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1 D. G. Zanni, lments de philosophie de lhistoire dans le livre IV du Bellum Civile dAppien,


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Doukaina G. Zanni

Ciceros proscription, escape and execution (43 B.C.) in Titus Livius,


Seneca Senior, Plutarch, Appian, and Dion Cassius

Summary
The fact that Cicero ended to be at the top of the list of the proscribed enemies
of the Triumvirate of Caesar, Antonius and Lepidus, the means and route of his rush
escape, the fury and the pursuits of his persecutors, and his behaviour towards his
executioners, all reflect his own morals as well as the general ethics and the politi-
cal manner that his contemporary politicians, all of plebeian (with a social as well as
cultural semantic weight) origin, were working into roman politics: opportunism and
utilitarianism. These are reflected in Ciceros own friendly and business relations,
and constituted the usual creeping practice that his alike unworthy equals, with a con-
crete political culture, had fixed also as compulsory for everyone of low social class
who wanted access to or hold of power. Ciceros personal and political bonds were
dictated by his pursuit of effortless honours and his need to consolidate his personal
power and security. The people he cooperated with were those who were or would be
in the position to guarantee the realisation of his expectations, and their collaboration
with him continued as long as his service was necessary to their own aspirations.
46 .

So, Caesar did nothing to prevent Ciceros proscription, and was responsible for the
hostility opened between the orator and Antonius. Caesar abandoned Cicero when the
latters filthy assignment favouring Caesars own political aspirations was fulfilled.
Antonius savagery (Dion Cassius describes Fulvia as equally monstrous, alluding to
womens similar utilitarian character and role) was the offspring of his rage for revenge,
caused by the speeches with which Cicero attacked him in order to serve Caesar. Anton-
ius own empathy towards Cicero, though, served also Caesar, since it permitted Caesar
to personally stigmatize his triumvir colleague for Ciceros execution as well as for the
proscriptions in general. The sources point to the passions and vices of all persecutors,
officers, freedmen and slaves, looking for glory and money, which put aside any pre-
existing personal bond, eventually proved to be only temporary and utilitarian.
Politics of public relations, bargains and mutual favours are reflected in Ciceros
and his clients conception of justice, that didnt harmonize nor with law nor with
right. These practices were blessed by Ciceros culture, reflected also in his and his
slaves faith in the intervening role of the twelve gods and the existence of auspices
sent by them, a belief scorned per se by Plutarch and Appian. Almost all authors allude
to the same culture, when referring to the orators amputated right hand, traditionally
linked with a sword, which, however, Cicero used either to seal private dealings, or
to compose adulatory or invective speeches in order to promote or discredit people.
With this kind of political game went along also the people, namely clients, who at
first tried to give Ciceros persecutors misleading information, in order to save him,
but after his death, expressed nothing but contempt for his politics and rhetoric, along
with the crowd of new candidate clients, looking to the new patron to prevail.
The authors are unanimously critical against Ciceros chicken-hearted attitude to-
wards death, attested by his decision to flee, by his nausea that cancelled his travel
by sea and by his fear for his life that made him hide in Italys countryside and in his
villa, and finally, by his facing his executioners. His cowardliness put also aside any
thought to commit suicide. Writing down their general valuation of Cicero as a man
and orator, all ancient authors document the ever since bad opinion about his rhetoric
skill, and ironically eulogize his consulate as a period of protective action, that sup-
posedly turned out to be salutary for Rome. In fact, both Ciceros handling Catilinian
conjuration and his key-contribution to Caesars dominance during his own autocratic
power are scorned, as both aiming only at Ciceros own power and security and as
perpetuating the vicious circle of successive, populistic, autocratic, second-class po-
litical authorities in Rome.



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Lempire). Bilge Khagan, 735.
10 . Talat, A Grammar, . 11. () Tonyukuk, 720 (
Giraud, Lempire, . 9, 715),
Tonyukuk,
.
11 ,
, (
Bugut), . Talt, A Grammar, . 7, 8, 9. ,
(Turkic runic script, . .15, 21).
,
Livits, V. A., Eski Trk Runik Yazs Ortaya k zerine, Tarih
Aratrmalar Dergisi, . 20, . 31(2000), . 37-50.
(. 50). G. Clauson, The Origin of the Turkish Runic Alphabet, Acta
Orientalia, . 32 (1970) Leyden, . 52, : We are therefore driven to the conclusion that it
was invented on the orders of some Turkish ruler for governmental purposes, and probably more specifi-
cally for purposes of communication rather than record. Barthold
, . R. Grousset, LEmpire des Steppes.
Attila, Genghis-Khan, Tamerlan, Paris 1970, . 161 ( : Grousset, LEmpire).
52

, ,
...). ,
, , -
, , , ..12., ,
13, ,
. , , .

al-Muaddas (10 .), al-Baldhur (9 ),
Ibn al-Fakih, Ibn al-Asir, Hudd al- lam 14 (10 .)
Abu Said Gardizi Zayn al-akbr
Marvaz Sharaf al-Zamn Thir15.
-

12 -
. 5 , , ,
, . R. Frye, The Heritage of Central Asia. From Antiquity
to the Turkish Expansion, Princeton 2001 ( ), . 180. . , , .
, 2004, . 12.
13 . , . , 2006, . 141
.. , (491-518), -
. (527-565), ,
. 558 -
. . G. Moravcsik, Byzantinoturcica, . I II, 2
., Berlin, 1958 (. Leiden 1983), . 66, 171-72.
( , . . , . ,
- , ., 2006, . 14,
10 , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , -
. . . , ( 1981-1990),
1991, . 137 .., . H. W. Haussig, Die Geschichte Zentralasiens
und der eidenstrasse in islamischer eit, Darmstadt, 1988, . 37 .. D. Christian, A History of Russia,
Central Asia and Mongolia. Inner Eurasia from Prehistory to the Mongol Empire, . , Oxford 1998, .
277-278 ( : Christian, A History). ,
, VII, . 328, , : the
Bulgarians, Alans, Unnogur, Ogor, Sabir, Khortheiger, Avar, Khasar, Dirmar, Sarugur, Bagarsik, Khulas,
Abdel, Ephtalits, the thirteen people dwelling in tents, . XII, VII, . 329-332,
.
. , . J. Harmatta- B. A. Litvinsky, Tokharistan and Gandhara under Western
Trk Rule (650-750), History of Civilizations of Central Asia, . 3, . UNESCO 1996, . 383 ..
14 Hudd al- lam The Regions of the World. A Persian Geography 372 A.H.-982 A.D., Is-
lamic Geography, . 101 (. V. Minorksy), The Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1937 ( 1993).
15 Marvaz on China, the Turks and India, (. V. Minorsky), The Royal Asiatic Society, London 1993.
53

,
(, , -
) 16.
(1 552-651, 2
683-744)
, , 17.
-
7 .. , , -

Orkhon (8 ..), dokuz ouz,


, Pelliot, (ji
xng )18 7 .
( 744
).
( Han
Toba 3 -4 . ..) T-lo, Dnglng , Dli , Tiele Tie-lo
19. Tie-lo , -

16
( ), . O. Pritsak, The Decline of
the Empire of the Oghuz Yabghou, Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the United
States, 1952, . 280 ( : Pritsak, The Decline): The name Oghuz is immediately associated with
that of the Toquz Oghuz, one of the two names for the leading federation of the Turks in Mongolia of the
sixth to eighth centuries (Trk and Toquz Oghuz). , , -

. B. Giraud, Lempire, . 40,
Kl Tegin : Cest encore dans ce pas-
sage que figure lexpression: toquz ouz bodun knt bodunm rti le peuple Oghouz lui-mme tait mon
propre peuple, qui a prt des interprtations multiples et qui a servit Barthold pour difier sa thorie
de lidentit des Turcs Clestes et des Oghouz.
17 . Giraud, Lempire, . 183: Les voisins immdiats des Turcs auN.-E. sont les Oghouz, qui,
au moins lpoque considre, sont diffrents des Turcs. -
, , ..
.
18 J. Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz et On-Uyur, Journal Asiatique, . 250, . 1 (1962), . 25 (
: Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz): Comme le dit Pelliot supra, le nom des Toquz-Ouz tait reprsent
en chinois par kieou-sing, les Neuf Clans. . n. (4), . 51: Dans Kysei un travail
de premire importance paru en 1919, HANEDA Tru dmontra dune manire premptoire que les Toquz-
Ouz des inscriptions Turcs du VIIIe sicle taient identiques une confdration de tribus du groupe de
Tie-lo, connue sous le nom de les Neuf Clans.
19 E. G. Pulleyblank, The High Carts: A Turkish-Speaking People before the Turks, Asia Major,
3 , . 3, . 1 (1990), . 23 ( : Pulleyblank, The High Carts): In the seventh century
54

Tang shu Goche (= )20.

a new confederacy appeared known to the Chinese as the Nine Surnames (chiu hsing) that is, the
Toquzouz, and were more enduring than earlier confederations. Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 29,
7 (600 605)
20 (628-630). , Sui shu, Tie-lo
( Hammilton ,
, . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 26). , Golden,
, . P. Golden, The peoples of the south Russian steppes,
Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, (. D. Sinor), Cambridge University Press 1990, . 257: The
Oghurs were part of Tieh-le (Tls) . 47: A series of nomadic migrations had introduced new
Turkic confederations to the Ponto-Caspian steppes. Driven by the movements of tribes in Western Siberia
and Central Asia touched off by the expansion of the Juan-juan in Mongolia, the Our Turkic tribes crossed
the Volga into the Western Eurasia steppes ca. 463 A. D. These Ours, speaking a variant form of Turkic,
were part of a larger tribal union, the Tie-l of Chinese sources. This policy became more regularized in
the course of the sixth century and the names of the tribal groupings involved, the Our, Onour, aragur,
Uturgur, appear frequently in Byzantine and Syriac sources.
- (ji xng ) dokuz ouz, . Hammilton, Toquz-
Ouz, . 27. Grousset, LEmpire, . 104.
20 Pulleyblank., The High Carts, . 22: James Hammilton proposes to interpret this as *Tgrg,
a word defined in Kashgaaris dictionary as circle, loop. The Chinese term High Carts (... Gaoche
) was therefore probably not merely descriptive of their habits but related to the meaning of the Turkish
name). . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 26. Tie-lo ,
Sui Hsiung-nu (Xiongnu )
, . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 26, , -
, , . Gaoche Tiele
Rouran ( Joan-joan,
), (Tju ),
545 .. Rouran
551-552 .., Tuoba ( Tabga
220 .. 580 ..
Wei Beiwei, )
. Gaoche Tie-lo ( )
(Tju ).
Tie-lo ( Gaoche)
. To 338 .. Tabga 4
, . .
. , , 1967, . 17 ( : , ). Hamilton
5 , ,
, -
( , , , , , ,
), , , , , -
, , () .. 7-8 ,
, , . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 48: En
rsum, il ressort de cette tude quaux environs de lan 400 au plus tard, une confdration de tribus tie-lo
55

7 ,
( ).
, 545-6 .., Goche (Tie-le) Rou-
ran , , , ,
21

Goche -
22. Bumin, Rouran,
, ,
551-552, Rouran
. Goche
(Tie-le) Rouran23.
Goche (Tie-le, ) -
, Rouran,
.
, ,
, Goche 24.

ou *tgrg sest constitu sous le nom de On-Uyur, soit probablement les Dix Allis Cette migration
sest vraisemblablement accomplie par vagues successives de diffrents tribus des On-Uyur, parmi les
quelles on peut relever les *Aq-Qazr et les Xazar, les Sar Uyur, les Bular, les Uturur avec les Quturur
(Kuturur), les (On-) Oundur, les Avar (?), et les Igil/Isgil/Izgil.
21 , , . 32.
22 . Grousset, LEm-
pire, . 125, Bumin , Rou-
ran. O , , . 32-33, Bumin Goche (Tie-le),
,
Wei,
(545 ..): .
, : ,
. ,
,
. .
,
, .
, , , -
, .
, , , .
Christian, A History, . 250. Wei
Wei
Rouran .
23 Grousset, LEmpire, . 125. , , . 33.
24 ,
56

, , Bumin, 552,

, Gaoche
dokuz ouz ( ,
744, )25
,
582, -
26.
Goche
, , 27.
Goche (Tie-le), dokuz ouz
( ) (ji xng )
7 ,
, -
Rouran. -
, , Tie-le
, Tang.
Tardush28, ,
627-628, ,
630 Tang29.
, ,
. 652 656, -
( ), -

, . O , , . 67: :
, , -
.
25 (Uyghur) dokuz ouz. . Hammilton,
Toquz-Ouz, . 27, Chavannes, Documents, . 87. . Christian, A History, . 264: The Ui-
ghur empire was founded by a group of Tieh-le tribes known as the Tokuz Oghuz (the nine tribes), who
were dominated by the Uighurs.
26 Grousset, LEmpire, . 134.
27 Grousset, LEmpire, . 134-135. Christian, A History, . 259.
Tieh-le (Tang) .
28 Tardush, Chavannes Sie-yen-to (. Chavannes, Documents,
. 87), , Hammilton, dokuz
ouz, . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 29: Par ailleurs, rien ninterdit, apparemment, de penser que les
Sie-Yen-to et les Ki-pi (les diz?) aint aussi fait partie des Neuf Clans ds le dbut;
29 Grousset, LEmpire, . 138-140.
57

,
( Tchou-yue Chou-ni-che).
657
, Ho-lou, Ili30.
659
31.
ouz dokuz ouz ( ), ,
Gaoche (Tie-le), ,
7 , (Tju ). -
( 8 )
, ( ) ( -
). (:
Tju , , Gk Trkler,
) , Orkhon,

30 Chavannes, Documents, . 36: La deuximme anne hien-king (657), (lempereur) chargea le


gnral des colonies militaires de droite Sou Ting-fang, le Protecteur de Yen-jan, Jen Ya-siang, le Protecteur
en second Siao Se-ye, le grand gnral des gardes en cheval de gauche, commandant du Han-hai, Hoei-ho
Po-juen et dautres de se mettre la tte de troupes pour le chtier et lattaquer; en outre il envoya le grand
gnral des gardes militaires de droite A-che-naMi-che et le grand gnral des colonies militaires de gauche
A-che-na Pou-tchen avec le titre de grands envoys chargs de calmer et de gouverner. (Sou) Ting-fang
savana jusqu louest de la rivire Ye-tie; Ho-lou, la tte de plus de vingt mille cavaliers du Hou-lou-
kiu kiue tchouo, et dautres, lattendaient en bon ordre. (Sou) Ting-fang, se mettant la tte de lofficier
gnral en second Jen Ya-sing et des autres, lui livra bataille; la multitude des brigandes essuya une grande
dfaite. . , . 93. E. Chavannes, Notes additionelles sur les Tou Kiue (Turcs) occidentaux,
Toung Pao, 5 (1904), . 15, 20, 21. Twitchett D. - Wechsler H., Kao-tsung (reign 649-83) and the Empress
Wu: the Inheritor and the Usurper, Cambridge History of China, . 3 ( D. Twitchett), Cambridge,
1979, . 280 ( : Twitchett-Wechsler, Kao-tsung).
31 P. Golden, The Turkic Peoples and Caucasia, Nomads and their Neighbours in the Russian
Steppe: Turks, Khazars and Qipchaqs ( Variorum Collected Studies), Variorum 2003, . 50. D. Dun-
lop, M., The History of the Jewish Khazars, Princeton, N. Jersey 1954, . 22. Christian, A History, . 261.
C. I. Beckwith, The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among
Tibetans, Turks, Arabs and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, 1993, .
28. D. Sinor- S. G. Klyashtorny, The Trk Empire, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, . 3, .
UNESCO 1996, . 335. Twitchett-Wechsler, Kao-tsung, . 280. Chavannes, Documents, . 267-268.
Grousset, LEmpire, . 150: La cour de Chine nomma alors khan des Tou-lou un Turc sa dvotion,
A-che-na Mi-ch (657-665). De leur ct, les tribus nou-che-pi recevaient comme khan un autre client
chinois, A-che-na Pou-tchen (659-665). , . Chavannes, Documents, . 38, 39.
,
Ho-lou, . (Chavannes, Documents,
. 39-40: Pour moi, mon autorit souveraine gouverne les Quatres mers; ma bienveillance leur rpartit
quitablement lentretien et la nourriture;
58

-
32.

32 9 ,
, Touzuz uz uzz
, . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 23.
8 , ,
() ouz Our
- , 5 7
(, , -On -
: , , , , , , ), . Hammilton,
Toquz-Ouz, . 30, 37: Cest ainsi que les spcialistes saccordaient ds le dpart pour reconnatre en
*ur le forme rhotacisant dOguz, lequel tait, naturellement, entendu comme un nomme trs ancienne et
quasiment gnral du peuple proto-turc. . 62, . 58: Voir notammentMU-
NKCSI, op. cit., p. 90, qui renvoie dans ce travail de 1896 nombre dauteurs qui proposaient dj
didentifier *ur avec Ouz. Au surplus, une fois admise le principe du rhotacisme en vieux turc, il a
paru normal de rtablir Uturur, autre tribu turque de VIe sicle en *Otur-Our=*Otuz-Ouz, les trente
Ouz; tandis que les Kuturur aurait t tout bonnement une mtathse de *Tokurur, soit *Tokur-Our =
Toquz-Ouz, les Neuf Clans bien connus! Boodberg -
-r -z, rhotacisme ugur,
, Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 24. 200
. , , ( )
,
-uy-, , , -
(. Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 41), Our
Uiur, ouz dokuz
Ouz ( 8 ., ), .
Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 39-40, ine-usu Qoo
( dokuz ouz). ,
. ouz
ok+uz (ok=, uz= , ) ok
-z ( krk krz), . L. Bazin, Notes sur les mots Oguz et
Trk, Oriens, 6, . 2 (1953), . 315 ( : Bazin, Notes sur les mots Ouz) Hammilton,
Toquz-Ouz, . 24. Hammilton
ouz. Bazin, -
(, Yakut) , . Bazin, Notes
sur les mots Ouz, . 315. Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 24. Hammilton
ou, -
, ok o ()
- , oul ou ,
, . Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 25 ( ou ouz
dokuz ou dokuz ouz , )
, , . 70: . . ,
.
o , ,
59

( -
, 682 ..) dokuz ouz33, , ,
Orkhon,
71634, , , 744 -
, -
35. , , -
, Orkhon
, 36
Pritsak Orkhon (-
8 .) ghuz/ouz
37.
,
-

(
).
dokuz ouz, -
, 38.

, ,
... , , -
, ,
:
() , () . -
( ) - -,
. . Talt, A Grammar, index, .
358 ok.
33 Christian, A History, . 261. Grousset, LEmpire, . 150-151. Giraud, Lempire, . 39, 48 56.
34 Giraud, Lempire, . 40, 52. Grousset, LEmpire, . 158.
35 Grousset, LEmpire, . 161.
36 ( ), Giraud,
Lempire, . 69 : En revanche, na pas t une fusion, mais une alliance, la runion, sous un
mme chef, des peuples trk et oghouz .
, . Giraud, Lempire, .26: Ayant cette conception re-
marquable de lunit, les Turcs ont chou dans sa application pratique. Les tribus quils annexaient, les
peuples quils conquraient avaient un singulier dsir dindpendance; les chefs voisins, le mme dessein
dhgmonie.
37 Pritsak, The Decline, . 279-280: However, this political term derives from a self-designation
which may have originally meant man, men, the men or compatriots. . . 3: and perhaps
also the designation of a military unit.
38 Christian, A History, . 263.
60

, dokuz
ouz39, 40.
, 8 9 ., -
dokuz ouz , , , ,
41, .
8 . ( al-Mahdi)
dokuz ouz42 43,
, , , (
10- 13 .)44 ,
45. , 11

39 Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 29: Vers 744, les Uyur, le plus puissant des Neuf Clans, mirent
fin la domination des Tou-kieu pour fonder, au nom, des Neuf Clans ou Toquz Ouz, un nouvelle em-
pire. Christian, A History, . 264: Though the Uighurs were dominant, all nine Tieh-le tribes retained
important positions within the empire.
40 Grousset, LEmpire, . 172-173.
41 Hammilton, Toquz-Ouz, . 50. Christian, A History, . 264: By 800, Uighur influence also
reached west to Ferghana, and into Tarim Basin . 295.
.
42 Ibn al-Asir, . . . , ,
, , , 1968, . 524 ( : ,
). . . . , ,
, -, 2006,
. 509-510, Ibn al- Fakih Balkik,
, , .
43 , 751, , -
, ,
.
, (. Ghuzz)
al-Baldhur (9 ). 9
10 , Ghuzz, . , , . 524,

Syr Darya ( ), ,
( ), ,
, ( ).
44 Grousset, LEmpire, . 199. dokuz ouz Ghuzz
. ( Ghuzz), Cahen : il rsulte de tout cela que
les Oghuz/Ghuz de lOuest ne sont plus tout fait identiques aux autres Turcs et en particulier ceux de
lEst.
( )
.
45 C. Imber, The Ottoman Empire 1300-1650. The structure of Power, New York 2002, . 4. Grous-
set, LEmpire, . 206.
61

, -
, , ,
.

, 46 ( ).
. ,
, 47,
()48. -
-
49. ( Grousset,
)
. ,
-
50.


. -

, , .
1923 .
( ), ,
, 20
.
,
/ -
, . , -

, (
eski Trk)

, (11 .),
, . Grousset, LEmpire, . 206-208.
46 . . , (1300-1400), 1999, . 66
( : , ) . EI Ghuzz.
47 , , .. 45.
48 , , .. 61.
49 , , .. 67.
50 Grousset, LEmpire, . 208-212.
62

. Taal, Eski Trk Boylar51,


, Wu-sun (Wusun ),
, (
Joan-joan [Rouran ]
) -
.
, ,
, -
, ..., -
20 19 ,

. -
, (,
, , ), -
,
,
, . , -
,
, , (
, -
),
, A. Vambry52
.
-
, , ,

, Gk Trk .
-
( ) -
/ .
,
(

51 A. Taal, in Kaynaklarna gre Eski Trk Boylar, Trk Tarih Kurumu Basmevi, Ankara 2004.
52 . , : . :
,
.
63

) .
, , /-
-

-
, , .

, -
,
, , -
.

Stefanos Kordosis

A critique on the Pan Turk historiographical aspect on the histories of


the Turkic nations through the early histories of the Ouz and Trk.

Summary
Pan Turkism is a modern, romantic political movement which appeared firstly in
Europe, and was promoted by European scholars such as the Hungro-Austrian Armi-
nius Vambry. It was largely used by European powers especially during the rivalry
over Eurasia, during the second half of the 19th century.
The theory was systematized by Ziya Gkalp, a Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin,
and has three basic levels (or political aims): Trkiyecilik/ Trklk, a term that
referred to the political homogenization of the Ottoman Empire under one nation,
the Turkish. Ouzluk, which called for political unity among the Turkic nations that
originated from the Ouz (Ottomans, Azeris, Turkmens) and Turanlk, which was the
aim of the political unity amongst Turkic nations that did not originate from the Ouz.
The above political aims are based on the assumption that the Turkic nations were
politically unified in the past, during the time of the first and second Turkic khanates
(552-659 and 690-744).
In this paper, through the examination of sources concerning the early histories
of Gk Trk and Ouz, an attempt is made to deconstruct the aspect of Pan Turkism,
64

especially on the identification of Turks and Ouz. Unlike what is suggested by Pan
Turkism, the sources, especially the Chinese, and most of the scholars that delt with
the subject indicate that the Ouz were a distinct political entity, which had its own
political motives and will. Despite the fact that for some time they were subjugated
by the Turks, they never ceased to look for an opportunity to overthrough their yoke,
something that they managed in 744, with Chinese aid.
Having the above in mind, Ouzluk, which is one of the levels of the Pan Turk the-
ory as systematized by Ziya Gkalp based on the identification of the Ouz and Trk,
is not confirmed by the historical research of the medieval sources. Never was there a
political unity between the Ouz and Trk, as suggested by the Pan Turk theory, or if
there was any, it was imposed on the Ouz by the military suppremacy of the Turks,
for a short period of time.
Despite the fact that it is impossible to find a political unity among the Turkic
nations in medieval times as the one suggested by Pan Turkism, even for the cases of
Ouz and Trk, this romantic political theory still exercises a lot of influence on the
modern Turkish historiography. Perhaps the reasons for that are to be sought in the
misunderstanding that caused the appelation of the Turkic population of Asia Minor
(Ottoman Empire), which originated from the Ouz nation, as Turks (especially after
the foundation of the modern Turkish Republic in 1923). Subsequently, a part of the
modern Turkish nationalism whishes to see in the past todays national unity, only to
a larger extent, in terms of geography. Another reason could be the eurasian or even
global ambitions of the modern state of Turkey, which finds such a theory useful, in
terms of applied politics. In terms of historical research though, the Pan Turk belief
in the unity of the Turkic nations (in our case of Ouz and Trk) is just a selective
interpretation of the sources which far from excludes the opposite, i.e. the political
idependence of each Turkic nation in history. Needless to say of course that such a
non-Pan Turk interpratation does not negate the historical bonds between the nations
that originate from the Ouz (modern Turks, Azeris and Turkmen), as their common
origin is attested by the muslim sources, nor any other linguistic or cultural bond
between the Turkic nations. Additionally, it leaves unaffected the distinct political
unity and entity of the modern Turkish people (as that of any other Turkic nation).

, 17
,
17 ,
,
,
. , -
-
1,

.
-
2.
,
,
3. 17
, , 4,
[], , , ,
, [] -
5.
-

. ,

1 B. J. Slot, Archipelagus Turbatus, Les Cyclades entre colonisation latine et occupation ottomane
c. 1500-1718, 1982, .144-166 G. Hering,
(1620-1638), 1992, . 89-91, 183-188.
2 (Joseph du Tremblay)
, . N. Papaliaki, Aspects de la mission catholique auprs des Grecs de lEmpire ottoman,
Archives grecques indites des Capucins de Paris (XVIIe XVIIIe sicles), . , EPHE,
2009, . II, . 43-48.
3 G. de Vaumas, LEveil missionnaire de la France dHenri IV la fondation du sminaire des Mis-
sions trangres, 1942, . 310 . 2.
4 B. Pierre, Le pre Joseph. LEminence grise de Richelieu, 2007, . 291-296 [
].
5 G. Fagniez, Le pre Joseph et Richelieu, 1894, . II, . 473 [Mmoire prsent au Roi par le
pre Joseph capucin en suite du voyage quil a fait vers le Saint Pre par ordre de Sa majest (1616)].
68

6, Robert Saulger7,

8, -
(1663-1673), ,
(1673-1675)9,
(1675-1686/1699-1709)10. 1686, -
11, Saulger ,
.
1686-1687, (-
1686), ( 1687)
(1688)12.
,
Colbert de Seignelay13

.
,
, -
.
, -
. , Franois

6 1-4 , (Archives Na-


tionales Franaises, AE B/I/862, . 8-15) 892, B. J. Slot, -
Robert Saulger (1637-1709), 6 (19761977), . 128-129. T 5-7
Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 265r-266r, 268v-270r.
7 B. J. Slot, , art.cit., . 117-144, Idem, Archipela-
gus Turbatus, op.cit., . 6, 11, 194-198, 223-4, 235-6.
8 R***, Histoire Nouvelle des Anciens Ducs et Autres Souverains de lArchipelavec la description
des principales isles et des choses les plus remarquables qui sy voient encore aujourdhuy, 1698.
:
.
1698 P. Sauger, , 1878.
9 B.J. Slot, , art.cit., . 120-121.
10 , . M. Campagnolo, La Confrrie de la Sainte-Croix
et le monastre des Jsuites Naxos au dbut du XVIIIe sicle, , 23 (1993), . 290-298,
.
11 , , . 19-35
12 , . 29-30, 34.
13 J.-B. Colbert (1619-1683) (1683-1690).
17 69

De la Chaize14 15.
-
-
, Colbert de Seignelay
16, 1685 1687. ,
,

, ,
17, -
.
18, 19,
,
-
. ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
20. ,
,
21.
Saulger

14 Franois De La Chaize, -
(1675-1709). , . 6 B.J. Slot, , art.cit., . 128 Idem,
Archipelagus Turbatus, . 236.
15 , , . 1.
16 H. Omont, Projets de prise de Constantinople et de fondation dun empire franais dOrient sous
Louis XIV, Revue dhistoire diplomatique, 7 (1893), . 195-246 M.-F. Auzepy, J.-P.Grlois (.), By-
zance retrouve, rudits et voyageurs franais (XVIe-XVIIIe sicles), 2001, . 39-43 J.-P Grelois,
Louis XIV et la mission dOrient(1685-1687, in M-F. Auzepy (.), Byzance en Europe, 2003,
. 31-41 F. Bilici, XIV Louis ve Istanbulu fetih tasars / Louis XIV et son projet de conqute dIstanbul,
2004.
17 H. Omont, Projets, art.cit., . 197-8.
18 Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr. 7176.
.
19 H. Omont, Projets, art.cit., . 195-246. F. Bilici, XIV
Louis ve Istanbulu fetih tasars, .., . 175-310.
20 , . 301.
21 , . 302.
70

-
.
, 25 ,
... 22.
-
,
23. -
,

24.

, Saulger
, 25
, (commanderies), -
. 1686 26
. ,
,
27.
Saulger
17
. . ,
.
,
28.
, -

22 , , . 2.
23 , , . 5. Richelieu,
. G. Hering, -
, .., . 186-187.
24 , , . 2.
25 1268, . J.-M. Gassier,
Histoire de la chevalerie franaise, 1814, .393-394.
. -, (1266-1285),
1987, . 49-74.
26 B.J. Slot, , art.cit., . 120.
27 , , . 4.
28 M. Fontenay, Corsaires de la foi ou rentiers du sol? Les chevaliers de Malte dans le corso
mditerranen au XVIIe sicle, Revue dhistoire moderne et contemporaine 35 (1988), . 361-384.
17 71

13 ,
29 -
,
30.

. 17 ,

,
, ,
Du Cange31,
32. , ,
Saulger
,
33.
Saulger
34, 35
36. ,
,
37.
17 , , -
-
.

29 Alexandre Y. Haran, Le lys et le globe, Messianisme dynastique et rve imprial en France


laube des temps modernes, 2000, . 27
30 , . 135.
31 J.-M. Spieser, Du Cange and Byzantium, in R. Cormack, E. Jeffreys (.), Through the Look-
ing Glass, Byzantium through British Eyes, Papers from the Twenty-ninth Spring Symposium of Byzantine
Studies, London, March 1995, Society for the promotion of Byzantine Studies, Publications 7, 2000, .
199-210 M.-F. Auzepy, J.-P.Grlois (.), Byzance retrouve, .., . 17-18, 37-39.
32 Ibidem, . 39.
33 R***, Histoire Nouvelle, .., . 325-356.
34 , , . 1, 2.
35 Archives Nationales Franaises, AE/ B/I/862, .11. recto Rellatione delle isole che
sono Beilichi et di quello che il turco li mette pagare per ogni anno alli bei.
36 , . 10v. Giovanni Camillis, 17
1686,
.
37 , , . 1, 2.
72

38 -

, Saulger

.
-
39.
, ,
40. ,
.
Saulger
.
, ,
. -
, -
,
, -
.
,
-
, 41.
1686, -
,
,
42,
. Saulger
: ,

38 . , , 1922,
. 115-116.
39 , ,
, . M. Greene, Catholic
pirates and greek merchants, A maritime history of the Mediterranean, 2010, . 115, 161, 211.
40 L. -J. Nagy, Prisonniers protestants hongrois sur les galres de Naples et leur rdemption (1675-
1676), Cahiers de la Mditerrane, 65 (2002), Lesclavage en Mditerrane lpoque moderne (-
).
41 Yves de Paris, La conduite du religieux, 1653, . 607.
42 , , . 1.
17 73

,
, 43.
17
44. -
, -
,
45.

, Savary de Brves, Leibnitz Jean Coppin46.
1686, ,
Saulger ,
,
47. , 1687,
, 48
Saulger .
(14 1687)
Saulger,
, ,
49.
1687, Saulger

43 Ibidem.
44 Yves de Paris, La conduite du religieux, op. cit., . 607.
45 T. G. Djuvara, Cent projets de partage de la Turquie (1281-1913), 1914, . 225-229.
,
, . Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7166, . 36
Le 19 septembre 1686 la prise de Napoly de Romanie sest rendue publique par larrive des dputs
dAthnes lesquels sont venus reprsenter au Kizlar aga, qui a leur pays pour apanage, quils ne pouvaient
plus continuer de luy payer leur redevance ordinaire de 40 mille escus par an, parce que les Vnitiens leur
demandaient une contribution de pareille somme, faute de quoi ils taient menacs dtre mis au pillage
et de perdre tous leurs biens Ibidem, fr 7166 381r, [ ,
, , 22 1686] : ... cependant je prie votre excellence
davoir quelque bont pour ce pays afflig et opprim par deux mauvais matres et de nous favoriser de la
protection auprs des Turcs.
46 . F. Bilici, XIV Louis ve Istanbulu fetih tasars, op.
cit., . 63-103.
. , . , . 17.
47 , , . 6.
48 Ibidem, . 5.
49 Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 274v.
74

o , 50.
, , ,
.
, , -

51.
-
, -
, 1539, ,
52.
Saulger , ,
1686, .


,
53.
,
.
1688, -
, 1688, ,
Saulger .

,

.


. -

50 , , . 6B.J. Slot, , art.cit., . 121.


51 , , . 5.
52 Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 270 r -272v:Commandement du Sultan Soliman
pour lisle dAndros. []. B.J. Slot, Archipelagus Turbatus, .., .
76-77, . O . . , , 1995,
. 19-20 Slot. . . ,
, (1579-
1821), , 39, 2006, . 35-36, 37, . 48.
53 , , . 7.
17 75

.
,
,
. , -
,

.

1.Archives Nationales Franaises, AE/ B/I/862, . 12v.


. : Robert Saulger.
4 1686.
Franois de La Chaize54.
Saulger
.

La supplique que jenvoie Votre Rvrence a t lue et approuve de monsieur


Girardin, notre ambassadeur Constantinople, et de monsieur Bergon, ntendant
Marseille et tous deux mont assur que la chose ne pouvait tre que trs agrable au
Roy, dont il se pourroit servir en temps et lieu avec avantage.
Lavantage que le Roy peut retirer de ces isles se peut connatre dans les deux
mmoires que je renvoie Votre Rvrence avec la supplique. Le premier fait voir tous
les deniers que les Turcs tirent toutes les annes de ces isles par une liste qui est trs
exacte. Le second est une attestation de lvque de Milo touchant la mine dargent et
de cuivre qui sest trouve Sifanto et, quand le Roy voudrait tre inform de cette v-
rit, il faudroit se servir dun homme capable et intelligent et non pas dun marchand
qui na autre connaissance que celle de son trafic.
Ces isles qui entretiennent plusieurs galres au Grand Seigneur peuvent donner
un nombre considrable de mariniers et de soldats Sa Majest et mesme plusieurs
esclaves dont les Vnitiens fournissent leurs galres aujourdhui avec un avantage
fort considrable. Elles peuvent entretenir dix galres au Roy qui peuvent suffire pour
la dfense de lArchipel et ces isles peuvent servir dans une occasion dautant de

54 . , , . 6.
76

magasins non seulement pour les bons ports qui se trouvent dans lArchipel, mais
cause des grandes provisions de bouche que ces isles peuvent fournir.
Il y a plus de cent mille chrtiens dans ces isles qui gmissent aujourdhui sous la
tyrannie des Turcs et sous le joug intolrable des Vnitiens qui exigent deux impla-
cablement un second tribu quils ne peuvent pas payer. Ils prient Dieu publiquement
pour notre monarque dans leurs glises quils appellent leur Roy et leur souverain
avec beaucoup de tendresse et daffection.
Maintenant pour prouver que le sieur Summaripa est lunique hritier des isles de
lArchipel, il ny a rien de plus clair et cela se voit par les papiers quil ma confis
et que je ne puis pas envoyer Votre Rvrence dans la crainte que jaie quils ne se
perdent. Je les lui ferai voir quand loccasion sen prsentera.
Si Votre Rvrence veut tre instruite du prsent tat de Candie, elle saura quil
ny a pas prsentement dix mille hommes darmes dans toutes les forteresses de lle.
Les Sfachiotes qui sont dans cette le comme les Magniotes dans la More et qui
sont en trs grand nombre nattendent quun chef et des armes pour se rvolter. Tous
les Grecs sont dans la mesme disposition et je sais le moyen de faire russir la chose,
ayant une particulire amiti et correspondance avec quelques Candiotes qui mont
souvent parl en secret de leur dessein.
Cette isle qui dailleurs est trs abondante et trs fertile est une isle bien avanta-
geuse pour la traite du Levant pour les marchands qui ngocient en Seyde, en Syrie,
en Grce, Constantinople et Smyrne, tant le passage de tous les vaisseaux qui
vont ou viennent du Levant. Elle entretenoit autrefois 25 galres aux Vnitiens qui
souhaitaient la reprendre aprs avoir conquis la More. Aprs cette conqute, ils
seront bien redoutables au Levant et les matres de tout le commerce, ce qui ne sera
pas trop avantageux pour le ntre.
Votre trs humble serviteur R. Saulger de la Compagnie du Jsus.
Ce 4e octobre 1686.

2. Archives Nationales Franaises, AE/ B/I/862, . 14-15v.


. .
Robert Saulger Colbert
de Seignelay.
O Saulger
.

Mmoire pour Monseigneur le Marquis de Seignelay


Supposant que vous tes, Monseigneur, pleinement inform par le mmoire trs
17 77

exact que jai donn touchant les isles de lArchipel, des avantages que le Roy en
tirera, il nest question ici que des moyens de sen servir, sur quoi je prends la libert
de vous proposer cet expdient.
Si Sa Majest ne croit pas devoir se mettre en aucun engagement pour ces isles,
la donation ne peut-elle pas tre accepte par quelquun des ordres de chevalerie de
son royaume? Ce seront alors des particuliers qui agiront pour leurs intrts et Sa
Majest ny sera mle que pour la ncessit indispensable o elle est de protger ses
sujets et de les aider dans les avantages quils peuvent acqurir.
Les Vnitiens pourront-ils trouver redire que le sieur de Sommerive dispose,
en faveur de qui bon lui semblera, dun bien qui, par un dcret de leur Snat, ils ont
dclar lui appartenir lgitiment? Et les Turcs pourront-ils se formaliser quun ordre
de chevalerie qui nest tabli que pour lui faire la guerre sempare de son pays?
Si au lieu de se servir des ordres qui sont sur pied, vous vouliez, Monseigneur,
relever celui du Croissant tabli par Charles dAnjou, frre de saint Louis, (ce qui
serait trs ais lexemple de celui de saint Lazare), vous pouriez accepter la dona-
tion au nom dudit ordre, dont vous vous feriez chef et formeriez des commanderies
considrables de ces isles dont le revenu se trouve exactement expliqu dans le m-
moire dj cit; et comme je suppose que vous soyez pleinement inform de ce qui
regarde la facilit de relever ledit ordre, il ne reste qu vous dire que six vaisseaux
arms au nom de cet ordre sont suffisants pour cette entreprise. Les isles prendront
les armes aussitt quelles se verront assures de ce secours et pourveu quon leur
donne un chef, elles se rendront en tat de secouer le joug des Turcs et de refuser la
domination des Vnitiens.
Il ny a que la premire dpense de larmement faire, parce quon tirera ensuite
des isles mesmes de quoi entretenir cet armement. Je ne doute pas, Monseigneur,
quun peu de rflexion sur ces propositions ne vous les fasse goter.
Rflexions sur ce dessein
1 Il y a plus de cent mille mes dans les isles de lArchipel que le Roy dlivrera
par ce moyen de la tyrannie du Turc ainsi que de celle des Vnitiens. Tous ces pauvres
insulaires ne rclament depuis longtemps que la protection de notre monarque quils
appellent leur empereur, pour lequel ils prient Dieu avec autant de zle, damour et
de tendresse que sils taient franois et sujets de Sa Majest.
2 Ces isles peuvent dans une occasion pourvoir de trs bons pilotes, plusieurs
mariniers, quelques soldats et mesme des esclaves et, en tant mieux cultives quel-
les ne le sont, peuvent donner beaucoup plus que ce quelles donnent aujourdhui au
Grand Seigneur.
3 Les Franois occupant les ports de lArchipel, le commerce en serait bien
78

plus assur, car il faut ncessairement passer par ces isles pour aller Smyrne et
Constantinople, et nos vaisseaux vont ordinairement mouiller Milo, Sira et
Miconi cause des vents contraires. Que si les Vnitiens en sont les matres, ils nous
fermeront leurs ports quand bon leur semblera.
4 Ces isles tant occupes par les commandeurs de notre ordre, le Roy sera tou-
jours en tat de mortifier tant les Turcs que les Vnitiens, car dans une entreprise
considrable chaque le peut servir de magasin de bl, de vin, dhuile et de sel, y ayant
plusieurs bons ports dans lArchipel capables de tenir une arme royale.
5 Je ne sais sil est de lintrt de la France que les Vnitiens se rendent si puis-
sants, car ayant la More, Negrepont, les royaumes de Candie et dEgypte et toutes
les isles de lArchipel, ils seront les matres de la mer et de tout le commerce.
6 Il y a des mines dargent et de cuivre dans lisle de Sifanto et une mine dme-
raudes Milo comme on peut voir dans lattestation que monseigneur Camillo, v-
que dudit lieu ma donne conformment au rapport quen a fait un habile ingnieur
mand depuis peu par les Vnitiens dans ces isles-l.
7 Si les Vnitiens croient avoir droit sur les isles de lArchipel lexclusion de
la maison de Sommerive, cause que les Turcs en sont les matres, on pourrait par
la mesme raison semparer des royaumes de Candie et de Chipres qui sont entre les
mains des Turcs, mais les Vnitiens qui prtendent en tre les seigneurs lgitimes le
permettraient-ils?
8 Si on veut joindre aux vaisseaux de lordre six galiotes quon peut construire
et armer dans le pays, on fera une petite arme navale capable de dsoler toutes les
villes maritimes de lEurope et de lAsie et de porter la consternation jusques dans le
milieu de lempire ottoman.
9 Si on avait dessein daugmenter cet ordre par des nouvelles conqutes qui sont
si faciles en ce temps, on pouvait semparer de lle de Scio qui donne au Turc deux
cens livres de rente.
Le dsir que jai de servir Sa Majest et lexprience que jai des affaires du
Levant o jai demeur vingt-cinq ans mont fait prendre la libert de vous prsenter,
Monseigneur, ce mmoire dans lequel elle ne trouvera rien que de vritable et qui ne
se puisse excuter avec avantage.

3. Archives Nationales Franaises, AE/ B/I/862, . 8-9.


. 2 .

. 9r : Mmoire concernant les isles de lArchipel. On peut avec les


17 79

droits cds du sieur Sommerive armer six vaisseaux au nom de quelquun des ordres
de chevalerie qui sont en France et se rendre matre des isles de lArchipel. La chose
est aise, ces peuples souhaitant la protection de Sa Majest pour secouer le joug du
Turc et refuser la domination des Vnitiens. Il ny aura que la dpense du premier
armement faire, aprs quoi on tirera de ces isles les moyens dentretenir ces vais-
seaux.

1686 Mmoire concernant les isles de lArchipel. Le Roy ne croit pas devoir se
mettre en aucun engagement pour les isles; la donation en peut tre accepte par
quelquun des ordres de chevalerie de son royaume, et ainsi, Sa Majest ny sera
mle que pour protger ses sujets et les aider dans les avantages quils peuvent
acqurir.
Les Vnitiens ne pourront trouver redire que les seigneurs de Sommerive
disposent en faveur de qui bon lui semblera dun bien que la Rpublique a dclar
lui appartenir lgitimement, et les Turcs ne pourront se formaliser quun ordre de
chevalerie, qui nest tabli que pour leur faire la guerre, sempare de leur pays.
Si au lieu de se servir des ordres qui sont sur pied, on voulait relever celui du
Croissant tabli par Charles dAnjou, frre de saint Louis, on pourait accepter la
donation au nom dudit ordre et former des commanderies considrables desdites
isles. Six vaisseaux au nom de cet ordre sont suffisants pour cette entreprise et
lesdites isles prendront les armes aussitt quelles se verront assur de ce secours
afin de secouer le joug des Turcs et refuser la domination des Vnitiens. Il ny a que
la premire dpense de larmement faire vu quon tirera ensuite des isles mesmes de
quoi entretenir cet armement. Il y a plus de 100 mille mes dans lesdites isles qui ne
rclament depuis longtemps que la protection de Sa Majest.
Ces isles peuvent beaucoup servir et les Franois occupant les ports de lArchipel,
le commerce en serait beaucoup plus assur, au lieu que si les Vnitiens en sont
les matres, ils fermeront leurs ports quand bon leur semblera et feront seuls tout le
commerce. Il y a des mines dargent et de cuivre dans lle de Sifanto, et une mine
dmeraudes Milo.
Si les Vnitiens croient avoir droit sur les isles de lArchipel lexclusion de la
maison de Sommerive cause que les Turcs en sont les matres, on pourrait par la
raison semparer des royaumes de Candie et de Chipres qui sont entre les mains de
Turcs.
Si on veut joindre aux vaisseaux de lordre les 6 galiotes quon peut construire et
armer dans le pays, on sera dans ltat de dsoler toutes les villes maritimes dEurope
et dAsie. Si on avait dessein daugmenter cet ordre par de nouvelles conqutes, on
80

pourrait semparer de lle de Scio qui donne aux Turcs 200 000 piastres de rente.

4. Archives Nationales Franaises, AN/ B/I/862, 13v.


.
. : Corsino Sumarippa.
,
, -
.

Sire,
Coursin Summaripa, qui tait seigneur absolu de lle dAndros, tait encore le l-
gitime hritier du duch de Naxie et de lArchipel comme Votre Majest se peut infor-
mer auprs de celui qui examinera larbre de ma gnalogie. Il fut dpouill de tout
son bien aussi bien que de toutes ses prtentions par sultan Soliman avec toute sorte
dinjustice. La possession tyrannique que le Turc en a eu jusques prsent ne mte
pas le droit que jaie dy prtendre dans ce bouleversement de lEmpire ottoman,
tant petit neveu du sieur Coursin Summaripa, et par consquent son lgitime hri-
tier; mais ltat o le Turc ma rduit ne me permet pas de mopposer la puissance
des Vnitiens qui sont la veille de semparer de mon bien comme dune conqute
sur leurs ennemis. Jaime mieux que Votre Majest le possde plus quaucun autre, le
prfrant pour ses royales qualits toutes les puissances du monde, outre que jai
lhonneur dtre son sujet tant du ct des femmes des descendants de Guillaume
de Villehardouin, prince dAchae. Et ainsi, je lui cde tous mes droits et toutes mes
prtentions tant de la Seigneurie dAndros que du Duch de lArchipel, lui offrant en-
core comme mon souverain le peu de bien que Dieu ma laiss, ma personne et mes
enfants, mestimant heureux de vivre et mourir au service du plus grand monarque
du monde.
Corsino Sumarippa

5. Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 265r-266r.


.
Saulger
, -
Pierre Girardin. . Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 265v
[ 25 1687 Pierre Girar-
din]:Je vous envoie le placet qui ma t prsent au nom du sieur Coursin de
Sommerive et je dsire que vous lappuyez de vos services si ce quil expose vous
17 81

paroit vritable.

350 .

Au Roy,
Sire,
Le sieur Coursin de Sommerive fut dpossd de lisle dAndros dont il tait
seigneur par sultan Soliman. Et quelque temps aprs, il fut rtabli par ce mesme
empereur par un commandement exprs condition qu il donnerait tous les ans
un tribut de trente-cinq mille aspres qui font 350 cus de nostre monnoye. Mais les
Grecs, qui sont ennemis de lEglise romaine et qui ne peuvent se rsoudre obir
un prince latin, firent tout auprs de Soliman pour quil ft chasser ledit sieur de
Sommerive de tous ses Etats au dtriment de la foy catholique qui en mesme temps
en fut bannie. Il est trs facile Votre Majest de faire fleurir de nouveau en ce pays
la religion chrtienne, en y rtablissant Antoine de Sommerive qui en est lunique et
lgitime hritier: ce qui se peut facilement excuter en faisant agir pour cet effet votre
ambassadeur la Porte. Le Turc, qui est la veille de perdre cette isle si agrable
dont il ne retire rien prsentement, sera ravi davoir tous les ans lemesme tribut que
Soliman avoit impos de son temps au seigneur du lieu. Cela sera non seulement
avantageux la propagation de la foy dans le Levant, mais encore trs glorieux
Votre Majest et trs utile au commerce, puisque cette isle est situe dans la route
que tiennent ordinairement les vaisseaux franois qui trafiquent tant Smirne qu
Constantinople; les Vnitiens lexemple de votre Majest ne manqueront pas dtre
favorables au sieur Antoine de Sommerive dans lexcution de ce dessein, le voyant
sous la protection dun si grand monarque. Elle obligera par une action si gnreuse
tous les catholiques romains et particulirement la plus illustre famille qui soit au
Levant; laquelle est dvoue depuis un sicle aux services de vos glorieux anctres
et de Votre Majest.

6. Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 268v-269v.


.
Robert Saulger 29 1687
Pierre Girardin. . 268v : Lettre du pre Saulger
reue le 14 novembre 1687. Le suprieur des jsuites ma peu aprs rendu la lettre sui-
vante du pre Saulger, date de Paris le 29 septembre, avec deux pices qui concernent
laffaire du sieur Coursin de Sommerive dont il est parl dans la lettre du Roy.
Saulger -
82

Jeus lhonneur dentretenir Votre Excellence dans le dernier voyage que je fis
Constantinople sur les prtentions que monseigneur de Sommerive a sur les isles de
lArchipel. Je lui montrai mesme le placet que ce gentilhomme avoit dessein de se
prsenter au Roy, lequel fut agre de Votre Excellence. Le rvrend pre de La Chaize
le prsenta Sa Majest mon arrive Paris, qui donna ordre quon le consignt
monsieur de Seignelay pour tre examin. Ce ministre que jai eu lhonneur de voir
plusieurs fois pour lexcution de ce dessein toit fort port pour cela, mais le Roy na
pas cru que le temps fut propre pour lexcuter ne voulant point prsentement rompre
avec les Turcs, ni donner aux Vnitiens aucun sujet de mcontentement. Cest ce qui
ma oblig prsenter un second placet au Roy dans lequel il nest fait mention que
de la seule le dAndros, priant Sa Majest de vouloir bien emploier son crdit pour y
faire rtablir le sieur Antoine de Sommerive, petit fils du sieur Coursin de Sommerive
qui en fut chass par sultan Soliman et quelque temps aprs remis en possession de
son bien moiennant la somme de trente-cinq milles aspres de tribu annuel qui font
350 cus de notre monnoye. Cest pour ce sujet quil a fait crire Votre Excellence
et cest ce qui ma oblig de la prier trs humblement de vouloir bien se servir de
son autorit pour faire russir cette affaire qui sera si glorieuse au Roy et si utile au
commerce par la situation avantageuse de cette le dans un temps o les Vnitiens sont
la veille de se rendre matres de tous les ports des isles de lArchipel. Elle obligera
une trs illustre famille dvoue depuis tant dannes au service de la France qui ne
sera jamais ingrate dune faveur si signale. Cest la grce que nous demandons
votre Excellence et que nous attendons de sa bont et gnerosit.

7. Bibliothque Nationale de France, fr 7170, . 269v-270 r.


. .
Robert Saulger Colbert de
Seignelay. -
Pierre Girardin
Saulger 14 1687 (
. 6). -
55.

55 . 52.
17 83

Saulger
, -
,
.

Mmoire pourMonseigneur de Seignelay


La proposition quon fait au Roy touchant lisle dAndros ne porte aucun prjudice
la paix que Sa Majest a avec le Turc et les Vnitiens, car le Turc qui est la veille
de perdre cette belle isle sera ravi de la rendre celui qui en toit autrefois le matre,
et qui il la enleve contre toute justice pourveu quon lui paie tous les ans le tribut
dont Soliman toit convenu. Pour les Vnitiens, ils sont trop amateurs de la justice,
pour sopposer ce quun gentilhomme dpouill depuis tant de temps de tout son
bien puisse rentrer en possession dune partie de son patrimoine.
Lexecution de ce projet est facile pourveu que Sa Majest veuille en crire un
mot son ambassadeur qui est la Porte et donner une recommandation au Senat
de Venise et au capitaine gnral Franois Morosini, et cest lunique chose quon
demande Sa Majest pour venir bout de ce dessein.
Cela ne sera pas peu utile et avantageux au commerce, parce que lisle dAndros,
dont le Roy sera absolument le matre, est situe dans une grande voie que tiennent
les vaisseaux qui veulent aller de France aux Echelles de Tessalonique, de Smirne et
de Constantinople et il faut passer ncessairement au-dessus et au-dessous du vent de
cette isle qui a de trs bons ports et qui peut par sa grande fertilit et abondance de
toutes choses fournir toute sorte de rafrachissements aux vaisseaux qui sont souvent
obligs dy venir mouiller lancre.
Le Roy y peut avoir un consul qui y sera mieux pour le trafic, quen aucune isle
de lArchipel, tant cause de la grande quantit de soye quon y fait, qu cause du
voisinage de la grande isle de Negrepont et de la terre ferme o il y abondance de
marchandises.
Ce sera chose glorieuse et honorable Sa Majest puisquil sagit de remettre
Andros la foy catholique qui est bannie depuis longtemps en y rtablissant la plus
illustre famille du Levant qui est depuis un sicle au service de la France.
Les Franois peuvent se servir de ce poste comme dun lieu de refuge pour se
mettre loccasion labri des insultes de leurs ennemis, et je crois que ce mesme
poste ne servira pas tenir continuellement les Vnitiens dans leur devoir et dans le
respect quils doivent notre monarque.
Le droit que monseigneur de Sommerive prtend avoir sur Andros est hors de
controverse puisque le Turc mesme, par un crit authentique qui se voit encore
84

aujourdhui, le dclare.
Le Roy ayant un pied dans lArchipel, il lui sera ais dans loccasion de se servir
des droits que monseigneur de Sommerive a sur les autres isles, pour gratifier qui
bon lui semblera et rcompenser plusieurs personnes de qualit qui, aprs plusieurs
annes de services, seroient ravies davoir en propre une de ses isles; ou bien pour
les joindre, comme autant de commanderies, quelque ordre militaire qui se rendroit
avec le temps puissant et redoutable dans tout le Levant.

Niki PAPALIAKI

Mission catholique franaise, guerre sainte et commerce dans la mer


Ege au XVIIe sicle

Sommaire
Notre communication souhaite contribuer ltude de la relation des missionnaires
franais avec le rseau de renseignements que la France installe au Levant au XVIIe
sicle. Nous publions les mmoires envoys par le jsuite Robert Saulger, au Ministre
de la Marine Colbert de Seignelay en 1686 et 1687. Durant les premires annes de
la guerre turco vnitienne (1684-1699), le jsuite franais nadresse pas son roi un
appel pour lunion des chrtienscontre lesinfidles, mais met sa disposition les
connaissances quil acquisdurant son sjour en Orient, afin d' loigner les Vnitiens
de lArchipel. Le missionnaire se transforme en un des observateurs que la France
envoie en Orient; en mettant de cot lunion des rois chrtiens, il flatte les ambitions
impriales de Louis XIV et veut promouvoir la conqute franaise des les de la mer
Ege.D'autre part le Roi nhsite pas utiliser les renseignements que le missionnaire
lui transmet, mettant finalement son service le soldat du Christ quil a lui-mme
install en Orient.


William Wake
-
.

, -
-
.
William Wake (
). , 1722-1724.

. ,
, -
.
. Jacques
Bouchard.1

1.
(1670-1730) -
, ,
.
.
100 -
.2
,
.

, 18 .3

1 J. Bouchard, Les relations pistolaires de Nicolas Mavrocordatos avec Jean Le Clerc et William
Wake, 11 (1974), . 67-92.
2 . , , 1985, . 90.
3 . , , 1999, . 40.
. . ,
: , ,
, 1999, . 21-76.
88

(1657-1737)
1716 . 31
, -
. ,
, -
.4
,
Jean Leclerc ( ). , , -
, ,
.
, .5 -
Nouvelles de la republique des
lettres.6

2. 7
1 , , (7 1722) -
, ,
.
2 (24 1722),
. -
70 ,
. , -
, .

3 (3 1723).
, .

.

4 . N. Sykes, William Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury 1657-1737,


Cambridge 1957.
5 J. Bouchard, .., . 67-68 80. -
. . P. Cernovodeanu, Bucureti - Canterbury via Am-
sterdam, Magazin Istoric 31 (1997), 9 (Sept), . 52-54.
6 . , .., . 40.
7 J. Bouchard, .., . 81-90.
89


,
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4 (23 1723)
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11 , . 86.
12 , . 78-79.
13 A. , (. ), 1999, . 27.
91

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18 . , , . . .
, 1976, . 108.
19 . . , .., . 275.
20 . . , .., . 6.
93

.
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inclytus
(=). -
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. , ,
conspicuous toti Literario Orbi,
(4 ).
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24 J. Bouchard, .., . 82.
95

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101

Petros Tzimas

Six epistles between Nicolaos Mavrokordatos and William Wake,


Archbishop of Canterbury

Summary
The name of Nikolaos Mavrokordatos possesses particularly important place in
the representatives of Modern Greek Enlightenment. More specifically if we want to
determine the relations of his representatives with the European Enlightenment, we
can draw precious information from their correspondence with European representa-
tives of Enlightenment. In the present statement I will deal with the correspondence
of Nikolaos Mavrokordatos with the Archbishop of Canterbury William Wake. It is
six epistles written in Latin , that cover the years 1722-1724. They were published for
first time by Jacques Bouchard in 1974. Initially a short report will be made about
the persons that are involved in this epistolary relation. Afterwards will be presented
the content of letters and the aim for what the epistles were written. After are waived
the abundant elements of epistolary oratory, that undeniably dominate in the epistles,
we can export interesting conclusions on the international political and intellectual
relations. The presentation of these conclusions will be the mainly subject of this
statement. Finally in the appendix I make an effort to translate the six epistles in Greek
for first time.
- .


50
( )
1.

.
-
. . 5191,
, , . .2
, 8 (0,24 0,17), 18
19 . 96 , ,
, (
),
, .

.
O 3
18 . -
, .

1 . . 6026 : . ,
, . , 1900, 388.
2 . ( .
, : . . . ,
1967, 200)
,
.
3 . . ,
(. .), 1969.
: . , , . ,
1872 . , . -
(1453-1821),
1868, . 613 ( ) . . , .
, , . 16 ( -
) 240 . , , :
, . ( . 9), -
1988, 260-262 ( ) G. Podskalsky, Griechische Theologie
in der Zeit der Trkenherrschaft (1453-1821). Die Orthodoxie im Spannungsfeld der nachreformatorischen
Konfessionen des Westens, Mnchen 1988, . 384 A. Camariano-Cioran, Les acadmies princires de
Bucarest et de Jassy et leurs professeurs (Institute for Balkan Studies 142), Thessaloniki 1974, 654 . (
).
106 - .

,
1770-1773 -
. -
. 1781
,
.
(1783)
,
(, 1784-1785).
,
. 1809
.
,
.
1818.

2.

, 4,

.
: ) -
(4 .) 50 ) -
, . , 150 (
. ), 10 .

.5

4 . .-. . , (1722-1794)
, 1964.
5 . H.-G. Beck, Kirche und theologische Literatur im byzantini-
schen Reich (Byzantinisches Handbuch im Rahmen des Handbuches der Altertumswissenschaft, 2. Teil,
1. Band), Mnchen 1959, 570-572 : Christian Hgel,
Symeon Metaphrastes: Rewriting and Canonization, Copenhagen 2002.
107

, . 6
, ,
1782-1783,
1782 -

, 150 -
.
)
1782-83
50 , .
4 ,
,
-
.
50 -
18 Oudin Semler
20 -


.
20 Villecourt Dr-
ries.7 -

,
. )

6 . . . ,
, : -
2 , ,
2008, 2011 ( ). T , -
Coprus.
7 . :
Kl. Fitschen, Messalianismus und Antimessalianismus. Ein eispiel ostkirchlicher Ketzergeschichte, Gt-
tingen 1998, 158 C. Stewart, Working the Earth of the Heart. The Messalian Controversy in History,
Texts, and Language to AD 431, Oxford 1991. -
( ), - .
- ( .
), 2000, 67, . 2.
108 - .

50 150 ( ),
,
,

, .
,
, ,
, ,

.
, , - ,

-
.
, 50 ,
(10 .), 150 ,
-
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(),
, , ,9 ,
(10
.), .

8 . . . , ,
, : . -
(.), .
( 29 4 1998), 2000, . 234.
: . .. 5 Vicentius Lerinsis ( ),
Adversus profanas omnium novitates haereticorum commonitorium 7: quod est erratum sancti viri nec
approbasse nec prodidisse.
9 , -
1777.
, ,
. . , .., 123-124.
109


.

, ,
. -
,
,
,
, -
, ,
.

3.
terminus post quem
17/6/1783, -
10,
. terminus ante quem
, ,
15/11/1794 , 1779.11
, , -
. , ,
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, terminus ante quem 1793,
.
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1784 1785.12 -
) ,
-
,13 , 1782

10 . , .., 97, . 2.
11 . , .., . 51-56.
12 . , ..
13
().
1793 (
110 - .

178314
)
1784 1785
, . ,
,
.

-

. , , -
, -

: ,
,
18 .,
-
,

,15

) (Valamo) . . , . ., 112-119.
14 1297, .
, . .
15 . , . ., 88 . : . . , . , -
, (. . ),
2010, passim . . , ( 2), 20028,
passim D. Dakin, The Unification of Greece (1779- 1923), London 1972, 16 . . , -
, (.), (
1669-1821), , . , ., 433-451 . ,
. , 1988, 15-45 passim . . ,
. , 2000, 428-466 passim P. M. Kitromilidis,
Orthodoxy and the West: Reformation to Enlightenment, : M. Angold (.), The Cambridge History
of Christianity, Vol. 5: Eastern Christianity, Cambridge 2008, 202-209 . ,
. , 2004, 61-73 . -
: E. Knapp, Evjenios Vulgaris im Einfluss der Aufklrung. Der Begriff der Toleranz
bei Vulgaris und Voltaire, Amsterdam 1984, passim . , . ., 211-291 . . ,
( 2),
2003, 65-82 ( , ) .
111

- -
, ,
,
,

.16

. , . -
(1788-1820), 2009.
16 : apparatus fontium -
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5

Maria Vantaraki / Georgios D. Panagopoulos

Maria Vantaraki / Georgios D. Panagopoulos


Unpublished Dissertation of Dorotheos Voulismas concerning the problem of the
authenticity of the Ps. Macarian Corpus

Unpublished Dissertation of Dorotheos Voulismas concerning the


Summary
problem of the authenticity of the Ps. Macarian Corpus
The text we edit for the first time is a dissertation in form of Epistle directed
Summary
from the Greek scholar and preacher Dorotheos Voulismas (ca. 1740-1818) to the
The text we edit for the first time is a dissertation in form of Epistle directed
Ukrainian monk Paisios Velitskovski (1722-1794) and concerning the authenticity of
from the Greek scholar and preacher Dorotheos Voulismas (ca. 1740-1818) to the
the Ascetical Works (50 Spiritual Homilies) which traditionally have been ascribed to
Ukrainian monk Paisios Velitskovski (1722-1794) and concerning the authenticity of
the ancient ascetic Father Macarius the Egyptian (4th Century AD). To the Dorotheos
the Ascetical Works (50 Spiritual Homilies) which traditionally have been ascribed to
Epistle gave rise a short work of Neophytos Kavsokalyvitis (a monk of Athos of
the ancient ascetic Father Macarius the Egyptian (4th Century AD). To the Dorotheos
Epistle gave origin
Jewish rise aand scholar),
short workinofwhich he had challenged
Neophytos the traditional
Kavsokalyvitis (a monk viewofabout
Athos the of

Jewishauthor
originofand thescholar),
macarian in corpus.
whichNeophytos, after having
he had challenged thetaken into account
traditional the
view about
similarities
the author of thebetween
macarian thiscorpus.
corpus Neophytos,
and characteristic
after views
having of taken
the ancient messalianthe
into account
similarities
heresybetween this been
(as these have corpus and characteristic
presented by earlier Churchviews of the
Fathers), hadancient
suggestedmessalian
that as
heresy real
(as author
these haveof thebeen presented
macarian writingsbyshould
earlierbeChurch
consideredFathers),
a certain had suggested
Symeon, an old that
as real messalian
author ofheretic.
the macarian writings should be considered a certain Symeon, an old
messalian heretic.In the text that we edit Dorotheos sides with the Churchs tradition and thus he
In the text that we
insists, against edit Dorotheos
Neophytos, sides with
on the macarian originthe
of Churchs
the corpus,tradition
although and
he is thus
fully he
insists, against Neophytos, on the macarian origin of the corpus, although he is fully
aware of the similarities mentioned above. On the basis of various arguments, we
aware of the similarities mentioned above. On the basis of various arguments, we
propose that the Epistle of Voulismas must have been written between 1783-1784,
propose that the Epistle of Voulismas must have been written between 1783-1784,
short after the appearance of Neophytos dissertation (a text we have already edited
short after the appearance of Neophytos dissertation (a text we have already edited
and assumed to have been written between 1782 and the middle of 1783).
and assumed to have been written between 1782 and the middle of 1783).
Voulismas
Voulismas Epistletogether
Epistle togetherwith
with Neophytos
Neophytos dissertation
dissertationare areofofgreat
greatinterest
interestforfor
more one
more than thanreason:
one reason:
BothBoth texts
texts providea aunique
provide unique account
account ofof the
thewaywayininwhich
which a a
quite complex
quite complex philological
philological andand theological
theological problemhas
problem has been
been dealt
dealtwith
withbybytwotwoGreek
Greek

20
125

scholars at the end of 18th Century, almost 150 years before modern scholars have
attempted to resolve it (e.g. Villecourt and Drries); nevertheless both texts shed light
on important aspects of the so-called Church Enlightenment in a highly critical
period of the history of the Greek people under ottoman occupation.
.


Passarowitz (1718)
,
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17th centuries, acuradi Pullan B., London 1968, 104-105 W. H. McNeill Venice. The Hinge of Europe
1081-1797,Chicago/London 1974, . 217, 222 . , (1702-1798),
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2 Passarowitz 21 1718 -
.
27 . . V. Bianchi, Istorica relazione della Pace di Posaroviz, ,
Manfr, 1719, . 169-214 222-236 Raccolta dei Trattati e delle principali convenzioni concernenti il
commercio e la navigatione dei sudditi Austria cineglistati della Porta Ottomana, 1844, . 4-32 G.
Noradounghian, Recueil d actes internationaux de l Empire Ottoman, . 1 (1300-1789), Paris 1897, No 19
Trait de paix avec l Autriche, . 208-216 20 Trait de commerce et de navigation avec l Autriche
. 220-227 I. de Testa, Recueil des traits de la Porte Ottomane avec les Puissances trangres, . 9 (Autri-
che), Paris 1898, . 73-89 . , - 1714-1718,
2002 ( : La dernire guerre entre la Rpublique de
Venise et l Empire Ottoman (1714-1718), Montral 19992 ), . 456-481.
3 R. Mantran, La navigation vnitienne et ses concurrentes en Mditeranne orientale aux XVIIe et
XVIIIe sicles, Mediterraneo e OceanoIndiano, Atti del Sesto Colloquio Internazionale di Storia Marit-
tima, tenuto a Venezia dal 20 al 29 Settembre 1962, . 389.
4 . . , -
(1787-1797), . . , 1974, . 208-209.
5 . , 18 , ( -
: Le commerce de Salonique au XVIIIe sicle, Paris 1956), 1996, .199.
6 . . ,

, (. . .), . 3, 1990, . 6-9.
(1718) 131


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, 1978, . 42.
9 15,16 17 ,
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12 . R. Mantran, Venezia e i Turchi (1650-1797, Venezia e i Turchi, Milan 1985, . 266.
(1718) 133

13.

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14 A.S.V., Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, Seconda Serie, b. 31, Quaderno 250, Parte prima Console
Veneto in Lepanto et negotio dell Arta per consolato, sopraintendenza e titolo, .., 23 1720.

. . , 16 (1550-1567),
28 (1998), . 129-174.
15 . . , .., . 37-38 56-77 . , .., . 182-183.
134 .


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17 . . ,
18 , 2007, . 18, 33-38.
18 Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia 1520 -
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Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia
-
. , ,
,
, . A.S.V.,
Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, Consoli e Viceconsoli in genere, b. 21, Copia 11 1724, . 2,
S. Romanin, Storia Documentata, . 8, Venezia 1974, . 247.
19 1670-1684 ,
. . , , 6 (1969), . 242.
(1718) 135

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20 . , -
. . (1732-1737) ( -
), 8 (1980-1982), . 213, 259, 261 . -Baladi, -
18 ,
1988, .129-130, 133-166 . , .., . 208-210. -
, . S. Ciriacono, Olio ed Ebrei nella Repubblica Veneta del
settecento, Miscellanea di Studi e Memorie, . 16, Venise 1975.
21 . . -Baladi, .., . 202-204.
136 .


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22 , -
, . B. ,
18 (1715-1792) , 1972, . 286.
23 18 . . -Syrett, 18
(1700-1820), . . , 2010.
24 A.S.V., Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia: Consoli e Viceconsoli in genere, b. 21, 23 1719.
25 Cinque Savialla Mercacnzia
, 18 .
7 1586 , ,
(A.S.V.,Senato Mar, reg. 47, 7 Marzo 1586).
1 1715 (A.S.V., Cinque Savialla Mercacnzia, N. Ser., b. 26, quad.215).
26 Cinque Savialla Mercanzia, Seconda Serie, b. 32, . Memoria mercantile No. 116, Consoli Veneti
in Rodi, Saragosa e Millo, 11 1714 (1713 . .). -
: ,
, Maggior Consiglio ,
, Collegio
., . . , .., . 6-7.
18 . A.S.V., Senato Mar, reg 185,. 28r-30v.
(1718) 137

,
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27 . , (168-1453), 1970, . 28-31.


28 cittadini originarii . A. Zannini, Burocrazia e burocrati a Venezia in etmoderna: i cit-
tadinioriginarii (sec. XVI-XVIII), Venezia 1993.
29 . 2. A.S.V., Senato Mar, reg. 185, ff. 1-3v. -

.
30 A.S.V., Senato Mar, reg. 165, f. 207, 10 1699. 1699 (10 )
21 1714. . A.S.V., Cinque Savi alla Mer-
canzia, N. Serie, b. 26, Quaderno 215. A.S.V., Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, Consoli e Viceconsoli in
genere, b. 21, 23 1718 - Prima Serie, Consoli, Diversorum, b. 400, . 87.
138 .

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in Levante, b. 31, Quaderno 250, . . (1719, 27) . , ..,. 376.
(1718) 139


1
140 .
(1718) 141
142 .
(1718) 143
144 .

A.S.V, Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, Consoli e Viceconsoli in genere, b. 21


1718 8 Febraro

Illustrissimi, et Eccellentissimi Signori Deputati al Commercio e Cinque Savi alla


Mercanzia
Posta che sia in una probabile sicurezza la navigatione per tutto il Levante, con li modi
humiliati dalla fedelt di noi Capi di Piazza, e de parcenevoli nelultima nostrascrittura,
come meglio fosse conosciuto dalla sapienza dell EE.VV., ripigliato perconseguenza il ne-
gotio con le scale ottomane servir sempre di grande appoggio alcommercio la residenza
de Consoli Veneti nelle scale pi frequentate dalle navimercantili di questa Piazza con
carichi, che l conducono, e di l estraggono, ondegoder possano lassistenza de Consoli
Veneti nationali, senza ricorrere quella deglesteri, che per maggiormente promovere
le loro corrispondenze pur troppoavanzate, fanno la figura de Consoli, per cosi dire in
ogni spiaggia, dove approdarpossano bastimenti.
Oltre dunque li soliti due Consoli, l uno in Durazzo, laltro in Smirne ritornati
questa Dominante nelle mosse di questa ultima passata guerra, lellettione delluno, elaltro
de quali si rende premurosa per la loro partenza, doppo la rattificazione perdella pace, e
doppo, che da gl Eccellentissimi Baili saranno stati impetrati dalla Portai loro baratti, massi-
me per poter principiare anche la nostra natione contribuire li treper cento accordati
in vece delli 5 di dacio che si pagava, crederebbe la nostrahumilt, che fossero molto
giovevoli alla negotiatione due Consoli nel Regno dellaMorea, come gi habbiamo
con altra scrittura rassegnato abbondante per tanti generidi mercantie, particolarmente
di sede, di lane, di grane, di vallonie, di formaggi, edaltro, luno de quali Consoli
fosse di residenza Modon con la Sopraintendenza intutti li porti, e spiaggie di Morea
sino Napoli di Romania; laltro di residenza Patrasso con la Sopraintendenza da
una parte per tutte le spiaggie della Morea dentroil Golfo di Lepanto, e dallaltra parte
per tutte le spiaggie della Morea sino alTerritorio di Modon.
In aggionta questi si crederebbe proficuo al negotio tanto premuroso dei ogli ha-
vereun Console veneto nel Regno di Candia, che havesse la sua residenza nella Canea
peroccasione dei ogli predetti molto accomodati al bisogno della Dominante, et alla
loroestrattione da questa Citt.
Similmente utile alla negotiatione si considera dalla nostra humilt la residenza di
unaltro Console veneto Salonicchio riguardo dei gottoni, delli tabacchi, et altre-
merci di quella scala.
Stante poi laquisto del Golfo intitolato della Prevesa divenuto di publica ragione,
nelquale vi lArta, scala (pu dirsi) poco men che principale della Grecia, checorri-
sponde con questa Citt viene reputata molto giovevole la esistenza di unConsole ve-
(1718) 145

neto con la Sopraintendenza di Salona, Lepanto, e loro spiaggie. Servir lainstitutione


di questo Console far contrapunto quello di Francia, che senza misurasi fa lecito di
aggravar le merci destinate per questa parte.
Resta hora accennare circa le utilit, che si potessero assegnare predetti Consoli
peril loro honesto mantenimento con la mira per del minor possibile aggravio alne-
gotio.
Per quello adunque riguarda ai due Consoli di Durazzo, e di Smirne, non vi mot-
tivodi riflesso, havendo ognuno di essi le loro ordinarie utilit.
Quanto alli due di Morea, si crede proprio, che possa continuare la pratticaacco-
stumata in quel Regno in tempo, che era pure soggetto all Imperio Ottomano (cio-
prima che emanassero le ducali dell Eccellentissimo Senato 1608 4 Luglio) che era
diesiger indistintamente un per cento sopra tutti e cadauni effetti andanti, e venienti,
chefossero caricati sopra qualsi voglia bastimento veneto; e ci provisionalmente,
perdover poi in altro tempo prendere le misure, e ripieghi che saranno reputati picon-
ferenti dalla maturit publica affine, che non restino pregiudicati i Consoli veneti fron-
te de glesteri.
Quanto gl altri 3 Consoli di Candia, Salonichio, et Arta credessimo (quando
cosipiacesse alla prudenza incomparabile dell EE.VV.) che questi si potesse pari-
menteper hora assegnare un per cento tanto sopra i effetti dei sudditi, quanto sopra
gl altri,che fossero caricati ne legni veneti andanti, e venienti, per dover poi misura
delleemergenze, accidenti, e tempi, che anderanno succedendo esser dalla maturit
publicaprescritto quel pi, meno, che fosse pi conferente alla materia.
1718 8Febraro
Presentata al Magistrato Eccellentissimo de V Savii alla Mercantia, e Deputati al
Commercio.
146 .

2
(1718) 147
148 .
(1718) 149

A.S.V, Cinque Savi alla Mercanzia, Consoli e Viceconsoli in genere, b. 21


1719 2 Marzo

Fornisce dogni lume pi desiderabile alla cognitione del Senato lesatta informa-
tione hora letta, che la virt, e zelo de Deputati al Commercio, e 5 Savi alla Mercantia
in obbedienza alle publiche commissioni son venuti di rendere intorno la materia de
Consolati veneti nel paese ottomano e ponendo in vista tutto quello potevaconsi-
derarsi sopra la conditione delle persone da sciegliersi, il tempo da preffigerselenegl
impieghi, glabusi da regolarsi nellessercitio delli medesimi, rivolgono leproprie
considerationi sopra le scale, che pi precisamente devono essere provedute.Stante li
ricorsi anche de Capi di Piazza; cosi che individuando con le particolaricircostanze
delloccasione, e del tempo il bisogno dogni Consolato, si dantica, ched institution
nuova; somministrano allauttorit publica col fondamento deglessempidella ragion,
e delli decreti argomenti li pi opportuni, e condegni alle suedeliberationi.
Come per saggradiscono le applicationi molto utili, et egualmente benemeri-
te deMagistrati sudetti che riputano la publica commendatione, cosi con-
venendosidistinguere, e prescrivere parte parte il pi aggiustato, e conferente al
Publicoserv(iti)o.
L ander parte, che confermandosi la massima di rimetter nella presente situatione
di
pace li Consolati nel stato ottomano per promover e tutelar il commercio habbanod
esser ristabiliti li Consoli soliti in Durazzo, in Smirne, in Candia, et in Morea,come per
avanti, nel quel Regno, siano due da destinarsi per Modon, e Patrasso,risservandosi di
devenir opportunamente anco allellettione duno Salonicchio etaltro allArta, come
suggeriscono li Magistrati sudetti allhora che lAmbasciatornostro Estraordinario
Costantinopoli habbia concertato le maniere per benpratticarla.
A tal passo non si lascia anzi deccitar la cognitione, e prudenza de 5 Savi pren-
derlumi, e rifferirli intorno li due Consolati ancora dAlessandria, et Aleppo, sugge-
rendotutto quello riconoscessero proposito per veder nuovamente se fosse possibi-
leripigliato dalle venete insegne il commercio con quelle scale.
Lellettione de Consoli ne luoghi sudetti haver farsi nel Collegio nostro conlin-
tervento, e ballotatione de Savi alla Mercanzia in conformit di quanto si sin inquesti
ultimi tempi pratticato per Durazzo.
Resta per ecettuato quello di Smirne, la scielta del quale rimessa, secondo la-
prattica, allAmbasciator nostro Estraordinario alla Porta, et Baili sucessori prtem-
pore, onde dal luogo pi prossimo destinar possino persona capace, et addattata ad
una scala molto imputante e frequentata nell Arcipelago.
150 .

Haveranno ad esser ammessi al concorso de Consolati li Cittadini Originarii del-


laDominante et altri sudditi d honesta conditione, escluse le persone forestiere, et
ancoquelle, che per la ragion dincolato, e duna lunga habitatione fossero state di-
chiarite per Cittadini, e per sudditi, come considerano prudentemente nella scrittura
liMagistrati sudetti.
Con tali espressioni la pontualit de V Savi medesimi haver far estender, epubli-
car i proclami dinvito con le altre formalit consuete per le nuove ellettioni, allequali
si devenir un mese doppo la publicatione del proclama stesso coll intervallodotto
giorni dalluna allaltra; il che haver dichiarirsi, et esser espresso nelproclama, do-
vendo ben intendersi il Magistrato con li Savi, che sar in settimana perlassegnatione
delle giornate; e doppo le quali ellettioni si prescriver ancora il tempo
della speditione de Consoli al luogo proprio.
Glelletti non haveranno permanere nel carico che il solito quinquennio giusta
lidecreti di questo Consiglio 1699, e 1714, doppo il quale haver passarsi alla
loroconfermatione nuova sostitutione.
Non doveranno questi haver ne usar altra facolt che quella, le sar conferita da
5Savi sudetti nelle commissioni, che oltre le solite patenti troveran destenderle, con-
dchiaratione, che non possino prendersi arbitrio di poner Vice Consoli in verun luogo
senza una precisa saputa, e permissione del Magistrato medesimo, onde pi non suc-
cedino glespressi inconvenienti, e passati abusi.
Quanto alle loro utilit resta decretato, che come per quello di Smirne lAmba-
sciator Estraordinario, Bailo nostro alla Porta stabiliranno il solito, cos quello di
Durazzo haver conseguir due per cento sino tanto per sestingua, il noto debito
contrattosi per la polacca Stella Matutina e nave 3 R doppo il quale il Magistrato
render le dovute notitie questo Cons(olat)o per concertar il pi conveniente.
Alli Consoli di Morea, e di Candia resti assegnato un per cento sopra tutti glef-
fetti, tanto de sudditi, quanto de glesteri, che fossero caricati ne bastimenti veneti, e
ci provisionalmente; ben certo questo Consiglio, che proportion delle congonture,
e dei tempi, il Magistrato haver lattentione di restringerne, quando si possa di pi
le misure.
Resta per tal passo chiamato il suo noto fervido zelo versar nelle tariffe univer-
sali de Consoli, et estender le regolationi, fossero convenienti, come saviamente hanno
dimostrato esser stabilito per Durazzo, col ragguaglio alla mercanzia, e con loggetto
di renderla meno aggravata che sia possibile, avvisando tutto quello che nellessa-
me trovassero proprio di diminuire, nulla pi premendo, che sollevar il commercio.
Allelletto Ambasciator Estraordinario alla Porta il Dilettissimo Nobile Nostro ser
Carlo Ruzzini Kavalier, e Procurator, sia dato in copia il presente decreto non meno,
(1718) 151

che la scrittura sopra cui lo stesso emanato, onde col lume della materia habbia la
notitia della facolt appoggiatale per lellettione del Console Smirne; allhora che
sattrover Costantinopoli; e cos vedr la qualit delli commandamenti che colles-
sempio del Precessor suo Kavalier, e Procurator Ambasciator Estraordinario Soranzo
occoresse ottener dalla Porta per la corrisponsion del cottimo alli Consoli veneti dalla
quale sar sua parte ottener pur li baratti per lessercitio de Consolati, e stessamente
procurare con li maneggi della sua desterit sul luogo ladmission di due Consoli
Salonicchio, et Arta, dove per i riguardi della sempre utile dilatation del commercio
vien suggerito dal zelo de Magistrati Deputati al Commercio, e 5 Savi alla Mercanzia
di farne lintroduttione.
E del presente sia similmente dato copia allelletto Bailo alla Porta Emo
Zuanne Cavanis Nodaro Ducale

Eleftherios L. Vetsios

he establishment of new Venetian Consulates in the Hellenic Area


after the Passarowitz Convention in 1718

Summary
After the Passarowitz Convention in 1718 when only the IonianIslands, Preveza
and Parga were left under the Venetian rule, the Cinque SaviallaMercanzia (the public
service which served the commerce of Venice) in a letter to the Doge pointed out the
necessity of strengthening the Venetian commerce in the East. For this reason, they
suggested the establishment of new consulates in areas which they occupied in the
past or in areas in merchant crossroads. The suggestion included Heraclion of Creta
(Candia), because of its importance of oil, cheese and silk, Thessaloniki, because of its
economic privileges regarding the abundance of tobacco, cotton, textile salonici and
other products of the Macedonian area and Arta. In Artas case, firstly the Venetians
wanted to make the merchants who used the Amvrakikos ports for the exportation of
products pay taxes, and secondly, they wanted to compete the French whohad already
established their own consulate in the citysince 1702. Concerning Artas consulate, the
Venetians wanted to run again the consulate which stopped its service when Morozini
began his campaign to the Morea. The existing consulates in Dyrrachio and Smyrni
should continue to work.The Cinque Savi all Mercanzia, in parallel, providing for
152 .

the easy working of new Venetian stations, indicated the contribution of the 1% of
the value of the imported and exported products which were transferred by Venetian
ships to these ports. In addition, they pointed out the need to develop the Passarowitz
Convention aiming at the collection of cottimo up to 2% on the price of products,
demanding the implementation of this measure first to the port of Dyrrachio. They
also emphasized that, with the contribution of Bailo of Venice in Constantinople, they
would assure the necessaryberat which would confirm the election of the Consul and,
simultaneously, the beginning of the consulates service.
.

19
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29.1.1849, 10.10.1852, 22.12.1857, 6.3.1865, 6.10.1876.
2 . , , 2007, . 13. . -
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156 .

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2000, . 79.
5 19 5.469 (1836)
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1821-1971, . , , 1974, . 14, 31, 41, 67, 129, 197, 277.
6 . , . .
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1915), 2007, . 12-13, 65-66. . , .., . 111-115.
8 . , (1851-1912). , ,
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9 . (1892/3)
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(29-31.5.2009), 2010, . 115-116.
19 157

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.
11 : 29.4.1845-15.12.1850 (1), 17.1.1851-14.7.1855
(2 ), 11.8.1855-29.12.1857 (3), 27.8.1862-26.4.1866 (4), 14.7.1866-6.4.1870 (5), 15.11.1871-3.7.1873

(6), 27.7.1873-22.3.1874 (7), 3.4.1875-22.12.1876 (8), 20.12.1877-5.7.1878 (9), 11.1.1885-2.3.1887


(10), 3.1.1894-20.8.1896 (11), 14.2.1900-1.10.1902 (12), 1.10.1902-30.12.1903 (13).
12
.
158 .

, - -
.
...
. (1845-1865:
18, 1866-1903: 33)
1866 .
1862 -

13.

:

14. -

13 , 21.3.1875, 1.4.1876, 24.12.1876, 4.2.1877, 25.2.1877, 29.2.1880,


8.3.1882, 14.5.1882, 21.5.1882, 5.8.1883, 12.1.1890. , 16.4.1896, 23.5.1897, 17.8.1897.
14 (, , ) -
, (3/15.4.1833).
, 6/18.4.1833.
280 ,
, ,
. J. Petropulos ,
.
, ,
J. Petropulos, (1833-
1843), 1997, . 206. -
- .
,
. ,
.
. -
. ,
1847 . . , (1836-2006), .
, 2006, . 142. -
, . (27.12/8.1.1834),
, 10/22.1.1834. (24.4/6.5.1834),
, 16/28.5.1834. -
(8/20.6.1834), , 25.7/6.8.1834.
. , , 18592. . , .., . 3-11, 15-16, 24-33.
. , (1833-1871). ,
1870-2000, . 4, 2003, . 32-33. . ,
19 159

. - -
- ,
15.
- - -
. 1833 - -
16- .
- -
- . -

.
(1862),
186617.
, , -
.
68 (1836-1903) -
18 14 19. 9 -

. (1871-1909), 1870-2000, . 5,
2003, . 48-51. . -, ( --),
1999, . 18-22, 59-71. . , , .., . 47-64, 66-73, 75-79, 150-151. .
, , .., . 131-140.
15 . , .., . 2-3, 64.
16 . . , , -
, 1821-1971, . , , 1973, . 97-252. . , .., . 52-58, 222. .
, .., . 18. . , .., . 43. . -,
(1829-1989), 1991, . 21-51. . , ,
19802, . 372-374.
(1829, 1858, 1877, 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886, 1900, 1903). .
... 10.12.1885, 6.3.1886, 15.3.1895.
17 . , (1864-1909).
, 1991, . 41.
18 1828-1835
. . . ,
, .., . 42-46. . , , .., . 53-56. . ,
.., . 94. . , .., . 3-4.
. , . , . , . , . -
(30.11.1828-1831), . , . , . , . -
, . (1831-1835), . (1835-1836). . ,
, . . , 1993, . 731. . , -
. , 2002, . 71-72, 197-199. . , .., . 98.
19 . (26.6.1836-25.6.1837), . (26.6.1837-5.5.1841),
160 .

(, , , , , ,
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(, -, , , )20. -
(1 8 )
,
.
(, , )

(.. . . , . , .)21.
(4 9 ).
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, , -
- 1870 - 22,
. -
, 1866 1903
17 (1870-1875, 1879-1883, 1887-1891, 1895-1899).
. ,
-
(1870-1875) , -
1887-189123.

. (10.6.1841-14.11.1841), . (15.11.1841-1843), . (1843-


1847, 1847-1851), . (1851-1855), . (1855-30.9.1858), . -
(1.10.1858- 1862), . (13.10.1862-1866), . (1866-
1870, 8.6.1875-7.4.1879), . (1870-1874, 1874-5.4.1875, 1.10.1887-7.7.1891), . -
(8.4.1879-2.7.1883, 12.9.1895-5.9.1899), . (3.7.1883-30.9.1887), .
(8.7.1891-11.9.1895), . (6.9.1899-7.9.1903).
20 . , (1858-
1862), .
1862 (1866-1870, 1875-
1879). . , , ,
(6.4.1875-7.6.1875).
21 . . , .., . 92-95.
22 . , 29.11.1873, 11.12.1873, 15.2.1880, ,
8.12.1873. , 5.1.1873, 17.7.1875. , 30.11.1873, 8.12.1873`. ,
9.5.1874. , 3.8.1875. , 7.11.1876, 8.5.1883. , 3.11.1876.
, 12, 20.3.1879. . , .., . 148-156. . , -
(1840-1940), 1984, . 54-137. . , , . 123-124.
23 800.000 . 1.000.000 .
19 161

- 1866-
(, , , ).
19
.
-
. 1875
.
1891 (7.7.1891), .
, 24. -

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.
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/, . , . . ,
, . . .
-
-
- -
(, ,
, , .). -

2.000.000 . . , 30.11.1873.
. (1875), -
202.000 ., -
. , 27.4.1875.
.
(6.4.1875-7.6.1875). , 11.4.1875. . .
. . , .., . 143-144. . ,
, 1978, . 169-170. , ,
-
, . , 5.3.1875.
24 , 2.5.1875, 2.8.1891.
162 .


19 ,
, 25. -


26. 1870 -
-27.
(1870-1895) 6 18

. -
- - -
- -
-

. 1892/328
,
.
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.
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25 . ( , ),
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.., . 141-146. . , .
(1860-1910), 2006, . 313-319. . , . , :
(1833-2007), 2009, . 32-87.
26 1836-1903 163 .
105 , 58 . -
- -
23 3 5 .
1843-1874 6 , 2 /
(. ), 1874-1895 5 2 .
, , 1895-1903 3 , 3 .
27 1866 -
(27.12.1833)- . . , .., . 5.
28 . , . 1893-1905,
1999, . 78-217.
19 163

/29.

19 .
.


-
19 , -
-
,
.
- -

. -
1841, .
.
, ,
,
. -

30.
... 1845-1903
,
. -
-

(1828). (10.6.1858).

31.

29 . , .., . 146, 169-171, 182-183.


. . , .., . 109-111.
30 , 15.11.1841, 29.11.1841.
31 ... 2.1.1847, 14.4.1848, 24.6.1849, 8.7.1849, 22.2.1852, 8.1.1855, 11.8.1855.
, 27.6.1849, 17.10.1852, 10.6.1858. , 29.6.1840, 24.9.1840.
, 31.7.1844. , 6.9.1874. . -
, .., . 22. . , .., . 374. . , , . 177-195,
164 .

.

.
,
(5.6.1836),
(4.9.1836). 1840 -
. , (1840)
(2%)
. 1869
, .
1869.

. 1873 ,
. Pascal (26.6.1872).
- - ,
P. Magnac. (6.000.000 .)
. . -
4.932.000 . Magnac
(28.11.1879),
(11.2.1880).
Magnac , -
. Magnac
, , (16.6.1889).
- 8.0036.000 .- -
(1894)32.

210-232. . , .., . 35-39.


32 ... 30.8.1872, 11.5.1873, 3.7.1873.
.
. , 13.7.1840, , , 25.11.1875, 29.11.1875, 5.12.1875. -
, 28.11.1875, 12.12.1875, 26.3.1876, 24.4.1876, 24.12.1876, 22.4.1877, 28.7.1878, 1-8.2.1885,
31.5.1885, 30.1.1887, 6-13.2.1887, 11.9.1887, 15.1.1888, 26.2.1888, 6.5.1888, 22.7.1888, -
, 14-17.2.1895, 6.3.1895, 18-24.6.1895, 31.7.1895, 3.11.1895, 6.12.1897, ,
13-21.8.1895, 28.10.1895, 17.12.1895, 6-9.5.1896, 20-26.10.1896, 2.11.1896, 27.11.1896, 21.12.1896,
27.6.1897, 14.2.1898, 13.3.1898, 21.5.1898, 30.5.1898, 31.7.1898, 11.9.1898, 1.4.1899, 28.4.1899,
30.7.1899, 3.9.1899, 9.1.1900, 6-12.3.1900, 22.7.1900, 6.8.1900, 18-23.2.1901, 6.4.1901, 18.5.1901,
17.8.1901, 21.10.1901, 28.1.1902, 8.3.1902, 11.5.1902, 5.10.1902, 31.1.1903, 18.4.1903, 26.6.1903, 13-
17.9.1903, 14.10.1903, 25.11.1903, 12.12.1903. . . ,
(1828-1945), . , 2001, . 15-29. . ,
19 165


.
- 19 - -
33,
34, 35, -
36, 37, -
38, 39, -
40, .

, . , 1986, . 227-232. . , (1830-


880), .., . 110, 183 . . , .., . 49-55, 71. . , , .., . 23-24.
. , .., . 216-219, 384.
33 ... 30.10.1872, 14.3.1874. . , .., . 401-402.
34 -
,
. ... 20.10.1847. , 25.10.1858, 25.5.1862, 7.12.1874.
35 , ,
,
, . ... 20.10.1847. -
- -
.
18
. ,
,
. ... 4.3.1851. , 11.11.1842,
30.9.1866, 5.10.1866.
36 ... 18.4.1852.
37 -
(1879, 1881, 1884) (1903). ... 29.8.1852,
3.3.1863. , 14.3.1880, 13.2.1881, 11.9.1881, 16.4.1882, 29.7.1883. ,
12.6.1883, 9.9.1883. , 17.11.1895. , 9.6.1902. . ,
.., . 30, 371. . , .., . 175-178. . , .
, 1983, . 172, 178. . ,
, , (1999), . 331-334.
38 .
... 12.4.1851.
39 , 7.11.1875, 23.7.1876, 2.6.1878.
40 1898 .
.
- -

18 . 1902
. ,
166 .


1870, . (1870-1874).
-
41. .
2.000.000 .
937.935 . , -
-
2.000 -
(1838) .
, -
42.
--

-, -
(, )43,

8.4.1902, 30.4.1902, 27.8.1902. . , , .., . 185-187.


41 .
(1866) -
. 1872.
, 15.4.1874,
.
(1878) & .
1898. .
- (1895-1899) - - -
. ( 1898), ,
.
-
, ,
.
,
, 600 . -
, , 22.2.1858. , 15.2.1873. , 2.5.1875. ,
14.3.1875, 21.3.1875, 15.10.1876, 4.11.1877, 9.7.1878. ... 5.10.1866, 13.6.1878, 28.12.1885.
, 29.1.1877. , 25.4.1896, 30.6.1900. . , , .., . 24-25.
. , .., . 200-201. . , , .., . 184-185.
42 ... 14.3.1874. , 30.11.1873. , 23.12.1883, 21.8.1887. .
, .., . 40.
43 . ... 30.9.1851, 27.5.1857, 17.2.1866,
5.5.1867, 4.10.1886. 1873
70.000 . -
19 167

44, 45,
46, 47, 48. -
-
.

19
.
-
(1918)- 100 -
, .
49.
- -
50. -
. -

, 51,

, , 17.12.1876. , 28.6.1874.
44 -

. ... 19.10.1851, 6.10.1856, 27.5.1857, 5.5.1867, 4.10.1886.
45 ... 11.7.1869, 12.11.1869.
46 ... 29.8.1852, 10.10.1852, 22.3.1863.
47 ... 27.10.1869, 11.11.1869, 26.2.1870. . , .., . 118-119. . , ..,
. 156-157.
48
, -
. , ,
. ... 28.9.1845, 24.4.1847, 19.10.1849, 24.10.1856, 22.9.1857, 2.10.1862,
30.4.1864, 24.5.1865, 27.5.1865, 8.2.1868.
49 ... 4.10.1848, 11.7.1869, 12.11.1869, 19.5.1872. , 1.8.1859. ,
16.3.1884. , 14.10.1918, 18.10.1918.
50 -
.
. ... 16.4.1848, 20.3.1849, 17.2.1855, 6.2.1868, 4.12.1872, 19.1.1887.
51 ... 4.10.1845, 12.6.1846, 19.10.1849, 22.2.1852, 13.2.1866. -
1837 1888 .
. , .., . 95. . , .., . 375-377.
168 .

52 53, -
, .
-
. 1836.
- . (1.12.1836)-
. -
,

. -
1849, -
1/
,
. 0,25%
1851 (9.2.1851)

.
- - -
-
- - .
- . -
1857 - -
(15.10.1857).

52 , 1895 .

, -
. .
,
(, ,
, , ..). . , .., . 142.
-
. ... 4.10.1845.
77 117. ... 10.12.1862.
. ... 28.9.1845.
. ... 5.12.1872.
53 - 19 -
- . ... 4.10.1845, 10.9.1847,
9.3.1850, 5.12.1872. , 15.11.1841, 22.11.1841, 21.12.1841, 21.12.1842, 23.12.1844, -
, 8.4.1841. , 26.11.1842.
19 169


, -

,
54. - -
, - 11
(1871).
1850 186055.

(1856)56.
-
19 ,
57. -

.
58.

( , , .),
59. , , -

, (1873), (1876),

54 . ... 30.12.1851.
55 , 10.3.1851. ... 18.4.1847, 20.10.1847, 19.10.1849,
29.5.1850, 20.10.1850, 17.1.1851, 10.4.1853, 20.9.1866, 7.11.1866, 20.12.1866. . , -
, .., . 263-280. . , . , . ,
(1939-1945). ,
, ( 2003), . 2 ( 2003), . 122-123. . , ...
. . (1872-1973),
, 21 ( 2003), . 29. . , .., . 268-269. . , .., . 13-14.
56 ... 5.4.1856.
57 , 30.4.1864, 7.7.1864, 28.11.1864, 3.12.1871, 19.12.1880. ,
4.9.1881, 6.2.1887, 10.3.1889. , 8.5.1875. , 6.6.1893. -
19 . . , ,
.., . 103-113, 339-347. . , .., . 37-38. . ,
, 1888.
58 ... 27.4.1856. , 16.10.1876, 23.10.1876. , 13.5.1872,
29.8.1875, 4.6.1876, 29.10.1876, 17.3.1878, 9.5.1880, 27.2.1881, 25.5.1890.
59 . ... 21.4.1857, 10.5.1864, 6.6.1864, 21.12.1871, 22.3.1872.
170 .

(1856)60.
19
. -
-

- - 61. -
-
,
62. , 63

.

60 ... 27.3.1856, 9.1.1886. , 22.8.1863, 22.2.1874, 6.4.1874, 7.2.1875, 1.5.1875,


28.1.1877. . , 19.3.1873, 9.11.1873. , 16.4.1874, 7.3.1875,
11.4.1875, 7.11.1875, 6.2.1876, 20.2.1876, 28.1.1877, 25.2.1877, 2.3.1879, 15.5.1881, 12.2.1882,
22.2.1885, 25.3.1888, 30.3.1900. , 20.8.1886. , 18.12.1895, 26.3.1899,
21.9.1899, 1.1.1900. . ,
19 , (27-29
2005), 2006, . 198-206, 210-211.
61
W. Parker 1850 . . ,
, .., . 77-78. - 18
- .

.
. ...
14.1.1850.
62
... . ... 10.5.1847, 16.5.1847, 20.10.1847, 19.6.1853, 11.8.1855, 24.10.1855,
28.12.1885, 11.3.1896, 1.7.1900. ... -
( ,
, -
, ,
)
... 18.4.1847.
, -
, -
, ,
. ...
22.2.1852.
63 19
. . , .., . 13-27. . , .., . 13-16, 161.
19 171

1852-1856.
64. -
-
65. ...
, ,
, .
19 -

66.
, -
67.
-
, , ,
, , .68. -
. -
, , (.. 1852-1856),
. 1854
,
69.

. -
- 1858-
.

64 ... 22.12.1852, 28.7.1852, 30.1.1853, 10.4.1853.


65 : ( ) ,
,

, , .
. ... 16.3.1853.
66 , 1834, 1885 -
(1887, 1892).
. , (1871-1909). ,
1870-2000, . 5, 2003, . 160.
67
. ... 10.4.1853.
68 , 4.12.1895, 7.4.1896, 10.6.1897, 1.11.1898, 23.3.1899, 6.3.1900.
69 ... 11.8.1855.
172 .

.
. -
.
1849 (-) 659
70. - -
(1866-1869)71.
(1.300) , -
72.
1866 1867
73.
-
,
74. , -
,
,
75.
, -
76.



-
.

70 ... 11.8.1849. , 6.8.1849. . , (1849),


( 9-16 1990), . ,
1992-1993, . 297-350.
71
, 5.670 . 1867
100 , . ,
27.5.1867. . , , .., . , . 133-136.
72 , 24.3.1867, 28.7.1867, 25.4.1869.
73 ... 20.7.1866, 13.8.1866, 20.9.1866, 6.10.1867, 6.11.1867, 16.2.1868, 26.4.1869.
74 ( ),
,
. ... 6.10.1867.
75 -
. ... 8.11.1846, 20.9.1848, 30.12.1851, 3.11.1855.
76 ... 5.10.1866, 31.10.1867.
19 173

19 - -

,
. , -
-
.
77
,
. -
( )

. -
- 78-

. -

79.
,

77 .: 207.411,94 (1852), 123.461 (1853), 124.169,30 (1854),


71.132,93 (1855), 111.645,98 (1856), 279.676 (1857), 181.530 (1858), 170.000 (1863), 288.425 (1864),
182.695 (1865), 200.647 (1866), 243.143 (1869), 266.005,50 (1878), 798.679 (1885), 822.650 (1886),
793.708 (1887), 1.018.112 (1891), 872.254,99 (1893), 835.672,10 (1894), 801.461 (1896), 782.660 (1900),
1.840.634,50 (1901), 1.871.334 (1902), 1.728.500 (1903). .: 207.411,94
(1852), 123.461 (1853), 124.169,30 (1854), 71.132,93 (1855), 111.645,98 (1856), 279.676 (1857), 181.530
(1858), 170.000 (1863), 288.425 (1864), 182.695 (1865), 200.647 (1866), 243.143 (1869), 266.005,50
(1878), 798.679 (1885), 822.650 (1886), 752.851 (1887), 946.704 (1891), 1.031.830 (1893), 835.672,10
(1894), 801.461 (1896), 782.660 (1900), 1.840.634,50 (1901), 1.871.334 (1902), 1.728.500 (1903). -
.: 38.224,69 (1844), 28.652,90 (1845), 152.591,19 (1851), 146.363,70 (1852),
140.508,58 (1853), 170.163,35 (1854), 154.590,70 (1855), 258.968,41 (1856), 279.736 (1857), 233.514
(1870), 515.080 (1877), 537.018 (1878), 602.129 (1879), 676.478 (1880), 627.417 (1883), 400.000 (1886),
969.275,10 (1891), 872.254,99 (1893), 668.328,69 (1894), 605.000 (1899), 841.654,43 (1900). -
.: 30.376,68 (1844), 29.074,10 (1845), 92.752,36 (1852), 72.717,25 (1853), 78.179,99
(1854), 67.483,12 (1855), 89.379,55 (1856), 279.676 (1857), 152.600 (1870), 250.000 (1886), 1.018.112
(1891), 750.660,78 (1893), 610.996,86 (1894), 570.000 (1899), 601.103,13 (1900). ... 4.10.1845,
15.7.1846, 27.5.1852, 10.10.1852, 31.12.1852, 21.3.1853, 19.9.1853, 10.11.1853, 1.4.1854, 2-3.12.1854,
9.3.1855, 3.3.1856, 27.11.1856, 9.3.1857, 11.7.1857, 12.12.1857, 16.2.1863, 18.12.1864, 20.12.1885,
25.10.1886, 27.11.1900, 10.11.1901, 4.12.1902. , 4.11.1877, 16.11.1884. -
, 21.5.1895. , 19.5.1895, 12.12.1895, 20-24.9.1898, 27.4.1901.
78 . , .., . 41-42, 118, 156.
79 ... 14.12.1849.
174 .

80
- -
.
.
1850 81, ,

82.
,
83, , -
, , , -
84. ,
, -
85.
,
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- 86, 87,

80 ,
.


. ... 3.7.1846.
81 , -
. ... 29.8.1852.
82 ... 22.2.1852.
83 19 -
. ... 26.1.1854, 4.12.1895. . , .., . 67-72.
84 , , , -
, , , , , , ,
, . : , ,
, , , , , , -
, , , . ... 15.7.1846, 10.11.1853.
85 ... 22.2.1852, 1.3.1865.
86 ( 19 ) , -
, , , , , , -
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, . ... 27.11.1856.
87 . , 11.6.1875, 31.7.1881. . -
, , . 141-145, . . ,
. , , , 2008.
19 175

88, 89, 90, ,


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88 1856 , , ,
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89 ... 20.3.1849.
90 ... 9.4.1850, 17.9.1854, 27.11.1856, 31.10.1863, 13.5.1878, 14.6.1878. -
, .. . -
. .
91 . , , . 13.
176 .


92. -

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92 19
. . ... 4.3.1851, 22.2.1852.
93 ... 20.10.1847, 30.1.1853, 16.3.1853, 10.4.1853, 6.6.1864, 6.10.1867, 1.6.1900.
94 19 .
... 28.9.1845, 24.7.1900. , 6.8.1876, 14.1.1877, 20.1.1884, 3.5.1885, 7.6.1885,
28.6.1885, 20.12.1885, 13.6.1886, 14.11.1887, 26.2.1888. . , .., . 365-366, -
25 .
95 . , .., . 78-217. . , , .., . , . 165-169, 271, 283-292,
19 177

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96.

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.

.

302-309, 354-371, . , . 38-41, 89-94, . , .., . 142-145, 158-164. . ,


, .., . 195-213. . , , . , 1990, . 82-
97, 274-299, . , , . , 1985, . 83-111, 175-243.
96 21.8.1896-13.2.1900, -
(1896-1897)
1897. .
( 1885) (-
- 1886). 39 1885-1886
(13.9.1885-21.4.1886). , , (1896),
. ... 14.2.1895.
178 .


. -

. ,
, ,
, ., -

.

Nikos F. Tompros

The Local Authorities of Patras in the 19th century as a development factor of the city

Summary
The Achaean Capital is found among those municipal cities of the Greek King-
dom, which since the othonian period experienced design interventions in the orga-
nization of their limited space. In relation to the urban activity -and for the greatest
part of the 19th century- the municipality of Patras undertook the leading role in the
creation of the modern city, as the Greek State -due to its economical inability- had
no ability to assist the municipalities of its domain. The local authorities (mayors and
municipal counselors) along with the design interventions showed great concern to
beautify the city and exert social welfare provision to its citizens. Those activities
of the municipal authorities -neither minor nor occasional for the city and for the
everyday life of Patras- seemed to be characterized by their attempt to balance public
and private interests. The ultimate goal of all these actions on behalf of the municipal
authorities was to ensure public health, to restructure and reorganize the city accord-
ing to the standards of the big European capitals and to create a cohesive bond in the
society of Patras, since the demographic composition of the city was not based on a
past of common space and time. Thanks to the activities of local municipal authori-
ties, Patras was at the beginning of the 20th century, in comparison to the city of the
previous century, a modern European capital in terms of land use plan and existing
infrastructure, but differed to the policy applied at that time by the municipal leaders
and to its economy, as, after the crisis of resin (1892/3) the States role was redefined
and its economic profile was radically changed.
.

(1856-1909)
1891-1909

1870-1910
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500 . 56 . . . , . -,
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10/2/1912 -
, , . , . 144.
3 ,
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1900.
4
. , . 14-1-1910, .3.
5 ( 1842 - 1923), , , , -
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(30/5-1/6 2003), 2004, . 391-416.
10 , (1905-1906), 100
, 1997, . 149, 79.
.. 1920, 1909.
(1856-1909) 183

1900, -
.
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14 1-12-1900,
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15 . 423/7-12-1900 ,
. .
16 F. R. Bridge, Austro-Hungarian documents relating to the Macedonian struggle, 1896-1912, Thes-
saloniki 1976, . 80-81.
17 , . , . 208, . 207, 1-12-1900.
(1856-1909) 185

18.
.
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18 427/14-12-1900 448/31-12-1900, .
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21 1893-1911.
22 . , . 1906/5-12-1900, . 1 2
. 1536/7-2-1900, .3, . .
23 , ., . 1908/7-12-1900, . 3,
.
186 .

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26 . ., . 1911/10-1-1900, -
. 1914/13-12-1900, . 2, , . 1916/15-12-1900,
. 2, , . 1922/22-12-1900, . 3, -
, . 1923/23-12-1900, . 2, -
.
27 . , . 1495/27-12-1900, . 2, .
28 . , , 1967, . 205.
(1856-1909) 187


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30 . . , 4/27-3-1904, .
33-35, . ..
31 . , -
, , (
- . 28/10-2/11/1984), 1987, . 403. -
. 1909.
32 . , -
, , 7 (1929) . 9-11, 8 (1929) 2-4, 9 (1929) . 14-16, 10 (1929)
. 12-16.
188 .

33.
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5-1901.
34 , . /, . 28-49, , , ,
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35 . ., 40/30-1-1903 .
36 . ., 1218/29-4-1903.
37 . (), , . . ., . 2 , . 477.
38 . , , 1986, . 224.
39 , ,
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40 382/15-6-1904 .
41 . . , , 1965, . 394-395.
(1856-1909) 189

23 1904 -
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42 , 1903-1904, 100
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44 , 1903-1904, 100
, 1996, . 250-251.
45 . 177-179.
190 .

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46 . , 1856 1897.
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47 . 1879.
48 , (1905-1906), 100
, 1997, . 149. . . -
, , , (1856-1905), 2006.
49 (1906), . 3 .
50 ,
1980
, .. -
.
(1856-1909) 191

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51 . . , . ., . 396-401.
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54 , , . 10, . 4, 33 ..
192 .

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1914
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1903



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1898-1912, 1914, . 187
. , . 187-195.
(1856-1909) 193

2 1904 :..
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1909. 1909 -
-
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1909 .

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.

56 ,
.
57 . , , , 1964, .
269-272.
58 , . 269.
59 . . ,
1870-1912, , -
, 20-21/10/2001, 2002, . 206-207
194 .

21 190960
7 191061. ,
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30 1900

. 20
1909 , 21-12-1909,
.
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62.

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60 . , . 4735/21-12-1909, . 3.
61 . , . 10029/7-1-1910, .6.
62 . , . .
(1856-1909) 195

.
, , , -
, , . 63.
.. ,
, . -
.

Christos Intos

Angelos Sakelariou (1856-1909)


A doctor from Athens in Macedonia during the period 1891-1909.
His contribution and activity

Summary
During the period 1870-1910 the Greeks of the north regions of Greece suffered
from the different propagandas and especially that of the Bulgarians. A lot of persons
contributed to the strengthening of the Greeks of those regions. the Greek govern-
ment, associations, organizations and individuals. One of them was Angelos Sake-
lariou, coming from Villia, in Attiki.
He settled down in Goumenissa which became the centre of his activity. He was
a doctor, a secret agent for the Greek interests and the leader of the struggle of the
Greeks agaist the foreign propagandas. He was a personal friend of the former prime
minister Stephanos Dragoumis. Also a friend of the politician and diplomat Ion Dra-
goumis and a friend of the army officer and hero of the Macedonian struggle Pavlos
Melas and other important Greeks. He had correspondence with a lot of people and
this is a source of significant information for that period.
He got into the foresight of his opponents as it usually happens. Because of that
several murder attempts were made against him. The most serious was that of 1900
in Goumenissa when he was seriously injured and thus he was taken to Athens in the
hospital <Evangelismos> to be treated. Two more attempts were made against him in

63 . , , . 4758/14-1-1910, .3
196 .

1904 and 1906.He got married in 1906 to a young woman who was from Goumenissa.
His best man was Ion Dragoumis. He died in Athens in 1909 due to complications of
his injuries.
His activity is characterised of major importance for the Greek affair in Macedo-
nia.For all this after his death he was awarded the honorary title of a first class agent
and he was included in the list of the heroes of the Macedonian struggle.His name was
given to a street in Goumenissa in 1913.His name is written among others in the mon-
ument for the heroes of the Macedonian struggle in Goumenissa and its province.
.


( 19 20 )

19
20
.
, ,
,
,

.1
-
19 20
2000 Scientific
National History. The Greek Case in Comparative Perspective (1850-1920),


-
,
.
, ,

,


.2
-
. -
,

1 Effi Gazi, Scientific National History. The Greek Case in Comparative Perspective (1850-1920), -
2000. . 103-118. , , : -
. (1851-1919), .. -.. (.), .
1833-2002. . , 2004, . 205..
2 Gazi, .., .71-2, 103-106.
200 .

,

. .
3 1851. -
,
. 1873
,
, ,
.
1878 -
. 1883-1885 ,
1887 1890
, 1917.
1894 -

1897. ,
. , 27
1916 21 1917, -
-
. .
. -
.
-
.4
,
. -
.

George Grote -

3 . , . , 1961, .. , -
, 1935, .. , . 1851-1919 (
), 1929, .. -.. , .
1851-1919 ( ), 1920. ,
Gazi, .., .70-1, 76-7, 124..
4 , , 12 (1915), .320. -
. Gazi, .., .75-85.
O 201

. -
Grote

, . , -

,
-

.5 , ,
6.
(-
)
.7

. ,
1821 .
, , ,
, -
145 ..

. , ,
.8


,
,


.9

5 , 30 1878
( ), 1878, . 9.
6 Gazi, .., .77, 82-3.
7 . , , ,
, . , 1960, .591.
8 , 1878-1902, 1902, .355-356.
9 (.), 25 1915. -
. . , , 1915, .15.
202 .


. , , ,
, []

.10 , -
, ,
, ,

.11 ,
.12


11 1902 ( ): -
,
,
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.
, .
, .13

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.

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,

.

-
. 30
1904

10 , .., .22.
11 , 1878-1902, 1902, .4-5.
12 , ,., .61.
13 , ..,.403.
O 203

-
,

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,
.
, , -
, -
. , ,
-

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,

,
.

. : -
, ,
, . -
, ,
.14
,
(, -
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-

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, .
-
, ,

14 , . , 1905, .67-70.
204 .

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, ,
, . -
o
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.
, , ,
-
. ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
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.15 , ,
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.16
()
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, -

15 . , . ,
. , 1900, .19-20.
16 , . , 1905, .72-73.

-
: .

. , ,
. (,
, . , 1886, .3-4).
O 205

.17
, , -
, . ,
-
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.

,
, .18
, -
-

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.19
,

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.20
, 25 1902
,
, -
21 -
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.
,
, , -

17 ,
, . , 1888, .257-258.
18 , . , .
, 1900, .20-21.
19 , 1878-1902, 1902, .361.
20 , .265.
21 338 .. -
(, , .419).
206 .

, .22
, , -
, 338 .., -


.23
: ,

, , , -

.
, -
.24
, , -
,
,
.

,
,

.25

-

1908 . ,
, -
,
: , ,

22 , (1902), .
25 (1891-1910), 1911, .77.
23 , 1878-1902, 1902, .428-429.
24 . .. , 19
, .. (.), , .
.. , .246, .57.
25 , , 1927, .9.
O 207

. .
,
.26
-
27
.

19 (, )

-
28
. ,

, -
,

-
,
.29

,

26 , .
.. Ollivier Deschamps (14
1908), 1909, .37.
27 .
-
, , -
(,
18 1887,
1887, .8). . Gazi, ,., .77-78.
28
19 . . , 19
, , ..., 2008, .277-8.
29 Gazi, .., .84-5, 119-133. , ,
1897: , , 1897.
100 (4 5 1997),
(: ), 1999, .105-115.
208 .

,
-
.

Vasileios . Platis

Spyridon Lambros and the national claims of the Greek people in


Macedonia (end of the 19th -beginning of 20th century).

Summary
Spyridon P. Lambros (1851-1919) as a historian and University Professor was
capable of intervening in politics due to the difficult political situation in the end of the
nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century. He contributed to the making
of national past as other significant scholars of the Greek academic framework did,
such as Georgios Chatzidakis and Nikolaos Politis, founders of the disciplines of
linguistics and laography in Greece respectively. Among other researches, Lambros
dealt with the identity of ancient Macedonians. He strongly believed that ancient
Macedonians were Greeks. According to him, the unbiased study of history and the
scientific analysis of ancient Macedonians language were considered as concrete
evidence of their Greek character. The differentiation of ancient Macedonians from
southern Greeks concerning their lifestyle caused by their geographical isolation led
to deliberate misunderstandings of their ethnological identity expressed by Athenian
orator Demosthenes and few modern researchers. Spyridon Lambros considered that
Demostheness point of view was favored by the fact that Greeks of classical times did
not easily accept anything different from their language and customs this is the reason
why they defined people of the same origin as foreigners and barbarians. Lambros
claimed that Demosthenes was a narrow-minded patriot as he was concentrated on
Athenian interests. Additionally, according to Lambros, few modern researchers
who expressed doubts about ancient Macedonians Greek character were politically
prejudiced. Besides the evidence of past, Lambros considered Greek consciousness
of Macedonians of his time as the strongest argument about Macedonians Greek
character from ancient to modern times.

:
, ,
(22 / 5 1922)

-

.
(1915-17) -

. -
, , ( ....)
, ,
. , , -
-
,
1.
.
....
, , ,
, .
, -
, , , ,
, ,
-
.
1920 , , -
-
. , , ....,

1 N. Petsalis-Diomidis, Greece at the Paris Peace Conference 1919, Thessaloniki 1978, . 67-8. .
, 1913-1918, ,
2004, . 223. D. Dakin, , 1770-1923, . . ,
, 2001, . 334. . ,

, . :
, , ,
,
. . , 6 1919.
212

.
, ,
,

, . -
, (Nikola Pai) -
. , , -
-.
1921 1922, ...., -
,
, .
1922
, , , ,
, ,
, .
, , (ivojin
Balugdi), ....
1913, , ,
2. ,
-

. , , ,
(Benito Mussolini), -
...., -
, , ,
.
,
, , (Momilo Nini),
-
, , ,

2 D. Todorovi, Yugoslavija I Balkanske Drave, 1918-1923 [ -


, 1918-1923], 1979, . 176. -
, .
( ....) 1922/17/5. .
. 2. . ., , 1
1922, . . 8621.
(1922) 213

-. ,
-
- 3.


-
,
.
.
, ,
.
. -
, , , ,
,

4. -
, ,
, .... .
23 /5 1922, .
, , . ,
, . , .
-

10/23 1914, ....
. , , -
. ,

, -
, , 1914.
5.

3 Documents on British Foreign Policy ( D.B.F.P.), First Series, Vol. XXIV: Central Europe
and the Balkans 1922-23, London 1983, . 384-5, Young Curzon, 2 1922, . 193
. -, .
(1919-1923), 1997, . 200-1.
4 , 19 1922.
5 .... 1922/17/5. , , , 23
214

, ,
,
. -
, , ,
, -
6. ,

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. ,
7.
, , ,
. ,


, -
8. , -
,
. , ,

. , ,
,
. -

,
, .... , ,
...., ,

/5 1922.
6
7
8 , , Juna Zvezda ( ), 18
1922 :

. -
.

. .... 1922/17/6.
. 2.
(1922) 215

9.
: )
, )
) .... .
,

10. , ,
11.
, ,
.


,

.
,
-
12. -
, ,
, -
, . -
....
. , ,
,
...,
13.
, -
-

9 .... 1922/17/5. , , , 23
/5 1922.
10
11 Sp. Sfetas, Makedonien und Interbalkanische Beziehungen 1920-1924, 1992, . 130-2. .
, (1923-1947) -
, 2005, . 35-8. Todorovi, .., . 182.
12 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXII, .., . 275-6, Peel Curzon, , 12 1921, . 220.
13 .... 1922/17/5. , , ,
23 /5 1922.
216

. -

,
-,
. -
, ,
,
, 14. ,

15.
, -

,
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
-
,
, 16. -
,
17.
-
.
-
18.
-
19. . -
, Politika , , -
191220. ,

14 .
15 , 25 1922.
16 ( ), /42/126, , , 5
1922, . . 212.
17 Todorovi, .., . 207-8.
18 , . 183, . 61.
19 , 25 27 1922.
20 Politika, 6 1922.
(1922) 217

21 1922, 1914
.
, ..... -
, -
(Jovan irkovi) -
, ,
-
21. ,
, -
-
22. ,
, 23. ,
, ,
.
,
.
. -
,
, , ,
24. -
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. , ,

,
25.
, ,

21 Todorovi, .., . 207.


22 .... 1922/17/6. 2, . ., , 5/18 , .
. 1349. . , .., . 203 Politika, 15 18 1922.
23 .... 1921/47/5. . 5, . .,
, 28 1920, . . 34.
24 . Avramovski, Makedonsko Pitanje u Jugoslovensko-bugarskim odnosima od 1918. do 1925.
Godine, Jugoslovensko-bugarski odnosi u XX veku, (147-178) [ -
- 1918 1925, - 20
] ed, ivko Avramovski, Zbornik Radova 1, 1980. . 162.
25 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 414-8, Young Curzon, , 20 1922, . 207,
, .., . 206.
218

.... ( -
). ,

,
.
, -
, -

.
-
(smet nn) -
-
26. ,
, -
27.
, , -
.....
,
,
.
,

, , , -
28.


, -
,
. -
,

26 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 414-8, Young Curzon, 20 1922, . 207. ,


.., . 192-3, . 64.
27 .... 1922/17/6. 2. . ., , 20 , . . 418.
28 /42/126, . ., , 7/20 , . . 257.
(1922) 219

: 29. -
, , .....
-
. ,
, ,
-
,
30,
. ,

( , -
....).
' , -
,

. -
,
, ,
1914. -
(Kosta
Jovanovi)
(10/23 1914). -

. , ,
. ,
,
31. ,

29 , .., . 216, . 19.


30 Todorovi, .., . 188.
31 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 456, Young Curzon, , 4 1923, . 236, -
. 2. . Avramovski, Britanci o Kraljevini Jugoslaviji. Godinji izvetaj Britanskog poslanstva u Beo-
gradu 1921-1938, Knjiga Prva (1921-1930) [ . -
1921-1938, (1921-1930)], 1986,
. 95. , 1919-1940. , . , 1994, . 338-9,
, , 24 1922/6 1923, . . 253. . -
, , 1953, . 55. . ,
, (1913-1929), ,
220

, -
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, (Alban Young), -
,
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, , 1994, . 2.
32 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 456, Young Curzon, , 4 1923, . 236.
33 Politika,
,
.
,
(-),
- . ,
8 1923.
34 , 11 1923. , .., . 8.
35 , 19 1923.
36 . , 1923 1928, -
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, 2007, . 16.
37 , . 18-9.
(1922) 221

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38 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 539-40, Bentinck Curzon, , 10 1923, . 294.


, .., . 8-9.
39 Politika, 11 1923. Todorovi, .., . 211.
40 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 458-9, Young Curzon, , 4 1923, . 238,
. 1. , 21 1923.
222

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52 Sfetas, .., . 163.
53 D.B.F.P., Vol. XXIV, .., . 582, Young Curzon, , 12 1923, . 325.
54 , .., , , 14 1923, . .
495, . 546-7. -
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, 26 1923, . 350.
57 , .., , 7 1923, . . 520,
. 567-8.
58 , .., , , 24 1923, . . 578
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(1922) 227

. Foreign Office
, 59.
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228

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status
quo (24 1923) -
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-.... , , .

Athanasios Loupas

The Greek-Yugoslav friendship to the test: the visit of Greek Foreign


Minister, Nicolaos Politis, in Belgrade (22 October/5 November 1922)

Summary
This article examines the significance it had for the Greek-Yugoslav relations, the
visit of Greek Foreign Minister Nicolas Politis, in November 1922 in the Yugoslav
capital. The purpose of the visit was to secure diplomatic support in Belgrade in the
upcoming Peace Conference in Lausanne.The plight in which Athens had devolved to
after the defeat of the Greek army in Asia Minor rendered imperative the tightening
of relations with its traditional ally in the area of Balkans. The Greek Minister was
(1922) 229

warmly welcomed in Belgrade, while talks with Serbian officials were conducted
in a friendly atmosphere. The issues which occupied the two sides were both of
economic (implementation of the Convention of 1914 on the Serbian transit trade
from Thessalonikis port, signing a new trade agreement between the two countries)
as well as of political nature (the Bulgarian exit to the Aegean Sea, the Slavophones
of Western Macedonia, the activities of the bulgarian komitadjis on Greek and Serbian
soil and the possibility of greek-yugoslav military co-operation in the event of a new
greek-turkish war). The negotiations did not led to formal agreements. Serb officials
promised Politis to support greek positions in Lausanne and on the other hand Politis
gave assurances for implementing the 1914 Convention regarding the serbian transit
trade from the port of Thessaloniki. During the Conference the delegation of the
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes sided with Greece on the question of Western
Thrace, but on the same time yugoslav government was particularly contensting the
matter of the serbian free zone. Taking advantage of Athen's negotiatory weakness,
yugoslavian side pressed on ensuring prominent privileges to the port of Thessaloniki,
regarding the 1914 Convention. The new Convention which was signed in Belgrade
on May 10 1923 in addition with the denial of yugoslav government to co-operate
with Greece in case of a new greek-turkich conflict proved that the two countries
were no more equal partners.
.


. H

:
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, , ...
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, 1897
1
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, -
19 20 .
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4 1836 , -
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3.
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8 . .., . 35.
9 . . , , 2004, . 31.
( 19- 20) 235

(=, )
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20 . , , ..,
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( 19- 20) 237


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28 . (1859-1951) -
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( 19- 20) 239

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1924 J. Dewey Schools of tomorrow (1919) .
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( 19- 20) 241

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: 20 ,
, 2010, . 392-411.
34 . S. Ziogou-V. Foukas-
P. Chatzimpei, Childhood and Pedagogical theory in Greece (19th first decades of the 20th century):
From the little adult to the childs psychology, 1st International Conference of Childhood, Mansfield
College, Oxford 1-3 July 2010, .
242 .

) :

.35

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( 19- 20) 243

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( 19- 20) 247

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268-280, 326-338, 392-403, 462-475, 523-536, 589-602.
58 . . , , , . , 1907, . 5.
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61 ,
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, (. . , ), , . ,
1909, . 85-89, I. Hericourt, , , . . , , . , 1910,
. 29-35, 87-93, 163-167, 377-381, 439-442, 613-620, . ,
, , . , 1910, . 126-128, G. Stanley
248 .

-
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, :
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(1908, . 470-491)

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, , -
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63, -
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Locke64, . -
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. .66
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-, , , . , 1912,
. 340-351.
62 . . , , , . , 1908, . 486-
491. . 1899
1901 . 1912.
63 . H. Lietz, , . ., , . , 1909, . 603-610.
64 . Fr. Guex, . (John Locke), .
. , , . , 1910, . 151-162.
65 . . , , , . , 1912, . 385-397.
66 . . , , , . ,
1911, . 385-408.
( 19- 20) 249

. , . , . , . , . . .
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( 19- 20) 251

- -
, ,
, W. Rein : ...
....71

Vassilis A. Foukas

Pedagogical training of Secondary Schools teachers and the Asso-


ciation for the Distribution of Beneficial Books

Summary
This article explores the actions and the initiatives of the Association for the
Distribution of Beneficial Books in the context of 20th century. More particularly,
it examines: a) the main points of view of the pedagogical training of teachers and
educators who took part in the First Hellenic Educational Conference in Athens
(1904), b) the pedagogical articles that were published and the educational issues that
were discussed in the journal of the Association of Beneficial Books, The study
(1907-1912), and c) the publications of the Association for the Distribution of Ben-
eficial Books (1900-1940).

71 W. Rein . , -
, .., . 132.
o - - - 1

(1939-1949)
1. , , 1
-

.
1939-1949 -
.
.

1913-1939 .

. 2
1912, 3
.
1913-
1923 : ) 1913,

, 4 ) 1923,
-
. 5 1923

1
. & . -
.
. , . - . -
.
. .
. , .
2 1920-1923 1923/37, . 16910/8/18.5.1923, 1469/10.12.1923,
4.12.1923 . , -
, .
3 . -, .
(1870-1912), , 2004.
4 , . 8, 1913.
5 , 1923, 39/. . , 8,
. /..44/7.7.1923, &
, . 57, 1, 1920-1923 . /45, .
, .. 36256/1.11.1923, 10& , 1920-1923, .
256 o - - -

. 6 ) 1928-1939, -

Adina Berciu-Drghilescu Maria Petre
. 7 ) 1932-1933,
,
. 8 ) 1939-1940,
-
, 9 10. -

. . 11 ) 1940-1944,
: 1.
12 2.
( 5 -
1941-1946) 13 3.
, .

/45, 2, 3, 5, 7. )

- , . 2,3, .
, .. . 16598/25.5.1923, .6.
6 . ,
, 1923, , , -
, , . , . 21, 1987.
7 A. Berciu-Drghilescu, & M. Petre, coli i Biserici Romneti din Peninsula Balcanic. Docu-
mente (1918-1953). Vol. II. Bucuresti 2006, p. 363-365.
8 - , . 21, .20, .
( / , 8.6. 1933, . . 17933.
1932-1933 & .104.2/.47 -
.
9 , 95, , -
,
1939-1940

10 , 1778, . 4, -
, ( )
1939-40.
11 . . , 1942, . 14-15,
.2.
12 . Berciu-Drghilescu, .. v. I., . 612-614.
13 , . 104.2/.47 .
(1939-1949) 257

14 104,
2, 47,

1939-1945 . . . 10/2/2/3
1944,
,
15 .
1948. 16

2. -

.
-
1860-1892, -
Lumina 1885
Drita 1887. 17
1893-1903
. 18 -
1903-1905
1905 millet .
19
, , 20

.

14 & , . 104, . 2, . 47. -


, & -

15 & , , . 343, . .
10/2/2/3 , 11 1944
16 & ,
.../949/.. , . ... 49/ 28 1948
17 , .., . 32-33.
18 , .., . 32-33.
19 . - & . , : -
,
29-31 2009, 2010, . 153-169.
20 .. - & . , .., .168
258 o - - -

10 1913 21 22 -
, , ,
, . -
, ,
(, , )
-
. 23 ,

. 24 ,
, 25 -
, .. Filodor
, . ,

, . 26
27

, , , , . 28
,
, 29 -
,
-

21 http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/el-GR/The+Ministry/International+Conventions,
. . 217/28.10.1913 ,
22 http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/el-GR/The+Ministry/International+Conventions, . -
, , . 1917
23 . . 1910-1918. 1991. , -
, 2001.
24 . , (1900-1945), 1994, . 96-97.
25 Berciu-Drghilescu, .. v. I, p. 278, 279.
26 . -, , 1992, . 66
27 . , , . 2, 1945, . 31. . , -
, 1962, . 100, .. , , 1996, . 222-227
28 . , , 1905, . 51-52.
29 . ,
1912. 1953. R. Crampton. The decline of the Concert of Europe in
the Balkans 1913-1914, The Slavonic and East European Review. 52 ( 1974), . 393-419. H. Gardika-
Katsiardakis, Greece and the Balkan Imbroglio. Greek Foreign Policy, 1911-1913. 1995.
(1939-1949) 259

.30
, . 31
-


.32

(1919-
1920) . 33 , 34
,
,
, , 35
36
. 37
4 1936 -
, .
,
, . 38 -

30 . -,
, , 1988, . 41-54. E.C. Helm-
reich, The Diplomacy of the Balkan Wars 1912-1913, Cambridge 1938.
31 . -. , 1992, . 191
32 . -, .
. 1999
33 . . (1919-1945). , 2008 . 66, http://
www.arnos.gr/dmdocuments/lykeio/lykeioC/istoria/istoriagenpaid/013.Is.G.P.To.synedrio.eirhnhs.twn.
parisiwn.pdf, S.D. Spector, Romania at the Paris Peace Conference, 1995.
34 , -
28 10 1920, , 1920.
35 . .., . 66.
36 . , , -
, 27-29 1994, -
1995, . 315-334.
37 V. Vlasidis, Consequences of the demographic and social rearrangement to the Vlach speaking el-
ement of Greek Macedonia 1923-1926, Revue des etudes sud-east europennes, 3 b (1998), . 155-157
38 . , :
, . & . ().
, 1995, . 115.
260 o - - -

, , ,39
1940
, .


Mikhail Antonescu,40 -
-
. 41
-

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.43

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40 Berciu, .., Vol. II., . 411.
41 Berciu, ..., . 418: 21 1941 Universal 190
-
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14, 7, 4, 6. , ,
9 , , , , , -
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.
42 . -, .., . 97-102.
43 . , . http://www.imma.edu.gr/
imma/history/14.html, 2007. . , , .
. . , 1996.
(1939-1949) 261

, 44

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1942 47
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-
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, 50
. 51
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-
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, ,
,
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44 . J. Winnfrith, Vlachs, R. Clogg (ed). Minorities in Greece. Aspects of a plural society, London
2002, . 118-119
45 . , ..
46 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki, el.wikipedia.org, Principaut du Pinde et Vovodie de la Macdoine,
. , .
- . --, -
1998, . 189-210.
47 . , .., . 109, . 124-134, . .
: 1860-1944: -
1941-1945, 1998.
48 . -, .., . 158. . , .., . 69.
49 . -, .., . 145-149. . , (1941-1944),
2004.
50 . , .., . 159.
51 . J. Winnfrith, .., . 119
52 . , .., . J. Winnfrith,.., . 119
262 o - - -

.

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27.11.1945
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(1939-1949) 263

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60 . , .., . 115
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63 248 12/17.101936, 1936, . 91, . 720
264 o - - -

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67 ..
68 A. Berciu, ..
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72 Berciu .., Vol. II, . 413, 414.
266 o - - -

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.

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11 1944
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.
75 Berciu, ..., Vol. II, .. 474-475.
76 Berciu, ..
77 Berciu, ..
78 . , .., 1998, 27, . 5.
79 3 1913, , . . 229/14.11.1913, . 809-813
80 . 568/1915, . , 9.1.1915, ..1 & 2, . 8
(1939-1949) 267

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, 11 1944.
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10/2/2/3 , 11 1944.
91 ,
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92 A . , Carte de compuneri si Grammatica pentru, clasa V. A. Scoalelor primare in
conformitate cu programa analitica din 1925, Bucuresti 1926
93 A . , -
.
(1939-1949) 269

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100 , 1920-1923 1923/37, ..
101 , , , ( ), -
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1944.
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1944
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111 . , http://blacksea.ehw.gr/Forms/fLemmaBody.aspx?lemmaid=12399
112 .../949, ..
(1939-1949) 273

Sophia Iliadou-Tahou , Andreas Andreou, Anastasia Tanampasi

THE ROMANIAN SCHOOLS OF GREECE (1939-1949)

Summary
Based on Greek and Romanian archives, the aim of this study is to analyze the
situation of Romanian schools of Greece and their operation after the Bucharest Trea-
ty. Our study focuses on the decade 1939-1949. Initially we presented our sources
and then we report the historical and political context of the critical period after the
Bucharest Treaty. Moreover, we analyze the institutional framework of these schools
functioning and finally we list our conclusions having considered the geopolitical,
economic and social parameters.
.


1960

H 1950 -

1954
.
.
. -
(1952),
(1954)
(1958)1.

-
.

6
1955.

-

.
1959

. -
1959, 19622.
-
3.
1957,

1 . ., 1950-1960. -
, 2007, . 65-70.
2 ., -
, , , 2004,
. 64. ., (1950-1960), 2007, . 311.
3 ., :
(1945-1975), , -
, , 2007, . 237-238.
278 .

.
1957
.

.
148 .

.
,
. -
-
.

1959. ,
-
, . -

-Kuneralp
.

-
4. -

.

1955.
,


.
-
-

4 . , A . , .9, ., ,
, , , .., .116-122.
(1960) 279

5.
-
, 1955-1960
, .


.
-
. ,
1960 1961.

-
.

6:
1) 1952,
, -
. -
. 1960
89 .
2) ,
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3)
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,

.

5 ., .., .197-198.
6 (...)/ (...)/ -
, , (.......)/.90,
, ...51,
, 9.4.1960, .1.
280 .

4) -
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5)

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6)
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8.
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7 .../.../......./.90,
, ..,. 2.
8 .../.../......./.90, .., .3.
(1960) 281

,
,
, .

, 9:
1. (, , ,
, ..). -
.
2. .
3. . ,
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5. .
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(200 ).
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(200 ).
..

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282 .


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, .

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1940-41, , , , -
.
.

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11.
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(38 34 .

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.

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, 14.4.1961., .1.
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(1960) 285

)
.
4.
.
5.
-
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.
6. ,

300 .
14.
7. -

,
.
8.
, , -
15.
9.
.
10. .
11. -
.
12.

.
.
13.
16.
14.
(, , ), -

14 .../.../......./.90, .., .3.


15 .../.../......./.90, .., .3.
16 .../.../......./.90, .., , . 4-5.
286 .

14
10, -
17.
-
-

.
.
, ,
, ,

. -
, ,
.

,
, .
1954,

.
, -
,
-
18,
(1960),
19.


.
6 . 1967 -
-

17 .../.../......./.90, .., .5.


18 ., , , , 1992, . 119-120.
19 .,, .., . 300-303.
(1960) 287

,
1968.
, -
, -
,
.
.

.
,
,
20. -
,
-
.


.

Kostis A.Tsioumis

The management of Greek Language in the Minority Schools of


Thrace at the beginning of the 1960 decade and the question of the
State Teachers of Greek Education

Summary
The 1950 was a very important period as Moslem education and Greek-Turkish
Relations are concerned. During this decade important decisions for the minority
education were taken, such as the establishment of the Celal Bayar Gymnasium (1952),

20 ., ..,. 291-293.
288 .

the vote for the Turkish Schools Law(3065)and the signature of the convention for
the School Books (1954) and the vote for the Minority Schools Curriculum. During
this period an important number of state teachers was appointed, which improved the
teaching level of Greek Language.
The relations between Greece and Turkey were deteriorated after the 6. September
1955 riots. After the Cyprus Question settlement efforts for the solution of minority
education problems were made. The inspector of Foreign and Minority Schools and
the inspectors of the Muslim Schools held meetings (1960-1961) in order to discuss
the question of Greek Language Teaching and other important problems of the
Minority Education and to propose solutions for them and appropriate measures to
be taken. The inspectors gave instructions for the subjects were taught in Greek and
discussed the problem of living conditions for the state teachers of Greek and tried to
find solutions for them.
One of the main issues which concerned the inspector was the preparation of the
state teachers for teaching in Thrace and the method to solve this. The inspectors
proposed the organization of a month-long seminar, where the teachers could be
informed for teaching methods, geography and anthropology of the minority and other
issues such as the communication with the minority members and the state officers
and about working together with the Moslem educators. The question of the state
teachers preparation has been resolved in 1967 and another discussion has begun,
which led to the establishment of the Special Pedagogical Academy for the Education
of Minority Teachers in 1968.
.

1908-1923:



20 . 1915 -
.
.

. ,
9 1948, -

,
.1 -
, .
,
.
.

. ,
.
,
,
, . ,
. -

1 1907
. 1915 -

.
. -
, .
genocide ( caedere (=, -
) (R. Lemkin),
, Axis rule in occupied Europe, Law of Occupation.
Analysis of Government proposals for readers, Washington 1944.
1965. . . -
, , 1966, . 9, 15, 31, 136.
292 .

.2
. ,
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. , , : ,
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1916-1923, -

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. , . ., . 30, 32-3, 39-40.
3
. , . ., . 32, 41, 53.
4 , . ., . 35, 42-3, 54-8.
(1908-1923) 293

, .
1908

, . 1916, -
,
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5 . , 1908-1914, ...., . 1, 1954, .


152-3, . . , .
1908-1912, 1926, . 9-10.
6 F. Ahmad, "Unionist Relations with the Greek, Armenian and Jewish Communities of the Ottoman
Empire, 1908-1914", Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, . 1, . B. Braude-B .Lewis,
- 1982, . 403-6.
294 .

,
1908 " ", .,
" (. )
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7 . , , 1978 (1 .1916), . 25,


27, , .
8 , . 19 .-1919. .
, 1997, . 462-3, , .., . 112, 114.
9 /1911//39, 1909 -10.
(1908-1923) 295

,
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-

10 , .., . 463 - 464, 506, . 30, , .., . 118 - 127.


11 Times 3 1911
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12 /1911/ 39, . . 227, . (), ,
24 1911.
13 /1911/ 39, . . 89, . , , 9 1911.
14 , .., . 118-9, 124.
296 .

, .

1909
, -
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,
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.15 ,
1911, ,

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1910
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. 1800-1922, . 3, 1991 . 81, 107, 114-5, 119.
16 /1911/ 39, . . 397, . , , 12 1911.
(1908-1923) 297

, -
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.17 1910 1911
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-
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17 , , 1927 1929, . 146, 165,


, . ., . 3, . 111, 114-5.
18 , . ., . 118-123, 204, 209-211, 213-4, , .., . 34, 36-9.
19 /1911/ 39, . . 358 . , , 17 1911
20 , .., 457, 461, 465, , .., . 21-7 , .., . 116-7, 126-7.
21 , . . , . 145-6.
22 /1911/ 53, . . 503, . . , , 4 1911.
23 /1912/25.3, . . 476, . . , , 31 1912.
298 .

,24
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1909 , -
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24 /1912/25.3, . . 123, . . , , 12 1912, -


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25 , . ., . 496, , . ., . 133, 134.
26 /1909// , .. 158, . . . /, ,
28 1909, .
27 /1910/ 21, . . 238, . . , , 26 1910, . .
443, . , , 9 1910.
28 , . ., . 257-8.
29 /1911/ 43, . . 82, . , , 2 1911.
(1908-1923) 299


1911 -

.30
,
,31 -

, .32 -
.
.
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1913
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30 /1911/ 21, . . 16012, . /, , 8 1911.


31 /1911//53, . . 236, . , 30 1911,
, . , , . 5, (-
2002), . 50, 55-6, . , , . 7-8, . 572.
32 /1912/25.3, . . 207 473, . . , , 27 28
1912 , , , . 1, . 389 . , -
, 6 1911.
33 , .., . 133, , .., . 46-50, , .., . 45.
34 , . , 19943, . 29-30.
35 /1912/25.3, . . ., . . , , 15 1912.
36 /1911/ 53, . . 577, . . , , 30 1911,
/1912/25.3, . . 446, . ., 10 1912, /1912/24.3, . . 110, . ,
, 5 1912.
300 .

-


.37
1913 , -
2.500 ,
,
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,
.38

, .39

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37 . . , . (1453-1921), ,
1997, . 23.
38 , , 32, , . 6-17, , , . 35-43.
39 1913
: ,
. ,
-, , 7-14 1985, -
1986, . 276.
40 /1915//4/15, . . 1, . , , 11 1915
/1917//38, . ., 15 1916, . .
. . , , 1986 (1 . 1925), . 60-62,
65-66, , . ., . 68-70, 92, 123-126, . , -
, 1970, . 64-9, , . ., . 175, , , . 9, . 143-144, 148-149,
176-177.
(1908-1923) 301


. -
,
. -
,
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-
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, -
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1915

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28 1915
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,43

41 , . ., . 528-530, -
( ), 1917, .
27-30, , . ., . 92-3, . , , , 14 (1945), 325-6
Ahmad, . ., . 418.
42 , . ., . 16-20, 31, , . ., 62, , . ., . 174-5, -
, . , . 9, (1999), . 100-103
, . ., . 325-6.
43 /1917/35, 38, 45, 59, . . 1573, , , 30 1916
10 1916 , -
302 .

. , 19

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44 /1917/35, 38, 45, 59, . . 11848, .
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. . 824 , , 1916, -
150 , . . 1573, , , 30 -
1916,
,
28/8/1916 , , . ., . 186-7 : -
, , ,
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,
(1914-1918), 1919, . 224, 242-5, 253-5, 266-7,
269-270, 271-2.
45 /1917/35, 38, 45, 59, . . 7100, /, , 4
1916 .
(1908-1923) 303


, -
. 46


.
,

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1918 -
. -
.
, ,
, -

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1919
.
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46 , . ., . 239, . 392, 300-304, 310-316, N


, , . ., . 105, , , . 90 /1917/35, 38, 45, 59, .
. 5153, , 23 1917, 40 -
.
47 , . ., . 49, 51, , . ., . 83, , . ., . 236, 238-240.
48 , . ., . 189, 225, , . ., . 276-7.
49 . , , . , 16 2010

1920.
304 .


.
.50
1921
.
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, . -
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1920 1921
, .
,

1921 -

.53
1922 , -
, . thel Thompson,
, -
. 300 .

50 , ,
1921-1923, , 4 (1983), 172, , . -
, 1994, . 87-91 , - ,
, 1982, . 74-5, 100-112, 115.
51 /1921/6.7, . . 196, ,
20 1921 .
52 Black Book, The Tragedy of Pontus 1914-1922, 1922, . 21-2, 26, William H. King, Turkish
Atrocities in Asia Minor, 1922, . 5-6, , . ., . 214-5, . ,,
, ( 1992) (=1 . 1924), . 52-53,
, ... ,
, , 1997, . 203.,
Daily Telegraph 6 I 1921,
Murray, USS Overton.
53 , . ., . 232, 254, , . ., . 46-9, 80-84, 182-192, , . ., .
108, 112-3.
(1908-1923) 305


.

.54

.55
1922 2 14
.
1921.56

-


.

300.000 ,
-
.
.57
.
.
: .
. -
, -
.58

54 , , . 11, . 542-3, King, . ., . 8, / . /18.5/Rapport Offi-


ciel du Capitaine F. D. Yowell, . 1, 22-25 /18.5/Rapport du Docteur Mark H. Ward, . 30-32.
55 TNA/FO 371/7877, Report of G. W. Rendel, 17 1922.
56 , ,
, . , 26 1922 ( The Christian Science Moni-
tor, 3 1922 Boston), TNA/FO 371/7877, Herbert Gibbons, , 7/20 21 1922. .
, . ., 19-20 (1946), 457-8: , -
..
: ;.
57 Everett P. Wheeler, The Expelled Greeks, The New York Times, 9 1922, ,
. ., . 186-9, 205.
58 , . , . ,
2003, . 351-2.
306 .

Euripides P. Georganopoulos

The Cultural Genocide of the Hellenism in Pontus from the Young


Turk Era until the aftermath of the Treaty of Lausanne: a different side
of their persecutions

Summary
Immediately after the successful conclusion of the Young Turks movement in 1908,
their Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) put in practice a plan for the transfor-
mation of the multinational Ottoman Empire into a Turkish national state. The plan of
turcification at the beginning included mainly measures for not violated attack against
the no Turkish nations and especially the Christians. So in August of 1908, using as a
pretext the strengthening of Ottomanism, they started taking away the privileges of the
millets. By this way they tried with indirect methods to destroy the education of the
Greeks and to restrict the role of the orthodox bishops upon the Greeks. In Pontus the
Young Turk government interfere with the internal issues of the orthodox church, in
which the government always took the side of the opponents of the topical bishop, and
in the ecclesiastical justice of the orthodox such as in matters of marriages, testaments,
and divorces, obstructed the ecclesiastical act of the Greek priests, persecuted and im-
prisoned priests with unfounded accusations, obstructed the travel of the bishops in their
area etc. Also later, Kemal interfere with internal affairs of the Oikoumenical Patriarch-
ate with the establishment of the pseudo Turkish-orthodox patriarchate putting as a head
of it the Greek orthodox priest from Pontus papa-Efthym.
In the area of education the Young Turks imposed the Turkish language in all
schools as obligatory despite their declarations and they decided from September
1908 to impose the ottoman idea through the schools. The main goal was the weak-
ening and the control of the powerful Greek education through the abolition of this
responsibility from the patriarchate. So they imposed the teaching of the Turkish lan-
guage as metrical and of the Turkish history in the Greek schools, they restricted the
Greek Schools, they tried, especially in the hinterland of Pontus where the muslims
were more from the Greeks, to enlist the Greek pupils to the Turkish schools, which
established in great numbers from the Young Turks since 1908, they closed Greek
schools with different pretexts for supposed irregularities, they restrained the permits
for building or repair for the Greek Schools, they deported Greek teachers, scientists
and journalists, etc.
(1908-1923) 307

During the period of the genocide of the Pontian Greeks (1914-1923) the muslims
advanced to destructions of Greek churches and seizures of Greek schools without
reasons, which they did not return even after the end of the 1st WW. Especially during
the second period of genocide (1919-1923) the attack against the elite of the Pontian
Greeks was total as in September of 1921 the verdict of the so-called Independence
Courts, that Kemal had created in an attempt to have a legal pretext for the execution
of noted Greeks (bishops, teachers, journalists, doctors, traders) in Pontus through
a parody of trials, sent to death 450 Greeks. The violent islamization of Greeks, es-
pecially women and orphans, which have been increased after 1908, became major
problem for the Greeks, besides the others, during the period 1914-1924. Even af-
ter the Asia Minor destruction and in spite of the Lausanne Agreement (January 30,
1923) the kemalists continued the islamizations of Greeks and the attacks against the
church. But even after the expulsion of Greeks the Turks tried to destroy characteristic
monuments which reminded the Greek presence in Pontus (for example monaster of
Panagia Soumela), suppressed the possibility of the revealing of the islamized Greeks
and cryptochrisitans and put in pursuing Greek-speaking Muslims in Pontus.
.

1922-1935

19
20 -
.
1922.
-
. -

.
,

. ,
, , , , -

.

,


1922
.

, ,

,
,
,
.
-


. ,
.

312 .

-
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.
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( ), (, -
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), (, ).


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), ( -
), -,
- .
, -


(1922-1935) 313

1920
1928 .

. -


.


,

1928, 1.221.849 1. 107.607 (11.343
96.264 )
303.171 .
53.326 42.938 2.
-
(.
1-4038)3
1922
.
,
, . . ,
-
,
, . -

.

1 , ,
, , 1935, . 41.
2 , ,
15-16 1928: : ,
, 1933, . ., . 410. (, , ,
, , , , ) 698 .
3 ,
. 1-4038, , (), . -
,
.
314 .


.

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-, -
, -
.
, -, , , , , ,
-, -
, , , .

1
-
1928

- -


1.552 33.305 34.857
366 4.901 5.267
2.135 2.439 4.592
209 1.421 1.630
548 590 1.138
27 235 262
25 43 68
5 3 8
4 1 5
1 - 1
1 - 1
- - -
- - -
4.891 42.938 47.829

: , 15-16 1928
(1922-1935) 315



.
,
(30/1/1923). ,

. -

. ,

.
-
. ,

.
. -

.
,
15.2.1923

.

, , ,
4,
-

. , 5 -
.
, 1923
-

4 . , ,
20 : 1922-1940, , 1, 2002, . 22-23.
5 . , : 1923-1930, -
9, 1992, . 54-55.
316 .


. ,
-
.
, 6 -


, , -

7.


- - -

. 1922 .
. , -

.
. -
, -
, -
. 1926,
30/6/1926 1.160 . 129
. 8. , 660 . 226 .

6 . , :
: -
, , 1997, . 278.
7 . , . ., . 22-23.

. .
. , ,
-
.

.
8 , , .
, 1997, . 71-72.
(1922-1935) 317

., 67 . 143 . .,
263 . 912 . ., 3 . 500 . .
225 . 288 . .

.
-
. -
, .

, -
-
, (14-27/11/1919).
-
,
.
-
. 9 1930 2.089
129.934 (52.561 ,
63.886 13.487 ). -
, 30/6/1926,
280 1.993 10.

9 . ,
: , 1997, . 25-27.
10 243 1928. . -
, : -
, 1919-1930, , 2, 1995, . 64.
236 . . . , -
, , . . ., 1930, . 409.
242 1.954
. . , , , .
. ., 1930, . 403. 623
2.085 . . . , , 1934,
. 12. 623
1924-1930 41.828 1930-1940 -
. . ,
. ., . 37-43. ,
, , , 243
1929. . , -
1932, . , 1932, . 165-168.
318 .

11 57
, 62, -
48 76 -
. , , .
4.130 ,
5.073, 2.738
- 4.912 . , -
, ,
. 499 . 048 .
., 339 . 395 . .,
160 . 649 . . -
320 . 719 . . , ,
.
37.783.064 ., -
62.783.657 .,
30.950.901. - -
52.949.353 . -

3.557 (1.830 1.727
), 4.888 (1.627 3.261 -
), 1.943 (1.676 267 )
3.100 (2.839 261 ).
,
.

.
1/5 .
-
. ,
. , ,
. -
. -
,
.

11 . , . ., . 165-168.
(1922-1935) 319


(, , ).
145.057 99.940
. 10.000
.
, ,

. , ,
-
12.
20
6-10 . -
12.000 .

. -
. ,

.

. -

.
.
8.060 ,
. -
13.
4 8
. 2
. , -
, .

12 , , .
, 1997, . 55-56.
13 1930, ,
.
10.000 . . ,
, , 1 1930, . 12.
320 .

. -
, ,
. 10.000 .
, . -

. ,
14. -
( , ,
, ).

-
:
-

: . . . . -
1928 858 -
1.151
148 155
. , 1922

-
1920-192215 (
-) 734 . -
.
, . -
.
1928-192916

14 , . ., . 67. , . . , . ., . 22.
9.228 445 D. H. T. G.,
9.673 .
15 , ,
1922, . 9, 36, 40-41.
16 , (1928-1929),
. ,
.
(1922-1935) 321

. , -
(, ),
(, , ), ()
() , -
(, -) (, ) .
,
. , -
. ,
.
.
-
17. ,
,
(, , ) , -
(, )
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) , (, )
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)
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, , . , -

17 , , -
, , 1928. , .

( ). -
, .
322 .

.
: -
44.485 . 745 . 18. , 31.849 . 986 .
. (, , , ,
, , , , ). , 2.444 .
058 . . 10.191 . 701 . .
. . -
() 4.5 8 -
. .
() 6
. ()
30% 5.5 , 40% 7-8 30%
. ()
5.5 1-10 . -
( ) 4.2 85%
15% . ()
4 . -

.

: . . . . -
1928 212
255 . , -
1922 , (
) 232 .
. -
19, ,
98 ,

18 1932, -
, .
( )
, . .
19 , , 496-990, ,
.
, .
.
(1922-1935) 323

, 30 -
1923. (,
, , , , , )
,
-
, (, , , , )
, (, , )
,
. . , -
,
.
:
7.498 . 010 . 20. , 3.815 . 364 . .
3.751 . 421 . . . -
3.751 . 421 . . 63 .
943 . . 21 104 (83 -
2 ).
37 . 300 . .
. () 7 . 200 . .
() 10 . ()
11 . () 3
100 . . () 6 -
.
, -

,
.

20 1932, -
, . -
, . .
21 , 1932, , -
, .
, . .
324 .

Maria A. Nikolopoulou

REFUGEES RESETTLEMENT
IN EVROS PREFECTURE (1922-1935)
EXAMPLES OF THEIR ECONOMIC INTERGRATION

Summary
Refugees resettlement in Evros prefecture during the period 1922-1935 is
integrated in the context of settlement of refugees in Greece after the Asia Minor
catastrophe in 1922. Refugees from Eastern Thrace, Asia Minor and Pontus settled
in Evros prefecture. In this thesis are examined the reasons of refugees installation in
this area and the way of their resettlement. Firstly, the Greek government wanted the
homogeneous of western Thrace because of the Muslims who were excepted from
the exchange of refugees, in accordance with the Convention of Lausanne in 1923.
Secondly, main ambition of Greek government was the rural resettlement of refugees
in Evros prefecture because of the economy of this area. Also, by establishing refugees
as countrymen and countrywomen Greece would support the agricultural economy of
this country in order to resolve economic problems. In addition Greece wanted to
provide the security of the boundaries. Refugee Settlement Commission and the Greek
government undertook the establishment of refugees. The RSC took the responsibility
of rural resettlement of refugees (land and houses distribution) and Greek government
was responsible for the urban resettlement of refugees (houses distribution). In this
thesis is examined the rural resettlement of refugees and its parameters in Tavri and
Loutros for introducing social and economic elements of refugees integration in
Evros prefecture.
-

Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932)


.

-
1 2
, , , -
Edouard Herriot3, , , -
, , 4,
,
, .
,
Edouard Herriot,
5,
1930 1957. -

.

Le Progrs 17 1929
Edouard Herriot .
, , 6.

1 . . , ,
(1925-1932), -
: , , , ,
11-14 2010, .
2 ( lacit) --
. , , -
,
.
3 Lndpendant 3 1932. -
A: Mission Laique Franaise, prsident: M.Edouard Herriot.
4 Herriot (Instruction Publique) -
(inistre de lducation Nationale).
5 Herriot 1909 , Aulard
1914 Bienvenu-Martin ( 1905
, -
, 11/12/1905).
6 ( 1872- 1942) 1929 .
328 -

(), 19137.
,
, , . -
' Le Progrs. -
douard Herriot Deydier, -
, Touring Club .
,
, - ,
-
8. [ ]
.() , -
,() ,
, 9.

Herriot . , -
10 :
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7 () , , 1913
.
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9 Le Progrs, 17 1929.
10 , 15 1929.
Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 329

-
,
Le Progrs,
Edouard Herriot ,
11.
12 Le Progrs13.
Herriot
.
. -
Deydier -
,
Herriot. -
.
, ,
.
Herriot ,

. 14 -
: -
15 . Herriot (),
. ().
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11 Le Progrs, 17 1929.
12 , 17 1929.
13 Le Progrs (17 1929) (-
) . Herriot
.
14 18 1929.
15 , .
1978, -
.
16 , ,
1931 Rachel Saltiel, Maurice Saltiel,
Herriot. M. Saltiel
17 19 1943 Natzweiler-Struthof.
. , , 2008, . , .
215, . 4-5 12.
330 -

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18 (17 1929).
19 .
20
, . . . . ,
, 1918, 1912-2002, ,
2004, . 526-527, 537-538.
Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 331

,
.
Herriot 1929,

21.
-
22.
Herriot, -

.
-
. , 1902-1904
.
(1904-1906)
1906
23,
24.
,
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1927 Turpin de Morel 25

21 8 1902 Alliance
Franaise, . . . Dialogues, Elments pour une histoire de la MLF,
1902-1982, o 35-36-37, . 53. -
.
22 . , Sparation des glises et de ltat en France, Chronique dune loi travers le
mouvement des ides, Athnes 2007, . 108.
23 Dialogues, Elments pour une histoire de la MLF, . ., . 53.
, 8 1902 (. ., . 116) -
: () ,
. .
24 ,
(LIndpendant 13-6-1927:
,
. . , LIndpendant 14-
6-1931: . ,
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25 LIndpendant 13 1927 La fte de la Mission Laque Franaise.
11 1927.
332 -

26 ,

19 27. -

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26 LIndpendant, 13 1927.
27 . .- . , (1850-
1930), ,
, Hacettepe, 2004. Les Cahiers du Bospore XL,
2005, . 35-42. Turpin de
Morel, .
28 , 1908, . 187.
29 21 1907.
30 Dialogues, . ., . 69 192.
31 , ,
(1890-1915), 1979, . 48-49, . 147,
. ,
(1887 ),
. , 2004, . 404-405.
32 . , 1912, -
1912, 1986, . 341.
33 A, 1931 :
169, 92, 10, 3, A 7, 5. :
Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 333

.
34 191235, -
36.
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286. . .
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35 1912 1930
,
. . . Henriette Asseo, Jorge Chebrun,
; , , 1977, . 5-6 . -
, 3 (1992),
. 235-247.
36 , (15/5/1925),
( 22/5/1925), (31/7/1925),
.
37 . . -
. ,
, 29-31 2009,
2010, . 327-336. ,
1916, -
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, 1912-1913, , 2000, , . 498).
38
. . . , -
.... ., . 341-361 ,
(1870-1926),
, 28-30/5/1993, 1994, . 363-387.
334 -

, 39.

40.
41. 42
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39 . , ... . 355.
40 : ) Frres des coles chrtiennes (De la Salle), ) Sminaire Catholique.
: ) Ecole des Filles de la Charit ( ) , ) Collge Saint Vincent,
) )
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, . .., 1919/ 33 (2,3),
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44 . , .... ., . 356.
45
1921 1927. . . .,
, . ., . 224.
46 6 1930.
Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 335

Herriot
.
A
1933 , M,
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1932-3347. O - 13: ) T
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11 E. O 286
48.
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, ... 1933/ 23, , 12 1933.
48 Y: 204, 27, A 3,T 5, 11, 2,
2, I 2, I 20, T 3, 1, E 1, A 2, P 1,
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52 88, - 49, 2, -
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54 , ..., . 353.
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Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 337

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(1858-1914),
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58 , . 1924/ 37, ( )
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63 , . . 753, /
8/12/ 1928.
Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 339

-
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66 Le Progrs, (22-10-1929), ,
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68 3 1929.
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70 , 14 1927.
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74
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Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 341

(.)75. -
76
, .

193077 12 78.

,
79.
Herriot,
, ,
,
, -
.
80 1927.

75 . ..., . 1914-1916/ 33 (2), 19 1919.


76 . , ..., . 538-541.
77 Dialogues, Elments pour une histoire de la MLF, 1902-1982, . ., . 168.
78 1930 A .
N A (6 1930):
M , -
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. . . 43689 -
, 17 1930.
79 ..., . 1930//28 T Y -
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.
, . . 2463 37465, 17 1930.
80 23 1927 -
, . . :
,


. -

.
342 -

:

:

LINDEPENDANT, 5 1931
.
CERTIFICAT DETUDES PRIMAIRES.
-
4 1931.
. Camille Grard .
:
rziyan Meline, Georgiades Agla, Damaskinidou alliope, Philppides Lisette,
Stphanian Arpine, Achadjan Adrine, Quatranides Cornlie, Zaxariadou Alex, Bes-
santchi Stella, Syndica Louise, Kaufman H.Giselle, Corovesse Alwine, Kleiber Lise,
Blanchet Mar.Josphine, Vasdeki Alexandra, Pafaliou Melpomne, Venery Marie,
Ghadi Fatma, Abravanel Sol, Chimchi Gratia, Constandinides Marica, Kondes Elly,
Arvanitides Kloniki, Saltiel Rachel ( ,
), Theophanou Marie, Houlli Eloa, Dalengas Victoire, Hassid Lina, Beraha
Sylla, Levy Zaphiria, Hummer Amlie, Pardo Belle, Baloti Maria, Joannides Zo,
Georgiades Iphignie, Papastavrianou Anne, Jivanian Marie, Benmayor Esther, Abas-
tado Lily, Matalon Rene, Gattegno Rgine, Cohen Berthe, Roussa Alice, Nahmias
Lily, Soustiel Blanche.

LE PROGRES 9 1931

6 1931.

: Florentin Maidy, Prez Jeanne, -
: Godjamanis Marie, Cohen Margot, Arouh Rachel, Errera
Berthe, Hassid Elise, Nhama Nora, Matalon Batrice, Abastado Mathilde, Cohen
Rgine, Cavo Daisy, Mardach Lily, Asso Evelyne, Bourla Berthe, Bavadjvitch
Rasa, Barzilai Yvonne, Haim Elda, Gattegno Rene Guini Cathrine, Franss Ba-
trice, Matalon Ritta

: Besantchi Stella, Hassid Lina, Benmayor Es-
ther, Abastado Lily, Matalon Rene, Cohen Berthe, Soustiel Blanche . -
13 15 .
Edouard Herriot, (1929-1932) 343


: Marcevitch Nicolas, Salom Vital. -
: Calaidjis Michel, Ganoulis Euripide, Goutes Basile,
Saias Mice, Mihalides Michel, Cohen Margot, Djlpis Constantin, Hadjianastasiou
Nicolas, Altiparmacevitch Berislav, Dmir Archag, Benusiglio Rene, Ilitch Cesta,
Abastado Albert, Hadjigeorgiou Eugne, Capon Sam, Calaidjis Cathrine, Dimou
Thodore, Taris Apostolos, Baso Papo, Rasa Gabriel, Kokka Djahid, Hysny Mousta-
pha. Calaidjis Michel, Ganoulis Euripide, Goutas Basile, Saias Mice,
Michaelidis Michel, Cohen Margot, Djlpis Constantin, Dmir Archag, Abastado
Albert, Hadjigeorgiou Eugnie, Samon Sam, Galaidjis Cathrine, Dimou Thodore
-
.

Athanassiou Georgia- Skourtis Ioannis

Edouard Herriot et la Mission Laque Franaise (1929-1932)

Sommaire
Edouard Herriot avait visit la Grce en 1929, invit par le premier ministre
Eleuthre Venizelos. Le journal francophone juif de Thessalonique Le Progrs avait
suivi lhomme politique franais au pas et transmettait exactement tout fait li son
itinraire. Un an aprs cette visite Herriot fut charg de la Prsidence de la Mission
Laque Franaise, la notorit publique dont il jouissait et sa riche personnalit
oriente notre recherche vers lexamen de certains actes (administratifs et ducatifs)
de lannexe de la Mission Laque Franaise Salonique. Parmi ceux-ci figurent la
propagande pro-serbe et pro-uniate.
-


(1931)


-
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1 2 2011, ,
.
.
2 . : Th. Herzl, The Jewish State, an Attempt
at a Modern Solution of the Jewish Question, translated by Sylvie D' Avigdor, New York 1943.
3 A. R. Taylor, Prelude to Israel: An Analysis of Zionist Diplomacy, 1897-194, London 1961, . 4-5.
4 4 1840 1898.
, ,

.
, 1901,
.
, . (. L. Jaffe
The life of Hermann Schapira; with an autobiographical fragment and selections from Schapira's writings.
Jerusalem, Joint Committee for Youth Affairs 1939).
348 -

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5 P.- M. Baudry- B. Zauche Le sionisme en congrs : sous le regard de Herzl, Jerusalem Post, (Edi-
tion franaise), 23/6/2010. B. Halpern and J. Reinharz. Zion-
ism and the Creation of a New Society, New York, 1998 G. Martin, Israel: A History, New York 1998.
6 R. Charpiot, Histoire des Juifs d'Allemagne du Moyen ge nos jours, Vuibert, 2009, . 158.
7 W. Lehn, The Jewish National Fund, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 3, No 4. (Summer, 1974),
. 74-96.
. Zvi Shilony, Ideology and Settlement; The Jewish National Fund, 1897-1914, Jerusalem 1998, .
119-121.
, .
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( http://www.kkl.org.il/kkl/kklmain_blue_eng.aspx).
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2004, . 87-90.
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Alexandre Kalessis Ioannis Skourtis

La contribution financire des membres de la Communaut juive de


Larissa la mobilisation internationale de leurs correligionaires (1931)

Sommaire
Lide de reconstitution de ltat hbraque aux Terres paternelles de Palestine a
provoqu la mobilisation financire des membres des communauts juives travers
le monde.
Il est connu que les participants au 1er Congrs Sioniste avaient conu lide de la
formation dun tat hbraque Palestine.
Le mouvement sioniste a tabli, en 1901, le Capital National Juif qui visait
soutenir linstallation de familles juives en Palestine, dans la perspective de la
fondation venir dun tat sur ces terres.
Cette mobilisation sioniste internationale avait mobilis en 1931 plusieurs membres
de la Communaut Juive de Larissa. Des juifs qui malgr leurs capacits conomiques
restreintes avaient accept de contribuer cet effort de leurs coreligionnaires. Ceci est
peru travers les catalogues des donations localiss rcemment.
Les listes des donations de membres prcis dela Communaut juive de Larissa
tablissent la premire partie de notre travail de recherche, par la suite, on se tourne
vers la recherche dune pntration idologique qui aspirerait lobtention dune
patrie pour les juifs de Larissa.
-




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369

Leucotha Papacosta Ioannis Skourtis

Le snateur juif Asser Mallach et ses activits Thessalonique durant


lEntre-deux-guerres

Sommaire
Lobjectif de cette communication est de rechercher et de commenter certaines
activits du snateur Asser Mallach Thessalonique de lEntre-deux-Guerres. Afin de
mener bout cette tude, la recherche a t mene travers la presse juive (surtout
francophone) de la priode qui nous intresse.
Asser Mallach a maintes fois utilis la Presse juive de Thessalonique pour expri-
mer et rpandre des penses sociopolitiques, des aspirations et des revendications qui
lui taient chres.
La Presse juive de Thessalonique offre une dense information sur des faits tels
que:
A. Le voyage significatif du snateur Asser Mallach Palestine, o il aspirait a la
fondation dun tat hbraque puissant et,
B. Les travaux dAsser Mallach dans les Congrs Sioniste quil prsidait,lu
dhabitude par la majorit des sionistes participants.
-

(1931)
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Constantin Sehidis - Ioannis Skourtis

Le journaliste juif Isaak Kabeli et le combattant Pavlos Melas (1931)

Sommaire
Les relations des saloniciens juifs et orthodoxes aux alentours de 1931 se
trouvaient sur un point crucial. La prsence des Makabi au Congrs de Sophia, les
meutes des membres de la EEE contre les juifs et lincendie du quartier Kabel,
sont quelquesvnements parmi dautres qui avaient caus une grande perturbation
au sein de la ville. Lattitude adopte par la presse quotidienne alimentait lambiance
de rivalit.
Pourtant, dans ce climat tendu, le journaliste juif Isaak Kabeli a publi un article
au journal francophone de Thessalonique Le Progrs (1931). Cet article se rfrait
au Combattant Pavlos Melas et constitue un hymne la mmoire du premier martyre
pour la libert de la Macdoine.

24 , ..
25 .
382 -

Toute une srie de questions se lvent de cet ditorial qui, loin de tout anniversaire
commmoratif faisait lloge du hros chrtien Pavlos Melas, soulignant la difficult
de retrouver une personne dun courage similaire, ainsi que sa capacit de mener une
bataille pique, qui plus est avec de faibles moyens.
Les rfrences dtailles de ce journaliste sont la base de notre travail de recherche,
qui poursuit en la localisation dune pntration idologique de lHistoire Grecque
llment assimilateur juif.