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100 General Information

Abstract
Among the general information in this section is a description of the coatings and
coating systems, which includes the advantages, disadvantages, and uses. Coatings
are also described in the individual sections for special surfaces such as: concrete,
downhole tubulars, and pipelines.
Note This manual does not contain information about coatings for architectural
surfaces.
Quality control is essential for any project. Among the key elements of quality
control for coatings are inspections, monitoring progress, and protecting the
Companys equipment. For assistance with specific questions about coatings, see
the listing of the Companys specialists and coating manufacturers in the Quick
Reference Guide.

Contents Page

110 Coating Descriptions (A-E) 100-3


111 Acrylics
112 Alkyds
113 Epoxies
114 Elastomers
120 Coatings Descriptions (PZ) 100-13
121 Phenolics
122 Polyesters
123 Polyurethanes
124 Silicones
125 Vinyls
126 Zinc-rich Coatings
130 Petroleum-based Tapes 100-21
140 Water-based Coatings 100-21
150 Coating Systems for Immersion Service 100-22

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100 General Information Coatings Manual

151 Non-reinforced Thin-film Coatings


152 Glass-flake-reinforced Coatings
153 Laminate-reinforced Coatings
160 Quality Control 100-27
161 General Information
162 Equipment Design/Construction Considerations
163 Inspection Programs
164 Inspectors
165 Monitoring Progress
166 General Inspection Procedures
167 Specific Inspection Procedures
168 Instruments, Tools, and Equipment
169 Protecting the Companys Equipment
170 References 100-49

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

110 Coating Descriptions (A-E)


The following coatings are described in this section:
Acrylics
Alkyds
Epoxies
Elastomers
For details about each type of coating, read the following descriptions. See also
Figure 100-1, Summary of Properties in Coatings.

111 Acrylics
Acrylic ester resins are polymers and co-polymers of the esters of acrylic and meth-
acrylic acids. As thermoplastics, they soften at high temperatures.
Advantages:
Good moisture and mild chemical resistance
Either fast-drying solvent evaporation or coalescence
Disadvantages:
Poor resistance to aromatic solvents
Uses:
Solvent acrylic: truck and machinery finishes
Latex emulsions: stucco, wood, and masonry
By Company: as architectural coatings

112 Alkyds
Alkyd resins are basically modified polyesters. An alkyd is the reaction product of a
polyhydric alcohol and a polybasic acid. A common alkyd resin uses glycerol as the
alcohol and phthalic acid as the polybasic acid.
Oxidation in the air cures alkyd coating resins. Adding drying oils to pure alkyd
modifies the alkyd into alkyd coating resins.
These resins are classified by oil length (long, medium, and short). The alkyd resin
without oil modification is hard and brittle. As the oil length increases (more oil
added), the film becomes softer and more flexible.
Advantages:
Perform well in moderate environments
Easy-to-handle, single-component coatings
Inexpensive
Fair-to-good performance in most of the Companys environments

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Fig. 100-1 Summary of Properties in Coatings (1 of 2)


1. Atmosphere
Wet
2. Splash/Spillage
Effect of Atmo-
Coatings Type of Cure Sunlight sphere Acid Alkali Oxidizing Solvent

Acrylic Solvent Chalk Good 1. Good 1. Good 1. Good 1. Fair


Evaporation Resistant 2. Poor- Fair 2. Poor-Fair 2. Poor-Fair 2. N/R

Alkyd Oxidation Slow Poor-Good 1. Fair- Poor 1. Poor 1. Fair 1. Fair


Chalk Yellows 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. N/R

Amine-cured & Cross Linked Chalks Excellent 1. Good 1. Excellent 1. Limited 1. Excellent
Amine Adduct Yellow 2. Fair 2. Excellent 2. N/R 2. Excellent
Epoxy

Polyamide Cross Linked Chalks Excellent 1. N/R 1. N/R 1. N/R 1. N/R


Epoxy Yellow 2. Poor-Fair 2. Excellent 2. N/R 2. Very Good

Coal-tar Epoxy Cross Linked Chalks, N/R 1. Excellent 1. Excellent 1. Excellent 1. Poor
Polyamide Cracks 2. Good 2. Good 2. N/R 2. N/R

Chlorinated Solvent Evap. Slow Excellent 1. N/R 1. N/R 1. N/R 1. N/R


Rubber Chalk 2. Very Good 2. Very Good 2. Good 2. N/R

Epoxy Phenolic Cross Linked N/R N/R 1. N/R(1) 1. N/R(1) 1. N/R(1) 1. N/R(1)
(1) (1) (1)
2. Good 2. Very Good 2. N/R 2. Very Good(1)

Baked Phenolic Heat Cured N/R N/R 1. Good(1) 1. Good(1) N/R(1) 1. Poor(1)
(1)
2. Lid 2. N/R 2. Out-
Mineral standing(1)
Acids(1)

Moisture-cured Cross Linked Aromatic Very Good 1. Good 1. Good 1. Poor 1. Excellent
Urethane (II) Yellows; 2. Fair 2. Fair 2. N/R 2. Good
Aliphatic
Excellent

Silicone Heat Cured Excellent Very Good 1. Good 1. Good 1. Very 1. Fair
Cross Linked 2. Poor 2. Poor Good 2. Fair
2. Poor

Silicone Alkyd Oxidation Excellent Very Good 1. Good 1. Good 1. Good 1. Good
2. Poor 2. Fair 2. Poor 2. Good-Poor

Vinyl Solvent Evap. Slow Excellent 1. Excellent 1. Excellent 1. Excellent 1. Poor


Chalk 2. Very Good 2. Good 2. Good 2. N/R

Organic Cross Linked Chalk Excellent(2) 1. Topcoat 1. Topcoat 1. Topcoat 1. Excellent


Zinc-rich 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. Very Good
(2)
Post-cured Cross Linked None Excellent 1. Topcoat 1. Topcoat 1. Topcoat 1. Excellent
Inorganic Zinc 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. Excellent
(2)
Solvent-based Cross Linked None Excellent 1. Topcoat 1. Topcoat 1. Topcoat 1. Excellent
Self-cured 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. N/R 2. Excellent
Inorganic Zinc

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Fig. 100-1 Summary of Properties in Coatings (2 of 2)


Physical Properties
Tank
Coatings Immersion Linings Abrasion Heat Hardness Gloss Range of Color

Acrylic N/R N/R Good Limited Good High to Semi Full

Alkyd N/R N/R Fair Fair Fair Chalks to Flat Full

Amine-cured & Very Good N/R Good Good Very hard Chalks to Flat Full
Amine Adduct
Epoxy

Polyamide Very Good Solvents Good Good Hard Chalks to Flat Full
Epoxy Water

Coal-tar Epoxy Excellent Water Limited Excellent Very Hard Flat Black, Red
Polyamide

Chlorinated Very Good Water Fair-Poor Poor Good Semi to Flat Wide
Rubber

Epoxy Phenolic Very Good Wide- Good Outstanding Very Hard High Dark
range
Solvent

Baked Phenolic 1. Excellent(1) Wide Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Clear Dark
2. Very Good Resis-
tance

Moisture-cured N/R N/R Excellent Good Excellent High Full


Urethane (II)

Silicone N/R N/R Good Excellent Good High Full

Silicone Alkyd N/R N/R Good Very Good Good High Full

Vinyl Very good Water Fair-Poor Poor Good Semi to Flat Wide

Organic Good(3) N/R Good Good Very Good Semi to Flat Some
Zinc-rich

Post-cured Good(3) Fuels Excellent Excellent Excellent Flat Earth Tones


Inorganic Zinc Solvent

Solvent-based Good(3) Fuels Excellent Excellent Very Good Flat Earth Tones
Self-cured Solvent
Inorganic Zinc

(1) As tank lining


(2) When top-coated
(3) With epoxy topcoat

Good service on large, flat surfaces


Example: Good service is exemplified by this coatings almost 20 years on
Hawaiian refinery tanks.
Disadvantages:
Long drying time
Not chemically resistant; unsuitable for highly corrosive areas such as chem-
ical and fertilizer plants or offshore structures
Unsatisfactory for water immersion

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Not suited to highly alkaline surfaces such as fresh concrete, galvanized steel,
and inorganic zinc
Chalk in sunlight
Usually fail within a few years on piping and structural components
Not VOC-compliant
Uses:
In external primers and finish coatings

Long-oil Alkyds (60 to 70 Percent Oil)


Advantages:
Good flexibility and wetting properties
Disadvantages:
Very slow drying
Uses:
Over poorly prepared steel where the oil penetrates rust and develops adhesion

Medium-oil Alkyds (45 to 60 percent oil)


Advantages:
Hard, tough films
Dry faster, generally, than long-oil alkyds
Uses:
Finish coats
Note The Companys most popular choice of alkyd

Short-oil Alkyds (35 to 45 percent oil)


Uses:
Fast air drying and baking enamels for hardness and mar resistance
Note The Company uses very little of these.

113 Epoxies
The most common epoxy resins are formed by the reaction of epichlorhydrin and
bisphenol-A. This reaction can be controlled to produce resins ranging from liquids
of low-molecular weight to solids of high-molecular weight.

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Complete curing gives epoxies their chemical and water resistance. Curing time
increases at temperatures below about 70F, essentially stopping below about 50F
unless it is a specially formulated low-temperature epoxy.
Epoxies have very good resistance to bases and many solvents. Epoxies have poor
acid resistance unless modified with a phenolic.
Advantages:
Resist water and chemicals, especially caustics, superbly
Resist weather well
Adhere well, particularly to concrete
Apply easily
Disadvantages:
Do not retain color and gloss as well as alkyds
Tend to chalk rapidly
Do not have good acid resistance
Need surfaces between layers of epoxy roughened by solvent or blasting when
applying multiple coats as many epoxies cure with a hard, slick surface
Need successive coats of epoxy applied as soon as possible to obtain satisfac-
tory adhesion between coats. Manufacturers normally recommend a maximum
time between coats.
Need long cure time. For epoxy linings at 70F, curing may take one week. In
the field, coatings applicators often accelerate the curing of an internal coating
with a low-temperature bake (100 to 150F).
Caution Do not put internal coatings into service until they are fully cured.
Uses:
Epoxy resins are the most popular resin for thin-film coatings on concrete.
There are six groups of epoxy coatings in this section: amine cured, amine adduct,
polyamide, coal tar, epoxy mastics, and epoxy novolac.

Amine-cured Epoxies
These coatings are epoxy resins cross-linked with one of several amine compounds.
Caution Because the amines can present a health hazard, apply them according to
manufacturers safety recommendations.

Amine Adduct Epoxies


Amine adducts are stable intermediate products resulting from the reaction of a
portion of the epoxy resin with an amine curing agent. The amine adduct, instead of
the amine, is added to the epoxy coating to cure it.

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Advantages:
Same properties as liquid amines, but much less hazardous
Very good resistance to oils, solvents, and chemicals
Disadvantages:
Ultraviolet degradation causes rapid chalking
Uses:
Lining gasoline storage tanks, chemical tanks
Corrosion-resistant primer under polyurethane foam insulation

Polyamide Epoxies
Polyamide resins are produced from polyamines and fatty acids. Epoxy coatings for
atmospheric exposures are usually polyamides. Mastic coatings which adhere to wet
surfaces and which will cure under water are formulated with polyamide epoxies.
Advantages:
Good surface-wetting properties
Longer pot life, more flexibility and better water resistance than amine or
amine-adduct cured epoxies
Good resistance to alkalies, petroleum products, and salt water
Disadvantages:
Not quite as chemically resistant as amine adduct epoxies.
Uses:
Topcoats and tiecoats in severe exposures

Coal-tar Epoxies
As the name suggests these coatings are blends of epoxy resins and coal tar.
Note Coal tar is a suspected carcinogen but is tied up sufficiently in the polymer
so that manufacturers consider the cured film safe.
Coal-tar epoxies can be either polyamide- or amine-adduct cured. Usually applied in
two heavy coats of eight mils each, these coatings are normally self-priming.
Advantages:
Outstanding for water-immersion service
Disadvantages:
Chalk rapidly and fail in (ultraviolet) sunlight

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Uses:
Underwater, in water tank linings (except potable water tanks), and on buried
structural steel
Note Although coatings manufacturers continue to use them for municipal water-
tank linings, the Company prefers FDA-approved polyamide or amine-adduct
epoxies for potable-water tank linings.

Epoxy Mastics
Advantages:
Perform better than alkyds
Adhere to a variety of surface preparations, including tightly adhered rust
Adhere to any old coating firmly attached to the substrate
VOC compliant
Disadvantages:
More expensive than alkyds
Uses:
For less-than-perfectly prepared surfaces

Epoxy Novolac
Epoxy novolac resins are second-generation epoxies with greater cross-linking
density.
Advantages:
Greater resistance to chemical attack and high temperatures than standard
epoxies
Disadvantages:
More expensive and less flexible than standard epoxies
Uses:
Common coating for concrete

114 Elastomers
An elastomer is a polymeric substance with more than 100 percent elongation in a
tensile test. Included in this category are natural- and synthetic-rubber products
(which also have the physical characteristics of natural rubber). The chemical, oil,
and water resistance of elastomers vary widely.
Coatings applicators can apply modified elastomers as coatings. The Company uses
many elastomeric coatings, such as chlorinated rubber and hypalon, alone over steel
and other surfaces or, as required, with special primers such as inorganic zinc.

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There are two classes of elastomers: cross-linking and air-drying.

Catalyzed Cross-linking Elastomers


Neoprene, butyl, thiokol, silicone, and hypalon are the most common, catalytic-
setting, elastomer coatings.
Neoprene. A synthetic rubber, produced by polymerizing chloroprene, neoprene is
either pigmented or clear and is manufactured as thin flexible films or mastics.
Advantages:
Good heat and flame resistance
Good acid, alkali, and water resistance
Disadvantages:
Softened by aromatic solvents
Uses:
Block insulation coatings
Butyl. A copolymer of isobutylene and isoprene, butyl is polymerized with an
aluminum chloride catalyst.
Advantages:
Exceptionally low water permeability
Better sunlight and weather resistance than most rubbers
Disadvantages:
Unknown
Uses:
Coating urethane foam and block insulation
Piping tape wrap primers and tape mastics
Thiokol. Thiokol is a polysulfide rubber.
Advantages:
Excellent gasoline and water resistance
Disadvantages:
Unknown
Uses:
Caulking compounds
Flexible seal over leaking rivet seams in oil tanks
Pond and tank linings (in sheet form)

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Silicone Rubber. Silicone rubber is a room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone.


Advantages:
Good for hot service
Disadvantages:
Poor solvent resistance
Uses:
Gaskets in hot services
Caulking
Potting materials
Hypalon. Hypalon is a chlorinated polyethylene resin.
Advantages:
Excellent sunlight resistance
Good chemical resistance
Disadvantages:
Unknown
Uses:
Flexible coating vehicles or mastics and sheet lining
Mild acid spill protection for concrete (the Companys most popular use)
Topcoat over polyurethane foam or block insulation
Pond and tank linings

Air-drying Elastomers
Chlorinated rubber, an air-dried formulation of hypalon, and butadiene-styrene are
the most popular elastomers for air-drying coatings.
Chlorinated Rubber. Chlorine and natural rubber latex produce chlorinated rubber
resins. When suitably plasticized and pigmented, these resins exhibit outstanding
resistance to a broad range of corrosive chemicals and environments.
Advantages:
Shows outstanding resistance to severe chemical environments such as acids,
alkalies, salt fog, water, oxidizing agents, bleaches, and cleaning compounds
Dries rapidly, allowing application of several coats in one day
Produces excellent bond between old and new coats as the solvents in the new
coat penetrate the old coat
Disadvantages:
Does not resist sunlight damage as well as alkyds and acrylics

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Causes alkyd or oil coatings to blister if applied over them


Dissolves in oils and solvents
Caution Oil spills could potentially soften these coatings.
Uses:
Offshore platforms
Humid coastal refineries
Hypalon. The air-drying hypalon is a chlorosulfonated polyethelene.
Advantages:
Good weatherability
Disadvantages:
Unknown
Uses:
Topcoat elastomers to improve weather resistance
Butadiene-Styrene. The most widely used type of synthetic rubber, butadiene-
styrene is a copolymer of three parts butadiene and one part styrene.
Advantages:
Good resistance to alkali, water, and mild acids
Excellent external durability if pigmented properly
Disadvantages:
Embrittles with age if formulated improperly
Uses:
Vehicles in coatings and mastics for stucco and masonry
Polyurethane Elastomers. Polyurethane elastomers are thermal plastic polymers.
Advantages:
AliphaticExcellent color and gloss retention
Disadvantages:
AromaticYellows badly in sunlight
Uses:
Vehicles for thin or semi-mastic coatings for sealing polyurethane foam
insulation
Deck and floor coatings

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

120 Coatings Descriptions (PZ)


The following coatings are described in this section:
Phenolics
Polyesters
Polyurethanes
Silicones
Vinyl
Zinc rich

121 Phenolics
Phenolic resins, formed by the reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, produce a
range of coatings from hard plastics (Bakelite) to oil-soluble resins and from heat-
reactive varnishes to air drying oils. The Company uses two phenolic resins in coat-
ings: a baked pure phenolic and an air-drying epoxy phenolic.

Baked Phenolics
Baked phenolics are almost exclusively shop-applied due to a complicated baking
procedure. They contain resins which are polymerized by being heated above 300F.
The reaction time and temperature depend on the modifying oils and resins.
Note The Company uses baked phenolics only in the most severe immersion
services where no other material will work, such as container inner-coatings and
tank car linings.
Advantages:
Excellent chemical and water resistance
Withstand immersion in almost all petroleum products
Good abrasion resistance
Disadvantages:
Poor wetability (the ability of a coating to flow over a surface)
Require maximum surface preparation
Poor adhesion
Embrittles
Note To overcome poor adhesion and brittleness, some formulas are modified with
epoxy resins, giving them better caustic resistance than pure phenolics but not equal
resistance to strong solvents.

Epoxy Phenolics
Catalytic setting (non-baking) phenolics are usually composed of phenolic resins
and epoxies.

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Advantages:
Better chemical and solvent resistance than pure epoxies
Disadvantages:
Lower resistance to chemicals and solvents than pure baked phenolics
Uses:
Lining tanks, vessels, containers, etc.

122 Polyesters
While there are two major classes of polyester resins, the Company uses only isophthalic.
Isophthalic polyesters, the resin preferred for corrosion protection, is also the main
resin in laminate-reinforced systems.
While the chemical and temperature resistance of polyester is usually poorer than
any of the other resins, they are also the least expensive.

123 Polyurethanes
Polyurethane resins are formed by the reaction of isocyanates with polyols and are
used for a variety of purposes from foam insulation to air-drying coatings and
varnishes. The isocyanate may be either aromatic or aliphatic.
There are literally thousands of polyurethane formulationsfrom hard roller skate
wheels to elastomeric materials that stretch like rubber bandswhich have many
different properties. Some of these properties are:
Abrasion resistance
Chemical resistance
Elasticity
Impact resistance
Tensile strength
Caution Remember that increases in one property result in decreases in another.
Because of this, many elastomeric polyurethanes are not as chemically resistant as
the more rigid polyurethanes.
The most common polyols are acrylics and polyesters, although there are epoxies,
vinyls, and alkyds.
Advantages:
Highly resistant to abrasion and impact
Catalyzed urethanes are highly chemical resistant
Better performance than alkyds
AliphaticFor atmospheric coatings, usually as easy to overcoat as epoxies
AromaticMore chemically resistant than aliphatic urethanes

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Disadvantages:
More expensive than alkyds
AromaticNot designed for external exposure as they chalk and yellow; diffi-
cult to overcoat because adhesion is poor
Uses:
AliphaticNon-fading, non-chalking external finishes
AromaticTank linings, chemically resistant coatings, flexible elastomeric
coatings for polyurethane foam insulation coverings
Classifications. Urethane coatings cure by a variety of mechanisms as classified by
ASTM D16-75 types. Types II, IV, and V are considered high performance and are
described below. Most of the Companys experience has been with Type V, the two-
package polyol-cured urethane.
Type II, One-package Moisture-cured. The Company has limited experience with
these urethanes which cure by reacting with moisture in the air. The moisture reacts
with a prepolymer containing isocyanate so that the isocyanate is released for cross-
linking. The reaction also releases CO2 which must migrate to the surface before the
film sets up.
Caution In high humidity areas, such as offshore, the reaction can occur so
rapidly that the CO2 cannot escape; and the film is filled with gas bubbles and
pinholes.
Type IV, Two-package Catalyzed. These urethanes cure by reacting with a low-
molecular-weight-reactive catalyst. They cure in a similar way not only to moisture-
cure (although the catalyst is in a separate package), but also to epoxy coatings.
Type V, Two-package Polyol-cured. These urethanes are the Companys most
common choice for high-performance coating systems such as for offshore plat-
forms and chemical plants. To cure, polyol-cured coatings react with pre-reacted
(adduct) hydroxyl-bearing polyols. They require no additional curing agent;
however, coatings applicators may add an agent to promote low-temperature curing.

124 Silicones
Silicones are a group of various organo-silicon-oxide polymers available as fluids,
elastomers, and resins. Because of their chemical composition, silicones have excel-
lent resistance to heat, weathering, and moisture.
Note Repairing silicone coatings is very difficult because almost nothing will
adhere to them. For small repairs, sand the failure and apply fresh silicone coating
with a brush. For large repairs, remove the coating by abrasive blasting and recoat.
The Company uses both classes of silicone coating resins: heat-reactive and modified.

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Heat-reactive
Silicone resins are cross-linked polymers which require a high-temperature cure to
produce heat-stable films. Catalyzed formulations which cure at room temperature
are now available. Non-catalyzed formulations remain tacky until heated above
about 300 to 400F. For this reason, most field applications use the catalyzed, room-
temperature cure.
The film thickness of baked silicone coatings is low compared to that of other coat-
ings. A self-primed two-coat application usually produces only 1 to 2 mils dry
film thickness (DFT).
Advantages:
Excellent sunlight resistance
Good durability at high temperatures
Disadvantages:
Apply only on abrasion-blasted surfaces
Uses:
Furnaces and stacks up to 600F (up to 750F for aluminum and black colors)
Note The color and gloss retention of baked silicones depends on the pigments.

Modified or Air-drying
Modified or air-drying silicones are produced by reaction with organic resins such
as alkyds or acrylics.
Advantages:
Excellent gloss and color retention
Good weather and sunlight resistance
Many resist temperatures up to 300F
Disadvantages:
Tend to cure quite slowly even at ambient temperature, taking weeks to harden
and resist damage in cool weather.
Note Topcoat inorganic zinc with an epoxy or silicone acrylic.

125 Vinyls
Vinyl resins are formed from the reaction of acetylene with acetic or hydrochloric
acids. Varying this process produces resins consisting of 100 percent vinyl chloride, or
100 percent vinyl acetate. The resins in protective coatings are usually co-polymers
containing 80 to 90 percent vinyl chloride and 5 to 15 percent vinyl acetate.

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

Vinyl resins are hard and brittle and must be combined with plasticizers and
dissolved in solvents to form vehicles for coatings. Vinyl solutions contain only
15 to 40 percent solids depending on the co-polymers.
The various vinyl-resin solutions are compatible and may be blended to emphasize
desired properties. Some blends adhere very well to concrete and metal and are used
in formulating primers. Other blends are pigmented and plasticized to produce high-
build films. Used for finish coats, some blends have low solids and adhere poorly to
steel but have very good chemical and weather resistance.
The Company uses vinyls for many services, often where water exposure is
expected such as on floating tank roofs, docks, and on offshore platforms near the
water.
Advantages:
Excellent chemical, water, and aliphatic oil resistance
Excellent shelf life
Ready bond to weathered vinyl films
Removable with a solvent wash when desired
Easy to patch old coatings without blistering or wrinkling
Easy to apply by spray
Disadvantages:
May lose their plasticizer over time and embrittle, a problem with vinyl as a
weathercoat over polyurethane-foam insulation
Do not have good gloss retention or stain resistance
Dissolved by ketones, esters, chlorinated solvents, and some aromatics
Need good ventilation to avoid prolonged (solvent evaporation) drying
Tend to lift and blister because of the strong solvents
Difficult to brush or roll because of their rapid drying
Tend to bubble and pinhole when applied over porous inorganic zinc
Uses:
With alkyds or epoxy esters to improve film build, gloss, and adhesion which
are excellent as vehicles:
In rust-inhibiting primers for ferrous metals
In seal or tiecoats over inorganic zinc primers to improve adhesion of
vinyl, alkyd, chlorinated rubber
In epoxy ester topcoats
In formulae ranging from thin-bodied, air-drying coatings to semi-mastic
putties and air-drying, baking plastisols

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To formulate a wide variety of latex materials in glues, paper sizes, and emul-
sion coatings
In vinyl-emulsion-latex coatings for both internal and external services. The
retention of deep colors by vinyl latexes is superior to that of most other coatings.

Vinyl Ester
Vinyl ester resin is a reaction product between polyesters and epoxies and shares
many of the attributes of polyesters.
Advantages:
Resistance to acid, solvent attack, and high temperatures
Disadvantages:
More expensive than an isophthalic polyester or normal epoxy
Uses:
Coating concrete

126 Zinc-rich Coatings


Zinc-rich coatings, which have zinc dust as the pigment and inorganic or organic
vehicles, are divided into two classes: inorganic and organic zinc.
Zinc-rich coatings offer good corrosion resistance for steel due to the sacrificial
nature of the zinc pigment. The zinc acts as an anode to protect the steel galvani-
cally and prevent corrosion. This coating is applied alone or as a primer under a
variety of topcoats. Under suitable topcoats, all of these primers greatly enhance the
life of the coating system in many exposures, especially in marine services.
When testing to determine the benefit of zinc in a coating, the Company found the
quality of performance to be rated (best to worst) as follows:
1. Inorganic zincs
2. Zinc-rich organic coatings
3. Organic coatings

Inorganic-zinc Coatings
Inorganic-zinc coatings consist of two components:
A pigment composed solely or principally of zinc powder
Any of a variety of patented and proprietary inorganic or semi-inorganic vehi-
cles to form the matrix of the coating
Post-cured inorganic zincs have a third component: a curing agent such as phos-
phoric acid.
Among the vehicles are ethyl and sodium silicate, phosphates, and other complexes.

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

When properly mixed, applied to blasted steel surfaces, and allowed to cure, the
resultant coatings have outstanding resistance to weathering, humidity, elevated
temperatures, organic solvents, animal and vegetable oils, both fresh and salt water,
and most petroleum products. In addition, these coatings (especially post-cured) have
excellent abrasion resistance. The corrosion resistance of the cured film is similar to
that of galvanized iron; the weather resistance is superior to galvanized iron.
Two types of inorganic zinc coatings are self-cured and post-cured.

Self-Cured Inorganic Zinc Coatings


Self-cured inorganic zinc coatings are either solvent- or water-based vehicles. While
both produce an inorganic film, their methods differ. Current technology is almost
all solvent-alkyl-silicate-resin based.
Solvent-based Coatings. The Company uses self-cured, solvent-based, inorganic
zincs in many places such as piping, tanks, and offshore. Although manufacturers
have used several inorganic silicate vehicles such as ethyl silicate and bi-metallic
alkoxide complexes to make these coatings, almost all self-cured inorganic zincs are
now alkyl silicates such as ethyl silicate.
Ethyl-silicate-based coatings convert to an inorganic, insoluble state in reaction to
moisture. Some formulae require long periods (three to four weeks) of high
humidity to reach ultimate hardness. Many manufacturers now claim their ethyl sili-
cates can be topcoated almost immediately since enough moisture permeates
through the topcoats to cure the primer.
Solvent-based coatings are popular because their vehicles show superior wetting
ability, they dry fast and resist water immediately, and their film thickness is less
critical than for post-cured inorganic zinc coatings.
Some self-cured inorganic zincs are modified to include some organic resin for
more rapid film formation and increased flexibility. Properly formulated, they can
perform as well as normal alkyl silicates.
Caution The Company does not recommend single-component inorganic zincs.
Laboratory tests and experience show that these zincs do not perform as well as the
two-component zincs. One reason is that the zinc settles in the can and is not easily
put back in suspension. The applied coating is, therefore, deficient in zinc.
Coatings applicators mix the multi-component zincs at the time of application and
agitate them continuously to avoid the settling problem.
Water-based Coatings. Tests show that, for weather resistance, water-based coat-
ings are inferior to solvent-based and post-cured inorganic zincs.
Note Future changes to clean air regulations may force us to use water-based or
new, presently untested, formulations of inorganic zincs.
Composed of zinc dust pigment and vehicles containing sodium silicate, or phos-
phates, the vehicles are water solutions similar to those of the post-cured coatings.
After application, the film is water sensitive for some time, the length of which
depends on the formula. The vehicles reaction with moisture in the air converts the

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water-soluble film to an insoluble film. Conversion time depends on the vehicle and
the relative humidity and temperature.
Some of these coatings undergo a color change as they cure, indicating when they
are completely cured.
Caution Do not topcoat or place these coatings in water-immersion service until
they are thoroughly cured.

Post-Cured Inorganic Zinc Coatings


Post-cured inorganic-zinc coatings are composed principally of zinc powder and
sodium silicate. When mixed, the zinc-dust pigment and sodium silicate produce a
water-soluble coating. coatings applicators must keep the applied film dry until it
has cured by a chemical curing agent, such as phosphoric acid, which converts the
film to a water insoluble coating.
Advantages:
Long life under extreme service conditions such as exposure to marine
environments
Disadvantages:
Sensitivity to moisture until cured
White-metal surface preparation
Necessity of removing the powder-like post-cure reaction chemicals (by
washing very thoroughly) before topcoats will adhere
Uses:
Extreme conditions such as offshore structures in marine environments.
Note While post-cured inorganic zinc coatings have a long, successful field
history, the Company limits post-cured zincs to extreme services where their long
life is needed such as near the water on offshore platforms. Today, however, because
self-cured inorganic zincs can last almost as long and are much easier to apply
properly, you may choose them instead.

Zinc-rich Organic Coatings


Epoxies, urethanes, chlorinated rubbers, phenolics, styrenes, silicones, and vinyls
are vehicles for zinc-rich organic coatings. Epoxies are most common. The zinc
content of these coatings should generally be about 80 percent by weight of total
solids.
The mechanism for curing zinc-rich organic coatings depends on the binder. (See
Section 70 of this manual for methods of film formation.) The coatings can be either
single- or multi-component. Performance tends to be a function of the durability of
the binder, and epoxies are generally considered superior.

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Advantages:
Excellent water and weather resistance
Better wetting ability, because of their organic vehicles, than inorganic zinc
Usable over a broader range of surface preparation conditions than inorganic zinc
Disadvantages:
Not as oil resistant as the inorganic coatings
Uses:
Touch up for inorganic-zinc-primed systems
Subsea equipment primers
As primers under other coatings
Note Often one coat of IOZ alone gives excellent performance. For higher perfor-
mance or aesthetics, topcoat with epoxy or epoxy plus urethane.
Example: One coat of IOZ has lasted 15 plus years on a Richmond Long Wharf line.
Pascagoula successfully used a two-coat system of Carboline Coating Companys
IOZ with Carboline high-build urethane.

130 Petroleum-based Tapes


Petroleum-based tapes, such as denso, work well in severe service as a wrapping for
pipe and structural components.
Advantages:
Adheres to moist surfaces with minimum surface preparation
Adheres to irregular shapes, valves, and pipe fittings
Disadvantages:
Could shield cathodic protection if tape fails
Uses:
Reinforce heavily corroded lines

140 Water-based Coatings


Chevron Corporation OpCos are required to use coating systems that meet both
federal and local regulations controlling the emissions of VOCs. Because
water-based coatings use water instead of solvents as the pigment carrier, they typi-
cally do not contain any Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) that could be
released into the air. Many OpCos may, in the future, be required to use water-based
coating systems in order to meet these regulations.
After 6 months of testing the major manufacturers water-based coatings, Chevron
has concluded that several are acceptable for inclusion in the Coatings Manual.
However, since these coatings do not perform as well as solvent based coatings, we

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cannot recommend them for severe exposure environments (ie: offshore or indus-
trial environments). Refer to the System Number Selection Guide in the Coat-
ings Manual Quick Reference Guide for a listing of the acceptable brands of
water-based coatings for both new construction and maintenance systems.

150 Coating Systems for Immersion Service


Coating systems usually include a first coat (primer), second coat (tiecoat), and a
final coat (topcoat).
There are three types of coating systems for immersion service and each is described
below along with its advantages, disadvantages, and cost. The coatings described are:
Non-reinforced, thin-film coatings
Glass-flake-reinforced coatings
Laminate-reinforced coatings

151 Non-reinforced Thin-film Coatings


Typically only 10 to 20 mils thick (thin films), these non-reinforced coatings:
Contain no glass flakes or fibers or laminates for reinforcement
Usually have inert fillers such as silica or carbon to reduce shrinkage during
cure and to improve abrasion resistance
Resemble some of the high-build layers of external coating systems
Usually are spray applied in two or more coats: a primer/sealer and one or two
high-build topcoats
Have recommended dry film thickness (DFT) of 15 to 20 milsthicker systems
for more severe services
Most thin-film coatings for tanks are based on epoxy resins, although vinyls, inor-
ganic zinc, and other types of coatings have been used.
Advantages:
Low cost
Use least amount of material
Require no expensive hand work
Easiest to apply
Product purity
Disadvantages:
Lack of thickness leads to no resistance to abrasion, severe chemical attack,
physical abuse
Absence of reinforcement means inability to bridge existing cracks

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Always have some damaged areas, called holidays


Uses:
Temporary service
Protection from mild corrosion, splash, or spillage environments
Note Apply and inspect this coating system properly to ensure that there are rela-
tively few holidays. The small amount of corrosion which occurs will not be a
problem in mild-corrosion environments if the product is pure.
If the corrosion environment is severe, however, the holidays will initiate pits that
quickly become unacceptable leaks. For severe corrosion service, pre-coated tanks
may have similar problems if they are scratched or damaged while being erected.
For severe corrosion applications, select a thin film coating if the tanks interior is
also cathodically protected to prevent corrosion at damaged areas of the coating. [1]

Life Expectancy
The expected life of a thin-film internal coating is approximately ten years. After
ten years, the coating commonly blisters, and corrosion at holidays is usually occur-
ring over enough of the surface that blasting and replacing the entire coating are
required.
Note Early failure due to blistering often indicates either a problem with the
surface preparation or an incorrect coating selection.
Periodic inspection and repair (touch-up) of the internal coating may extend its life.
As the Company inspects tanks on a ten-year cycle, periodic inspection and touch-
up is usually not possible.

Limitations and Cost


Because they can be sprayed, thin-film coating systems are generally the easiest and
fastest to apply, and also the least expensive.
Example: For a tank over 50,000 bbls, it might take a total of four weeks at a
minimum to carry out the entire project:
Approximately two weeks to clean, blast, and prime
Approximately one week to apply the coating
An additional week for final curing
Ease of application and cost also vary among different categories of thin film coat-
ings. Factors which make a coating easier or more difficult to apply include:
Its ability to flow smoothly and form an even film
How well it hangs on vertical surfaces without running or sagging
Its tendency to form pinholes
Its tolerance to inadequate surface preparation
The amount of drying time required between coats

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These factors also vary from product to product within a category, so it is difficult to
make general statements. Coal-tar epoxies are, however, usually very easy to apply
and relatively inexpensive, but the black color makes them difficult to inspect.
Straight epoxies (polyamides or amine adduct) are also fairly easy to apply and only
slightly more expensive than the coal tars. Epoxy-phenolics are often significantly
more expensive and more difficult to apply.

152 Glass-flake-reinforced Coatings


Glass flakes in coatings, available in spray and trowel formulae:
Make the coating less permeable and more abrasion resistant
Reinforce the resin, allowing thicker film buildup
Note Epoxy and polyester resins are used for glass-flake-reinforced coatings.
The main difference between these two formulae is that the trowel coatings have
larger reinforcing glass flakes than the spray. The layers are therefore as follows:
Trowel: Two 20 to 40 mil (DFT) coats for a total of 60 to 80 mils (DFT)
Spray: Two 15 to 20 mil (DFT) coats for a total of 30 to 40 mils (DFT)
Coatings applicators must roll each layer of both spray and trowel formulae to orient
the glass flakes parallel to the surface. Rolling reduces the permeability of the coat-
ings.
Cathodic protection should not be required with glass-flake-reinforced coatings
(especially trowel-applied types) because they are so thick and are not easily
damaged.
Advantages:
Both (trowel and spray) are more protective than thin-film coatings because
they are thicker and have fewer holidays.
Both are highly advantageous in services where erosion or abrasion would
damage thin-film coatings.
Spray can be applied at twice the thickness of thin-film systems, and over more
uneven surfacesbecause of the coatings thicknessthan thin film.
Trowel is more resistant to chemical attack, abrasion, and physical abuse than
either spray formula or thin-film coatings.
Disadvantages:
Spray is marginally more expensive than thin-film coatings and rolling is
required to improve resistance to chemical attack.
Trowel is much more expensive than thin-film coatings; it is considerably more
difficult and time-consuming to apply than either the spray formula or thin
films, and hand smoothing and rolling is required.

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Note The cost of glass-flake-reinforced coating may be justified if corrosion rates


are expected to be relatively high but not severe, or permeation through the coating
is a potential problem.
Uses:
Recommended for both mild and severe corrosion applications. Generally, select:
Spray for mild corrosion and for uneven surfaces
Trowel for severe corrosion (as an alternative to a thin-film coating with
cathodic protection)
Note This coating system is the most widely used one for concrete because of its
excellent properties for most environments and lower cost than laminate systems.

Life Expectancy
Expect glass-flake-reinforced coatings to last at least ten years before inspection.
Depending on the condition of the coating and the service, making necessary repairs
may allow the coating to last another ten years. Frequently, however, it will be
necessary to replace the coating after only ten years, especially for sprays. Trowel
applications have a better chance of lasting through a second decade.

Limitations and Cost


The spray-applied glass-flake-reinforced coatings are usually only slightly more
difficult to apply than non-reinforced coatings. Rolling the glass flake properly
takes additional time during application. Spray-applied glass-flake coatings are
more costly than non-reinforced coatings.
Trowel-applied glass-flake coatings are considerably more difficult and time
consuming to apply than sprays. The coating is hand smoothed and rolled to orient
the glass flakes. Coating application may take two to three weeks for an average
size tank (increasing the total time to five to six weeks), and the total installed cost
will be higher than sprayed glass-flake coatings.
Epoxy-glass-flake coatings are generally easier to apply than polyesters or vinyl
esters, both of which require a final wax coat to obtain full surface curing. If the
coating is premixed with wax, common for sprays, the coatings applicator must
apply the second coat within the manufacturer-specified time (known as the
maximum allowable time) because the second coat will not adhere well if the wax
layer has fully cured the first coat.

153 Laminate-reinforced Coatings


The coatings applicator applies laminate reinforced coatings by hand, alternating
layers of resin and fiberglass mat to a total thickness of typically 80 to 125 mils.
Generally, they apply three layers of resin and two layers of mat.
For some services, specifications call for an additional layer of a special surfacing
veil of chemical grade glass or polyester and another coat of resin.

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Note The veil prevents any glass fibers from protruding through the resin surface,
which could allow wicking or chemical attack of the glass itself.
After the completed laminate is inspected, the coatings applicator applies a final
coat of resin. For epoxy resins, this gel coat simply provides additional protection
from chemical attack.
For polyester resins, the coatings applicator adds a wax to the final resin coat to
obtain full curing. Without the wax coat the surface of a polyester coating always
remains slightly tacky and lacks its optimum chemical resistance, and the body of
the laminate cures very slowly.
Advantages:
A laminate-reinforced coating provides the best protection against severe corrosion.
Laminates should not require cathodic protection as they should not contain any
holidays.
A laminate is the only type of internal coating which has significant structural
strength by itself.
Because it does not need to be as thick, epoxy-resin laminates are less expen-
sive than polyester or vinyl ester laminates.
Disadvantages:
Compared to thin-film and glass-flake-reinforced coatings, laminates are the
most expensive coating.
Laminate-reinforced coatings are the most difficult and time consuming to
apply.
Uses:
Laminates are generally used for stockside corrosion only when there is severe
corrosion or when underside corrosion is expected or has occurred.

Life Expectancy
Laminate reinforced coatings will last for 20 years, but inspect and repair them after
10 years. Eventually, the laminate will start to crack and lose its adhesion to the
steel, especially if the tank bottom flexes or settles significantly.
If underside corrosion occurs, remove the coupons to check the condition of the
steel bottom. Replace the laminate and the bottom if the bottom is essentially
corroded through.
Caution Never apply a second laminate over a failed laminate.

Limitation and Cost


Laminate-reinforced coatings are the most difficult and time consuming to apply.
The hand layering of fiberglass mat is a slow process, normally requiring at least
three weeks for an average-size tank, increasing the total time to a minimum of six

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weeks. Laminates are also expensive. The total cost per square foot is equal to or
higher than that of trowel-applied glass-flake coatings.
Because it does not need to be as thick, epoxy-resin laminates are less expensive
than polyester or vinyl ester laminates. Polyesters and vinyl esters require a final
wax coat to obtain full surface curing; however, as they remain fluid longer before
starting to cure, they are easier to use.
Note The time between mixing and cure is called the gel time.
The coatings applicator can adjust the gel time by mixing different amounts of cata-
lyst and promoter into the resin. After the resin sets, it will reach 90 percent of full
cure in a short time. As epoxy resins do not have a gel time, they cure at a relatively
constant rate, starting immediately after mixing, and therefore do not remain as fluid
for as long as laminates.

160 Quality Control

161 General Information


Do the job right the first time.
Essentially a system of checks and balances, quality control helps ensure that a
projects participants fulfill the specifications requirements. For coatings projects,
the process should yield a high-quality result that:
Contributes to the maximum service life of the structure and equipment
Reduces future expenditures for field maintenance

Offshore
Achieving high-quality coatings is more difficult offshore than onshore due to some
of the following conditions:
Adverse weather
Simultaneous operations with other platform activities
Congested platform areas
Limited availability of transportation
Existing substrate surfaces that can be deeply pitted and contaminated with
soluble surface salts
Inaccessible items
Careful design and planning help to minimize the effects of these conditions.
A major component of quality for offshore coatings includes cure and recoat times
before returning a facility to service. Critical areas are the +/- 10-foot splash zone,
work decks and helidecks, and sweating equipment and piping. See detailed infor-
mation about quality control for offshore coatings in Section 800 of this manual.

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Keys to Successful Projects


Comprehensive quality control activities are, however, key to any successful
project.
The quality control for a specific project depends not only on type of project but
also on available resources: financial and personnel. Most projects have the best
financial result over the structures life by involving qualified individuals in the
project at the most appropriate time for as long as necessary to ensure that the speci-
fications are prepared properly and met.
Regardless of the size, among the keys to success of any coating project are the
specifications, specialists and inspectors, and the Companys Project Development
and Execution Process (CPDEP).

Specifications
Caution Avoid the pitfall of writing specifications so vague and general that they
confuse everyone and allow the contractor to provide substandard work.
A well-written specification includes:
Requirements for the pre-job conference
Coating schedule for all items
Work schedule
Materials, including coatings and abrasive
Minimum standards for equipment
Example: Equipment such as moisture traps on coating and blast pots, coating gun
types and hose sizes, and quality of compressed air.

Coating Specialists and Inspectors


Industrial coating applications are highly specialized work processes that require
support from individuals with particular knowledge and experience: the coating
specialist and inspector.
Coating Specialist. A coating specialist provides the projects engineering team
with:
Advice about selecting, inspecting, and applying coatings
Information about premature failures
Technical and tactical recommendations for day-to-day activities and interac-
tion with the contractor
Coating Inspector. The goal of the projects coating inspector, usually a contractor,
parallels the programs objectives to ensure that all surfaces are prepared and all
coatings applied within specification. The inspector:
Enforces the specification during each phase of the work activities
Maintains detailed records of the coating activities

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Note These records are extremely important in case of litigation and provide the
engineering team with daily work updates and recommendations.
See also the sections below on Inspections and Inspectors.

Companys Project Development & Execution Process (CPDEP)


By taking the Front End Loading (FEL) approach of CPDEP (adding coating
experts to the team during the design-and-fabrication phases), the projects team
eliminates the problem of materials leaving the fabrication yard with an aestheti-
cally acceptable, yet otherwise short-term and non-corrosion-resistant coating.
Example: During the 1980s, one of the Companys profit centers spent over $15MM
to repair fabrication work that had failed prematurely (needing major re-work in
four years or less). Costly replacement of corroded equipment/structures and repair
of premature coating failures are often attributable to the work in fabrication yards.

162 Equipment Design/Construction Considerations


For corrosion resistance, fabricated carbon steel equipment is frequently internally
coated or lined as a lower cost (but still expensive) alternative to construction from
high alloy materials. To be effective, a coating system must be applied to a suffi-
ciently cleaned surface to the required coating thickness, and all wetted surfaces
must be coated to a holiday-free condition (no voids in the coating that expose bare
steel). Fabricators are frequently unfamiliar with or careless about equipment design
and construction details that will prevent or compromise the application of an effec-
tive corrosion resistant coating; the result has been that we are frequently forced to
accept deficiencies that will result in shorter coating life or shorter equipment life.
This problem can be eliminated for the most part if there is a careful design review
before equipment fabrication starts and if the review is followed up with thorough
source inspection.
The most frequently encountered conditions that lead to defective or ineffective
coating application and suggestions for eliminating them follow below.
Design and construction details to review and consider.
All welded joints of internal parts must be continuously (seal) welded to
eliminate crevices that cannot be coated and will corrode. The design of
the internals must be such that it is possible to seal weld all joints (suffi-
cient access and visibility for seal welding must be present). Intermittent
welding or leaving a gap in a seal weld will almost guarantee a holiday
condition either immediately after coating or a short time in the future;
trying to bridge these gaps with thin film coatings (up to 15 mils) is virtu-
ally impossible. Seal welds must be smooth and uniform with no pinholes
permitted.
Construction details that result in crevices, pockets, or annular spaces
that cannot be properly sandblasted or coated are frequently encountered;
inlet impingement plates and vapor outlet baffles are frequently located too
close to the vessel wall to permit adequate access for blasting and coating.

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Identifying these problem areas by a design drawing review takes some


judgment, but in general all surfaces must be visible and accessible enough
that direct impingement of blasting grit or paint from a point 18" away is
possible. Re-design might be necessary as a result of the design review,
and may include making some of the parts removable and/or high alloy.
All edges and corners must be ground to a 1/8" minimum radius since the
coating will not build to the required thickness on a sharp edge. This
includes corners on nozzles, manways, baffles, clips, and other internals.
These parts must be at least " thick to obtain the 1/8" radius on an
exposed edge. For clips and similar parts, this radiusing should be done
before welding them to the equipment wall (trying to radius an installed
clip down to its attachment weld is difficult and will frequently require
subsequent weld repair to the attaching fillet weld or the equipment wall).
For rubber or PVC (elastomeric) linings, edge/corner radii should be "
minimum.
Applying coating to flange gasket surfaces (or not) needs to be consid-
ered. For vessels in hydrocarbon service, the coating should extend from
the inside surface of the equipment through the nozzle and end at the ID of
the raised face gasket seating surface. Since coating the gasket seating
surface will fill the grooves in the surface finish and thus reduce the bite
on the gasket (which will reduce the pressure at which the gasketed joint
will leak), gasket seating surfaces on hydrocarbon vessels should not be
coated. It is recognized that the uncoated corner at the ID of the gasket
seating surface will be exposed to the corrosive media but that is the
tradeoff for reliable gasket seating on a hydrocarbon service vessel that is
internally coated. If the uncoated corner is judged a serious problem, the
gasket surface and the adjacent 1" of the nozzle bore can be weld over-
layed with a suitable alloy, the face re-machined, and the coating applied
so that it overlaps the weld overlay up to the ID of the gasket seating
surface (weld overlay and remachining is very expensive); using high alloy
flanges could also be considered but would introduce a dissimilar metal
weld. For low pressure non-hydrocarbon services where elastomeric
gaskets are permitted, flat faced flanges should be used with the coating
extending through the nozzle and across the entire flange face.
Special gasketed joint designs should be reviewed carefully. O-ring
groove facings, flanges with tongue and groove facings, and flanges with
ring joint facings cannot be effectively coated; they should be avoided with
internal coatings unless the grooves or tongues have been machined into a
weld overlayed surface. The design of any quick-opening closures should
be carefully reviewed; the least expensive design available employs an o-
ring groove machined into a 45 degree face and is impossible to effec-
tively coat.
Threaded connections (pipe couplings) welded to the equipment wall
should not be used because the threads cannot be coated. If a threaded
connection is needed, a drilled and tapped (high alloy or disposable) blind
flange can be used on a flanged nozzle. A less desirable but acceptable

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alternative would be a high alloy coupling welded through (not set-on) the
equipment wall with the appropriate high alloy electrode, with the coating
extending from the equipment surface continuously to the bore of the high
alloy coupling; this alternative can be considered where thin film coatings
are used but should never be used with elastomeric linings.
Flanged nozzles should be short and straight; long nozzles and nozzles
that have weld ells are more difficult to effectively coat internally; small
diameter nozzles are also difficult to coat internally. Internal coat-
ings/linings that require surface rolling (elastomeric, glass flake, FRP)
require that nozzles be short, straight, and at least 3" diameter.
Clips used for bolting in vessel internals are typically carbon steel with
drilled (and sometimes threaded) holes with an attempt made to coat the
clips to a holiday-free condition. Even if the clips are coated to a holiday-
free condition, the coating is usually damaged down to bare carbon steel
the first time that the internals are bolted in place after coating. Clips can
be high alloy material welded to the shell with the appropriate high alloy
electrode at little added cost. The required blast cleaning and internal
coating would include the high alloy clips, with a holiday-free condition
required that extends from the vessel surface at least 1" onto the high alloy
clip (for elastomeric linings, high alloy clips are still recommended but
must be completely enveloped by the lining).
Vortex breakers should always be bolted to clips and never be welded in
place; when they are welded in place, neither the nozzle bore nor the
breaker can be adequately blasted or coated. Vortex breakers, outlet
strainers, and similar small parts should be fabricated from high alloy
material rather than carbon steel that is blasted and coated after fabrica-
tion; any cost difference is minimal and some of these small parts are virtu-
ally impossible to coat holiday-free.
Designers
The fabricators design engineer frequently does not recognize the details that
are needed to result in an effective coating application, and is sometimes under
the additional constraints of being given Company required construction details
that cannot be effectively blasted and coated.
Coating Contractors
They are rarely given the opportunity to provide input in the equipment design
stage as to what details will be difficult or impossible to coat. They are usually
given a completely fabricated piece of equipment and are stuck with doing the
best they can with what they have been given, while still trying to make a
profit. A coating Pre-Inspection Meeting should be held with the coating
contractor by the Company inspector after the equipment detail drawings have
been completed but preferably before fabrication has begun; that will give the
coating contractor the opportunity to identify problem areas before the equip-
ment is fabricated and permit equipment design changes to be made more
easily.

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Holiday Testing
Unless holiday testing is watched closely by the Company inspector, it is typi-
cally done on a random basis on some flat, exposed areas that are easy to coat
to a holiday-free condition, and not the areas that are likely to have holidays.
The fabricators inspector (if involved in the coating at all) just goes along with
this cursory inspection; the coating contractor has a vested interest in not
exposing defective coating areas that are difficult/impossible to repair. Every
square inch of the internal coating must be holiday tested (it is not very time
consuming) and should be witnessed by the Company inspector. Even when a
careful design review has been made or the vessel has simple internals, careful
inspection will almost always reveal some holidays.

163 Inspection Programs


An inspection adage states: People do not as you expect. People do as you inspect.
Inspecting a coating ensures that it meets specifications for the particular project
and provides maximum protection over the coatings expected life.
In the Company, there are three inspection programs: one complete and two levels
of partial inspections (Figures 100-2, 100-3, 100-4). The three inspection programs
require inspectors of varying levels of qualification.
The level of inspection chosen for a coating project is primarily a function of the
acceptable risk involved if a coating fails prematurely.
Corrosion and aesthetics are the two main reasons for applying an external coating.
The engineer must choose the best inspection program to meet the needs of the
particular project cost effectively.
For external coating projects where corrosion is a concern, the Company
recommends a complete inspection program, the most conservative, reliable,
and costly method of inspection.
If aesthetics are the only concern, then either of the two partial inspection
programs may be adequate; but some of these projects may require complete
inspection.
The Companys representative and the inspector (if different) should agree on a
method of reporting the test results and observations of the inspection. A copy of the
Companys recommended form, COM-EF-844, is available in this manual.
The inspector files a copy of reports with the Companys representative.

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Complete Inspections
A complete inspection requires a full-time, qualified inspector. The most conserva-
tive and costly of the three programs, a complete inspection is recommended when a
coatings reliability is critical.
The complete inspection checklist (Figure 100-2) is a compilation of items the
inspector should examine to ensure that the work satisfies all requirements of the
specification. While all items are important, they are ranked in terms of relative
importance: ccritical, nnecessary, and aapplies. Missing an a item has
lower potential effect on the life of the coating than missing the others.

Fig. 100-2 Inspection ChecklistComplete Inspection (1 of 2)


A qualified coatings inspector ensures the lining work meets the Chevron Specification. The inspector keeps
records (using the Companys Standard Form COM-EF-844 or another form agreed upon by the Chevron represen-
tative and the inspector) and files a copy of the report with the Chevron OPCO.
Each inspection item below has a code letter that indicates its relative importance. Items marked with a (c) are
critical, those with an (n) are necessary, and those with an (a) apply. All items are important; but, if an (a) item is
missed, the potential impact on the coating life would not be as great as missing a (c) or an (n) item.
I. Pre-Job Check Out
A. (c) Review Chevron OPCO Specifications.
B. (c) Check tank for inaccessible areas, laps, patches, rough welds, weld spatter, etc.
C. (c) Check surface for grease, oil, moisture, etc.
D. (c) Check abrasive for cleanliness, dryness, etc.
E. (a) Check abrasive for type and size.
F. (c) Check compressed air for oil and moisture.
G. (a) Check nozzle air pressure.
H. (n) Check that proper coatings and thinners are present.
I. (c) Check to see the coating has not passed its shelf life.
J. (a) Record product name, manufacturer, and batch number.
II. Surface Preparation
A. (n) Check ambient conditions.
B. (c) Check degree of surface cleanliness.
C. (c) Check surface for salts or other contaminates.
D. (n) Check surface profile.
E. (c) Check dust and abrasive removal.
F. (a) Take magnetic base reading.
III. ApplicationFirst Coat
A. (c) Check surface for flash rusting.
B. (c) Check ambient conditions.
C. (n) Check steel temperature.

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Fig. 100-2 Inspection ChecklistComplete Inspection (2 of 2)


D. (c) Check proper mix ratio observed.
E. (n) Check for proper thinner addition (when necessary).
F. (a) Check wet film thickness.
IV. ApplicationSubsequent Coats
A. (c) Check dry film thickness of preceding coats.
B. (c) Check recoat times observed.
C. (c) Check intercoat cleanliness.
D. (c) Check ambient conditions.
E. (n) Check steel temperatures.
F. (c) Check proper mix ratio observed.
G. (n) Check for proper thinner addition (when necessary).
H. (a) Check wet film thickness.
I. (c) Repeat for every coat.
V. Final Inspection
A. (c) Check visual appearance.
B. (c) Check dry film thickness.
C. (c) Holiday test. (Required only for interior coatings)
D. (c) Cure test.
E. (c) Verify all touch-up and repair work.
F. (c) Complete records and copy Chevron OPCO.
1. Verify compliance to specification.
2. List work, if any, not in compliance and why.

Partial Inspections
The Company has two levels of partial inspection, Level 2 being the more limited.
Partial Inspection Level 1. Partial Inspection Level 1 (Figure 100-3) differs from
a complete inspection not only in the inspectors qualifications and time on the
project, but also in the number of tests required.
The inspector examines or tests particular itemshighlighted on the checklist
during and on completion of the work. Time and cost permitting, the inspector may
also verify the critical and necessary items on the Checklist For Complete Inspec-
tion (Figure 100-2) as any extra inspection improves the coatings reliability.
Partial Inspection Level 2. Partial Inspection Level 2 (Figure 100-4) is the
minimal inspection for any tank or vessel coating project and is recommended only
if the Company is willing to accept the risk of premature failure of the coating

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

Caution Select Level 2, the lowest recommended level, only after evaluating the
project carefully and considering the risks of a premature failure.

Fig. 100-3 Inspection Check ListPartial InspectionLevel 1


All items listed are critical to Level 1 Partial Inspection and should be conducted by someone familiar with coat-
ings inspection. This person may be a qualified inspector, an experienced Chevron inspector, or an engineer with
a good knowledge of coatings inspection. The inspector should keep records (using the Companys Standard Form
COM-EF-844 or another form agreed upon by the Chevron representative and the inspector) and should file a copy
of the report with the Chevron OPCO.
I. Pre-Job Check Out
A. Review Chevron OPCO Specification.
B. Check tank for inaccessible areas, laps, patches, rough welds, weld spatter, etc.
C. Check surface for grease, oil, moisture, etc.
D. Check abrasive for cleanliness, dryness, etc.
E. Check to see the coating has not passed its shelf life.
II. Surface Preparation
A. Check degree of surface cleanliness.
B. Check dust and abrasive removal.
III. ApplicationFirst Coat
A. Check surface for flash rusting.
B. Check ambient conditions.
C. Check steel temperature.
IV. ApplicationSubsequent Coats
A. Check dry film thickness of preceding coats.
B. Check recoat times observed.
C. Check intercoat cleanliness.
D. Check ambient temperatures.
E. Check steel temperatures.
F. Repeat for every coat.
V. Final Inspection
A. Check visual appearance.
B. Check dry film thickness.
C. Holiday test.
D. Cure test.
E. Complete records and copy Chevron OPCO.
1. Verify compliance to specification.
2. List work, if any, not in compliance and why.

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Fig. 100-4 Inspection ChecklistPartial InspectionLevel 2 (1 of 2)


All items listed are critical to Level 2 Partial Inspection. This is the minimum inspection to be performed when
lining a tank or vessel. With a little planning and thought, an OPCO engineer or construction representative can
carry out all of these tests. The inspector should keep records (using the Companys Standard Form COM EF-844
or another form agreed upon by the Chevron representative and the inspector) and should file a copy of the report
with the Chevron OPCO.
I. Pre-Job Check Out
A. Review Chevron OPCO Specification
Know what the specification requires so you can discuss it with the coating contractor.
B. Check tank for inaccessible areas, laps, patches, rough welds, weld spatter, etc.
Linings will not cover irregular or rough surfaces adequately. Welds should be ground smooth
and sharp corners rounded. If not possible, apply a stripe coat of the lining material after surface
preparation.
C. Check surface for grease, oil, moisture, etc.
The biggest cause of premature lining failures is a contaminated surface. Cleanliness is
the single most important step in the lining of a tank or vessel.
D. Check to see the coating has not passed its shelf life.
This is a simple step; old coatings are hard to apply and will not perform properly.
II. Surface Preparation
A. Check degree of surface cleanliness.
Linings require abrasive blast cleaning the surface to a White Metal Blast (SSPC-SP5).
See Abrasive Blast Coating Guide for Aged or Coated Steel Surfaces in the Coatings
Manual for a visual guide to judging degrees of abrasive blast cleaning.
B. Check dust and abrasive removal.
Visually check to see there is not any dust or abrasive residue on the surface to be lined.
Dust or residue can cause the lining to have poor adhesion.
III. ApplicationFirst Coat
A. Check surface for flash rusting.
After abrasive blasting, the surface can flash rust due to high humidity or salts on the
surface. Linings applied over a rusted surface will fail prematurely.
B. Check surface for moisture.
Do not apply linings if the surface is damp. This usually happens when the surface is
below the dew point. Linings applied over moisture will not adhere.
IV. ApplicationSubsequent Coats
A. Check recoat times observed.
Most linings have a maximum and minimum recoat time. The times are dependent on
the temperature; higher temperatures equal shorter times. The lining manufacturers data
will give you the recoat time at a standard temperature. If your temperature is different,
call the manufacturers representative.
B. Check intercoat cleanliness.
Make sure the first coat has not been contaminated before applying subsequent coats.
C. Repeat Sections III & IV for every subsequent coat.

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Fig. 100-4 Inspection ChecklistPartial InspectionLevel 2 (2 of 2)


V. Final Inspection
A. Check appearance.
Visually check for runs, sags, skips, etc. If the job looks good, then the contractor probably
did a good job. If not, you might want to do some of the testing listed in Partial Inspection, Level 1.
B. Check dry film thickness.
While present, have the contractor calibrate his dry film thickness gage and randomly
check the lining to see if it meets the specified dry film thickness.
C. Final Cure.
Check with the lining manufacturer on how long to wait before putting the tank or vessel
in service. Circulating hot air through the tank or vessel will shorten the time.
D. Verify all touch-up and repair work.
There will usually be some touch-up or repair work, so verify that it has been done.
E. Complete records and copy Chevron OPCO.
1. Verify compliance to the specification.
2. List work, if any, not in compliance and why.

164 Inspectors
To carry out a thorough inspection, the inspector may be a Company employee or a
contractor but must be trained, experienced, and familiar with a variety of coating
methods and equipment.
Whether full- or part-time, the inspector should participate in all inspections at the
completion of the coating contract and must inspect the finished project before the
end of the contractors guarantee.

Qualifications
Full-time Inspector. A qualified, full-time coatings inspector must have one of the
two backgrounds below:
Certified and experienced.
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)-certified Level III
Experience inspecting tank and vessel coatings
Uncertified, trained, and experienced.
No certification
Some industry-accepted training
At least five years of verifiable experience inspecting coatings on tanks and
vessels
Example: Industry training coating courses are offered by KTA-Tator, S.G.Pinney,
or Bechtel.

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Part-time Inspector. A qualified, part-time inspector must be:


Familiar with the different methods of inspection
Capable of identifying potential problems and analyzing results
Experienced in coating inspections
This inspector may be
A qualified third-party inspector
An experienced Company inspector
An engineer familiar with coating inspections

Responsibilities
Full-time inspector. The full-time inspector reviews the project prior to start up and
is present whenever the fabricator is working offsite or the contractor onsite and
during hold points in the project, normally:
Prior to starting work
After preparing the surface
Prior to applying each coating
Following application of the final coating
Following the final cure
Part-time inspector. The part-time inspector must be available to examine the
coating during the projects hold points.

Guidelines for all Inspectors


The inspector:
Should remain unchanged for the duration of the project
Must be able to reject work on any area which satisfies neither the specifica-
tion nor good practice
Should not relax the requirements in the specification without written instruc-
tions from the Companys representative
Should conduct business in a professional manner at all time and:
Follow positive inspection methods
Practice diplomacy with coatings applicators and production personnel
Interact with the foreman on all matters concerning coatings applicator and
work practicesnot supervising coatings applicators directly
Anticipate problems; initiating preventive action
Must have a reasonable period of time to review and become familiar with the
specifications, contract documents, and the worksite before the project begins
Note Familiarity with the worksite means learning about the accessibility to and
condition of the structure for the coating project.

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Evaluation Reports
The Companys representative should prepare an evaluation report about the
inspectors work.

165 Monitoring Progress


The time it takes a coatings applicator to move from one operation to another affects
the cost of a project.

Initial Setup Time


The first transition period begins when the coatings applicators start work and ends
when they begin the first daily activity; usually blasting, coating, or rigging.
If a coatings applicator consistently requires more than the allotted time to set up,
the inspector should investigate and take appropriate corrective action.

Transition Times
Transition time may demonstrate the foreman and crews effectiveness and the
overall organization of the operation.
Example: If an eight-man crew has one hour of excessive transition time, the effect is
equal to an additional eight-and-a-half manhours for the project. See Figure 100-5.

Fig. 100-5 Transition Times for Coating Crews


Exceeds Normal Additional
Activity Transition By Man Hours
Setup 30 Minutes 4
Blowdown 20 Minutes 2.5
Paint Pot Refill 5 Minutes 2(1)
(each refill)
Total 8.5
(1) Based on 30 gal (114L) with two 5-gal (19L) setups

166 General Inspection Procedures


See the Quick Reference Guide of this manual for information about ordering
inspection tools and standards.

Daily
The following should be completed on a daily basis:
Conduct pre-inspection of work area before blasting and coating, checking for
protection of equipment, inaccessible areas, and hazardous areas

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Meet with the foreman of the coatings applicators to plan daily work schedule,
discuss positive aspects and potential problem areas of project, compare paper-
work
Coordinate work with production activities
Order materials on timely basis
Check contractors equipment
Check work and safety practices for compliance
Ensure that work area is square and clean
Prepare and submit reports; report to the Companys representative, as required

Before Surface Preparation


Surface preparation is critical to any coating project. Faulty surface preparation is
estimated to contribute to 75 to 80 percent of all premature failures of coatings.
Example: Surface preparation factors that affect the life of the coating include:
Residues of oil or grease
Residues of chemical salts, rust, and loose or broken mill scale which lead to
early failure
Tight mill scale, which leads to longer term failure, and surface condensation
Defects found before or after surface preparation
Before surface preparation begins, the inspector should:
Examine surfaces to decide how much preparation is required; good lighting
during examination is very important
Record the condition of steel surfaces and include all information on such
defects as rolling laps, cracks and pitting
State the condition of surfaces other than steel
Check for protection of equipment, inaccessible and hazardous areas
Weather Conditions. The weather required for abrasive blasting is the same as for
coating. To ensure that rust does not form on the abrasive-blasted surface before a
coating is applied, specify that the area blasted with abrasive be no larger than can
be coated within the same day or within eight hours of blasting.
The inspector should:
Determine the weather window needed to prepare the surface and apply coatings
Check the weather forecast
Read the coating data sheets for acceptable temperature and humidity ranges

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Air Compressors for Blasting. Air compressors for blasting should supply oil-
and water-free air at the correct pressure. The inspector should check the compressor
regularly (daily, unless tests show the equipment to be in good working order) by
releasing air into a white cloth and checking it for moisture or contamination.
If surface cleaning is poor or proceeding slowly, the inspector should:
Test the nozzles air pressure by inserting a hypodermic needle air-pressure
gage into the hose as close to the nozzle as possible
Check the nozzle with a nozzle-throat gage to ensure that the orifice is the
proper diameter
Not rely on pressure readings at the compressor as these differ from nozzle
pressure due to pressure loss in the hose. Typically, 100 psig is required at the
nozzle to obtain adequate cleaning and productivity.
Abrasive material. Abrasive material should be clean, dry, and the correct type and
size for the specific work. The inspector should ensure it meets these criteria.

After Surface Preparation


The inspector should check all surfaces when the preparation is completed and
immediately before coatings applicators apply any coating. The surface must meet
the preparation requirements for the specified coating system.
The inspector should judge the preparation quality:
Of hand-cleaned steel against the relevant SSPC (Steel Structures Painting
Council) standard
Of blast-cleaned steel against the relevant SSPC or NACE standard
By visual comparison against the Swedish standards, NACE Pictorial Stan-
dards, or the SNAME (Society of Naval and Marine Engineers) standards
The inspector should measure the roughness of the surface to ensure that the blast
profile complies with the specifications.
Note Testex Press-o-Film Replica Tape with a spring micrometer is the best way to
measure surface profile.

Before Applying Coatings


The coatings applicator arranges for repair and reblast of all surface defects exposed
by preparation before applying coating. The Companys engineer should review and
approve the repair method.
Coating Supplies. The inspector should check supplies at the jobsite to ensure that:
The correct coating is on hand
Sufficient quantities are available
The shelf life is not exceeded

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The correct thinners are available for thinning the coating material, if required,
and for cleaning equipment
Storage conditions are adequate
Method of Application. The coating contractor is usually free to choose the method
of application; however, it must comply with one of the manufacturers recom-
mended procedures.
If there is doubt, the Companys representative should require the contractor to run a
test, proving that the coating film of the proposed method complies with the specifi-
cation. The inspector should be present during tests and should judge the results.
Mixes, Proportions, Incubation. Before the coating is applied, the coating
inspector should ensure that:
All coatings are properly mixed
Multi-component coatings are in the correct proportions
Proper incubation periods are met
Note Inadequate mixing or improper proportioning of multi-component coatings
can cause soft spots which may dry a slightly different shade of color.

During Coating
The inspector should check that each layer of a coating system meets the specifica-
tions for:
Coating thickness
General quality of the coating, such as hardness, freedom from pinholes, or sags
Dry film thickness (DFT)
The coatings applicator should:
Thin the coating according to the suppliers data sheets
Check viscosity before applying thinned coatings
Check the coatings film thickness with a wet film thickness gage immediately
after applying it
The coating contractor must know the thickness of films specified by the manufac-
turer. The specifications usually give normal DFT and place a limit on maximum
thickness; some give maximum and minimum values.
Although coating manufacturers specify only DFTs, inspectors should:
Use wet film measurements for control during actual application
Multiply wet film thickness by the volume percent solids of the coating; the
result gives the actual DFT of the coating
Measure the thickness of wet-coating films with comb gages

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

A representative from the Company, not the contractor, should approve gages
for measuring dry film thickness. The coatings applicator should calibrate
the gage daily according to the National Bureau of Standards Calibration
Standards.
If films are not the correct thickness, the coatings applicator must adjust both
the technique and equipment appropriately to meet the specification and to
avoid rework.
Note Refer to industry standard SSPC-PA2, Measurement of Dry Paint Thick-
ness With Magnetic Gages.

Five Critical Subjects of a Final Inspection


The five critical subjects in the final inspection of a coating project are appearance,
dry film measurement, curing tests, touch-up and repair verification, and inspection
records.
Appearance. The appearance of a coating can highlight problems with aesthetics or
suggest probable, premature failures of the coating. The inspector can assure that
there are no runs, sags, blistering, or pinholes by checking the appearance of the
coating.
Dry Film Measurement. The inspector must measure the dry film thickness to
ensure that coatings applicators have applied the specified proper amount of
coating.
Curing Tests. Surface temperature, ambient conditions, coating formulation, and
film thickness affect the curing rate. Laboratory testing of coating chips is the only
true means of verifying cure.
Field techniques include the following:
Solvent rubOn epoxy coatings, the inspector rubs the surface of the coating
with a clean cloth saturated in a strong solvent, such as methyl ethyl ketone
(MEK) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). If the material is mixed and cured
properly, no color will transfer to the cloth. If the coating is mixed or cured
improperly, it will redissolve and the color will transfer to the cloth.
Caution Do not use the solvent rub test for alkyds and vinyl.
Sandpaper testThe inspector abrades the coating with fine sandpaper. If prop-
erly cured, it produces a fine powdery residue; if not, a slightly tacky coating
remains on the sandpaper.
Hardness testThe inspector checks the coatings cure with a Barcol hardness
tester or pencil hardness tester by:
Exerting a light, perpendicular pressure on the instrument which holds a
hardened steel indentor, ground to microscopic accuracy.

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Reading the spring-loaded indentors level of penetration directly from a


scales dial which is divided into 100 graduations.
On soft materials, this device takes the highest reading because cold flow
permits the spring-loaded indentor to continue penetrating. It is available in
several models, according to the relative hardness of the test material.
Thumbnail test (can the coating be scraped or removed?) - Popular with experi-
enced inspectors, the thumbnail test is an effective means of determining the
need for more qualitative testing methods.
Touch-up and Repair Verification. The inspector verifies all touch-up and repair
work and includes this information in the final report.
Inspection Records. The inspector gives copies of all records to the Companys
representative and completes the following:
Daily, written reports of all items checked and verifying that the coating project
complies with any specifications, giving reasons for any work that does not
A final report not only giving comments on repairs, overall assessment of the
project, and ideas for improvement, but also with all daily reports attached
Both the Companys representative and the inspector should sign the final report.

167 Specific Inspection Procedures


Downhole Tubular Coatings
The inspection section of specification COM-MS-4732 contains the recommended
inspection program for coatings projects involving downhole tubulars. Those who
need assistance interpreting the specification or have any questions pertaining to the
specification should contact the Companys coating specialist listed in the Quick
Reference Guide.

Internal Coatings
In addition to the general inspection procedures, the following items apply to
internal coatings.
Temperature and Humidity. Weather conditions are critical to the application and
curing of coatings. The inspector must make sure the surface is dry and tempera-
ture is above the dew point to avoid condensation. Almost all internal coatings cure
by a chemical reaction which produces heat and will not cure properly if the
ambient temperature is too low. The guidelines for temperature and humidity in
COM-MS-4738 are acceptable for most internal coatings, but always check the
manufacturers instructions too.
The inspector must read and then record atmospheric conditions in the daily reports
to verify that no moisture is present on the surface to be coated.
Film Thickness. Inspectors measure dry film thickness (DFT) with a magnetic film-
thickness gage or a Company-approved equivalent. They should check film thickness

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Coatings Manual 100 General Information

of each coat and the final thickness of the coating. Each coat should be within the
specified range because an extra heavy coat (applied to correct another coats insuffi-
cient thickness) may crack or cure improperly. The inspector should ensure that the
coatings applicator repairs any defects after applying each coat.
Caution Using a subsequent coat to cover defective areas is unacceptable.
Pinholes and Holidays. The inspector must examine 100 percent of the finished
coating for pinholes and holidays.
Check thin films (1 to 20 mils) with a low-voltage (67-volt), sponge holiday
detector, which sounds an alarm if the fluid in the sponge comes in contact with
the underlying steel.
Check thick-film coatings (20 to 200 mils) with a high-voltage (nondestructive
voltages of usually 100 to 150 volts per mil) holiday detector. This voltage
gives the spark enough energy to jump across the gap between the coating
surface and the underlying steel if a holiday exists, but not enough energy to
break through the coating.
Most coating resin materials (epoxies, isopolyesters, vinyl esters) have a dielectric
strength of 300 to 350 volts per mil. It is important to have sufficiently high voltage
to bridge the pinholes air gap to the steel substrate without burning through the
solid coating. The voltage recommendations of the coating suppliers are normally
acceptable.
Note If a final wax or gel coat is required, the inspector should carry out the
holiday test and require coatings applicators to make any repairs before the final
coat is applied. This requirement prevents the wax or gel coat from covering up
possible holidays in the underlying coats. If the coatings applicators make any
repairs after applying the wax or gel coat, they must remove that coat and re-apply
it after completing the necessary repairs.
Water Test. Scheduled after the voltage test, the water test involves filling the tank
with water (sometimes salt water) and leaving it for several days. After the tank is
drained, rust spots on the coating reveal pinholes. The test is more complete than the
voltage test because water touches all surfaces of the tank; the low-voltage sweeper
may miss some parts.
Note The Company runs the water test infrequently as it is expensive and time
consuming.
Testing for Final Surface Cure. The inspector must test the final surface cure of
laminates with a Barcol hardness tester and an acetone wipe test. This requirement
is particularly important for isopolyester and vinyl ester resins which will not fully
cure without a wax coat.
Note The coatings applicator must sand off the wax layer to obtain an accurate
test because full surface curing is essential for the coating to have its optimum
chemical resistance.

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Offshore Coatings
The inspection process for offshore coatings is detailed in specification COM-MS-4771.
Those who need assistance with interpreting the specifications or have other questions
pertaining to the specification should contact the Companys coating specialist (see the
Quick Reference Guide).

Pipeline Coatings
There are many different types of pipeline coatings, each with many completely
different properties and application procedures. The Company therefore recom-
mends following the inspection procedures written as part of the various specifica-
tions for each type of coating system. Those who need assistance with interpreting
the specifications or have other questions pertaining to the specification should
contact the Companys coating specialist.
Caution Due to the environmental risk associated with the failure of a pipeline
coating, the Company recommends following the most complete inspection program
available, which includes having a full-time, qualified inspector.

168 Instruments, Tools, and Equipment


The inspector must have available all of the instruments, tools, and equipment
necessary to perform the inspection tasks properly.
The following is a list of coating tests and test tools:
Ambient Coating Condition
PsychrometerFor determining temperature, humidity, and dew point at
the jobsite
Surface Temperature GageFor measuring the temperature of steel

169 Protecting the Companys Equipment


Many of a projects methods, costs, and problems are related to protecting the
Companys equipment. The following are simple, efficient, and cost-effective proce-
dures for protecting common equipment items.
The inspector must monitor these procedures closely and ensure the coatings appli-
cators perform them before and throughout blasting and coating operations.

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Wrapping Lights
Problem: Protective light lenses are sensitive to overblast and overspray.
Solution: Wrap in plastic sheeting and duct tape.
Problem: Sheeting melts on the protective lenses.
Solution: Wrap lenses in chicken wire before wrapping in the sheeting. This
will prevent sheeting from melting and provide more permanent
protection for the entire job.

Plugged Drains
Problem: How to prevent sand from clogging drains while allowing small
amounts of water to drain through when raining or when washing area.
Solution: Stuff filter media (woven polyester fibers, and adhesives for filtering
air intakes on engines) into the drain and tie to the cover with a piece
of manila twine.
Problem: Drains surrounded by troughs. Can coatings applicator remove sand
without shoveling out each trough?
Solution: Lay a sheet of filter media over the trough in addition to plugging the
drain.

Protecting Sensitive Equipment


A common misconception is that, during dry blasting, you cannot filter air intakes
on compressors and other engines; therefore, costly wet blasting is necessary.
Problem: How to prevent sensitive equipment from the contamination of blasting
by taking oil samples, installing filter media, and installing filters.
Solution 1 Oil Samples:
1. Before blasting operations begin, take an oil sample from each engine and send
it to a lab for analysis to identify any previous sand or other particle contamina-
tion.
2. When blasting has started, take an oil sample from each engine at least every
two weeks for the duration of the project to identify any potential problems and
allow time for corrective action before any major damage occurs.
Solution 2 Filter Media:
1. Install filter media (to trap particles of five microns or less) with the adhesive
side on the outside to catch small abrasive and dust particles and to prevent the
unit from sucking the sticky side into the primary filters.
2. Ensure coverage of all possible air passageways into the equipment, covering
each corner and edge of the filter housing.
3. Install two layers of media, where possible, to ensure 100 per cent filtration at
all times and to eliminate unnecessary downtime during blasting. Change the

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outer layer only; leave the inner layer to filter dust during the several-minute
changeout process.
4. Monitor the filtration closely to ensure that it is adequate and installed properly.

Containment Screens
Problem: Isolate particular areas to keep the remainder of a facility clean
during blasting (reduces cleaning time).
Solution: Strategically position containment screens, usually square or rectan-
gular polypropylene solid or mesh screens of various sizes from
40 ft. 40 ft., to collect spent blast abrasive, dust, and airborne parti-
cles of coating.

Protection from Overblast


Problem: How to reduce overblast significantly (and premature failure of
coatings) with proper blasting and coating techniques and preven-
tive wrapping and shielding.
Solution 1 Keep your work area square means completely blasting and
Squaring Work coating an entire group of items without having to return to the
Area: area for additional blasting. Requires proper planning, thorough
inspection, and precise instructions to blasters.

Note Items in square work area include the tops and bottoms of all piping, braces
and stiffeners, the interior of the wide flange beam webs and flanges, and the
bottom side of the beam flanges.
Solution 2 Re-sweep before squaring work area after carrying out several days
Blasting of rough blasting with appropriately sized blast nozzles and abra-
Procedures: sive. Proper blasting technique ensures the blast nozzle is pointed
away from previously coated surfaces and toward the surfaces to
be blasted, especially during touch-up feathering and spot blasting.

Note Rough or high-productivity blasting calls for larger nozzles, orifice sizes of
5/16 inch or larger venturi; spot and touch-up blasting require smaller nozzles, 3/16
inch or smaller, with straight-bore orifices.
Solution 3 During blasting and coating, wrap to protect all items that will
Protective Wrap-neither be blasted nor coated. The cost of the labor and materials
ping: necessary to add protective wrapping results in a far superior job
and minimizes costs for rework of prematurely failed areas.

Common Shielding
Plastic sheeting, tarpaulins, and burlap sacks are some of the more common
shielding materials.
Problems:
Plastic sheeting is susceptible to overblast damage.

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Tarpaulins are expensive and damage easily.


Burlap holds blowdown abrasives which could fall on cleaned areas.
Solution:
Rubber sheeting and plywood. Both have distinct advantages over common
shielding.
Rubber Sheeting. Although the initial cost of rubber sheeting is relatively high,
$3 to $4, per linear foot ($8 to $10 per linear m) for a 36-inch (90 centimeter) wide
section, its purchase is justified because of its many advantages. One-eighth-inch-
thick (three-millimeter thick) rubber sheeting is
Pliable
Works into tight spaces on vessels
Wraps around piping and flanges
Resilient, so that abrasive
Simply bounces off
Causes little damage to sheeting
Easy to cut as needed
Re-usable
Plywood Sheeting. Normally, most coatings applicators do not use plywood to its
full potential. Plywood makes:
Good flooring material in the mixing area to protect areas such as platform
decks from coating spillage
Dividers for several men working in a confined area. Drill holes around the
perimeter for air circulation and observation, then stand plywood boards
upright in a zigzag manner to help keep the boards upright.
A suspended ceiling to protect overhead items from overblast and overspray.
Tie sections together to form the ceiling.

170 References
1. Chevron Corporation. Corrosion Prevention Manual. Chevron Research and
Technology Company. Richmond, CA, January, 1994.

Chevron Corporation 100-49 July 2001