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Database normalization notes

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What is Normalization?

The purpose of normalization is to produce a stable set of relations that is a faithful model of the

operations of the enterprise. By following the principles of normalization, we can achieve a

design that is highly flexible, allowing the model to be extended when needed to account for new

attributes, entity sets, and relationships. A relation is in specific normal form if it satisfies the set

of requirements or constraints for that form. All of the normal forms are nested in that each

satisfies the constraints of the previous one but is a "better" form because each eliminates flaws

found in the previous form.

as described below:

dependent on A if each value of A in R has associated with it exactly one value of B in R. We

write this as A --> B.

of R if B is functionally dependent on A but not functionally dependent on any proper subset of

A.

Multivalued Dependency

dependency of attribute B on attribute A if and only if the set of B values associated with a given

A value is independent of the C values. We write this as A -->> B.

Join Dependency

Let R be a relation, and let A, B, ...., Z be arbitrary subsets of the set of attributes of R. Then we

say that R satisfies the join dependency (JD)

Reflexivity

If B is a subset of A, then A --> B. This also implies that A --> A always holds. Functional

dependencies of this type are called trivial functional dependencies.

Augmentation

Transitivity

Additivity or Union

Projectivity or Decomposition

Pseudotransitivity

Suppose we have a relation R with three attributes A, B, and C, such that the FDs A --> B and B

--> C both hold in R. Then it is easy to see that the FD A --> C also holds in R. The set of all

FDs that are implied by a given set S of FDs is called the closure of S, and is denoted S+

Given a subset A of the set of attributes of relation R and a set S of FDs that hold in R, the

closure A+ of A under S is the set of all attributes B of R such that the FD A --> B is a member

of

A decomposition of a set of a relation R is a set of relations { R1, R2,.., Rn} such that each Ri is

a subset of R and the union of all of the Ri is R.

natural join of R1, R2, ..., Rn produces exactly the relation R.

First Normal Form:- A relation is in first normal form if and only if every attribute is single-

valued for each tuple. This means that each attribute in each row, or each cell of the table,

contains only one value.

Second Normal Form:- A relation is in second normal form (2NF) if and only if it is in first

normal form and all the nonkey attributes are fully functionally dependent on the key.

Third Normal Form:- A relation is in third normal form (3NF) if it is in second normal form

and no nonkey attribute is transitively dependent on the key.

Boyce-Codd Normal Form:- A relation is in Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF) if and only if

every determinant is a candidate key.

Fourth Normal Form:- A relation is in fourth normal form (4NF) if and only if it is in Boyce-

Codd normal form and there are no nontrivial multivalued dependencies.

Fifth Normal Form:- A relation is in fifth normal form (5NF) if no remaining nonloss

projections are possible, except the trivial one in which the key appears in each projection.

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