrequently followed by the qualitative research which purpose is
to further explore the select findings. It is highly structured. Close-ended Questionnaire and
interviews are used to collect the data from the respondents.

In the current study, the researcher followed the Quantitative research methods, tools and
techniques for gathering reliable and valid information.

26
Ahmad,Mumtaz, Madrasa Reforms and Perspectives: Islamic Tertiary Education in Pakistan, the National
Bureau of Asian Research, NBR Project Report, April 2009, at;
mercury.ethz.ch/serviceengine.Files /ISN/108405/ 182/1.pdf

19
2.2.1. Participant observation

This is a very important method of research which is widely used by researchers. Through this
method the researcher gains knowledge of the native point of view of the community and
collects both quantitative and qualitative information.

According to Bailey,
The participant observer is a regular member in the exercises and activities being watched and
his/her dual role is not to the other participants. 27

2.2.2. Questionnaire

A close-ended questionnaire was used in conducting structured and formal interviews. From this
questionnaire, quantitative data on different issues concerning the objectives was obtained.

Survey Questionnaire is a list of questions sent to various persons to mark the correct structure
answers, which prompt standardize results. 28

The questionnaire was formulated with the help of the supervisor and colleagues. It comprised of
different close ended questions to gain the in depth information on the topic.

27
Kenneth, D.Bailey, Methods of Social Research. New York: Free Press, University of California in Los
Angeles. (1978)
28
Anwar Alam, Observation Technique, social problems and research. 2007, pp:127.

20
2.2.3. Case Study

Case study is another tool used to get in depth and detailed data on certain individuals, actions or
phenomenon. It helps in providing lucid and concise information about the respondents. The
main advantages of the case study lie in the richness of its description as the subject is deeply
studied. Due to its detailed nature, there is an opportunity to get reliable data, which is cross
checked with time and gain.

2.2.4. Sampling

Sampling is a subset of the full set. It refers to drawing a sample from a population. The usual
goal in sampling is to produce a representative sample. It is hard to make an estimate of a larger
census of the complete population.

The procedure of utilizing a section as a premise for an assessment of the entire is known as
sampling.29

Three types of samples like Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random, Cluster Samples are
based on principles of probability theory. Probability samples are representative of the larger
population and they increase the external validity in any study.

2.2.4.1.Simple Random Sampling

A simple random is a sample design in which choice is drawn from a population in a manner
that gives each part in every combination an equivalent chance of being chosen. The exemplary
method for selecting a simple random sampling is to allocate each individual from the
population a number and then utilize a random number table to the selection of the sample. 30

The Simple Random Sampling technique has utilized to collect the data from respondents. In
Islamabad, the Dars-e-Nizami Deoband School of thought Madrassas are 49 in number having
4610 students enrolled in it, Barelvi School of thought Madrassas are 11 in number having 938
Dars-e-Nizami students, Ahl-e-Tasheeh Madrassas are 07 in number having 213 Dars-e-Nizami

29
Anwar Alam, census and sampling technique, 2007, pp:155
30
Sociology.about.com

21
students and whereas, the Ahl-e-Hadith have 01 registered Madrassa having 170 Dars-e-Nizami
students. So the total number of students enrolled in Dars-e-Nizami in various school of thought
Madrassas in Islamabad are 5,931. Whereas, in Islamabad there are 24 public sector and 06
private sector Universities. So, the total number of Public and private sector Universities in
Islamabad is 30 and the students enrolment at these Universities is 1, 16067 up to December 21st ,
2014.31 In this study, the researcher had taken 100 respondents, among which 50 respondents
were from different modern educational institutions of Islamabad and 50 respondents from
Islamic seminaries of different schools of thought having Dars-e- Nizami.

2.2.4.1.Snowball Sampling

In this form the researcher selects one or two members for interview. Then the researcher asks
them about other persons and researcher also takes their interviews for more information. And
through this method the researcher takes information from many people and made a network.In
some areas, the snowball sampling technique was used to collect the data, especially the
madrasas other than the universities where it was difficult to collect the data from the
respondents.

2.2.5. Data Tabulation and Analysis

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) has employed for data tabulation and its

Analysis. The Nominal Method in SPSS has used to enter the data into tables.

2.3. Area Profile

The landscape of Islamabad is very important to understand because of many developments


happened here in the recent past years. It is usually known as the city of foreigners for a number
of reasons, especially, because of the political activities and education in Islamabad where a
large number of students belonging to various areas of Pakistan are enrolled in the educational
institutions of Islamabad. In the line of the current study, the madrasas in Islamabad were always
viewed suspected especially after Lal Masjid operation in 2007 that create the security situation
in Islamabad.

31
Research Branch, Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad.

22
The Islamabad capital territory (ICT) covers an area of 1, 65.5 km2, out of which 90Km2 is
proper Islamabad. NA-48 and NA-49 are the two constituencies of Islamabad in National
Assembly.

2.3.1. History

The land for Islamabad was transferred from the Rawalpindi district of Punjab in 1960 for the
purpose of establishing a new capital of Pakistan. At that time, the ICT included the city of
Rawalpindi. So there were five zones of Islamabad, which include Rawalpindi (259 Square
Kilometers), Islamabad Proper including the industrial and institutional areas (220.15 Square
Kilometers), Islamabad Rural Area (446.20 Square Kilometers), Islamabad Margalla Hills Park
(220.15 Square Kilometers). However, on its creation in 1980s, the Rawalpindi citywas excluded
from ICT.32

2.3.2. Introduction

President, General Ayub Khan orders to build Islamabad, an advanced capital for Pakistan. The
climate of Islamabad is relatively free from pollution, lush green and water resources are surplus.
It has wide roads and planned residences. Public buildings, shopping centers, markets and well-
organized Bazaars are the specialty of Islamabad.

2.3.3. Government

Islamabad is not a part of any province, but it is located in between the Punjab and Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa. The Central Government of Pakistan controls it. It is one of the two federal
territories of Pakistan (the other one is FATA) under the direct governance of Government of
Pakistan.

32
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamabad_Capital_Territory

23
2.3.4. Union Councils

Administratively, Islamabad is comprised of two main segments. Islamabad City area and
Islamabad rural area. Rural area of Islamabad has 32 Union Councils which comprise of 133
villages and 47 Union Councils are there in the urban area. The chief towns of Islamabad
include, Saidpur, Muslim Colony, Noorpur Shahan, Malpur, Kot Hathial (North I, II, South),
Phulgram, Pind Begwal, Tumair, Charah, Bhimbar Tarar, Mughal, Sihala, Rewat, Humak (Swan
Camp), Humak, Loi Bheri, Phag Panwa, Kirpa, Koral, Harno Thanda Pani, Dhana Dak, Tarlai
Kalan, Alipur, Mohrian, Sohan Dehati, Chak Shahzad, Malkot, Mohra Noor, Rawal Town,
Margala Town.

2.3.5. Area and Population

Eight basic zone types are there in Islamabad. It includes residential areas, educational sectors,
commercial and rural areas, green areas, administrative and Diplomatic Enclave Zone, Industrial
sectors. Every sector has its own green belt, shopping area and public parks. Islamabad city
population is about 2 Lakh, of which 67% is city based. It has an area of about 915 Square
Kilometers.33

2.3.6. Climate

The climate of Islamabad is humid with five seasons: winter (November-February), spring
(March and April), summer (May and June), Rainy Monsoon (July and August) and autumn
(September and October). The hottest month is June. The highest recorded temperature was 46.6
degree centigrade on 23 June 2005 while the lowest temperature was minus 6 degree centigrade
on 17 January 1967. The city has recorded snowfall. The Islamabad received the record breaking
rainfall 620 millimeters on 23 July 2001 in just 10 hours.

33
Commissioner Office Islamabad

24
2.3.7. Tribes

In rural area of Islamabad, a number of Pothahari speaking tribal communities can be still
recognized, whereas the urban Islamabad is the home of the people from all over Pakistan.

2.3.8. Economy
Islamabad contributes 1% to the countrys GDP as a net contributor to the Pakistani economy.
After Karachi stock exchange and Lahore stock exchange, Islamabad Stock Exchange is the third
largest stock exchange, founded in 1989. The Stock Exchange comprise of 118 members with
104 corporate bodies and 18 individual members. Islamabad contributes Rs 371 billion in tax
revenue that amounts to 20% of all the revenue collected by Federal Board of Revenue.
Islamabad has the expanded network of information technology parks located in Evacuee Trust
Complex and Awami Markaz Islamabad is also available with the State-owned companies of
Pakistan like PIA, PTV, OGDCL, PTCL, Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. PTCL, Telenor, Ufone,
Mobilink and China Mobile Headquarters are also located in Islamabad.

2.3.9. Transport

Through Benazir Bhutto International Airport, Islamabad is connected to major destinations


around the world. The Airport is located outside Islamabad, in Chaklala Rawalpindi and is the
third largest Airport in Pakistan. To cope the increase number of passengers Islamabad Gandhara
International Airport is under construction at Fateh Jang. The Rawalpindi-Islamabad Metro bus
is a 24Km bus rapid transit system that serves the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad in
Pakistan. From the neighbouring city of Rawalpindi, the bus and train services are available to
access all the major cities and towns. Through the network of motorways, Lahore and Peshawar
are linked to Islamabad. It has significantly reduced the travelling time between these cities. M-2
Motorway is 367 Km long that connect Islamabad and Lahore. Whereas, M-1 Motorway 155 Km
long and connect Islamabad and Peshawar. Islamabad is connected with Rawalpindi through
Faizabad Interchange.

25
2.3.10. Health

To provide the quality health facilities to the public, Islamabad has the network og government
and private hospitals. The government hospitals include, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences
(PIMS), Federal Government Services Hospital, Capital Hospital (CDA Hospital), National
Institute of Health in Chak Shahzad, Nuclear Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute (NORI),
Nescom and KRL Hospital where the private hospitals in Islamabad include, Shifa International
Hospital, Ali Medical Hospital, Maroof International Hospital, Integrated Health Services,
Kulsum International Hospital, Islamabad Specialist Clinic, HS Childrens Medical Center,
Islamabad International Medical Complex, Dar-ul-Shifa Hospital, Aslam Memorial Medicare
Hospital, Islamabad Private Hospital, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Elahi Medical Center, and
Hope Medical Dental and Diagnostics.

2.3.11. Education

Pakistan largest literacy rate is in Islamabad whichis 85%. It also has some major universities
include, NUST University, Quaid-e-Azam University, and International Islamic University. For
private education in Islamabad, the private schools network is also operational. The Public sector
degree awarding universities and institutes in Islamabad include, Air University, Bahria
University, Allama Iqbal Open University, COMSATS University, NUML University, Federal
Urdu University, PIDE, IST, ICMAP, PIEAS, and National Defence University. Whereas the
private sector universities and institutes include, Foundation University, FAST University, Ripah
International University, MAJU University, University of Lahore, Iqra University, Preston
University, and ZABIST University.34

34
Commissioner Office Islamabad

26
Chapter # 03

Global War on Terror and Anti-Americanism in Pakistan

3.1. Introduction

After 9/11 assaults, the US-Pakistan relations further strengthened. Pakistan amid Musharraf
administration moved conclusively to associate itself with the United States in the Global War on
Terror (GWOT) and turned into a standout amongst the most vital key associates for the United
States. At first Pakistan went into various transactions, manages Taliban and other al-Qaeda
individuals to handover Osama Bin Laden to American powers. Anyhow the transactions fizzled
and not long after that Pakistan gave the US the entrance to the quantity of army installations and
different approaches to assault the fortresses of al-Qaeda and Taliban in Afghanistan and their
havens inside Pakistan. Pervaiz Musharraf, however, admitted that the nation had no other
choice yet to collaborate with the United States as it had cautioned Pakistan of 'selling it to the
stone age'. So in 2001, the United States authorities lift all the authorizations that were already
forced on Pakistan under Pressler and Glenn Amendments. This was the time when Pakistan get
a considerable measure of weight and was propelled to battle against al-Qaeda and Pakistan had
demonstrated its ability, thus the Unites States in 2003 authoritatively pardoned $ 1 billion value
of advance it had already conceded to Pakistan as a gratefulness for Pakistan's participation. In
2004, President Bush formally announced Pakistan as a non-NATO associate by which Pakistan
gathered different financial profits.

After 9/11, there was some specialized broad areas that constituted the beginning of bilateral
relations between the Pakistan and U.S. they are;

To enhance the mutual understanding and bridge the ideological differences between the
people of Pakistan and United States that increased after 9/11 attacks.
To weaken and defeat religious extremism in the Pak-Afghan region through enhanced
cooperation in the Global War on Terrorism.
To provide assistance to Pakistan at micro and macro level to boost its economy, help
social development and bring political stability and maturity in the country.

27
The United States army since 2004 has launched various drone strikes on the northwestern side
of the country. The drone attacks aim to target Pakistani Taliban and other supporters of al-
Qaeda, but the drone strikes resulted into a large number of civilian deaths that result into much
opposition from Pakistanis. In 2007, a report was published in which the United States put a lot
of allegations and accused Pakistan of using the aid money not against war on terror but for
strengthening its defense against India. The trust-deficit was there between the two countries
since the war on terror started because the U.S. on several occasions accused Pakistan Army to
tip the Taliban but the situation was not like this because major battles and operations were held
on several fronts: the Swat valley, and the Bajaur, South Waziristan, and the Mohmand tribal
agencies and now the operations Zarb-e-Azab in North Waziristan and Khyber 1 operation in
Khyber agency is continued to date.

Pakistan is additionally bearing a significant offer of the human expense of battling the war on
dread. More than 3,500 of its military officers and troopers have been executed in different
operations against al-Qaeda and Taliban inside Pakistan. The Pakistan military has conveyed up
to 150,000 normal and paramilitary troops to its western outskirts because of the upwelling
violence there.35

In quest for the U.S. targets in South Asia, the current Phase of Pak-U.S. Reciprocal connection
has a vital profundity more noteworthy than in the past. "The new geo-key substances like
Nuclear South Asia, energy, security, counterterrorism administration and monetary interests
(particularly financial liberalism)"cannot decrease.36

The essentialness of Pakistan in the local and worldwide politics since 2001, the U.S. has
furnished Pakistan with more than $11 billion in military support, basically expected to combat
terrorism.37

The question on both sides developed that for the most part came about into the disastrous
occurrences like in June 2008, an Air strike by U.S. Armed force Frontier Corps, alongside eight
Taliban. The strike and passing incite a horrible response from Pakistan calling the

35
Susan B. Epstein et al., Pakistan U.S. Foreign Assistance, Congressional Research Service, Library of
Congress, at http://www.cq.com/pdf/crsreports -3886786.
36
Sial, Pak -U.S. A Balance Sheet of Relations, August 11, 2011, pg # 8
37
R. Banerji, They all Fall Down, Hindustan Times (March 17, 2011), August 12, 2011

28
demonstration to have shaken the establishment of shared participation and trust. Pakistanis have
a tendency to see America as a spook. The improved organization with Pakistan Act (EPPAP),
prevalently known as the Kerry-Lugar-Berman bill (KLB) after the backers in the U.S. Senate,
was marked into law by president Obama in October 2009. The EPPA was intended to triple the
measure of U.S. support to Pakistan to $7.5 billion every year for a long time. The design was to
adjust that help may be occupied from its proposed utilization. 38

In 2009, President Musharraf admitted that the billions of dollars that Pakistan got from the
United States, for being an accomplice in war against terrorism were occupied and used to
fabricate a best protection instrument against India.

In any case, the political turmoil inside Afghanistan has a dynamic or aloof association with its
topographical neighbor Pakistan and the other way around. It is germane to highlight that
Pakistan additionally has its own particular geo-vital, security and financial concerns. A more
complete, fair and political key headway of strategy alternatives is needed in the locale. Because
of geo-political essentialness the progressing U.S. - India relationship on different issues need to
be seen as a different element. Truly, the issues in Pak-U.S. relations emerged after the U.S.
Outside approach for India started to run in parallel to its political investments with Pakistan.
The United States has favored compromise and needed agreement in Indo-Pak relations, as it is
indispensable for soundness in the locale. This is a period of extraordinary open door for India
and Pakistan to accommodate and create understandings over the negligible debate that is the
significant reason for insecurity in the region. 39

The Pak-U.S. relationship has gone into a greatly unpredictable stage after the operation
'Neptune lance' (the murdering of Osama Bin Laden), the instance of Raymond Davis, and

38
Robert D. Lamb, Governance and Military in Afghanistan and Pakistan , CSIS (May 2011), at
http://csis.org/files/publication/110616_Lamb_Exec_Su m.pdf
10
Sial, Pak -U.S. A Balance Sheet of Relations, August 11, 2011, pg #8

29
different occasions of the same nature have developed the evident trust shortfall between the two
partners. By the by, changes to U.S. arrangement, especially on security participation and outside
help, have adjusted the U.S. exercises and projects all the more nearly with key goals and Local
substances than they had been before 2009. Notwithstanding, these new arrangements and
projects are at their starting phases of usage, and advancement is required to be unpretentious. It
is impossible, for instance, that the United States can play much else besides a synergist part in
enhancing Pakistan's ability for adjustment advancement may be troublesome, however, not
unthinkable or improbable on the grounds that a lion's share of the individuals in both nations
goals advance in relations. Essentially, EPPA projects have a possibility of making little yet
powerful commitments top both Pakistani administration limit and the Pak-U.S. Relationship.
Despite the unpredictability and the declining nature of the relations, the profits of proceeding
with the relationship through, recharged measures most likely exceed the outcomes of separation
at this juncture.40

When we view the nature of the relationship between the two countries, it is important to
concentrate on their Rationale. Both the countries have the concerns from each other.

3.1.1. The U.S. Theory of Mistrust

The U.S. assumptions are as follows:

1- Pakistan is an untrusted partner who abused the money gave through AID and redirected
it to propel her own particular territorial premiums. 41
2- Pakistan's threatening association with India encroaches on short and long haul
American engages.42

40
Lamb, Governance and Military in Afghanistan and Pakistan , June 20, 2011, pg# 11-12
41
The Congressional Research Service Report (R41856) ON 2011 asserts. Epstein et al., Pakistan U.S. Foreign
Assistance, pg# 15. For more see Ben Dear, Where did the money go? Oversight Lacking in Aid to Pakistan , The
Center for American Progress, June 27, 2008, at http://www.americanprogress.org.
42
Stephen Philip Cohen, The United States and South Asia: Core Interests and Policies and their Impact on
Regional Countries. Presented to the Conference on Major Powers and South Asia, 11-13 August 2003, the
Institute for Regional Studies, Islamabad, Pakistan, The Brookings Institution, August 11-13, 2003 at
http://www.brookings.edu/views/speeches/cohens 20030811.pdf, pg# 9

30
3- Pakistan's threatening association with India encroaches on short and long haul American
interests.43
4- To the U.S., Pakistan is an untrusted strategy associate versus India, which is a
developing regional hegemon.44
5- Pakistan is a flighty accomplice to the U.S., where "Pakistan's troublesome political move
and genuine monetary emergency will make it an unpredictable partner.45
6- Pakistan represents a more prominent danger with respect to transnational terrorism than
does Afghanistan.46
It is usually perceived that U.S. officials view Pakistani government as incompetent and
incapable to properly handle the critical security situation.

7- The overflow impacts inside Pakistan of the counterterrorism endeavors in Afghanistan


are to a great degree perilous and a cautioning signs for the U.S., nearing as they do from
an atomic competent partner. The "expanded U.S. furthermore NATO military endeavors
in Southern Afghanistan may produce an overflow into adjoining zones of Pakistan.47
8- Furthermore, Extremism could well spread into different parts of Pakistan as provincial
issues are not tended to and economic pressure increases. 48

3.1.2. Pakistans Rationale of Dishonesty

1- Pakistanis have a tendency to imagine that the United States had constantly given a solid
once again to despots and military administrations and they accept that the U.S. arms and
military had contorted setbacks on the democracy in Pakistan.
2- Diplomats, Ambassadors and Foreign strategy specialists saw that after 9/11, Pakistan is
again encountering the recorded relationship in light of the fact that the United States is

43
James Martin Center for Non-proliferation Studies, Chinas Missile Exports and Assistance to Pakistan, at
http://cns.miis.edu/archive/country_india/china/mpakpos.htm.
44
Noor ul Haq, Kerry-Lugar Bill, The Islamabad Policy Research Institute, October 26, 2009, pg # 115, 14-16, at
http://ipripak.org/factfiles/ ff114.pdf. Also see, Ninan Koshy, the Natural Ally and the Tactical Ally, Foreign
Policy in Focus, November 1, 2001, at http://www.fpif.org/articles/the_natural_ally_and_the_tactical_ally.
45
Frederick D. Barton et al., Afghanistan and Pakistan on the Brink: Framing U.S. Policy Options, Center for
Strategic and International Studies, 2009, pg # 11
46
Ibid.
47
Barton et al., Afghanistan and Pakistan on the Brink: Framing U.S. Policy Options.
48
Ibid.

31
propelling its investments in Afghanistan by embracing and extending the India particular
strategy.
3- Pakistan see the U.S. as an untrusted partner in light of the fact that it had dependably
abuse Pakistan to propel its enthusiasm for the locale and Pakistanis won't overlook the
fringe relationship from the most united associate to the most ungratified partner of the
United States.
4- Pakistan likewise held the U.S. mindful when they abused its sway by directing a military
operation inside Pakistan to execute Osama Bin Laden because of which the picture of
Pakistan military to its populace arrived at its least ebb.
5- Pakistan accepts that it is the time for U.S. to begin repayment for every one of those lost
years of assents and disregard in addition to the terrible impacts of the U.S. war in
Afghanistan demonstrated appalling for Pakistan along these lines, the United States
ought to acknowledge and repay Pakistan for its participation and cooperation.
6- The trust shortage continues expanding because of the occasions like ceaseless automaton
assaults with a great deal of inadvertent blow-back and different operations inside
Pakistan.

3.2. United States Influence and Pakistans Foreign Policy (2001-2014),


Responsible for Worsening the Internal Conditions of Pakistan

Washington has not had a simple time dealing with the U.S.-Pakistan relationship, to
understate the obvious. For quite a long time, the United States has tried to change Pakistan's
key center from contending with India and looking for more impact in Afghanistan to
ensuring its own particular inward steadiness and monetary improvement. Anyhow despite
the fact that Pakistan has kept on relying upon U.S. military and financial help, it has not
transformed its conduct much. Every nation blames the other for being a frightful partner and
maybe both are correct.49

The U.S.-Pakistan relationship changed altogether once Pakistan consented to backing the
U.S. crusade to wipe out the Taliban in Afghanistan and to join the United States in the

49
Husain Haqqani, Breaking Up Is Not Hard to Do, at http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138845/hussain-
haqqani/breaking-up-is-not-hard-to-do.

32
Global War on Terror. Numerous heartbreaking occurrences had happened amid these
improvements. In March 2000, a suicide aggressor exploded explosives in a Church in
Islamabad, murdering two Americans connected with the Embassy and three others. There
were additionally unsuccessful assaults by terrorists on the department General in Karachi in
May2002. An alternate bomb was exploded close American office and different
organizations in Karachi in November 2005, executing three individuals and injuring 15
others. On March 2, 2006, a suicide plane exploded an auto stuffed with explosives as a
vehicle conveys an American Foreign Service Officer passed by on its approach to office
Karachi. The representative, the department's mainly utilized driver and three other
individuals were executed in the impact; 52 others were injured. 50

It appears to be clear that the conclusion of Pakistani GLOCs to Afghanistan has not been the
logistic fiasco that numerous intellectuals in both the United States and Pakistan had
anticipated. In this appreciation, by keeping the courses shut, Islamabad has "played its
trump card in relations with Washington and not understood the trusted for additions.
Pakistan now dangers ending up progressively secluded strategically, and working absolutely
with United States and NATO may be the best way to change this course. By bowing to
household political weights, the regular citizen governments arranging methodology could
see the nation lose billions in remote aid, and also its capacity to impact post-war
Afghanistan.51

In June 2011 declaration of a U.S. military drawdown from Afghanistan in 2014, President
Obama said the United States "will keep on pressing Pakistan to extends its support in
securing a more serene future for this war-torn locale" and "will demand that it keep its
responsibilities" to kill terrorist safe sky in its region. In August, Secretary of Defense Leon
Panetta straightforwardly recognized the convoluting variables of Pakistan's binds to hostile

50
Global security organization, Foreign Relations-Pakistan&U.S.A, .at,
www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/forel-usa.htm.
51
NajamSethi, Terms of Reengagement(editorial), Friday Times(Lahore), May 18, 2012; Pakistanis Fear Being
Left Too Isolated, Los Angeles Times, May 22, 2012.

33
to Afghan and against India terrorist bunches, yet demanded that the United States "must
choose the option to keep up an association with Pakistan.52

Developments in 2011 have seemed to validate a preexisting view of many observers that
Pakistani behavior is unlikely to change given the long-held geostrategic perspectives of
decision makers in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, home of the Pakistan Armys GHQ. If true,
this means Pakistan will continue to tolerate safe havens for friendly militant groups
regardless of U.S. aid leaves or overt threats.53

By numerous records, Pakistan's clearly Schizophrenic Foreign Policy conduct is a direct


result of the Pakistan military's apparent vital investments. This leads examiners to energize
full-throated U.S. help for Pakistan's nonmilitary personnel powers as the main practical
method for lessening clash both inside Pakistan and in the middle of Pakistan and its
neighbors. The current U.S. Representative to Pakistan, Cameron Munter, is among the
individual who has demanded that Pakistan obliges a solid regular citizen government and
that normal U.S.-Pakistan triumphs can be attained to just "with a solid accomplice in
Pakistan's fairly chosen government.54

While in office, president Obama has not gone to Pakistan and his choice to set out to India
maddened nervousness among Pakistani authorities who view the indications of a 'master
India' tilt in Washington strategy as destabilizing for the area. Pakistani pioneers and natives
saw the U.S.-Pak organization together suspicious when the United States avoided
engagement in Kashmir debate and making headway to have the common atomic manage
India without making any comparable offer to Pakistan. Additionally, Afghanistan in
October 2011, when secured the nearby ties with India which is Pakistan's essential
adversary, is a danger for Pakistan security Institutions who view that Pakistan progressively
is under risk by the outside strengths that try to debilitate and maybe smother the country.

52
White House transcript at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/06/22/remarks-president-way-
forward-afghanistan; we Must Keep Pakistan Ties: Panetta, Agency France Press, August 16, 2011.
53
Timothy Hoyt, Pakistan, an Ally by Any Other Name, Proceedings, July 2011; Pakistan Unlikely to Help the
US in War, Associated Press, September 23, 2011.
54
Sen.John Kerry Holds a Hearing on the Nomination of Cameron Munter to be Ambassador to Pakistan, CQ
Transcriptions, September 23,2010

34
In the perspective of numerous U.S. examiners, Pakistan's May 2012 stubbornness on the
issues of GLOCs and assertion on a conciliatory sentiment for Salala may demonstrate
immoderate and speak to a missed chance to work agreeably with the United States in the
area. One reporter who contends this urges the U.S. government to stay firm in constraining
Islamabad on counter terrorism particularly with Pakistan's influence diminished. An
alternate sees Pakistan's unrelenting stance being "a cataclysmic slip-up" and a triumph of
fleeting thoroughly considering long haul of plotting over strategy.55

Indeed before the Post-Salala breakdown of relations, some prominent experts were requiring
another U.S. arrangement to move to a more ill-disposed carriage towards Pakistan on the
suspicion that president Obama's (and President George W. Bush's) engagement
arrangements have fizzled. One senior analyst recommends "centered threatening vibe,"
towards Pakistan that would consider its military and insight administrations responsible
while not hurting the Pakistani individuals all the more for the most part. This could involve
focusing on people for assents and in addition pointedly cutting military help. An alternate
goes further, battling that Pakistan ought to be viewed as a foe of the United States, at any
rate the extent that Afghanistan arrangement is concerned, the rationale being that open
affirmation of center contradiction on the issue would profit both nations. A third contends
that just valid dangers to end all aid to Islamabad and "counter," if Pakistan neglects to
consent to U.S. requests will persuade Pakistani pioneers that real collaboration is to their
greatest advantage.56

As Pakistans Ambassador to the United States from 2008 to 2011, I tried to carry out this
agenda and serve as a bridge between the two sides. I arranged dozens of meetings among
civilian and military leaders from both sides. Senior U.S. officials, including James Jones, the
national security advisor; and Leon Panetta, the director of the CIA and later Secretary of
Defense, were generous with their time. Senators John McCain, Diane Feinstein, and Joseph
Lieberman hashed out the various elements of a strategic partnership, and Senator John Kerry
spent countless hours constructing models for Afghan Negotiations. Richard Holbrooke, who

55
Lisa Curtis, Pakistan Missed Opportunity to Repair Ties With U.S., Heritage Foundation Issue Brief #3613,
May 22, 2012; David Ignatius, Pakistan Blown Chance.(op-ed), Washington post, May 17, 2012.
56
Bruce Riedel, A New Pakistan Policy: Containment(op-ed), New York Times, October 15,2011; Anatol
Lieven, With A Friend Like This.(op-ed), New York Times, November 1, 2011; Stephen Krasner, Talking Tough
To Pakistan, Foreign Affairs (online), November 29, 2011.

35
was the Obama Administrations special envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan before his death
in 2011, shuttled between the capitals, seeking to explain U.S. policies to Pakistan officials
and secure Congressional support for PakistanPresident Barack Obama conveyed to
Pakistan that the United States wanted to help Pakistan feel secure and be prosperous but that
it would not countenance Pakistans support for jihadist groups that threatened American
security.57

At the same time at last, these endeavors to construct a vital organization got no place. The
regular citizen pioneers were not able to cover up the doubt between the U.S. what's more
Pakistani militaries and knowledge offices. Also the absence of full regular citizen control
over Pakistan's military and brainpower administrations implied that, as ever, the two nations
were moving in the direction of distinctive results. Honestly, nonetheless, things may not
have been all that vastly improved had the regular people been in full control; it is simpler for
strongmen to give their associates what they need paying little respect to prevalent wishes,
whether it is U-2 and automaton Bases or Arming the Afghan Mujahedeen. My own
particular residency as diplomat reached an unexpected end in November 2011; weeks after
an American Businessman of Pakistani birthplace erroneously blamed me for utilizing him as
a mediator to look for American help in defeating a military upset instantly after the U.S.
attack that executed Bin Laden. The assertion had neither rhyme nor reason in light of the
fact that as envoy, I had direct access to American authorities and did not the assistance of
questionable specialist to pass on worries about Pakistan military debilitating the regular
citizen guideline. The scene affirmed once more, if affirmation was required, that backed
close ties with United States is a disliked position in Pakistan and that there is a general
readiness in Pakistan's media, legal, and brainpower circles to accept the most noticeably
awful of anybody attempting to retouch the frayed organization.58

There are some other prominent advancements that happened from 2011 till to-date that
further exacerbated the inner circumstance of Pakistan. These occasions have had appalling
effects and fuel the effectively blazing circumstance of terrorism and fanaticism in Pakistan.
In the year 2011, there were some prominent political deaths i-e on January 4, 2011, 'Salman

57
HussainHaqqani, Breaking Up Is Not Hard to Do. at, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138845/hussain-
haqqani/breaking-up-is-not-hard-to-do.
58
Ibid.

36
Taseer,' the legislative head of Punjab was killed by the individual from his own particular
security group. Taseer was one of the nation's most liberal government officials and he had
gained the hatred of Islamists and different preservationists with vocal reactions of the
dubious disrespect laws. His executioner, Mumtaz Qadri was then praised as a saint by
distinctive areas and even by most of the Barelvi Muslim order. The death was unequivocally
denounced by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, and was considered as a real hit to liberal
powers in Pakistan.

Then, on March 2, 2011, Minorities Minister Shahbaz Bhatti- the Federal bureau's just
Christian part was shoted to death. Bhatti like Salman Taseer, just Called and interest for
changes of the disrespect laws. Secretary Clinton communicated being "stunned and
shocked" by Bhatti's executing, calling it "an assault on the estimations of resilience and
admiration for individuals of all beliefs and foundations championed by Mohammed Ali
Jinnah, Pakistan's founding father.59

This was the shameful day for us as a nation when a foreign Secretary of the State remind us
the guiding principles for tolerance, patience that were lessened to us by our founding father
of the nation.

On January 27, 2011, "Raymond Davis, "an American working at the U.S. office in Lahore,
shot and murdered two men who were before his vehicle in urban movement. Davis fights
that he acted in self-preservation when the men attempted to victimize him at gunpoint.
Pakistani powers charged Davis of homicide and court controlled the administration from
discharging him notwithstanding weight from top U.S. authorities that conciliatory
insusceptibility secured him from indictment. President Obama depicted Davis as being "our
representative". Anyhow later on, it was conceded by the American authorities that Davis
was a CIA foreman and an individual from incognito group that was a vocation to track the
activist gatherings inside Pakistan.

59
http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr-11030205.html. Also see, www.fas.org/crs/row/R41832.pdf.

37
In mid-February, Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman, Senator Kerry traveled to
Islamabad in an effort to reduce escalating tensions, taking the opportunity to express the
deepest sorrow felt by top U.S. leaders at the loss of life. 60

In late February, the CIA had direct negotiations with ISI to secure Davis' discharge. On
March 16, 2011, the political pressure by Pakistani authorities on the courts lastly a vow of
$2.3 million in "diyat" or "Blood Money," for the exploited people's families, Davis was
liberated and flown out of the nation.61

On May 2, 2011, Al-Qaeda founding chief Osama Bin Laden was found and murdered in the
average sized Pakistani city of Abbottabad, a military cantonment in the northwest Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa region, in a compound which is one-half mile from the nation's chief military
institute. The commission which was working to inquiry the Abbottabad operation, its report
is yet not public and the confusion is in the mind of every individual that whether Osama Bin
Laden was there or not but honestly speaking Osama Bin Laden was not there because if
Osama (the most wanted extremist figure) was there then the American officials would
definitely release his snaps or even his dead body which according to them, they had buried
in the Arabian sea, what a joke the Americans had made with Pakistan and the rest of the
world even to their own people who were waiting for the moment that when Osama will be
hanged in front of them. So, a basic question comes to every mind that pinches a lot that, for
what America had made the adventure of Abbottabad operation (Neptune spear)?

The news of OBLs whereabouts prompted prompt addressing of Pakistan's part and potential
complicity in his shelter. President Obama's boss counter terrorism guide, John Brennan, told
columnists it was "boundless that Osama Bin Laden did not have an emotionally supportive
network" in Pakistan.62

For a wide exhibit of eyewitnesses, the result of the year's long chase for OBL left just two
sensible conclusions: either Pakistani authorities were at some level complicit sequestered
from everything the criminal, or the nation military and insight administrations were horribly
inept in their quest for top Al-Qaeda pioneers. In either case, after numerous years of cases

60
http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr-110216004.html.
61
Blood Money Tradition Might Help Resolve U.S.-Pakistani Row, Los Angeles Times, March 13, 2011
62
Quoted in Osama Bin Laden Killed in U.S. Raid, Buried at Sea , Washington Post, May 2, 2011.

38
by senior Pakistani authorities both regular citizen and military- that most-needed terrorist
figures were discovering no shelter in their nation, Pakistan's validity endured a genuine
blow.63

Not long after this current Pakistan's military and knowledge orgs went under residential
feedback for being not able to distinguish and capture an outside military attack inside
Pakistani domain, and was seen that they are bumbling and neglected to recognize the
world's most-needed terrorist. Armed force boss Gen. Kayani cautioned that Pakistan would
not endure any future invasions. In any case shouldn't we think about the automaton assaults
that was proceeded with even after this episode. Parliament additionally censured the U.S.
assault. This improvement filled the respective doubt and bitterness concealed in the post-
2001 period. On May 22, 2011, a group of intensely furnished aggressors infiltrated security
boundaries and assaulted Pakistan's head maritime base, the Mehran Naval base close
Karachi. In the 16-hours-in length run fight, ten security staff and four activists were killed;
two aggressors were gotten away before Pakistani commandos' recaptured control of the
base. The activists were to demolish two U.S. - supplied P-3C Orion sea watch aircraftin
their hook. The assault, which the Pakistani Taliban asserted was requital for killing of Bin
Laden, was the second significant shame of the month for the ambushed Pakistani military,
which appeared at a misfortune to clarify how such a harming break could happen. The
capacity of a modest bunch of aggressors to wreak such devastation left the security
administrations open to scorching feedback from the by and large expert military media
furthermore brought into inquiry and wellbeing and security of Pakistan's atomic weapons
and materials.64

Suspicions rapidly emerged that the base's assailants had inside help, given particularly their
capacity to deliberately keep away from location and take compelling cover once inside.
Inside days a previous naval force commando was captured regarding the case. Three naval
force officers, the base administrator among them, are to be court-martialed on charges of

63
A listing of some of the often times categorical, high-profile Pakistani denials about OBL specifically are in
Osama bin who?, Foreign Policy (online), May2, 2011.
64
Pakistan Military Faces New Questions After Raid, New York Times, May 24, 2011; Pakistan Media
Redicules Military After Attack , Reuters, May 24, 2011 ; the growth of Pakistans nuclear arsenal and infrastructure
only increases the potential threats posed by determined militants. Also see, Terrorist Tactics in Pakistan Threaten
Nuclear Weapons Safety, CTC Sentinel, June 2011. Also see, www.fas.org/crs/row/R41832.pdf.

39
carelessness regarding the assault, an irregular disciplinary activity for the Pakistani military
exhibiting the earnestness of the rupture. 65

In May 2011, the investigative columnist Syed Saleem Shahzad was vanished in the wake of
composing an article recommending that the Mehran assault was completed on the grounds
that Pakistan Navy was attempting to pound Al-Qaeda cells that had drenched the
administration and Pakistan fundamental Intelligence Agency (ISI), is blamed for requesting
the torment and homicide of Syed Saleem Shahzad yet ISI denied assuming any part in
Shahzad's destiny. However later on, an anonymous U.S. authority later said that there was
sufficient particular knowledge to presume that senior ISI authorities had coordinated the
heartless assault on shahzad so as to noiseless the faultfinders. Later on Admiral Mike
Mullen; the Joint Chief Chairman guaranteed that shahzad's murdering "was authorized" by
the [Pakistani] government.66

In the perspective of a few onlookers, the organization choice was more prone to evoke more
prominent hatred than more prominent participation from Pakistani pioneers, and could be
taken as acceptance by common Pakistani's who see the United States as a whimsical and
questionable associate.67

A Pakistani military representative released the advancement as having no impact on his


association's capacity to lead future battle operations, and he rehashed the Army boss'
proposal that more U.S. security support be reinvented to advancement ventures in
Pakistan.68

In October 2011, "Memogate" outrage makes the Domestic Civil-Military strain at peak. The
outrage cost Haqqani his occupation and brought extreme weight on President Asif Zardari.
Both Haqqani and Zardari deny any association in the update's outrage. Executive Gilani
reacted with an open cautioning that "connivances are being incubated to pack up the chose

65
Three Pakistani Naval Officers to Be Court Martialed Over Base Attack , New York Times, August 4, 2011
66
U.S. Admiral Ties Pakistan to Killing of Journalist, New York Times, July 8, 2011.
67
In Pakistan, Many Say Aid snub Dims US Sway, Associated press, July 11, 2011.
68
Pakistan Says It Doesnt Need US Military Aid, Christian Science Monitor, July 11, 2011. Also see,
www.fas.org/crs/row/R41832.pdf.

40
government" and said that the military "can't be a state inside a state" and is "responsible to
Parliament.69

On the current circumstance in the interim ISPR issued a press discharge that, Rumors of an
approaching military upset were so pervasive in December that the armed force publically
vowed to keep supporting majority rules system; Gen Kayani was cited as saying all such
bits of gossip were "theories." Still, amid the last week of 2011, the regular citizen
government stayed irritated that both the armed force and knowledge boss had evaded them
in captivating the court. Leader Gilani again called the move unlawful and illicit, a case
denied by the just as angered military.70

The Salala outskirt episode on November 26, 2011, demonstrated the breakdown of the
organization together between the two states, when Pakistan reported the NATO helicopters
and Jets had assaulted a Pakistani military office along the fringe with Afghanistan,
executing no less than 26 Pakistani warriors and harming 14 more. Pakistan proclaimed the
strike to be totally unmerited and said it would instantly reassess its relations with both the
trans-Atlantic union and the United States. Pakistan along these lines shut the outskirt
crossing in the Khyber Pass to NATO supply escorts and requested the U.S. to empty Shamsi
Air Base. Shamsi was accepted to be utilized by the United States to propel hits with in
Pakistan utilizing unmanned ethereal vehicles. Afghan authorities later blamed Pakistani
strengths for inciting the assault by terminating on Coalition constrains in Afghanistan, a
change that Pakistani Officials denied. The U.S. said that it would direct an investigation into
the circumstances of the assault and assigned US headquarters (CENTCOM) as the lead
substance for the examination on 28 November 2011.Pakistan requested a conciliatory
sentiment from the US. The US declined to put forth such an expression until the
investigation into the assault had been closed. As an aftereffect of the November 26, 2011
assault, Pakistan reported that it would blacklist the gathering on the fate of Afghanistan to
be held in Bonn, Germany in December 20. 71

69
Pakistans Memo Scandal Pits Military against Zardari Government , Washington Post, December 16, 2011;
Gilani quoted in Pakistan Premier Warms of plotting by Military, New York Times, December 22, 2011.
70
http://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/main.asp?o=t-press_release&date=2012/1/11.
71
Global Security Organization, at, www.globalsecurity.org/military/wo rld/pakistan/forel-usa.htm.

41
Press reporting shows the Obama Administration verged on issuing an expression of remorse
for Salala on a few events over resulting months: Advocates, particularly with in the State
Department, have accepted that a statement of regret would encourage a reviving of the
GLOCs and a patching of relations all the more for the most part. Rivals contended that the
United States couldn't give any appearance of shortcoming given an impulse to weight
Pakistan on counter insurrection. Pentagon figures are said to accept a statement of regret
would add up to a confirmation of deficiency. In late February, Secretary Clinton supposedly
was situated to apologize to Foreign Minister Khar in London, however that arrangement
was prematurely ended after U.S. military staff coincidentally blazed korans in Afghanistan.
Later, with facilitated radical assaults crosswise over Afghanistan in April faulted for the
Pakistan-based Haqqani Network, those in the organization contending for a conciliatory
sentiment obviously fell quiet.72

An alternate disappointment of our outside strategy showed up before us in February 2012,


when the Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations held a hearing on
Baluchistan where there is a long-running vicious separatist clash. One witness required the
"segment" of Pakistan into Sub states, Baluchistan among them. Subcommittee director
Representative Dana Rohrabacher therefore offered H.Con.Res.104 to express the feeling of
congress that the populace of Baluchistan had a privilege of toward oneself determination
and to their own particular sovereign nation. It was seriously scrutinized by Pakistani media
and Government. PM Gilani called it an assault on Pakistani power and Pakistan's
Ambassador in Washington cautioned it "would truly affect two-sided relations." The Obama
Administration separated itself from the determination by announcing that it has no approach
to backing Baluchistan's independence.73

The outside arrangement of Pakistan totally neglected to legitimately handle the issue of
Baluchistan and FATA. Our knowledge organizations have the complete, accurate proof and data
of Indian, Afghan and Iran association and their exercises that incredibly make the revolt,
militancy and fanaticism in these areas and its belongings are seen in whatever remains of the
nation parts. The administration does not have the best possible methodology to experience the

72
U.S. Agonizes Over Apology to Pakistan, Wall Street Journal, May 18, 2012.
73
Fury in Pakistan After U.S. Congressman suggests That A Province Leave , New York Times, February 22,
2012; at, http://islamabad.usembassy.gov/pr-021912.html.

42
political and financial destabilization in Pakistan. It is one of our remote arrangement
disappointment for which we are paying in the gigantic expense from most recent 14 years till to-
date.

The April 2012 Pentagon Report to the Congress noticed some positive patterns yet straight
expressed that, "The Taliban rebellion and its al-Qaeda members still works with debasement
from asylums in Pakistan" which "remains the most basic risk" to the U.S.- drove endeavors in
Afghanistan. The report fought that the security circumstance in eastern Afghanistan "stays
unpredictable" and the city of Kabul keeps on confronting tireless security dangers, huge
numbers of which are "arranged in and controlled from Pakistan." Pentagon pioneers, and U.S.
government pioneers as a rule, accept that Pakistan's longing to see on Afghan government "with
essential for the Pushtuns, and constrained Indian impacts," propels its authority to permit
insurgent sanctuaries to persist on its soil.74

Pakistan's connection to the "War on Terror" has been exceedingly irresolute. From one
perspective, Pakistan assumes a major part in encouraging the United States drove mediation in
Afghanistan from not long after 9/11 up to the present. It has allowed the travel of material
crosswise over Pakistani region to U.S. powers in Afghanistan. Pakistan has likewise endured
American rocket assaults propelled from Afghanistan against Taliban and Al-Qaeda focuses in
Pakistan's untamed outskirt locale with that nation. Then again, Pakistan has given place of
refuge not simply to radical Islamist developments focusing on its adversary Indian, additionally
for the Afghan Taliban, Al-Qaeda pioneers Osama Bin Laden and Al-Zawahiri among others are
likewise accepted to be stowing away in Pakistan. Whether to what degree and by whom inside
the Pakistani government they are being secured is indistinct, however Pakistan absolutely has
not helped the United States to spot and catch them. There have likewise been press reports that
Pakistan has obstructed the endeavors of some Taliban pioneers to look for peace with the U.S.-
sponsored Karzai government in Kabul. U.S. - Pakistan relations have gotten to be progressively

74
U.S. Department of Defense, Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan, April 2012. at,
http://www.defense.gov/pubs/pdfs/Report_Final_SecDef_04_27_12.pdf.

43
strained over how to arraign the "War on Terror," yet collaboration between them additionally
proceeds.75

As anyone might expect, the U.S. government has become progressively disappointed with
Pakistan; its backing for the Taliban has baffled American military endeavors in Afghanistan.
Yet numerous Pakistani Islamists, particularly the pushtun, censure the Pakistani government for
collaborating with the United States whatsoever. A Pakistani Taliban has emerged,
predominantly among Pakistan's pushtun populace, which has battled against Pakistani
government strengths. Pakistan's as well smart considerably approach of supporting the United
States against the Taliban and supporting the Taliban against the United States has not just
baffled American endeavors in Afghanistan; it has added to the ascent of a radical Islamist
danger inside Pakistan itself. Right now, a Pakistani government choice to betray these radical
Islamist powers or simply end its backing for them- may bring about quickening the risk that
they stance to the Pakistani Government. Regardless of this, the Pakistani administration has,
distinctively, stayed concentrated on its contention with India. With the United States and NATO
having reported that they will withdraw from Afghanistan between mid-2011 and end of 2014,
Pakistan appears to be more stressed than any time in recent memory that the Karzai government
will partner itself with India to the disservice of Pakistan. Thus, Pakistan has kept on supporting
the hard-line Afghan Taliban. The incongruity, obviously, is that if the Taliban comes back to
power in Afghanistan with Pakistan's help, the Taliban is scarcely liable to be more amiable to
Pakistan impact after it has less need of it generally as happened amid the 1990s. Undoubtedly, if
the Afghan Taliban chooses to help its pushtun brethren over the fringe in Pakistan, the Pakistani
government may end up confronted with its own intense Islamist uprising alongside an
unsympathetic global group as a consequence of the approaches Pakistan is seeking after at
present.76

The Haqqani Network, based in FATA, is commonly considered the most dangerous of Afghan
insurgent groups and their attacks on U.S.-led forces in eastern Afghanistan increased the U.S.
frustration. During September 22, Mullen issued the most direct and strongest statement on
Pakistan malfeasance of the post-2001 era, saying,

75
Mark N.Katz, Middle East Policy Council, Pakistan and the War on Terror War on Terror in Perspective,at
, www.mepc.org/articles-commentary/commentary/pakistan-and-war-terror?print.
76
ibid

44
The Haqqani network, for one, acts as a veritable arm of Pakistans Inter-services Intelligence
agency. With ISI support, Haqqani operates plan and conducted that [September 13] truck bomb
attack, as well as the assault on our embassy. We also have credible evidence they were behind
the June 28th attack on the International Hotel in Kabul and a host of other smaller but effective
operations.77

Secretary Panetta, Certifying nearby Mullen took the chance to include, "I think the first request
of business at this time is to, honestly, put as much as much weight on Pakistan as we can to
manage this issue from their side.78

Islamabad rejects guarantees that Pakistan is in charge of spates of savagery in Afghanistan or


that it backs or has control over the Haqqanis. The Pakistani military called Mullen's
announcements "extremely appalling and not taking into account Facts" and completely denied
that Pakistan is directing an intermediary war or backing the Haqqani Network. Outside Minister
Khar cautioned that, with such claims, the U.S. could "lose a partner." President Zardari, in an
opinion piece reaction, said that "verbal attacks" against Pakistan are harming the two-sided
relationship.79

All these issues made a major setback to Pakistan on Social, Political, Economic; Religious
fronts both domestically and internationally.

77
Senate Armed Services Committee Holds Hearing on Iraq and Afghanistan, CQ Transcripts, september 22,
2011; Gates: Pakistan Spy Agency Tied to Militant Group , Wall Street Journal, october 6, 2011; How Pakistan
Lost Its Top U.S. Friends, Wall Street Journal, September 28, 2011
78
Senate Armed Services Committee Holds Hearing on Iraq and Afghanistan, CQ Transcripts, September 22, 2011
79
ISPR Press Release, Pakistan Warns US It Could Lose an Ally, Financial Times (London), September 23,
2011; Asif Ali Zardari,Talk to, Not At, Pakistan (op-ed), Washington Post, October 2, 2011.

45
The U.S.-Pakistan relationship has been termed by an onlooker as "an astounding case of deft
relationship between two unequal forces, in light of speculation toward oneself, as opposed to
commonly harmonious destinations.80

The 9/11 assaults on the World Trade Center shook America and the Bush Administration. The
sheer size of calamity and the daringness of the assaults on U.S. during an era when U.S. was
without a doubt the prevalent worldwide power on the planet stunned the super power. This
assault all alone soil, with the loss of most strong images of American esteem and financial force
was greatly humiliating. How could the world's most exceptional country, with one of the best
security and knowledge systems, let a wonder such as this happen all alone soil? Not since the
infamous assault on Pearl Harbor, had the U.S. been assaulted so effectively on its event, as Pearl
Harbor was just about 3000 miles from primary area US. This assault on the World Trade Center
brought about a bigger number of setbacks and humiliation than any single assault amid the
whole most recent one century, on the terrain US. Actually amid the US's contribution in World
War I, World War II, Korean, Vietnam and Gulf wars, the Continental US had been subjected to
threatening activity so viably. Its geological area, a long way from these theaters of military
operations guaranteed that the US populace at home did not endure the tragedies of war, as those
countries in Europe and Asia whose countries have been the battlegrounds for extended clashes.
Hence the U.S., regardless of taking an interest in pretty much all real clashes and paying a cost
regarding expense and losses had never truly seen such misfortune and calamity all alone soil.
Accordingly the 9/11 assaults were not simply harming from the glory perspective, they likewise
obliterated the myth of the U.S., Security and confinement. Terrorists had effectively brought the
war to the US soil and now the security environment could never be the same. 81

In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist assaults, the U.S. government executed a
progression of basic and now and again questionable movement strategy measures to react to the
future dangers of terrorism. As we recognize the tenth commemoration of the 9/11 assaults, it is
an opportune minute to think about the current status and the enduring legacy of those
arrangement producers. Since every one of the 19 terrorists who assault the United States that
September morning were outside nationals who had entered the nation through legitimate travel

80
A.Z. Hilali, U.S.-Pakistan Relationship, Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing House, September 11, 2001
81
S.Coll. (Ghost Wars). New York: penguin Groups.

46
channels, identifying and counteracting terrorist movement turned into the fundamental goal of
post 9/11 U.S. migration strategy and projects. In the decade- since 9/11, movement approach
has been seen primarily through the viewpoint of national security, an improvement that has
offered climb to major new fringe security and law authorization activities, increased visa
controls and screening of universal voyagers and would- be migrants, the gathering and
stockpiling of data in unlimited new interoperable databases utilized by the law requirement and
insight organizations, and the utilization of State and neighborhood law implementation as power
multipliers in migration authorization. Also, any prospects of bipartisan backing for exhaustive
migration change, which had been picking up energy in Congress preceding the assaults, have
been dashed. Furthermore in light of the fact that the thieves were all Muslims, intense
investigation in the quick consequence of these assaults was centered around Muslims or the
individuals who were seen to be Muslims, with more extensive utilization of nationality-base
screening and enforcement programs.82

A large number of about 4, 50,000 Pakistanis and more than 2 million Muslims resided in the
United States. They are there only for the reason to gain money and improve their living
standard. But after the 9/11, these people in the United States were abused. Against Al-Qaeda
and Taliban, Pakistan has launched various military operations in the tribal territories which have
incited them to convey their bad exercises inside Pakistan. In comparison to 9/11 assaults, more
number of people had lost their lives in these operations. Pakistan's backing to United States
what's more NATO strengths against banned organizations which have broadly suggestion as it
keeps on suffering because of war.83

The end of Cold war and September 11, 2001 has brought numerous difficulties and open doors
for U.S. furthermore Pakistan- United States arrangement creators comprehend and understand
the key significance of Pakistan in the locale, where the U.S. has key financial and vital interests,
at present, the US has a long haul territorial strategy and its principle concern is to counteract
terrorist exercises and their spread. In short unequal organization will support the length of

82
Muzaffarchisti and Claire Beregon, Post 9/11 Policies Dramatically After the U.S. Immigration Landscape,
Migration Policy Institute (MPI), September 8, 2011, at ,www.migrat ionpolicy.org/article/post-911-policies-
dramatically-alter-us-immigration-landscape. Read more about post 9/11 policy changes in MPIs new fact sheet:
Through the prism of National security: Major Immigration Policy and programs Changes in the Decade Since 9/11.
83
NuzhatBibi, PAK-US Relations, Pakistan Observer, December 14, 2011 at,
pakobserver.net/detailnews.asp?id=130035.

47
shared trait, of investments win. Pakistan as a weaker accomplice is normally eager to stay
faithful to the United States if consequently the U.S. as a stronger accomplice satisfies the
weaker accomplice requests identifying with its provincial and neighborhood needs. On the other
hand, history shows us that incredible powers barely ever give up their hobbies. Pakistan had
paid a huge cost in attempting to help the global group against terrorism. Despite all these
endeavors, Pakistan has been reprimanded for not doing much in the war against terrorism.
Besides, the U.S. should treat Pakistan as free elements furthermore regard the power of
Pakistan. Just such approach can reinforce validity of organization that dubious approaches can
jeopardize. The trust between the two countries can be reinforced just if the U.S. approach
towards Pakistan stays steady. U.S needs Pakistan to turn into its colonized state, to serve the
diversions of US. They meddle excessively in inner undertakings of Pakistan. 84

Pakistan's participation with U.S. in the Global War on Terror has expanded the viability of its
operations against terrorism additionally prompted serve results for the Government of Pakistan,
the Pakistan Army and for the nation's social fabric. 85

The issue of Abdul Qadeer Khan's atomic expansion system and Pakistan's atomic
straightforwardness has been one of the primary rubbing purposes of US-Pakistan reciprocal
connections. Taking after an inside examination by the NAB, and fundamentally preceding US
political weight, A.Q. Khan's system was recognized, disassembled and he was brought to
equity. Taking after his admission and resulting acquit by the President, he was set under house
capture and he stays limited to his home as his home was being pronounced as sub prison. 86

Pakistan's test is to ingrain worldwide trust in the inner soundness of the nation to help foster
expanded outside venture, abridge defilement and guarantee straightforwardness. In numerous
regards, views of steadiness are generally as imperative as reality when impacting outside
speculation. Accordingly, the effect of even minor varieties in the U.S.-Pakistan relationship can
shake or fortify speculator certainty and as second request impact, cause precariousness or

84
NuzhatBibi, PAK-US Relations, Pakistan Observer, December 14, 2011 at,
pakobserver.net/detailnews.asp?id=130035
85
TouqirHussain, Special Report # 145-US-Pakistan-Engagement-The-War on Terrorism and Beyond, August 16,
2005, at, www.usip.org; and also see, thelondonpost.net/us -pakistan-trust-deficit-and-the-war-on-terror.
86
Douglas Frantz, From Patriot to Proliferation, September 23, 2005. at,
http://irannuclear.org/content/view/12/28; also see, thelondonpost.net/us-pakistan-trust-deficit-and-the-war-on-
terror/

48
enhance thriving and solidness. Potential "Special case" impacts the above referenced bi-
sidelong impacts can be exasperated by other "trump card" occasions pretty much totally out of
the control of the major political performers. On the other hand, what is vital is the manner by
which the real players respond to those episodes. Case in point, the episode of profaning of the
Holy Quran in April/May 2005 at Guantanamo made a solid feeling against the U.S. in pretty
much all the Muslim nations. In Pakistan various challenges were arranged to demonstrate
people in general aversion and indignation regarding the issue. Despite the fact that Newsweek
later withdrawn its story, the harm had very nearly been carried out. In parts of Waziristan and
NWFP (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) and certain different allotments of the nation, irritates took
off high and it all betrayed the Musharraf government and the Pakistan Army for their affiliation
and obvious backing to the US.87

Today, or indeed from post 9/11, there is a solid Anti-American emotions in Pakistani
individuals intends to say that individuals in Pakistan saw America as the nation which is in
charge of making Pakistan a risky nation. One essayist noticed that "Pakistan today is an
unnerving spot for Americans" and "it is a standout amongst the most Anti-American nations in
the World." The rocket assaults that are one-sided have the negative repercussion for the Pak-US
long haul two-sided relations and the greater part of the resigned military authorities and regular
citizen authority saw that the assaults were counterproductive to Pakistan's exertion against
fanaticism and terrorism. It has bothered and exacerbated the political environment in addition to
the military and overall population had been profoundly undermined by the rocket strikes that
abused the state power and malicious to the participation with US. 88

Diverse religious and social developments in Pakistan additionally considered that US was
battling a war against Islam and not against terrorism. The overall population has a tendency to
surmise that American help for President Musharraf and Pakistan's military as hindrance and not
a facilitator of the process of democratization. 89

87
Brigadier Rizwan Akhter, Threat Assessment in North Waziristan Agency and Response Options, November 16,
2005, and also see, thelondonpost.net/us-pakistan-trust-deficit-and-the-war-on-terror.
88
Caroline Wadhams, Brain Katulis, Lawrence Korb and Colin Cookman, Partnership for Progress:Advancing a
New Strategy for Prosperity and Stability in Pakistan and the Region, Washington DC,Report of Centre for
American Progress, November 2008, pg # 15-23.
89
Kenneth Ballen, Bin Ladens Soft Support, Washington Monthly, May 2008.

49
Since 9/11, the US-Pakistan relations went into another time of military collaboration. The US
had affirmed a $1.2 billion arms-deal bundle that incorporates generally $950 million for the buy
of P3C Orion Aircraft. President Bush in March 2005 approved the offer of a yet-to-be-
determined number of F-16 Fighter planes to Pakistan. Washington has likewise reestablished a
military preparing system with Islamabad and practically "three hundred officers had gotten
direction at US military foundations since 2001. 90

Then again, Pakistan paid a substantial cost on military side by sticking the US collusion against
terrorism. A great many Pakistani's military (between 8, 5000 to 120000) were sent on the
western fringe with Afghanistan and several warriors (more than 3000) had lost their lives which
negligible more in number than the aggregate unified troopers passed on in Afghanistan. This is
other than security loss of human life. Alongside it, the Indio- US atomic arrangement is
additionally a genuine repercussion for Pakistan as "India attempted to control the American
regulation of seizure to pressurize Pakistan." Pakistan dependably likes to feel secure on western
fringe through the vicinity of a neighborly administration in Afghanistan. Taliban government
was benevolent towards Pakistan and after their Northern Alliance came into force in Kabul,
significance consequently that Pakistan has now an unfriendly neighbor in the Post-Taliban
Afghanistan. This Afghan government is to a great degree opposing to Pakistan and is
professional Indian in nature. In the post- 9/11 situation, the impact of Islamabad in Kabul has
diminished significantly while then again, the Indian impact expanded. It has made the western
fringe of Pakistan profoundly captivated and pained, along these lines adding to the provincial
flimsiness Pakistan lost its approach to pick up a vital profundity. It neglected to stop an
expert Indian administration in Afghanistan. It bungled to check the developing Indian impact in
Afghanistan and Central Asian Republicans (CARs). India profited more than Pakistan from the
collusion against terrorism and enhanced its relations with China and extended with Afghanistan,
U.S. what's more CARs.91

The developing fanaticism in Pakistan likewise turns into a purpose behind the breakdown of
collusion and emerges of numerous other financial issues including the outside obstruction and

90
Touqir Hussain, US-Pakistan Engagement: The War on Terrorism and Beyond , IPS, Special Report 145, August
2005, Pg# 6. Also see, www.nihcr.edu.pk/.../4.%20War%20against%20Terrorism,%20fazal%20.
91
BimlaKumari, ISI Upset With India Influence in Afghanistan, Indian Post online, August 31, 2008. at,
http://www.indiapost.com/article/perspective/3726/. Also see,,
www.nihcr.edu.pk/.../4.%20War%20against%20Terroris m,%20fazal%20.

50
mediation in the inward undertakings particularly in FATA and Baluchistan. Amid this period
and under U.S. weight, Pakistan led numerous military operations in FATA and Baluchistan to
catch Al Qaeda and other Taliban individuals and to battle the terrorism and radicalism in
Pakistan. The military operations soon give the genuine and dangerous outcomes as suicide
assaults, target killings, bomb impacts, murdering of security powers and political pioneers and
harm to the general population and private property in addition to the partisan killings in FATA
and Baluchistan and rest of the nation parts. These occasions turned into the day by day routine
exercises. The nation confronted the considerable political and security difficulties. 92 .After 9/11,
Pakistan atomic weapons and vital resources additionally got to be under dialog by the US and
other real powers that were bringing up issues about its wellbeing. The report of Cooperative
Monitoring Center noticed: "The most-feared situations imagined control of Pakistan's atomic
weapons or fissile material slipping under the control of a professional Taliban aggressor Islamic
gathering or sympathizers in the military or intelligence agencies93 The Musharraf government
gave a strong reaction to the speculations about Pakistan Nuclear weapons safety and assured
U.S. and other international community that Pakistan nuclear weapons are in full proof safety
and additional protective measures had also taken since 9/11. 94 Pakistan also faced the problems
and pressure from United States for its support to the Jihadi groups. It was demanded that these
jihadi groups make the insurgent activities inside India. So, the government was pressurized to
ban several jihadi groups, to show its great affiliation and cooperation with war against terrorism
and had made at least a rhetorical shift in its Kashmir policy by pledging to withhold support to
the militants.95

Liam Fox, the previous Defense Secretary, has incited a political spat with Islamabad in the
wake of portraying as "the most risky nation on the planet" and one of the best dangers
confronting mankind. However the case unsettled, a savage reaction from Islamabad's man in
London, named 'Wajid Shams-ul-Hassan, Pakistan's High Commissioner to London, saw Dr.
Fox's cases as "excessively scaremonger" and denounced Dr. Fox of "inclination" and being

92
Kronstade, Pakistan-U.S. Relations pg#06.
93
Rajesh M. Basrur and Hasan-AskariRizvi, Nuclear Terrorism and South Asia, Cooperative Monitoring Center,
pg#47, February 25, 2003.
94
Basrur and Rizvi, Nuclear Terrorism and South Asia, pg#12.
95
International Crisis Group. Kashmir: The View from Islamabad, ICG Asia Report, No.68,2003, pg#8.

51
incognizant in regards to the passing of a huge number of Pakistani's on account of terrorists.
The reason, Fox kept on faulting Pakistan was its natural Political precariousness. 96

Noting the inquiry by Rahim Kanani, the author and president of Rahim Kanani Media Group,
Ins. Washington DC, that, As you study the atomic scene today, and you consider the
circumstance in Iran, North Korea, Pakistan, among others, is any one atomic danger to
worldwide dependability more inherent or essential than the other, and in what manner ought to
those in choices of force consider prioritization? Reacting to the inquiry, Joe Cirincione,
'president of Plowshares Fund, a worldwide security establishment,' said that Pakistan is the most
perilous nation on Earth. It has enough atomic material for 60 to 100 bombs, a delicate economy,
the fanatic impacts in its intelligence agencies and military, a temperamental government,
guerilla gatherings like Al Qaeda and other comparable gatherings inside the nation. He
contended that it is not a matter identified with the security of the weapons however it is an issue
of the security of the administration. What happens if the administration falls or the armed force
fragments? Who gets the weapons? Alternately, the researchers, who know how to assemble the
weapons, or the material utilized for the weapons? Pakistan could go from the major non-NATO
associate to our most noticeably awful atomic bad dream overnight. 97

The vast majority of the outside jihadists who battled in Afghanistan and FATA were not
acknowledged by their local nations and they cleared out with no other decision however to
forever settle in Afghanistan where they built up the closeness and amiability with Afghans and
the tribesmen. Pakistan helped a great deal the Afghans and other outside jihadists in defeating
the impacts of war. The FATA influenced significantly and merit the childhood in social,
financial and training fields. Then again, Afghanistan was giving the picture of tremendous and
gigantic contortion and demolition obliged the modifying and recovery on the enormous level
yet in no way like that happened. In Afghan war Pakistan endured a great deal and still keeps on
suffering this day because of the garbage left by the Soviet powers and intermediary war.
Pakistani society had got scorned owing to free of weapons and medications from Afghanistan
and onset of equipped uprising in involved Kashmir. After 9/11, the United States picked

96
Rob Crilly, Liam Fox Upsets Pakistan after Calling it the most dangerous country in the world, The Telegraph,
September 10, 2013.at, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/pakistan/1029952/ Liam-Fo x-upets-pakistan-
after-calling-it-the-most-dangerous-country-in-the-world.html.
97
www.forbes.com/sites/rahimkanani/2012/ 05/ 09/expert-pakistan-is-the-most-dangerous-country-on-earth/.

52
Pakistan as a cutting edge state to battle the Global war against Terrorism, on the grounds that
that time Pakistan was seen as a capable and esteemed nation and not a perilous nation yet
Pakistan as an atomic force was a blemish to Israel, India and USA. The go getters and the
villain organizers had made up their personalities to make the anarchic conditions in Pakistan
and to portray the pessimistic picture of Pakistan to the worldwide group that it was an unsteady
nation and couldn't be trusted whatsoever. Arranged and maintained endeavors were made to
destabilized FATA and Baluchistan and further sink Pakistan in the ocean of terrorism. A
considerable measure of brainpower offices situated in Kabul putting their energies and
endeavors to make religious fanaticism, sectarianism and ethnic clashes with the fake thought of
jihad in Pakistan. As an aftereffect of US skewed strategies with clouded intentions, Pakistan is
going up against with the evil presences of terrorism, fanaticism. Our nation has isolated into
partisan ghettos and the wrong and twisted picture of jihad is exceptionally utilized in Pakistani
society. Political gatherings have their aggressor wings and furnished mafias are effectively
included in the target killings. In Baluchistan dominant part of the Frontier Corps, Frontier
Constabulary, Levis and Police are occupied with Fighting the Baloch separatists and partisan
powers, which target "Hazaras" and contained the Anti-State strengths.98

As the question in the U.S.-Pakistan relationship extends, Washington's dissatisfaction with


Islamabad has additionally developed. Over the recent months, persuasive voices have started to
suggest that the U.S. take a more merciless and forceful way to Pakistan by playing up Pakistan's
thoughtful military gap: prop up regular citizens while managing cruelly with the military and its
spy office, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), particularly, perspectives range from moving to a
more unfriendly "Control" approach that would confine the Pakistan military; to seeing
"dynamic" regular people as accomplices and proclaiming the military as a foe; to marking
particular individuals from the military and ISI discovered to be included in supporting
aggressors as "terrorists.99

98
AsifHaroon Raja, USA responsible for making Pakistan most dangerous country, October 10, 2013.at,,
paktribune.com/articles/USA-responsible-for-making-pakistan-most-dangerous-country-243131.ht ml.
99
Moeed Yusuf, Fixing Pakistans Civil-Military Imbalance: A Dangerous Temptation, Peace Brief #125, United
States Institute of Peace, May 3, 2012; also see line of thinking is most clearly reflected in Bruce Riedel, A New
Policy Pakistan Policy: Containment, The New York Times, October 14, 2011. at,
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/opinion/a-new-pakistan-policy-contain ment.html?_r=1.

53
America utilize the automaton innovation against Pakistan from 2004, in the specific automaton
assault, Taliban commandant Nek Muhammad Wazir was focused on and killed, regardless it
proceeded to the present day. After Bush Administration when Barack Obama touched base in
White House, the automaton assaults in Pakistani ranges twice expanded. There is an awesome
disdain in Pakistani open that the automaton assaults on Pakistani soil is the direct infringement
of sway of Pakistan in which numerous guiltless subjects including ladies, youngsters and senior
individuals have lost their lives. Then again, the Pakistani government and few American
strategy creators had conceded that the automaton assaults are counterproductive for the United
States on the grounds that in automaton assaults, when the guiltless individuals executed, their
relatives join aggressor associations just for the purpose to take reprisal of their friends and
family and along these lines the aggressors had discovered numerous suicide planes, who were
ready to suicide and present their lives and numerous such cases had been accounted for where
the same circumstance has seen.

The open deliberation association had a survey that, 'Should the United States interfere with
another countrys internal affairs?" 29% said, yes and 71% said, NO.100

Pakistan government is challenging about the infringement of its sway yet it is a truth that it
didn't astringently dissented at this movement and it is accepted that both the states have made a
haggling duty that US would proceed with resolved to automaton strikes and the administration
of Pakistan formally dissent to counter the general population sentiment in this respect.

Medea Benjamin in her book, Drone Warfare argued that Pakistan former Prime Minister
Yusuf Raza Gillani in United Nations issued a statement about drone attacks that United States
should continue the drone strikes unless and until they achieve their target. Our job is to protest
in the National Assembly and will then ignore it.101

100
www.debate.org/opinions/should-the-united-states-interfer-with-another-countrys-domestic-affairs.
101
Medea Benjamin, Drone Warfare, 2012.

54
Chapter # 04

Determinants of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani Society

4.1. Manifestations of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani Society

Anti-Americanism is not static term and nowadays it has been transformed from ideological and
cultural hatred to terrorism. In the present world, especially in the region where war on terror
takes place, the concept of anti-Americanism emerges in severe form. The United States after
9/11 attack on the world trade centre has adopted various unilateral policies for countering
terrorism. Realists consider that anti-Americanism is the by-product of the structure of
international system as we live in the unipolar world where the United States is the Hegemon.
The United States unilaterally implements all her policies. In international system, such type of
attitude of the United States caused anti-Americanism. Anti-Americanism is not an isolated
phenomenon and it is originated as a rough composite prejudice, stereotypes and criticism
towards the U.S, evolving to more politically and economically based criticism. After 2001, the
abrupt changes occurred in the anti-Americanism due to the war on terror. The anti-American
sentiments increased in the whole world especially in Pakistan and Afghanistan which were
mostly affected by the war on terror. Pakistan was the closest ally of the United States in war on
terror. In both States many policies were applied by the US, which were not liked in Pakistan and
it increased anti-American sentiments. Pakistan is considered as the most affected State from the
war on terror by being partner of the US and also located on the porous border of Afghanistan.
Pakistan is also the front line state for the implications of the US policies. After 9/11 anti-
Americanism has become an important topic of intellectual discussions, media debates and
political campaign. These sentiments increased in Pakistani society due to many factors.
Different surveys indicate (Pew Global Survey of Attitudes) clearly highlight rise of anti-
Americanism in al over the world particularly in Pakistan. Anti-Americanism is a confused term
in Pakistan. A wide gap is there between the Pakistan government and the public perception of
the US policies. This gap produces the trust deficit between the people and government towards
the US policies. Few of these policies based on the national interest but Pakistan public and

55
society perceived it in different way which fired up the already existing anti-Americanism
sentiments.102

In order to understand the perception of Anti-American feelings, the researcher has made a field
study based on the structured questionnaire to get an insight from the general public (students
from universities and madrassas) about their views and determining various causes and factors
of Anti-Americanism in Pakistani society with calculative figures and facts.

Table No. 1A

Responsible for Damaging Pakistan


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 20 40.0
2 TTP 13 26.0
3 India 8 16.0
4 Any other 9 18.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the views of University students on the entity responsible for damaging
Pakistan the most. Among the universities students, 16% of the respondents give their opinion
that India is responsible for damaging Pakistan the most. 40% of the respondents viewed that
America is responsible for damaging Pakistan the most, about 26% of the respondents held TTP
responsible whereas among 18% of the respondents some held that Pakistan owns policies are
responsible for its damage and worst condition other viewed Pakistan Army and Pakistan
religious elite in regard.

102
https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=jkEeCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=anti-
american+sentiments+in+pakistan&so`1urce=bl&ots=oN1hlmp mKd&sig =Ga0ENuiEayJlz3iwu xgPsKWA _zo&hl=
en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjPgu-q97fJAhUGI5QKHSRzA zsQ6A EIWTAM#v=onepage&q=anti-
american%20sentiments%20in%20pakistan&f=false

56
Table No. 1B

Responsible for Damaging Pakistan


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 28 56.0
2 India 10 20.0
3 TTP 8 16.0
4 Any other 4 8.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the details from madrassa students regarding who is responsible for
damaging Pakistan the most? 20% of the respondents held India responsible for damaging
Pakistan the most, 56% of the respondent view America, 16% of the respondents held TTP
responsible whereas 8% of the respondents held Pakistan responsible for its damage.

Figure 1A

University Students View

Responsible for Damaging Pakistan


Percent

18 16
India
America
TTP
26
Any other
40

57
Figure 1B

Madrassa Students View

Responsible for Damaging Pakistan


Percent

8
20
16 India
America
TTP
Any other

56

According to the study by Hamid Kazalbash, Anti-Americanism in Pakistan is the result of the
US policies, which he found after interviewing many Pakistanis. He found that anti-American
sentiments in Pakistan are because of the American support for Israel, disregarding and avoiding
Pakistan national interests and its interference in domestic politics. In another study done by
Ayesha Siddiqi explained that anti-Americanism exists not of the US but for what US does. The
study further revealed that anti-Americanism is found in the poor people and the middle class of
Pakistan because they were affected by the US unilateral policies. But now it covered the whole
society. The surveys done by Al-Jazeera and Gallop found that 59% of Pakistanis believe that
the greater threat to the country is United States. Another survey by the Pew Research Centre
recorded that 64% of the Pakistani people established US as an enemy and only 9% consider it as
a partner.103

103
Waseem Zeab Khan and Jamshed-ur-Rehman, US Drone Policy and Anti-American Sentiments in
Pakistan(2001-2012) at;
https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=jkEeCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=anti-
american+sentiments+in+pakistan&so`1urce=bl&ots=oN1hlmp mKd&sig =Ga0ENuiEayJlz3iwu xgPsKWA_zo&hl=
en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjPgu-q97fJAhUGI5QKHSRzA zsQ6A EIWTAM#v=onepage&q=anti-
american%20sentiments%20in%20pakistan&f=false

58
Table No. 2A

Poses an Eminent threat to Pakistan


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 India 19 38.0
2 America 15 30.0
3 Afghanistan 12 24.0
4 Israel 4 8.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates that who poses an eminent threat to Pakistan? Among the university
students, 24% revealed that Afghanistan poses an eminent threat to Pakistan, 38% viewed India
as an eminent threat, and 8% viewed Israel, whereas 30% of the respondents give their opinion
that America poses an eminent threat to Pakistan.

Table No. 2B

Poses an eminent threat to Pakistan


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 India 18 36.0
2 America 16 32.0
3 Israel 12 24.0
4 Afghanistan 4 8.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustratesthe details from the madrassa students regarding to who poses an eminent
threat to Pakistan?

8% of the respondents view Afghanistan for posing an eminent threat to Pakistan. 36% of the
respondents held India, 24% of the respondents held Israel, whereas 32% of the respondents
view America poses an eminent threat to Pakistan.

59
Figure 2A

University Students View

Poses an Eminent threat to Pakistan


Percent

24
30 Afghanistan
India
Israel
8 America
38

Figure 2B

Madrassa Students View

Poses an eminent threat to Pakistan


Percent

32 Afghanistan
India
36
Israel
America

24

60
On November 25, 2014, the news released by the associated press firms believe held by many
security analysts that TTP, a terrorist organization which continuously claims ties to the Afghan
Taliban is actually a fake group created by the American CIA. 104 Former president Pervez
Musharraf refuted the allegations that Pakistan has created the TTP. He believes that TTP is not
our creation. It was self-created from within the Afghanistan.105

Table No. 3A

Who Created TTP?


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 31 62.0
2 India 1 2.0
3 Israel 3 6.0
4 Any other 15 30.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table highlights the university students opinion regarding who created TTP?

62% of university students view America as the creator of TTP, 2% view India, and 6% held
Israel whereas among 30% of the respondents, some view that the political forces of Pakistan
created vacuum for TTP creation. Some view Pakistan ISI other held the opinion that it was a
faction of mujahedeen who came in bad terms with Pakistan as a result of which TTP came into
existence.

104
http://tacstrat.com/content/index.php/2014/03/06/how-the-cia-created-ttp/
105
The Express Tribune, December 4,2014 at; http://tribune.com.pk/story/801725/pakistan-had-no-hand-in-self-
created-ttp-says-musharraf/

61
Table No. 3B

Who Created TTP?


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 25 50.0
2 India 9 18.0
3 Israel 4 8.0
4 Any other 12 24.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table highlights the details of who created TTP from madrassa students?

50% of the respondents held America as the creator of TTP, 18% of the respondents held India,
8% of the respondents view Israel, whereas among 24% of the madrassa respondents some held
that Pakistan itself had created TTP whereas other consider Pakistan Army as the TTP creator.

Figure 3A

University Students View

Who Created TTP?


Percent

30 America
India
Israel
6 62
Any other

62
Figure 3B

Madrassa Students View

Who Created TTP?


Percent

24
America
India
50
8 Israel
Any other
18

The United States influence and interference in the domestic policies and affairs of Pakistan also
heightened the anti-American sentiments. It is also termed as domestic anti-Americanism.
Through Might is Right rule, the United States justified itself as hegemon and sole power in
the World. The United States only care for its own interest. To achieve her interests it interfered
in Pakistans domestic affairs and policies. Those policies of the US were highly opposed by
Pakistani public. They believe that the United States is a great challenge to the national
sovereignty. One of the scholars also interprets that Pakistani society dislike America not
because the US is there, but because the US is here. This particular approach points out the fact
regarding the US engagement in various parts of the world, especially in Pakistan. So the main
source of anti-Americanism is the US engagement in the country in various forms, whether
social, political, economic and even military.106

106
Waseem Zeab Khan and Jamshed-ur-Khan, US Drone Policy and Anti-American Sentiments in Pakistan(2001-
2012) at; https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=jkEeCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA14&lpg=PA14&dq=anti -
american+sentiments+in+pakistan&so`1urce=bl&ots=oN1hlmp mKd&sig =Ga0ENuiEayJlz3iwu xgPsKWA_zo&hl=
en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjPgu-q97fJAhUGI5QKHSRzA zsQ6A EIWTAM#v=onepage&q=anti-
american%20sentiments%20in%20pakistan&f=false

63
Table No. 4A

Country using Pakistan Against its Interests


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 37 74.0
2 China 8 16.0
3 India 4 8.0
4 Iran 1 2.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table reveals the university students opinion regarding the country using Pakistan against
its interests.

16% of the respondents revealed that China is using Pakistan against its interests, 8% of the
respondents view Indian, 74% of the respondents held America using Pakistan against its
interests whereas 2% of the respondents view Iran in regard.

Table No. 4B

Country using Pakistan Against its Interests


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 29 58.0
2 China 8 16.0
3 Iran 8 16.0
4 India 5 10.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table highlights the detail from the madrassa students regarding the country using Pakistan
against its interests.

16% of the respondents mention that China is using Pakistan against its interests, 10% held
India, 58% of the respondents reveals that America is using Pakistan against its interests whereas
16% of the respondents opt Iran in regard.

64
Figure 4A

University Students View

Country using Pakistan Against its Interests


Percent

2
16
China
8
India
America
Iran
74

Figure 4B

Madrassa Student View

Country using Pakistan Against its Interests


Percent

16 16
China
10 India
America
Iran

58

65
4.2. Terrorism in Pakistan

The United States has now and again been reprimanded for either straightforwardly or in
roundabout way supporting terrorism in Pakistan. Yet, there has been no genuine authority claim
and nothing recorded from an official source. The USAs exercises in Pakistan would effectively
have dodged the radar with regards to supporting activists because of the arrangement the
Pakistani government has made with them. Tragically for them and luckily for the Pakistanis the
nation woke up from its sleep when a man working in Pakistan as Raymond Davis killed two
Pakistanis in the city of Lahore with no attempt at being subtle. That is when reports of contacts
on his mobile phone came up, the devices in his auto and photos from his camera containing
delicate and sensitive areas. There were 33 calls on his mobile phone of which 27 were to known
or suspected aggressors and militants. It shows up Davis has been in contact with the terrorists.
As indicated by Shakil Ahmad a writer, Davis was one and only of 1200 Blackwater operators
spread out the country. Police authorities from Lahore further move down these cases saying he
had close connections to militants and was instrumental in enlisting youth for the terrorists.
Besides the ISI which as per the concurrence with CIA is to monitors all operators present in the
country does not have Davis in its records. A large number of people considered that it was
disastrous what happened that day yet, may be it was fortunate as it allowed Pakistanis to see
exactly what is happening in their country. India has additionally been faulted and for this
situation rare cases of government officials or media supporting these claims have come up. An
article in late 2009 showed up guaranteeing India was supporting terrorism in Pakistan and had
piped $650 to the Taliban guerillas in Pakistan, a reality which was uncovered by three caught
terrorists themselves. Another video on the web briefly showed up the militant commander
confessing to have been paid by India to fuel sectarianism in Pakistan on the TV screen.
Likewise, after Srilanka cricket team assault, a report was made open that been gotten by the
local police in Lahore. So, all this only means that the United States and India are working
together to destabilize Pakistan.107

107
Pakistan Nationalist Association: The struggle for Pakistans Bright Futu re, Who is responsible for terrorism in
Pakistan, at; https://pakistannationlistassociation.wordpress.com/2011/03/13/who -is-responsible-for-terroris m-in-
pakistan/

66
Table No. 5A

Terrorism in Pakistan is Because of;


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 26 52.0
2 India 12 24.0
3 Pakistan Army 10 20.0
4 Israel 2 4.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the details from the university students regarding the terrorism in Pakistan.

52% of the respondents mention that America is responsible for terrorism in Pakistan, 24% of the
respondents held India, 4% view Israel, whereas 20% of the respondents give the opinion that
terrorism is because of the Pakistan government.

Table No. 5B

Terrorism in Pakistan is Because of;


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 27 54.0
2 India 11 22.0
3 Israel 8 16.0
4 Pakistan Army 4 8.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table shows the detail from the madrassa student regarding terrorism in Pakistan.

54% of the respondents mention that terrorism in Pakistan is because of America, 22% of the
respondents mention India, and 16% of the respondents opt Israel, whereas 8% of the
respondents view the terrorism in Pakistan is because of Pakistan government.

67
Figure 5A

University Students View

Terrorism in Pakistan is Because of;


Percent

20
America
4 India
52 Israel
Pakistan Army
24

Figure 5B

Madrassa Students View

Terrorism in Pakistan is Because of;


Percent

16 America
India

54 Israel

22 Pakistan Army

The book written by Amir Mir named Talibanisation of Pakistan from 9/11 to 26/11 states,
before the bloodshed, the mosque had a notoriety for radicalism, for the most part pulling in the

68
extremist religious seminaries students from NWFP region and tribal belt from where the
banned organization support with them is entirely very strong. Operation Silence conducted by
Pakistan Military had gotten to be referred to the external world as the focal point of extremist
teachings of Islam. Operation Silence unrevealed that the hardline extremist elements from
various banned organizations like L-e-T, L-e-J, and J-E-Mwere found and trained in the Red
mosque. Red mosque was utilized as a safe place for many wanted terrorists who have the
dangerous weapons with them. During the operation Aymen al-zawahri said: This crime can
only be washed by blood or apology on the off chance that you dont retaliate Musharraf
wont spare any of you. Your salvation is just through jihad. The Scorpions Tail: The Rentless
Rise of Islamic Militants in Pakistan and how it threatens America (2010), a book written by
Zahid Hussain mentioned: Abdul Aziz and Abdul Rashid had learned this militancy from their
father, Abdullah Ghazi, who was the head cleric of Lal Masjid during the war against the soviets
in Afghanistan and who had created the solid ties with the islamist groups that joined in the
battle. He had gotten the financing and direction from the Pakistan military and spy for enrolling
terrorists to the cause, and Lal masjid had turned into a fortress of militancy. After the Talibans
triumph in Afghanistan, Abdullah Ghazi turned out to be nearly connected with al-Qaeda.108

108
Khaled Ahmad, What really happened at Lal Masjid, The Friday Times, December 21st , 2012 , at;
www.thefridaytimes.com/beta3/tft/article.php?issue=20121221/page=3

69
Table No. 6A

Responsible for Red Mosque Operation


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Militants 21 42.0
2 Pakistan Army 19 38.0
3 America 10 20.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the details from the university students regarding the one responsible for Lal
Masjid Operation in 2007.

38% of the respondents held Pakistan Army responsible for Red Mosque Operation in 2007,
20% of the respondents view America for operation, whereas 21% of the respondents held
militants responsible for Red Mosque Operation in 2007.

Table No. 6B

Responsible for Red Mosque Operation


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Militants 21 42.0
2 Pakistan Army 20 40.0
3 America 9 18.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the detail from madrassa students regarding who is responsible for Red
Mosque Operation in 2007?

40% of the respondents mention that Pakistan Army is responsible for Lal Masjid Operation in
2007, 18% of respondents held America for responsible for it. Whereas the opinion of 42% of
the respondents, militants were responsible for Red Mosque Operation conducted in 2007.

70
Figure 6A

University Students View

Responsible for Red Mosque Operation


Percent

38 Pakistan Army
42
America
Militants

20

Figure 6B

Madrassa Students View

Responsible for Red Mosque Operation


Percent

42 40 Pakistan Army
America
Militants

18

In Pakistan, we regularly misconstrue the realities of foreign policy and have a tendency to
exaggerate the part of the military or the purported foundation in its formulation and execution.

71
In every country, the executive branch of the government made the foreign policy. But the
formulation of the foreign policy being an intricate matter is never left to the impulses of any one
individual or power. Other than foreign affairs ministry as the officially assigned foreign policy
arm of the government, it constantly involves other ministries and agencies of the government,
incorporating those managing national security and defence. The foreign policy of every country
is inseparably connected to its national security. And no foreign policy is considered without the
contribution of its national security organizations insight. Given Pakistan exceptional
geopolitical environment and its volatile and unpredictable neighborhood, most foreign policy
issues, including essential national security interests must be tended to through a wider
consultative procedure. There is nothing ordinary in this procedure, which is followed by each
State went up against with national security challenges. No foreign office is equipped with
intelligence assembling and examining capacities, and cannot work in a vacuum of security and
intelligence data pertinent to the foreign policy objectives that it should be seeking after or
pursuing. No big surprise, for Pakistan situation on issues of the national security, our GHQ and
intelligence agencies, particularly the ISI has a fundamental part. Similarly, trade exchange with
India and transit trade with Afghanistan has an immediate bearing on the nations security cannot
be managed in detachment from the nations concerned organizations.109

Table No. 7A

Pakistan's Foreign Policy run By;


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Pakistan's Military 31 62.0
2 Pakistans Political Leadership 10 20.0
3 America 8 16.0
4 China 1 2.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the detail from university students regarding Pakistans foreign policy.

20% of the respondents give their opinion that Pakistan foreign policy run by the Pakistani
political leadership, 62% of respondents reveals that Pakistan military runs Pakistan foreign

109
Shamshad Ahmad, Who runs our Foreign Policy, The Express Tribune, March 14,2014, at;
tribune.com.pk/story/682902/who-runs-our-foreign-policy/

72
policy, 16% of respondents held America whereas 2% view China, the country running Pakistan
foreign policy.

Table No. 7B

Pakistan's Foreign Policy run By;


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 America 22 44.0
2 Pakistans Political Leadership 20 40.0
3 Pakistans Military 8 16.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the details regarding Pakistan foreign policy from madrassa students.

40% of the respondents reveal that Pakistan foreign policy is running by Pakistans political
leadership, 16% of the respondents mention Pakistan military whereas 44% of the respondents
view that America is running Pakistan foreign policy.

Figure 7A

University Students View

Pakistan's Foreign Policy run By;


Percent

2 Pakistan's Political
16 20 Leadership
Pakistan's Military

America

China
62

73
Figure 7B

Madrassa Students View

Pakistan's Foreign Policy run By;


Percent

Pakistan's Political
40 Leadership
44
Pakistan Military

America

16

4.3. United States and its Ally

According to the Pew Research Center, India would emerge as the most important strategic ally
of the United States in future.110 Pakistan has been a pivotal ally for the United States in its
GWOT. However, the US-Pakistan relationship has hinted at strain, with numerous Americans
questioning Pakistans dedication to annihilating the Taliban from Afghanistan. As the United
States supplies billions of dollars in economic and military aid, proofs have surfaced that
Pakistan bolsters the anti-American agitators. The killing of Osama Bin Laden is a striking case
of Pakistan-US tensions. Pakistan protested the secret US strike launched inside the territory of
Pakistan. While the United States was frightened that the terrorists behind the 9/11 assaults lived
easily in a Pakistani military town. Pakistani authorities oppose claims that they are not
coordinating with the United States, while ambassadors keep on exploring and navigating the
unpredictable relationship.111

110
www.ibtimes.com/india -will-be-united-states-most-important-ally-future-maps-1495364
111
www.usnews.com/debate-club/is-pakistan-a-reliable-ally

74
Table No. 8A

Closest Ally of United States


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 India 34 68.0
2 Pakistan 9 18.0
3 Afghanistan 6 12.0
4 Iran 1 2.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table shows the detail from university students regarding the closest ally of the United
States.

18% of the respondents view Pakistan as the closest ally of the United States, 68% of the
respondents view India, 12% view Iran, whereas 2% of the respondents opt for Iran as the closest
ally of the United States.

Table No. 8B

Closest Ally of United States


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 India 38 76.0
2 Iran 8 16.0
3 Pakistan 3 6.0
4 Afghanistan 1 2.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the detail from madrassas students that who is the closest ally of the United
States?

6% of the respondents point out Pakistan is the closest ally of the United States, 76% of the
respondents consider India is the closest ally of United State, 2% of respondents view
Afghanistan, whereas 16% of the respondents establish that Iran is the closest ally of the United
States.

75
Figure 8A

University Students View

Closest Ally of United States


Percent

2
12 18
Pakistan
India
Afghanistan
Iran

68

Figure 8B

Madrassa Students View

Closest Ally of United States


Percent

6
16
2
Pakistan
India
Afghanistan
Iran

76

76
4.4. Indo-US Relations and Anti-Americanism in Pakistan

India and the US have a key association today. The atomic issue between them has been settled
politically. India now buys significant US defence equipments, overcoming prior hesitance to
make reliance on a country considered unreliable as a defence partner. They now have a joint
strategic vision for the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean area, with all its geopolitical connotations.
They are discussing a characterizing counterterrorism relationship for the 21 st century. A stand-
alone US-India joint Declaration on combating terrorism was issued in September 2015. But on
the other side, the United States has an unfavorable attitude with Pakistan, especially by dictating
Pakistan of Do more. Nawaz Sharifs Washington visits a couple of days before uncovered the
delicate US way to deal with Pakistan and its indecision on India-Pakistan issues. The visit was
gone before by talk of a US-Pakistan atomic arrangement, which Pakistan does not entirely
require an account of its own running atomic collaboration with China. However, Pakistan
presses for it in light of the fact that it cannot endure the thought of the US denying its equality
with India.112

Table No. 9A

United States Pro-Indian Position Promoting Anti-American Sentiments in Pakistan


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Strongly Agree 11 22.0
2 Agree 22 44.0
3 Neutral 9 18.0
4 Strongly Disagree 4 8.0
5 Disagree 4 8.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table shows the details from the university student regarding United State Pro-Indian
position promoting anti-American sentiments in Pakistan.

22% of the respondents strongly agree that United States Pro-Indian position is promoting anti-
American sentiment in Pakistan, 44% of the respondents are agreeing to the statement, 18% of
the respondents held Neutral, 8% of the respondents strongly disagree about the United State

112
www.dailyo.in/poliics/india-pakistan-ties-nato-washington-dc-obama-nawaz-sharif-pakistan-nuclear-
deal/story/1/7013.html

77
pro-Indian position promoting anti-American sentiments in Pakistan whereas 8% of the
respondents held disagree to the statement.

Table No. 9B

United States Pro-Indian Position Promoting Anti-American Sentiments in Pakistan


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Strongly Agree 14 28.0
2 Agree 15 30.0
3 Neutral 16 32.0
4 Strongly Disagree 3 6.0
5 Disagree 2 4.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the details from madrassa students regarding the United States pro-Indian
position promoting anti-American sentiments in Pakistan.

28% of the respondents strongly agree the United States pro-Indian position promotes anti-
American sentiments in Pakistan. 30% of the respondents mentioned that they agree to the
statement, 32% of the respondents held Neutral, 6% of the respondents strongly disagree
whereas 4% of the respondents disagree that the United States pro-Indian position is promoting
anti-American sentiments in Pakistan.

78
Figure 9A

University Students View

United States Pro-Indian Position Promoting


Anti-American Sentiments in Pakistan
Percent

8
8 22 Strongly Agree
Agree
18 Neutral
Strongly Disagree

44 Disagree

Figure 9B

Madrassa Students View

United States Pro-Indian Position Promoting


Anti-American Sentiments in Pakistan
Percent

6 4 Strongly Agree
28
Agree

32 Neutral
Strongly Disagree

30 Disagree

79
4.5. US Drone Strikes in Pakistan

The United States has the influence on economy, political issues of Pakistan. Along with this, the
other controls are perceived in society as a threat to the sovereignty and national interests of
Pakistan. The direct interference of the United States in Pakistani in Pakistani territory,
especially in the form of Drone attacks to flare the anti-American sentiments in the country. Due
to this the trust deficit and hatred in the hearts and mind of the people have resided. Because it is
the direct and clear violation of the sovereignty of Pakistan and on the other hand the drone
strikes killed many civilians in Pakistan which is the violation of international law by the US. In
2004, he drone attacks were launched in Pakistan and these drone assaults are still operating by
the US. Creating fear in the people mind leaves no space for love rather than hatred and terror.
What would you expect from an underage child after losing his father, mother and sisters? Will
he become a productive member of society after losing all his relatives? And what should be
expected from a person after losing his children and wife? He would rather become mad or stood
for revenge. The people in the North-West areas of Pakistan are continuously suffering from the
buzzing sound of drones. Due to these the people living there are totally traumatized.113

A systematic investigation and analysis of the information uncovers that drone strikes have
succeeded in curbing the militants assaults in focus areas of Pakistan. Especially the key
findings of the study demonstrate that the drone strikes are connected with the considerable
transient decreases in terrorist brutality along four key focal points. In the first place, the drone
strikes are likewise connected toa decrease in the quantity of individuals killed as a consequence
of terrorist assaults, i-e, and the lethality of assaults. Third, the drone strikes are likewise
connected to diminish in specific, focusing of tribal elders who are often seen by terrorist groups
as scheming with the foe and going about as a hurdle to the quest for their motivation. Fourth,
this decrease in terrorism is not the result of the terrorists leaving dangerous ranges and leading
assaults somewhere else in the region. Despite what might be expected, there is some proof that
drone strikes have little brutality and violence, reducing effects in territories close to those struck

113
Waseem Zeab Khan and Jamshed-ur-Rehman, US Drone Policy and Anti-American Sentiments in Pakistan
(2001-2012) at; https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=jkEeCAAAQBAJ&pg=PA14&lpg=PA 14&dq=anti-
american+sentiments+in+pakistan&so`1urce=bl&ots=oN1hlmp mKd&sig =Ga0ENuiEayJlz3iwu xgPsKWA_zo&hl=
en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjPgu-q97fJAhUGI5QKHSRzA zsQ6A EIWTAM#v=onepage&q=anti-
american%20sentiments%20in%20pakistan&f=false

80
by drones. On the other hand, this work just concentrates fleeting changes, reaching out over a
couple of weeks, in terrorist viciousness and the findings do not give a premise and basis to
conclude that the effects of the drone strikes on these measures of militant violence extend
beyond the week during which they occur. Taken together, the findings recommend that despite
their unpopularity, drone strikes do affect the terrorist exercises and claims that the drone strikes
have helped US counterterrorism efforts in Pakistan should not be summarily released or
dismissed.114

Table No. 10A

US Drone strikes helpful to Counter Terrorism


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Strongly Agree 1 2.0
2 Agree 6 12.0
3 Neutral 7 14.0
4 Strongly Disagree 19 38.0
5 Disagree 17 34.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the details from university students regarding the US drone strikes helpful to
counter terrorism.

2% of the respondents strongly agree that the US drone strikes are helpful to counter terrorism,
12% of the respondents agree to the statements, 14% of the respondents held Neutral. 38% of the
respondents strongly disagree that US drone strikes are helpful to counter terrorism, whereas
34% of the respondents held disagree with the statement.

114
Patrick B. Johnston and Anoop K. Sarbahi , The Impacts of Drone Strikes on Terrorism in Pakistan, University
of Minnesota, RAND Corporation, April 21, 2015, at; http://patrickjohnston.info/materials/drones.pdf

81
Table No. 10B

US Drone strikes helpful to Counter Terrorism


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Strongly Agree 1 2.0
2 Agree 9 18.0
3 Neutral 6 12.0
4 Strongly Disagree 21 42.0
5 Disagree 13 26.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table highlight the details from the madrassa students regarding US drone strikes are
helpful to counter terrorism.

2% of the respondents strongly agree, 18% of the respondents mentioned that they are helpful to
counter terrorism, 12% of the respondents held Neutral, 42% of the respondents mention that
they strongly disagree that US drone strikes are helpful to counter terrorism whereas 26% of the
respondents disagree in regard.

Figure 10A

University Students View

US Drone strikes helpful to Counter Terrorism


Percent

2
12
Strongly Agree
34
Agree
14
Neutral
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
38

82
Figure 10B

Madrassa Students View

US Drone strikes helpful to Counter Terrorism


Percent

2
26 18 Strongly Agree
Agree

12 Neutral
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
42

4.6. Drone Attacks and Pakistan Government

In 2010, the disputable wikileaks site disclosed various archives regarding Pakistan, which
shows that the Pakistani military and different arms of the government, had unobtrusively
submitted with drone strikes despite the fact that they had openly condemned them. In August
2008, then Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillanihas accounted for to have said: I dont care if
they do it as long as they get the right people. We will protest in the National Assembly and after
that disregard it. The documents also incorporate the reports which seem to allude the Pakistani
part in the determination of the targeted areas, with the daily newspaper referring to one 2010
passage explaining hitting an area at the solicitation of the Pakistan government. There is
additionally a reference to a network of areas connected with a joint ISI-CIA targeting effort.115

115
www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-24649840

83
Table No. 11A

Drone Attacks Being Done with Permission Of Pakistan Government


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Strongly Agree 19 38.0
2 Agree 22 44.0
3 Neutral 3 6.0
4 Strongly Disagree 3 6.0
5 Disagree 3 6.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the details from the university students about the drone attacks being done
with the permission of the Pakistan government.

38% of the respondents strongly agree that the drone attacks are being done with the permission
of the Pakistan government, 44% of the respondents held agree, 6% of the respondents held
Neutral to the statement, 6% of the respondents strongly disagree that drone attacks are being
done with permission of Pakistan government whereas 6% of the respondents held disagree to
the statement.

Table No. 11B

Drone Attacks Being Done with Permission Of Pakistan Government


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Strongly Agree 18 36.0
2 Agree 16 32.0
3 Neutral 8 16.0
4 Strongly Disagree 3 6.0
5 Disagree 5 10.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the details from madrassa students about the drone strikes being done with
the Pakistan government permission.

36% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement, 32% of the respondents only agree,
16% of the respondents held Neutral. 6% of the respondents are strongly disagreeing whereas

84
10% of the respondents disagree that drone attacks are being done with permission of the
Pakistan government.

As per the unnamed US government authorities, in early 2011, the US would fax notifications to
Pakistans Inter-services Intelligence office ISI, enumerating the dates and general areas of
future Drone strike operations. The ISI would send an arrival fax recognizing receipt, yet not
affirming the operation. Nevertheless, it created the impression that Pakistan would clear the
airspace over the range and on the dates assigned to the US fax. After the May 2011 attack that
murdered Osama Bin Laden, the ISI stop recognizing the US faxes, yet the Pakistani officials
have seemed to keep clearing the air space in the regions where the US drones are operating. As
indicated by the unnamed Pakistani government officials, the Pakistan government trust that the
US send faxes, essentially to bolster and support the lawful avocation for the drone attacks. In
May 2013, Pakistani court directed the government that the US drone strikes in Pakistan are
Illegal and should be stopped, using the force if needed. 116

Figure 11A

University Students View

Drone Attacks Being Done with Permission Of


Pakistan Government
Percent

6
6 Strongly Agree
6
38 Agree
Neutral
Strongly Disagree
44 Disagree

116
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drone_strikes_in_Pakistan

85
Figure 11B

Madrassa Students View

Drone Attacks Being Done with Permission Of


Pakistan Government
Percent

10
6 Strongly Agree
36 Agree
16 Neutral
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
32

4.7. Pakistans Foreign Policy and New Strategic Partners


Pakistan has been a key partner of the US in GWOT. It has languished over 10 years to battle Al-
Qaeda. The definite number of Pakistani causalities in this war is difficult to complete. The
Pakistani soil has gotten to be the war zone for terrorists and radical elements because of the US-
drove war. Pakistani military stayed drew in on both interior and outside fronts all the while.
Military operations are launched in the tribal territories of Pakistan to take out the hazard of
terrorism. Then again when US troops are being pulled back from Afghanistan, it is dreaded that
the US may rehash its strategy of leaving Pakistan in sway as done after the Soviet-Afghan war.
It goes beyond saying that US can ill bear to neglect the geopolitical significance of Pakistan,
especially after the withdrawal of the NATO powers from Afghanistan. Pakistan gives an
entrance course to Central Asia and Europe, which is critical to the encouragement of the US
exercises in these areas. Oppositely, rather than assuming an adjusted part in South Asia, US has
exacerbated the circumstance by showing its unmistakable tilt towards India. The opportunity
has already come and gone for Pakistan to return to its vital association with US. Whats more, a

86
distinct option for it. Pakistan should genuinely think about connecting with different forces like
China and Russia.117

Table No. 12A

Country Pakistan must Prioritize in its Foreign Policy


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Russia 14 28.0
2 China 30 60.0
3 America 4 8.0
4 Germany 2 4.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table highlights the details among the university students regarding the country Pakistan
must prioritize in its foreign policy.

28% of the respondents view that Pakistan must prioritize Russia in its foreign policy, 60% of
the respondents view China, the country Pakistan must prioritize in its foreign policy, 8% of the
respondents view America whereas 4% of the respondents view Germany, Pakistan must
prioritize in its foreign policy.

Table No. 12B

Country Pakistan must Prioritize in its Foreign Policy


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Russia 3 6.0
2 China 45 90.0
3 Germany 2 4.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the details of the madrassa students regarding the country Pakistan must
prioritize in its foreign policy.

117
http://thelondonpost.net/pakistans-strategic-partnership-china-vs-us/

87
6% of the respondents are in favor of Russia, 90% of the respondents consider China, Pakistan
must prioritize in its foreign policy; whereas 4% of the respondents opt Germany must be
prioritize in Pakistan foreign policy.

4.7.1. China
China has a great support for Pakistan in various political and economic sectors. The two
countries share the common goals towards economic prosperity and security intrigues. China
provide great support and backing to Pakistan in energy and trade sector. Along with this, it
supports Pakistan on the Kashmir issue at the international fronts. China also believes Pakistan
as an important ally that offset the regional impacts of India and United States. China also
considers Pakistan an important ally to tackle the local terrorism and to get the access to the
Indian Ocean and Middle East by means of Gwader port. To access the Central Asia and Europe,
the Silk route passes through Pakistan is most appropriate for China. Both China and Pakistan
has the joint endeavors in the Health, Education, energy, technology and infrastructure. The
China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project is also another game changer project between
the two countries. The relationship between China and Pakistan is seen with concerns and
suspicion by the United States and India. Because for America, China as a global power is
transmitting genuine risk to its national interests. 118

4.7.2. Russia
This is the time Pakistan needs to adopt a realistic approach and prioritize its own national
interests instead of meeting the geopolitical interests of a super power. In realist perspective and
politics, a country is neither an enemy nor a friend permanently. Presently, Pakistan needs new
strategic partners and builds new alliances from unipolar. The world is now transforming to
Bipolar and even the multipolar. If US tilt towards India, Pakistan also should establish the new
partners and alliances. Policy makers of Pakistan should concentrate on the new strategic
horizons. Pakistan should also establish its relationship with Russia as it is emerging as a strong
entity, challenging American hegemony. So Pakistan should also consider Russia as a new
partner. Because the strong and close relations with Russia would surely give Pakistan the
economic and military strength. The Russian government is not pleased to increase its ties with
India and United States. The sale of MI-35 military choppers is evidence that the icy relations

118
http://thelondonpost.net/pakistans-strategic-partnership-china-vs-us/

88
between the Russia and Pakistan have started melting. Furthermore, the economic indicators
between the two States are also very Bright. Russia and Pakistan from $348 million in 2011 to
500 million in 2014 have shown the keen interests in increasing the trade volume. If Pakistan
strong its connection with Russia, it will not only provide the military assistance, but also access
to the new market of Central Asia, which is the ideal center of the New Great Game for the
developed and advanced powers. The strong relations of Pakistan with Russia will provide it a
two way profits. First its energy needs can be fulfilled by the help of the Central Asian energy
Resources. Secondly, it would provide a strong foothold to Pakistan in the Region. 119

Figure 12A

University Students View

Country Pakistan must Prioritize in its Foreign


Policy
Percent

4
8
28 Russia
China
America
Germany
60

119
Sulman Ali, Dynamic Regional Scenario: Need of New Strategic Partner for Pakistan, M.Phil. International
st
Relations, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, May 1 , 2015 , at; http://southasiavoices.org/dynamic-regional-
scenario-need-of-new-strategic-partner-for-pakistan/

89
Figure 12B

Madrassa Students View

Country Pakistan must Prioritize in its Foreign


Policy
Percent

4 6

Russia
China
Germany

90

For many times, the present government has issued the statement that the drone attacks in
Pakistan is the violation of sovereignty of Pakistan. It is also the violation of international law. It
should be completely halted. Various government officials in past and present view that the US
should share the drone technology with Pakistan so that they could attack the safe heavens of the
terrorists in focused areas. Foreign office also issued a statement that Government of Pakistan
strictly condemned the drone strikes which are a violation of Pakistans sovereignty and
territorial integrity.120

120
http://tribune.com.pk/story/560824/drone-attacks-must-stop-nawaz/

90
Table No. 13A

US Drone Strikes in Pakistan must be;


Sr. No. Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Completely Halted 18 36.0
2 Conducted by Pakistan 19 38.0
3 Must be Conducted jointly by the US and Pakistan 12 24.0
4 Any other 1 2.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the details from university students regarding the US drone strikes in
Pakistan.

36% of the respondents give their opinion that US drone strikes in Pakistan must be completed
halted, 38% of the respondents are in opinion that drone strikes must be conducted by Pakistan,
24% of the respondents held that drone strikes in Pakistan must be conducted jointly by the US
and Pakistan whereas 2% of the respondents view that the drone strikes should be conducted in
peruse by the United States.

Table No. 13B

US Drone Strikes in Pakistan must be;


Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Completely Halted 23 46.0
2 Conducted by Pakistan 23 46.0
3 Must be Conducted jointly by the US and Pakistan 4 8.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the details from madrassas students regarding the US drone strikes in
Pakistan.

46% of the students held view the at should be completely halted, 46% view that drone strikes
should be conducted by Pakistan, whereas 8% respondents consider that drone strikes must be
conducted jointly by the US and Pakistan.

91
Figure 13A

University Students View

US Drone Strikes in Pakistan must be;


Percent
Completely Halted

24 Conducted by Pakistan
36

Must be Conducted
jointly by the US and
Pakistan
38 Any other

Figure 13B

Madrassa Students View

US Drone Strikes in Pakistan must be;


Percent

8 Completely Halted

46 Conducted by Pakistan

46
Must be Conducted
jointly by the US and
Pakistan

92
Table No. 14A

United States Improve Its Relations


Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Help solve the Palestine Problem 11 22.0
2 Give more economic aid to the poor Muslim countries 3 6.0
3 Stop supporting undemocratic Muslim regimes 3 6.0
4 Stop interfering in the affairs of Muslim countries 19 38.0
5 Help solve Kashmir problem 8 16.0
6 Withdrawal forces from Afghanistan 3 6.0
7 By helping Pakistan dealing with the energy crises 3 6.0
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, University Views

This table illustrates the details from university students regarding how the United States through
its policies can improve its image in the Muslim world especially in Pakistan?

22% of the respondents held the view that the United States can improve its image in Pakistan by
providing help in solving the Kashmir problem, 6% of the respondents mention that the US can
improve its image in Pakistan and in the Muslim world by giving more economic aid to the poor
Muslim countries. 6% of the respondents view that the US can improve its image by stop
supporting the undemocratic Muslim regimes, 38% of the respondents mention that US can
improve its image in Pakistan as well as in Muslim world by stop interfering in the affairs of the
Muslim countries, 16% of the respondents view that by providing help in solving Kashmir Issue,
United States can make its image better in the eyes of Pakistan, 6% of the respondent consider
that by withdrawal the forces from Afghanistan the US can improve its image in Pakistan
whereas the same number of respondents view that the US can help Pakistan in dealing with
energy crises its image can be better in Pakistan and the Muslim world.

93
Table No. 14B

United States Improve Its Relations


Sr. No Particulars Frequency Percent
1 Help solve the Palestine Problem 10 20.0
2 Give more economic aid to the poor Muslim countries 1 2.0
3 Stop supporting undemocratic Muslim regimes 4 8.0
4 Stop interfering in the affairs of Muslim countries 22 44.0
5 Help solve the Kashmir problem 11 22.0
6 Withdrawal forces from Afghanistan 2 4.0
7 By helping Pakistan dealing with the energy crises
Total 50 100.0
Source: Questionnaire, Madrassa Views

This table illustrates the detail from the madrassa students regarding how the United States
through it polices can improve its image in the Muslim world especially in Pakistan?

20% of the respondents held view that US can improve its image by providing help to solve the
Palestine problem, 2% of the respondents that US image can be better if it provide more
economic aid the poor Muslims countries, 8% of the respondents mention the US image can be
better if it stop supporting undemocratic Muslim regimes, 44% of the respondents consider that
United States can be seen better if it stop interfering in the affairs of Muslims countries. 22% of
the respondents respond that the United States image can be improve in the eyes of Muslim
world especially in Pakistan if it provides its loyal help to solve the Kashmir problem, 4% of the
respondents view that US can be seen better if it withdraw its forces from Afghanistan.

94
Figure 14A

University Students View

United States Improve Its Relations Help solve the Palestine


Problem
Percent
Give more economic aid to the
poor muslim countries
Stop supporting undemocratic
6
6 muslim regimes
22
Stop interfering in the affairs of
16 muslim countries
6 Help solve Kashmir problem

6
Withdrawl forces from
Afghanistan
38
By helping Pakistan dealing
with the energy crises

Figure 14B

Madrassa Students View

United States Improve Its Relations Help solve the Palestine


Percent Problem
Give more economic aid to the
poor muslim countries
4 Stop supporting undemocratic
20 muslim regimes
22 Stop interfering in the affairs
2 of muslim countries
8 Help solve Kashmir problem

Withdrawl forces from


Afghanistan
44
By helping Pakistan dealing
with the energy crises

95
Chapter # 05

Major Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1. Major Findings

The study establishes a lot of interesting and informative facts and figures in the detailed review
literature and field work. In Pakistani society the educated youth is considered as the energetic
and visionary people having the logical opinion on any issue. The study has the goals to have the
comparative analysis that reveals the causes and factors of anti-Americanism in Pakistani
society, especially the students from modern educational institutions (Universities) and students
from Madrassas of different schools of thought having Dars-e-Nizami. The previous studies
have uncovered that Anti-American sentiments are more prevalent among Madrassa students but
the current study negate that notion and establishes that Anti-American sentiments are equally
prevelent among the university students and the students of the Religious seminaries. The study
establishes that 26% of the university students view America is responsible for damaging
Pakistan the most. 40% think that India is the one who make damage the country. On the side of
the Madrassas, 56% Dars-e-Nizami students view that America is responsible for the worst
condition of Pakistan. A large number of university and Madrassa students reveals that Pakistan
owns policies and its weak institutions have cause the huge damage to Pakistan. While taking
views of the University students 38 and 30 percent mention that Afghanistan and America poses
an eminent threat to Pakistan. Whereas 36 and 32 percent of the Madrassa students point out
India and America, the countries poses a major threat to Pakistan. 24% of Dars-e-Nizami
students hold Israel for posing an eminent threat to Pakistan. Regarding TTP creation, 62% of
the university students along with 50% of Madrassa students view America as the Tehrik-e-
Taliban Pakistan (TTP) creator. Whereas 30 of the University students with 24% of Madrassa
students view Pakistan Army and Pakistan ISI as the TTP creator. 74% of the students from the
modern educational institutions along with 58% of the students from various Madrassas in
Islamabad consider America, the country using Pakistan against its interests. After 9/11, Pakistan
became the close ally of the United States in GWOT, as a result of which Pakistan becomes the
target of terrorist activities. This is the reason that 52% of the University students along with the

96
54% of various Madrassa students establish that America is responsible for terrorism in
Pakistan. 24% of the students from various universities and 22% of the students from various
Madrassas in Islamabad held India responsible for terrorism in Pakistan. Regarding the Red
mosque operation in 2007, 38% of the University students and 40% of the Madrassa students
consider Pakistan Army responsible for the operation. About 20 and 18 percent of the University
and Madrassa students view America responsible for the operation. About 42% of the
respondents from both Madrassas and Universities give their opinion that Militants were
responsible for the Operation Silence in 2007. When the respondents were inquired about
Pakistans foreign policy, 62% of the respondents have the established views that Pakistans
Military runs Pakistans foreign policy. Whereas, 44% of the Madrassa students view that
America is running Pakistans foreign policy. 40% of the Madrassa respondents mention that
Pakistan political leadership is running the foreign policy. When the respondents were asked
about the closest ally of the United States, 68% of the University respondents and 76% Madrassa
respondents view India as the closest ally of the United States. So the United States pro-Indian
position is also promoting the anti-American sentiments in Pakistan. About which 66% of the
university and 58% of the Madrassa respondents were agreed to the mention statement.
Regarding the US drone strikes 72 of the University respondents and 68% of the Madrassa
respondents give their opinion that they disagree that US drone strikes are helpful to
counterterrorism. Whereas, 82% and 68% of the University and Madrassa students agree that
drone attacks are being done with permission of the Pakistan government. Along with this, 36%
and 46% of the University and Madrassa students view that drone strikes in Pakistan must be
completely halted. 38% and 46% of the University and Madrassa students think that drone
attacks in Pakistan focus areas should be conducted by Pakistan and whereas an average number,
i-e, 24% of the university students and 8% of the Madrassa students mention that drone strikes in
Pakistan must be conducted jointly by the US and Pakistan. When the respondents were asked
about the country, Pakistan must prioritize in its foreign policy, 60% of the University
respondents and 90% of the Madrassa students view that Pakistan must prioritize China in its
foreign policy. 28 and 08% of the University students mention Russia and America should be
prioritized in its foreign policy. Apart from this, majority of the University and Madrassa
students view that the United States can improve its relations with the Muslim world especially
Pakistan if it stop interferring in the affairs of the Muslim countries.

97
Hence the facts and figures of the study show that both the Madrassas and University students as
the mainstream line of the Pakistani society have the equal level of Anti-American sentiments
with logical and balance views about it. They view that Pakistan should revisit its foreign policy
and Foreign relations with America in order to look for other strategic partners . they stressed
Pakistan government to look for new options. i-e, China and Russia.China and Pakistan are the
time tested friends sharing long history of commendable relationship. Both the countries have
common security and economic intrigues. Pakistan is depending on China for its unlimited
interests in the energy sector, trade sector and its backing on Kashmir issue at the international
forums. While China esteems Pakistan as an essential partner to offset India and the US impact
in the regionPakistan needs new strategic partners and builds new alliances from unipolar. The
world is now transforming to Bipolar and even the multipolar. If US tilt towards India, Pakistan
also should establish the new partners and alliances. Policy makers of Pakistan should
concentrate on the new strategic horizons. Pakistan should also establish its relationship with
Russia as it is emerging as a strong entity, challenging American hegemony. So Pakistan should
also consider Russia as a new partner. Because the strong and close relations with Russia would
surely give Pakistan the economic, social, political and military strength.

5.2.Conclusion

The US-Pakistan relations are always characterized by misunderstandings, doubts,


misperceptions and decisiveness, especially after 9/11, the Pakistani society contributes a
negative view towards the United States. It is because of the traditional demand of Do-more and
its unilateral policies towards Pakistan. Pakistanis tend to see that the United States had always
supported and backed the military regimes and dictators due to which there were the distorted set
backs to Pakistan. Pakistani society perceives the United States as the untrusted ally because it
had always exploited Pakistan for its own interest in the region and also by expanding its India
specific strategy. Pakistan also held the US responsible for violating the sovereignty of Pakistan
by doing the drone attacks and especially after the Neptune spear operation, the Anti-American
sentiments flared up in general public. Both the respondents from modern educational
institutions and Madrassas consider American policies a major threat to Pakistan sovereignty
and peace. They suggest and stressed the government to revisit its foreign policy and need to

98
look for other strategic allies and partners in the form of China and Russia, so as to encounter
India and America in the region as well as globally.

5.3. Recommendations
5.3.1. For United States

Pakistan as the frontline State in the GWOT, it has rendered an immense expense, which
had genuine outcomes for its economy. If the US considered Pakistan as the strategic key
ally in the GWOT, so it should give Pakistan the military and financial help that
incorporates the most recent and advanced instruments for Armed forces.
The United States should admire and consider the religious conventions and practices of
Pakistan as a medium of education, it should respect its imortance for the Muslims all
over the world and especially Pakistan.
The United States should make positive its thinking and policy parameters about Pakistan
and its interruption in the internal affairs of the Muslim world especially Pakistan, is the
best way to minimize the Anti-American sentiments in Pakistan.
The United States do a lot to get control over the sound minds of the people and it
definitely create a mess for the US. Cultural exchange program and Fulbright
scholarships to gain sympathy has started for Pakistani students but the United States
should understand that the younger generation of Pakistan is becoming more educated.
Such practices of the US seems to be discouraged and through this they are becoming
more Anti-American. So the United States should avoid such tactis and practices.
The United States pro-Indian position also creates the Anti-American sentiments in
Pakistan. So the United States should effectively assumes it part to pressurize and stifle
India for its vicious and viral state of mind towards Pakistan. It must consider Pakistan
position on Indian exercises in Afghanistan and effectively include or pressurize it for a
quiet determination to the long standing Kashmir Dispute.
Pakistan is confronting extreme monetary difficulties and America for this reason needs
to focus its help and should put resources into the super vast scale advancement projects.
As Pakistan is presently confronting most exceedingly terrible energy crisis. Washington
top need is to provide help and give financial support to Pakistan in building large Dams

99
and energy projects as opposed to contradicting Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project. These
endeavors will upgrade the American perceivability among the Pakistani people.
The drone strikes inside Pakistan create resentment in the general public as it resulted in
the civilian casualities. So the US must understand Pakistans position on the point and
need to cooperate with Pakistan either by providing drone technology to Pakistan or by
mutual intelligence sharing and cooperation. There should be no or less civilian
casualities and it should not violate Pakistan soverignty if the drone strikes should be
completely halted.

5.3.2. For Pakistan

Pakistan religious scholars should preach the real theme of Islam, instead of proposing
hate to the followers of other religion. The politics of radicalism should be vanished with
political prophecy of adherence in parallel with the globalized politics.
The government of Pakistan should make the keen efforts to bring reforms in the
Madrassa curriculum and modern education should also be introduced. There activities
should be observed with proper check and balance by the Government.
Anti-American is based on the mindset created by the religious elites. This can be
minimized by promoting the liberal values particularly in media. Awarness is equally
important. Drone policy though kill terrorists but they create Anti-American sentiments
in Pakistani society.
Pakistan should revisit its foreign policy and work to limit the U.S. involvement and
influence in it especially its involvement in Balochistan.
Pakistan should increase its economic strength. It should be independent in Energy,
infrastructure and agriculture sector, so as to maximize its exports and to reduce its
dependence on US for Aids and grants.
Pakistan should prioritize its own interests, not the US interests. In order to secure our
national interests, Pakistan relations with the US must be conditional.
Pakistan must realize that the present set up is a marriage of convenience and based
neither on ideology, nor to be taken as friendship, but as in International relationships, it
is based on convergence of interests.

100
Pakistan needs to know itself and must change its vital profundity approach towards
Afghanistan. It must quit meddling in Afghanistan by supporting Taliban to upgrade its
own particular the key strategic objectives.
After paying a tremendous expense and a great deal of reparations, Pakistan must wind
up or break its ties with all activist gatherings and quit separating in the middle of "great"
and "awful" Taliban. Legitimate move must be made against all non-state performers and
aggressor groups. With the goal that they don't plan, launch assaults in Pakistan or any
neighboring country.
Pakistan should heartlessly find the fanatics who execute the demonstrations of terrorism
and radicalism in the nation. All Madrassas working in Pakistan must be enlisted and
their syllabus ought to be analyzed by the well know and eminent researchers of the
nation so that to acquire them the standard to assume its part to bring the National and
religious amicability and reconciliation in the country.
Pakistan has serious and concerned internal issues i-e, terrorism and insurgency in FATA
and Baluchistan, governance issues, fragile economy. Pakistan must know that no
external force would solve its problems but they have to take the tough decisions and
required concentrated efforts to solve the problems.

101
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Serial # -------

Questionnaire

Causes and Factors of Anti-Americanism in Pakistan

Section # 1

Gender ------------------------ Education stream ---------------------------

Age ------------------------- Fathers occupation ---------------------------

Origin -------------------------

Section # 2

Q 1- Who do you think is responsible for the damaging Pakistan the most?

India
America
TTP
Other (please explain)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q 2- Who do you think poses an eminent threat to Pakistan?

Afghanistan
India
Israel
America

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Q 3- Who do you think created TTP?

America
India
Israel
Other (please explain)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q 4- Who do you think is using Pakistan against its interests?

China
India
America
Iran

Q 5- Who do you think is responsible for terrorism in Pakistan?

America
India
Israel
Pakistan Army

Q 6- Who do you think is responsible for Red mosque (Lal Masjid) operation in 2007?

Pakistan Army
China
America
Militants

Q 7- Who do you think running Pakistans foreign policy?

Pakistan political leadership


Pakistan Military
America
China

112
8- What do you think, who is the closest ally of the United States?

Pakistan
India
Afghanistan
Iran

Q 9- Do you think Pakistan went an extra mile in supporting US policies after 9/11, which flared
up the anti-American feelings among the Pakistani people?

Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Strongly Disagree
Disagree

Q 10- Do you think that US Drone strikes are helpful to counter terrorism?

Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Strongly Disagree
Disagree

Q 11- Do you think that drone attacks are being done with the permission of Pakistan
government?

Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Strongly Disagree
Disagree

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Q 12- Which of the following major powers Pakistan must prioritize in its Foreign policy?

Russia
China
America
Germany

Q 13- In your opinion, how the US drone strikes in Pakistan must be;

Completely halted
Conducted by Pakistan
Must be conducted jointly by the US and Pakistan
Other (please specify)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q 14- Rank in order the following specific changes in U.S. policies that in their view, could help
the United States improve its relations with the Muslim world?

1- Help solve the Palestine problem


2- Give more economic aid to the poor Muslim countries
3- Stop supporting undemocratic Muslim regimes
4- Stop interfering in the affairs of Muslim countries
5- Help solve the Kashmir problem
6- Withdrawal forces from Afghanistan
7- By helping Pakistan dealing with the energy crisis

Q 15- Beside these, what would you suggest to minimize the anti-Americanism in Pakistan?

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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114