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1981 Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt

ISSN 0035-4511 / ASTM-Coden: RHEAAK

(Hungary)

A. P. Szilas, E. B o b o k , a n d L. N a v r a t i l

With 6 figures and 2 tables

(Received February 9, 1981)

A detailed theoretical analysis is carried out of the tete Beziehung fr nicht-newtonsche Rohle, die so-

turbulent flow of non-newtonian fluids in rough wohl den Einflu der Reynolds-Zahl als auch den der

pipes in which approximate assumptions are of negli- relativen Rohrrauigkeit bercksichtigt.

gible importance. A new friction-factor equation

(BNS-equation) is obtained which is valid for Key words

turbulent flow of "power-law type" non-newtonian Turbulent flow, non-newtonian fluid, flow in rough

fluids in the transition region between smooth and pipe, friction factor, pressure loss

wholly rough wall turbulence.

The accuracy of the deduced formula was checked

by in situ measurements on a crude oll pipeline having 1. Introduction

a diameter of 305 mm and a length of 161 km. For

this pipeline the Reynolds numbers ranged between A l l over the w o r l d there a r e a g r e a t n u m b e r o f

104 and 105. The computed and the measured friction pipelines t r a n s p o r t i n g p s c u d o p l a s t i c oils. I n the

factors showed good agreement. The mean of the design m c t h o d s o f pipelines it is vcry i m p o r t a n t

absolute values of the relative error was 4.1%, while to k n o w an a d e q u a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p for resistance

the standard deviation was 0.8170, these results

appear to give better fitting than other similar to t u r b u l e n t f l o w o f p s e u d o p l a s t i c fluids. T h e

equations published earlier. key p r o b l e m is the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the friction

The BNS-equation is the first analytically deduced f a c t o r in the W e i s b a c h o r the F a n n i n g - c q u a f i o n

relationship for non-newtonian crude oils which in- for p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t flow regions. T h e

cludes the effects of both Reynolds number and

p r e s e n t f o r m u l a s a r e n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y in every

relative roughness of the pipe.

respect.

Zusammenfassung There exist correct equations for the laminar fric-

Es wird eine ausfhrliche theoretische Analyse der tion factor. For turbulent flow a number of advances

turbulenten Strmung nicht-newtonscher Flssigkei- have been made in our understanding of the resis-

ten in rauhen Rohren durchgefhrt, wobei Nhe- tance of power-law pseudoplastics. Dodge and

rungsannahmen nur eine untergeordnete Rolle spie- Metzner (3) carried out a semitheoretical

len. Ein neues, fr die turbulente Strmung von investigation, applying techniques of dimensional

Potenz-Gesetz-Flssigkeiten gltiges Reibungsgesetz analysis. Shaver and Merril extended the weil known

(BNS-Gle!chung) wird abgeleitet, welches fr den ge- Blasius-formula to pseudoplastic polymeric solutions

samten Ubergangsbereich zwischen der Strmung (9). Tomita, on the basis of similarity considerations

durch hydraulisch-glatte Rohre und der vollkomme- derived a friction factor equation, which has been

nen Rauhigkeitsstrmung anwendbar ist. confirmed by measurements with lime slurries (4).

Die Genauigkeit der abgeleiteten Gleichung wird Clapp derived a dimensionless velocity profile of

durch in-situ-Messungen an einer Rohl-Pipeline von pseudoplastics for turbulent flow in smooth pipes

305 mm Durchmesser und 161 km Lnge getestet. and, from this, a friction factor equation (4). Clapp

Hierbei bewegen sich die Reynolds-Zahlen zwischen made extensive velocity profile measurements to

104 und 105. Die berechneten und d!e gemessenen Rei- evaluate his constants of integration. His experiments

bungsbeiwerte zeigen eine gute Ubereinstimmung. were probably influenced by pipe wall roughness.

Das Mittel des Absolutwerts der relativen Fehler be- These correlations were verified for CMC solutions in

trgt 4,1%, die Standard-Abweichung 0,8170. Hier- small diameter pipes in a limited range of Reynolds

durch wird eine bessere Anpassung erreicht als mit numbers. The respective formulae are given in an

hnlichen frher verffentlichten Formeln. Appendix.

702

488 Rheologica Acta, Vol. 20, No. 5 (1981)

There is lack of sufficient experimental data The time-averaged velocity field is steady and

obtained b y / n situ measurements of crude oil axisymmetric. Its only component v lies in the

pipelines in a wide range of Reynolds-numbers. direction of the pipe axis. It is assumed that the

On the other hand, determination of the fric- distributions of the velocity fluctuations u' and

tion factor equations is based on doubtful w' are axisymmetric, too. When using these re-

velocity measurements. strictions the equation of momentum balance is

In the present paper we show another pos- as follows:

sible way to determine the friction factor rela-

tionship for turbulent flow of pseudoplastic oil pgJr

2 ~1' d_~r n - pu' w' = 0. [1]

in rough pipes at the "partially rough wall"

region, where friction factor is affected by both

relative roughness and Reynolds number. The first term of the equation is the driving

In order to get such a relationship: force of motion, in which J i s the dimensionless

- w e deduced a theoretical expression, in hydraulic gradient. The second is the resistance

which approximate assumptions play a negli- due to viscous shear stress, in which t/' is the

gible role; index of consistency and n is the so-called flow

- we made a great number of in situ measure- index. The third term is the resistance due to an

ments on a 305 mm diameter crude oil additional virtual stress, caused by momentum

pipeline in a wide range of Reynolds num- flux due to turbulent fluctuations.

ber; It is necessary to distinguish between two

- we compared the accuracy of our (BNS) for- regimes when solving the above differential

mula with the previous equations. The ac- e q u a t i o n , in accordance with experimental

curacy and utility of the BNS equation are data.

clearly demonstrated. In the viscous sublayer turbulent fluctuations

practically disappear, thus the third term of the

2. F o r m u l a t i o n o f the p r o b l e m equation may be omitted. We get the following

simple form:

We consider a homogeneous, isotropic turbu-

lent flow in a cylindrical tube of radius R and of pgJr _ ~, dv n.

infinite length. The fluid is incompressible, and dr [21

its rheological behaviour is pseudoplastic. On

the pipe wall a thin viscous (often called

"laminar") sublayer occurs, in which turbulent Since the viscous sublayer is very thin, an

fluctuations are negligible. On the other hand, additional assumption may be accepted that the

in the core flow viscosity is assumed to have a shear stress r is constant throughout the

negligible effect on the random turbulent fluc- sublayer:

tuations. A cylindrical coordinate system is

chosen as it is shown in figure 1.

where

2

Dimensional considerations show that

v(r} ~ ~ " , , ~ T u' w'

z

Turbu[ent

core f[ow has the dimension of velocity. It will be called

friction velocity. Thus

d~ - I ~*P) ,

[5]

Fig. 1. Velocity profile of pseudoplastic flow in a pipe

SziIas et al., Determination of turbulent pressure loss of non-newtonian oil flow in rough pipes 489

which after integration leads to a linear velocity arbitrary additional term. i t is obvious that

distribution velocities are equal on both sides of the

bounding surface of the core flow and the sub-

layer. Thus from eqs. [61 and [10] we get:

viscous shear stress diminishes and the role of

the turbulent momentum flux increases. It is

convenient to consider eq. [1] omitting the sec-

ond term:

Since d / R ~ 1, we obtain, using the binomial

of the turbulent core flow it is necessary to find

an expression for the turbulent momentum Generalizing Prandtl's (8) well-known as-

flux, which would relate it to the main velocity. sumption, that

K/trmfin proposed the following relationship

(5):

lowing to hold true:

He did not evaluate the numerical constant ~

of the equation; this was done by Nikuradse (7),

based on his own experimental data. Now we

assume K to be, temporarily, undetermined.

Substituting eq. [8] into eq. [7] we get:

the viscous sublayer and substituting it into eq.

[12], the dimensionless velocity maximum is ob-

After some manipulations, integrating twice, tained:

and taking of following boundary conditions:

profile:

In this equation

This is a formula for the velocity distribution means the so-called Metzner-Reed Reynolds

of the core flow, but with Vmax as an unknown number (7), D = 2R is the diameter of the pipe.

490 Rheologica Acta, Vol. 20, No. 5 (1981)

computed as: tion (2):

c 1 _ 2 lg ( 10 fl/2 "~

_ __1 ~ v 2nrdr. [171 -

+ [22]

v, R27r o v , \ R e * t? (2-n)/2n 3.71 D /

Substituting v/v, from eq. [10], and Vmax/V , where fl consists of the last three terms of eq.

from eq. [15] we get after integration: [20]. This is a generalization of the Colebrook-

formula and clearly demonstrates how friction

c _ 1 In Re* 1 factor depends on the pseudoplastic Reynolds-

V, K K number, the flow index and the relative rough-

[181 ness of the pipe. The BNS-eqution is a friction

. 548 + In a + factor relationship is valid for turbulent flow of

non-newtonian fluids flowing in rough pipe at

\ 240 n n

the transition region between the wholly rough

It is clear that the quantity c / v , depends only and the smooth pipe character.

on the Reynolds number. On this base the

friction factor can be deduced similarly to the 3. Experimental results

newtonian case:

A significant series of experimental verifica-

__1 _ __0"8141lg(Re,21_(n/2)) + 0.7532__n-2 tions of the BNS-equation were made on the

]/2 nK 2nK Algy-Szzhalombatta crude oll pipeline having

a diameter of 305 mm and a length of 161.3 km.

The temperature of pseudoplastic oll decreased

[19]

in the direction of flow, thus the corresponding

(~;~6n+~3 n

value of flow index also decreased with tem-

perature. Test stations were designed and equip-

ped using a number of precision instruments for

pressure, temperature and flow rate measure-

Substituting n = 1 into this equation we may ments along the pipeline at eight several points

evaluate constants a and x from the Prandtl- (see tble 1). Flow rate was controlled by gate

Nikuradse equation. Thus we get valves, thus Reynolds numbers varied w i t h i n

the range: 10 4 < Re* < 105.

= 2.087, K = 0.407. Measurements were repeated five times ac-

cording to the different temperatures of the

In this way the friction factor equation is ground (1). At the same time rheological prop-

obtained for hydraulically smooth pipes: erties of the oil were measured by a rotational

viscometer at the corresponding temperature.

1 2 lg(Re*21-(n/2)) + 1.511/n The interpretation of the laboratory measure-

ments involved the calculation of points to

(;07)40,,

.0"__ + 2.12

/7

[20]

1.057 .

determine the flow curve of the oil at the

adequate temperature. The parameters t/' and n

were determined from the flow curves. Know-

ing the flow rate and the rheological parameters

of the oil, the pseudoplastic Reynolds-number

It is obvious, that ;, can be determined for Re* can be determined. The interval between

rough wall turbulence as 10 4 and 10 indicated the transition nature of

the flow.

[21] Pressure loss per unit length was determined

from pressure measurements, as it is demon-

strated in figure 2. The series of measured

In the transition region between the smooth points were interpolated by a linear function

and rough wall case may propose the-following using the method of the least squares fitting.

Szilas et al., Determination o f turbulent pressure loss o f non-newtonian oil f l o w in rough pipes 491

Svnyhza-Kiskun-

flegyhza 0.310 0.340 0.205 0.306 0.304

Kiskunflegyhz-

Kecskemt 0.305 0.332 0.205 0.315 0.302

Kecskemt-Lajosmizse 0.302 0.328 0.205 0.320 0.300

Lajosmizse-Pusztavacs 0.300 0.325 0.205 0.325 0.300

Pusztavacs-csa 0.300 0.320 0.207 0.330 0.300

csa-Szzhalombatta 0.295 0.318 0.210 0.335 0.300

0,5

Ap

L

[~r 1 0,4

kmJ

--o ~

0,3 ~0 r mO

0,2

0,1

I I

0 50 100 150

L [ kml

Fig. 2. Measured and calculated flow gradients

Pressure gradients of the five test series are de- factors obtained by the Dodge-Metzner,

monstrated in table 1. The temperature distri- Shaver-Merrill, Tomita, Clapp, as weil as the

bution was also linear along the pipe length, BNS-equation. Scattering, absolute and relative

thus is had been convenient to take the arith- mean errors were determined for every case. At

metic mean for any tested section of the pipe- the end it appears that BNS-equation provides

line. Friction factor values were determined by the best results. It is interesting to see that the

the Weisbach-equation: Clapp-formula is successful to predict 2 values

for only one value of relative roughness. As is

2D Apv shown in figure 3, the curve corresponding to

pc 2 L the Clapp-formula intersects some k / d =

const, curves on the M o o d y ' s diagram (assum-

ing the case n = 1). It can be evidenced that

There were seven tested sections of the pipe- such a relationship is obtained evaluating the

line, thus 35 measured friction factor values constant of the smooth pipe friction factor

were obtained f r o m the five test series. These equation f r o m experimental data of rough

values were compared with computed friction pipes.

492 Rheologica Acta, Vol. 20, No. 5 (1981)

vestigated pipeline is k / d = 4 10 -4. This friction factor e q u a t i o n s the a b o v e relative

r o u g h n e s s , s u b s t i t u t i n g n = I to the BNS-equa- r o u g h n e s s was t a k e n for the BNS f o r m u l a . T h e

t i o n leads to the curve 2 in figure 3 fitting o n the c o m p u t e d friction factor values are d e m o n s t r a t -

c o r r e s p o n d i n g curve of M o o d y ' s d i a g r a m . ed in table 2. B N S - e q u a t i o n appears to be m o r e

Table 2. Measured and calculated friction factors at Algy-Szzhalombatta crude oil pipeline

Friction factor

0.0204 0.0205 0.0205 0.0207 0.0204 0.0218

0.0200 0.0192 0.0206 0.0220 0.0201 0.0212

0.0216 0.0180 0.0183 0.0183 0.0180 0.0201

0.0212 0.0183 0.0193 0.0200 0.0188 0.0205

0.0238 0.0204 0.0204 0.0204 0.0202 0.0218

0.0242 0.0217 0.0220 0.0228 0.0219 0.0228

0.0242 0.0208 0.0240 0.0276 0.0234 0.0226

0.0201 0.0196 0.0198 0.0198 0.0195 0.0212

0.0209 0.0196 0.0212 0.0228 0.0207 0.0215

0.0191 0.0166 0.0172 0.0174 0.0168 0.0193

0.0189 0.0167 0.0177 0.0182 0.0172 0.0194

0.0187 0.0169 0.0185 0.0196 0.0179 0.0197

0.0196 0.0173 0.0211 0.0243 0.0202 0.0205

0.0196 0.0181 0.0220 0.0255 0.0211 0.0210

0.0193 0.0142 0.0207 0.0247 0.0194 0.0193

0.0204 0.0154 0.0215 0.0264 0.0204 0.0199

0.0199 0.0138 0.0220 0.0285 0.0206 0.0193

0.0198 0.0120 0.0217 0.0292 0.0201 0.0186

0.0241 0.0230 0.0260 0.0301 0.0256 0.0239

0.0241 0.0217 0.0262 0.0315 0.0256 0.0232

0.0247 0.0219 0.0272 0.0334 0.0266 0.0234

0.0212 0.0178 0.0215 0.0248 0.0207 0.0208

0.0215 0.0170 0.0217 0.0256 0.0207 0.0205

0.0218 0.0176 0.0222 0.0263 0.0212 0.0208

0.0185 0.0154 0.0159 0.0226 0.0185 0.0195

0.0185 0.0150 0.0199 0.0235 0.0188 0.0194

0.0185 0.0218 0.0196 0.0244 0.0182 0.0186

0.0186 0.0134 0.0204 0.0255 0.0191 0.0190

deviation

Mean relative - 15.13% 1.93% 16.51% - 1.75% -0.39%

error

Mean of absolute 15.14% 6.39% 20.11% 4.70% 4.13%

values of

relative error

Szilas et al., Determination of turbulent pressure loss of non-newtonian oil flow in rough pipes 493

0,0350

0,0300

2~

0,0 250

~ ~ ~ = -

~~, .10-4

0,0200 ~ :18:',

Smooth pipe '0"4 " ~

0,0150

104 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 105

. Re ~

Fig. 3. Friction factor cnrves according to C]app (1) and Bobok-Navratil-Szi]as (2) presented on the transi-

tional part o f M o o d y - d i a g r a m

0,50 n = 0,60

r~' = 0,0117 Ns/m z

bp = 820 kglm 3

L D = 0,3m

EN]

0,40

1. BNS, k/D=lO 3 1

2. Tomita /2

3. BNS~ k/D=5,1 4 //

0,30

~. 0-

5 CLAPP //

II 13

6. BNS~ k/D=3.1 5

7. S - M

0,20

6

0,10

1oo 200 300 curves after formulas of different

q [m31h] authors at small flow index

494 Rheologica Acta, Vol. 20, No. 5 (1981)

favourable than the others from the point of to be expected for commerical steel pipes (1).

view of both scattering and absolute and The flow indices of the oil are n = 0.6 in the

relative errors. In this special case BNS-equa- case demonstrated in figure 4, and n -- 0.9 in

tion is not very much better than Clapp's rela- figure 5. Especially in figure 4, it is conspicious,

tionship. In spite of this, BNS equation is valid that deviation of pressure gradients determinat-

for arbitrary relative roughnesses, at which the ed by different methods increases with the flow

error of Clapp's formula can be important. rate (thus with the Reynolds number). From a

comparison of figures 4 and 5 it is evident that

4. Accuracy of pressure loss determination

~deviation of pressure gradients decreases with

In the following the accuracy of pressure loss :increasing flow index (i.e. approaching the

determination will be demonstrated at any sup- newtonian behaviour).

posed transport conditions (flow rate, oil prop- It is also evident that earlier friction factor

erties) as well as the error to be expected using equations without reference to relative rough-

the earlier friction factor equations. We con- ness may lead to major errors. By chance it may

sider the inner diameter of the pipe and the flow be possible to obtain a good result as is near the

curves of the psendoplastic oll to be given. Cha- only point of Tomita's curve, in which it is in-

racteristic parameters are shown in figures 4 tersected by the BNS curve of k / d = 10 -3. In

and 5 where pressure gradient A p / L is plotted figure 6 BNS pressure gradients are compared

versus flow rate q. The three supposed different with Clapp's curves depending on the flow

relative roughnesses for the BNS-equation are index n, at some constant flow rate. It is

0,50 n = 0,90

r~ = 0,0117 Nsn/m 2

Ap

= 820 kg/m 3

L D = 0,3 m

[ bar]

kmJ

0,40

1. BNS, k / D = 1 0 -3

2. Tomita

3. BNS, k / D = 5 ' I 4

4. D - M

0,30

5. C L A P P

6 BNS, k/D=3.1 s

7 S-M

0,20

0,10

0 I ] i i I

Fig. 5. Calculated friction gradient

0 100 200 3OO curves after formulas of different

q [m3/h] authors at great flow index

Szilas et al., Determination of turbulent pressure loss of non-newtonian oil flow in rough pipes 495

0,50

1. k/D= 3.10

2 k/D = 5.1 4 st BNS

3. klo = l 3

t~p 300 m3/h

L

[bar]

-~mJ

0,40

0,30

zoo M/h

0,20

0,10

Fig. 6. Comparison of flow gradient

curves calculated with Clapp respec-

tively Bobok-Navratil-Szilas equa-

0 I I I I I

tions at different pipe surface rough-

0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,O ness

obvious that Clapp's curve may approach a cer- (i) Dodge-Metzner formula:

tain BNS pressure gradient referring to some

relative roughness, for example the k / d = 3 1_ 2 / / ~ \ , (,,2q

10 -5 curve at flow rate 300 m3/h. In other situa- B nO.7~lg~Re, k__~) j n120"2"

tions, however, the discrepancy may be im-

portant. Here it can also be seen that the dif- (ii) Shaver-Merrill equation:

ference increases with growing flow rate q and 0.316

2-

with decreasing magnitude of n. n 5(Re*)m

BNS equation is slightly more complicate where

than earlier relationships, but this seems to be

2.63

quite unimportant when using digital com- m-

1.05 n "

puters. At is customary the necessary knowl-

edge of relative roughness for pipeline designing (iii) Tomita's formula:

can be taken from performance data of existing

similar pipelines, like in the newtonian case for B - 2lg e* - 0.2.

using the Colebrook formula.

(iv) Clapp's equation:

Appendix 2.27 [ //,& \1 (/2)1

1 _ 1.35__ l ' 4 8 + - - l g [ R e * [ k - 4 - B J

The investigated friction-factor relationships for B n n

time-independent visous non-newtonian fluids are as

follows. All equations are valid for hydraulically 5n - 8

+ 0.34--

smooth pipes. n

496 Rheologica Acta, Vol. 20, No. 5 (1981)

1) Bobok, E., L. Navratil, A. P. Szilas, In- Eng. J. 1, 434 (1955).

vestigation of turbulent pressure loss of pseudoplastic 8) Prandtl, L., Fhrer durch die Strmungslehre,

crude oll (in Hungarian), Geonmia s Bnyszat Braunschweig (1956).

1980 (in the press). 9) Shaver, R. G., E. W. Merrill, Amer. Inst.

2) Colebrook, C. F., Turbulent flow in pipes with Chem. Eng. J. Il, 181 (1959).

particular reference to the transition region between 10) Szilas, A. P., Production and Transport of Oil

the smooth and rough pipe laws. Vol. 11. Inst. Civ. and Gas; Elsevier (Amsterdam 1975).

Eng. (London 1938/39). 11) Varga, J., Handbook of Hydraulic and

3) Dodge, D. W., A. B. Metzner, Amer. Inst. Pneumatic Machines (in Hungarian), Mszaki

Chem. Eng. J. 5, 189 (1959). Knyvkiad (Budapest 1973).

4) Govier, G. W., K. Aziz, The Flow of Complex

Mixtures in Pipes. Van Nostrand Reinhold (New

York 1973).

5) v. Krmn, T., Mechanische hnlichkeit und Authors' address:

Turbulenz, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gttingen, Math. Prof. Dr. A. P. Szilas, Dr. E. Bobok, Dr. L. Navratil

Phys. Kl. (Gttingen 1930). Petroleum Engineering Department

6) Loitsyansky, L. G., Mechanics of Fluids and Technical University for Heavy Industries

Gases (in Russian), Nauka (Moscow 1973). H-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemvros (Hungary)

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