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CHAPTER I

DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING

This chapter consists of recapitulation data from initial condition and


improved condition, data recapitulation of determination of normal and standards
time, and also the comparison between MTM initial and improved condition.

1.1 Data Recapitulation of MTM Initial Condition


This sub chapter consists of the data recapitulation of MTM initial
condition that has been conducted in the laboratory work

Table 1.1 Data Recapitulation of MTM Initial Condition


Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
A1 Move (M8B) 10,6 (M8B) Move
A2 Move (M8B) 10,6 (M8B) Move
A3 Move (M8B) 10,6 (M8B) Move
(P2SSE
A4 Apply Pressure (DM 19,7 )) Position
A5 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
A6 Reach (R4A) 6,1 (R4A) Reach
A7 Release (RL1 5,6 (G2)) Grasp
(M20A)
Sticking the Side Process

A8 Reach (R8A 19,2 ) Move


Preparation

A9 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus


A10 Eye Travel (ET) 20 (ET) Eye Travel
A11 Reach (R6A 15,8 (R26A)) Reach
(M26A)
A12 Reach (R6A 24 ) Move
A13 Eye Travel (ET) 20 (ET) Eye Travel
(T180S)
A14 Grasp (G3 9,4 ) Turn
(M12C)
A15 Grasp (G3 15,2 ) Move
A16 Release (RL1 9,6 (R12A)) Reach
A17 Eye Travel (ET75) 20 (ET75) Eye Trave
A18 Reach (R5A 7,3 (M5A)) Move
Applied
Glueing

B1 Pressure (DM 16,2 (P2SE)) Position


B2 Applied (DM 16,2 (P2SE)) Position

I-1
Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
Pressure
Applied
B3 Pressure ((DM) 4,2 M2A) Move
Applied
B4 Pressure (DM 4,2 M2A) Move
B5 Eye Travel (ET) 17,1 (ET) Eye Trave
Apply
Position 16,2
B6 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B7 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B8 Eye Travel (ET) 17,1 (ET) Eye Trave
Apply
Position 16,2
B9 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B10 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B11 Eye Travel (ET) 17,1 (ET) Eye Trave
B12 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Applied
B13 Pressure (DM) 16,2 (P2SE) Position
B14 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Position 16,2
B15 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B16 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M10C Move
Apply
Position 16,2
B17 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B18 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M5B Move
B19 Position P2S) 21 ((P2NS) Position
B20 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Position 16,2
B21 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B22 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M5B Move
B23 Eye Travel (ET) 3,8 (ET) Eye Travel
Apply
Position 16,2
B24 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B25 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B26 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B29 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B30 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B31 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B34 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Position 16,2
B35 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B36 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B37 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (DM Apply

I-2
Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
Pressure
B49 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B50 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B51 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B53 Eye Travel (ET) 24,49 (ET) Eye Travel
(R22A)
Reach 14 Grasp
B54 ) (G1A
(M24C
Move 25,5 Grasp
B55 )) (G1A
B56 Eye Travel (ET) 24,49 (ET) Eye Travel
((T180S
Grasp 9,4 Turn
B57 G1A) )
B58 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
B59 Eye Travel (ET) 15,83 (ET) Eye Travel
B60 Position (P1S)) 5,6 (RL1 Release
B61 Position P1S) 7 ((R7A) Reach
B62 Position (P1S)) 5,6 (M1B Move
Apply
Position 11,2
B63 (P1S)) (AF Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure 3,4
B64 (AF) (AF) Pressure
B65 Apply Pressure AF) 16,2 ((P2S) Position
B66 Eye Travel (ET) 5,06 (ET) Eye Travel
B67 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
B68 Grasp (G1A) 2 (G1A) Grasp
B69 Position (P2S) 16,2 (P2S) Position
Apply
Apply Pressure 3,4
B70 (AF) (AF) Pressure
C1 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C2 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (MfA) Move
C3 Position (APA) 10,6 (MfA) Move
Side Folding Process

C4 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (RL2) Release


C5 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C6 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C7 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (R3B) Reach
C8 Move (MfA) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C9 Release (RL2) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C10 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C11 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C12 Reach (R2B) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C13 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C14 Release (RL2) 4,6 (M2A) Move

I-3
Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
C15 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C16 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C17 Reach (R5B) 6,4 (M2A) Move
Apply
Reach (R3B) 5,3 (AF)
C18 Pressure
C19 Reach (R1B) 2,5 (MfA) Move
Apply
Reach (RfB) 3,4 (AF)
C20 Pressure
C21 Release (RL2) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
Apply
Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (AF)
C22 Pressure
Apply
Release (RL2) 3,4 (AF)
C23 Pressure
C24 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C25 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Reach (R3B) 5,3 (AF)
C26 Pressure
C27 Reach (R2B) 4 (RL2) Release
C28 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C29 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C30 Reach (R3B) 5,3 (RfB) Reach
Apply
Reach (R1B) 3,4 (AF)
C31 Pressure
C32 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C33 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C34 Reach (R1B) 2,5 (RL2) Release
C35 Reach (RfB) 2 (RfB) Reach
C36 Grasp (G3) 10,6 (APA) Position
C37 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (RL2) Release
C38 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C39 Eye Focus (EF) 0 (EF) Eye Focus
C40 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (R1B) Reach
Apply
Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (AF)
C41 Pressure
C42 Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (RL2) Release
C43 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C44 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C45 Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (RfB) Reach
C46 Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (M1A) Move
C47 Release (RL2) 2 (MfA) Move
C48 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C49 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C50 Reach (RfB) 5,6 (G3) Grasp

I-4
Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
C51 Move (M1A) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C52 Move (MfA) 10,6 (APA) Position
C53 Position (APA) 10,6 (APA) Position
C54 Position (APA) 10,6 (RL2) Release
C55 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C56 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C57 Position (APA) 10,6 (R2B) Reach
C58 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (R1B) Reach
Apply
Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (AF)
C59 Pressure
C60 Release (RL2) 0 (RL2) Release
C61 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C62 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C63 Reach (R2B) 4 (RfB) Reach
C64 Move (M2A) 4,6 (MfA) Move
Apply
Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (AF)
C65 Pressure
C66 Position (APA) 10,6 (MfA) Move
C67 Position (APA) 10,6 (RL2) Release
C68 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C69 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C70 Position (APA) 10,6 (RfB) Reach
C71 Position (APA) 10,6 (APA) Position
C72 Release (RL2) 0 (RL2) Release
C73 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C74 Apply Pressure DM) 16,2 ((P2S) Position
C75 Release RL1) 16,2 ((P2S) Position
C76 Position (P2S) 16,2 (P2S) Position
C77 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Apply Pressure (AF) 3,4 (AF)
C78 Pressure
C79 Eye Focus (EF) 5,7 (ET) Eye Travel
C80 Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release
Apply
Apply Pressure APA 10,6 APA
C81 Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure (APB) 16,2 (APB)
C82 Pressure
C83 Apply Pressure (APA)) 10,6 (RL1 Release
Apply
Apply Pressure (APA) 10,6 (APA)
C84 Pressure
C85 Grasp (G2) 5,6 (G2) Grasp
Apply
Apply Pressure (APA) 10,6 (APA)
C86 Pressure

I-5
Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
C87 Apply Pressure (APA)) 10,6 (RL1 Release
C88 Release (RL1) 2 (RL1) Release
Apply
Apply Pressure (APA) 10,6 (APA)
C89 Pressure
Apply
Release RL1) 3,4 ((AF)
C90 Pressure
C91 Apply Pressure (AF)) 3,4 (RL1 Release
Apply
Apply Pressure (DM) 4,2 (DM)
C92 Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure (APA) 10,6 (APA)
C93 Pressure
C94 Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release
Apply
Release RL1) 3,4 ((AF)
C95 Pressure
Apply
Reach RA 3,4 ((AF)
D1 Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (RL1
D2 Pressure
D3 Apply Pressure DM) 18,7 ((R33) Reach
Apply
Position (P2S)) 16,2 (AF
D4 Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure (APA)) 10,6 (DM
D5 Pressure
D6 Apply Pressure DM) 18,7 ((R33A) Reach
D7 Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (G1B Grasp
Glueing Process

((MA33
Eye Travel ET) 29,5 Move
D8 )
D9 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
D10 Turn (T) 6,1 (T) Turn
(M10B
Move 12,2 (G3 Grasp
D11 ))
D12 Release RL1) 5,4 ((T) Turn
D13 Apply Pressure (DM 19,7 (P2SS) Position
D14 Apply Pressure AF) 19,7 ((P2SS) Position
((M10B
Apply Pressure DM) 12,2 Move
D15 )
D16 Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release
D17 Apply Pressure (DM) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
((M10B
Release RL1) 12,2 Move
D18 )
E1 Apply Pressure (AF)) 3,4 (RL1 Release
Pressing Process

E2 Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 RA Reach


Apply
Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (AF
E3 Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure (APA) 10,6 (APA)
E4 Pressure
E5 Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release

I-6
Work Work Work Work Work
Symbo
Operatio Eleme Eleme Element of TMU Symbol Element of
l
n nt nt No. Left Hand Right Hand
E6 Apply Pressure (DM)) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
Apply
Apply Pressure DM) 10,6 ((APA)
E7 Pressure
Apply
Apply Pressure (DM)) 4,2 (RLF
E8 Pressure
Total TMU 1928,07
69,4105
Total Time 2

(Source: personal calculation and elaboration)

1.2 Data Recapitulation of MTM Improved Condition


In this sub chapter, data recapitulation of MTM improved condition will
be shown in the table.

Table 1.2 Data Rcapitulation of MTM Improved Condition


Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
A1 Move (M8B) 10,6 (M8B) Move
A2 Move (M8B) 0 (M8B) Move
A3 Move (M8B) 0 (M8B) Move
Apply (P2SSE)
A4 Pressure (DM 0 ) Position
A5 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
A6 Reach (R4A) 6,1 (R4A) Reach
Sticking the Side Process

A7 Release (RL1 5,6 (G2)) Grasp


(M20A)
Preparation

A8 Reach (R8A 19,2 ) Move


A9 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
A10 Eye Travel (ET) 20 (ET) Eye Travel
A11 Reach (R6A 15,8 (R26A)) Reach
(M26A)
A12 Reach (R6A 24 ) Move
A13 Eye Travel (ET) 20 (ET) Eye Travel
(T180S)
A14 Grasp (G3 9,4 ) Turn
A15 Grasp (G3 15,2 (M12C)) Move
A16 Release (RL1 9,6 (R12A)) Reach
A17 Eye Travel (ET75) 20 (ET75) Eye Trave

I-7
Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
A18 Reach (R5A 7,3 (M5A)) Move
Applied
B1 Pressure (DM 16,2 (P2SE)) Position
Applied
B2 Pressure (DM 16,2 (P2SE)) Position
Applied
B3 Pressure ((DM) 4,2 M2A) Move
Applied
B4 Pressure (DM 4,2 M2A) Move
B5 Eye Travel (ET) 17,1 (ET) Eye Trave
Apply
Position 16,2
B6 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B7 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B8 Eye Travel (ET) 17,1 (ET) Eye Travel
Apply
Position 16,2
B9 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 16,2
B10 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B11 Eye Travel (ET) 17,1 (ET) Eye Travel
B12 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Applied
B13 Pressure (DM) 16,2 (P2SE) Position
Glueing

B14 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus


Apply
Position 16,2
B15 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B16 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M10C Move
Apply
Position 16,2
B17 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B18 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M5B Move
B19 Position P2S) 21 ((P2NS) Position
B20 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Position 16,2
B21 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B22 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M5B Move
B23 Eye Travel (ET) 3,8 (ET) Eye Travel
Apply
Position 16,2
B24 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 0
B25 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 0
B26 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B29 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B30 Position (P2S)) 0 (M3B Move
B31 Position (P2S)) 0 (M3B Move
B34 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus

I-8
Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
Apply
Position 16,2
B35 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 0
B36 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
Apply
Position 0
B37 (P2S)) (DM Pressure
B49 Position (P2S)) 16,2 (M3B Move
B50 Position (P2S)) 0 (M3B Move
B51 Position (P2S)) 0 (M3B Move
B53 Eye Travel (ET) 24,49 (ET) Eye Travel
B54 Reach (R22A)) 14 (G1A Grasp
(M24C)
Move 25,5 Grasp
B55 ) (G1A
B56 Eye Travel (ET) 24,49 (ET) Eye Travel
((T180S
Grasp 9,4 Turn
B57 G1A) )
B58 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
B59 Eye Travel (ET) 15,83 (ET) Eye Travel
B60 Position (P1S)) 5,6 (RL1 Release
B61 Position P1S) 7 ((R7A) Reach
B62 Position (P1S)) 5,6 (M1B Move
Apply
Position 11,2
B63 (P1S)) (AF Pressure
Apply Apply
3,4
B64 Pressure (AF) (AF) Pressure
Apply
16,2 Position
B65 Pressure AF) ((P2S)
B66 Eye Travel (ET) 5,06 (ET) Eye Travel
B67 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
B68 Grasp (G1A) 2 (G1A) Grasp
B69 Position (P2S) 16,2 (P2S) Position
Apply Apply
3,4
B70 Pressure (AF) (AF) Pressure
C1 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Side Folding Process

C2 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (MfA) Move


C3 Position (APA) 10,6 (MfA) Move
C4 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (RL2) Release
C5 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C6 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C7 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (R3B) Reach
C8 Move (MfA) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C9 Release (RL2) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C10 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel

I-9
Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
C11 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C12 Reach (R2B) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C13 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C14 Release (RL2) 4,6 (M2A) Move
C15 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C16 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C17 Reach (R5B) 6,4 (M2A) Move
Apply
Reach (R3B) 5,3 (AF)
C18 Pressure
C19 Reach (R1B) 2,5 (MfA) Move
Apply
Reach (RfB) 3,4 (AF)
C20 Pressure
C21 Release (RL2) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
Apply Apply
(AF) 3,4 (AF)
C22 Pressure Pressure
Apply
Release (RL2) 3,4 (AF)
C23 Pressure
C24 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C25 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
Reach (R3B) 5,3 (AF)
C26 Pressure
C27 Reach (R2B) 4 (RL2) Release
C28 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C29 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C30 Reach (R3B) 5,3 (RfB) Reach
Apply
Reach (R1B) 3,4 (AF)
C31 Pressure
C32 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C33 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C34 Reach (R1B) 2,5 (RL2) Release
C35 Reach (RfB) 2 (RfB) Reach
C36 Grasp (G3) 10,6 (APA) Position
C37 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (RL2) Release
C38 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C39 Eye Focus (EF) 0 (EF) Eye Focus
C40 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (R1B) Reach
Apply Apply
(AF) 3,4 (AF)
C41 Pressure Pressure
Apply
(AF) 3,4 (RL2) Release
C42 Pressure
C43 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel

I-10
Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
C44 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
(AF) 3,4 (RfB) Reach
C45 Pressure
Apply
(AF) 3,4 (M1A) Move
C46 Pressure
C47 Release (RL2) 2 (MfA) Move
C48 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C49 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C50 Reach (RfB) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C51 Move (M1A) 5,6 (G3) Grasp
C52 Move (MfA) 10,6 (APA) Position
C53 Position (APA) 10,6 (APA) Position
C54 Position (APA) 10,6 (RL2) Release
C55 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C56 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C57 Position (APA) 10,6 (R2B) Reach
C58 Grasp (G3) 5,6 (R1B) Reach
Apply Apply
(AF) 3,4 (AF)
C59 Pressure Pressure
C60 Release (RL2) 0 (RL2) Release
C61 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C62 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C63 Reach (R2B) 4 (RfB) Reach
C64 Move (M2A) 4,6 (MfA) Move
Apply Apply
(AF) 3,4 (AF)
C65 Pressure Pressure
C66 Position (APA) 10,6 (MfA) Move
C67 Position (APA) 10,6 (RL2) Release
C68 Eye Travel (ET) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
C69 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
C70 Position (APA) 10,6 (RfB) Reach
C71 Position (APA) 10,6 (APA) Position
C72 Release (RL2) 0 (RL2) Release
C73 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply
DM) 16,2 ((P2S) Position
C74 Pressure
C75 Release RL1) 16,2 ((P2S) Position
C76 Position (P2S) 16,2 (P2S) Position
C77 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
Apply Apply
(AF) 3,4 (AF)
C78 Pressure Pressure

I-11
Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
C79 Eye Focus (EF) 5,7 (ET) Eye Travel
Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release
C80 Pressure
Apply Apply
APA 10,6 APA
C81 Pressure Pressure
Apply Apply
(APB) 16,2 (APB)
C82 Pressure Pressure
Apply
(APA)) 10,6 (RL1 Release
C83 Pressure
Apply Apply
(APA) 10,6 (APA)
C84 Pressure Pressure
C85 Grasp (G2) 5,6 (G2) Grasp
Apply Apply
(APA) 10,6 (APA)
C86 Pressure Pressure
Apply
(APA)) 10,6 (RL1 Release
C87 Pressure
C88 Release (RL1) 2 (RL1) Release
Apply Apply
(APA) 10,6 (APA)
C89 Pressure Pressure
Apply
Release RL1) 3,4 ((AF)
C90 Pressure
Apply
(AF)) 3,4 (RL1 Release
C91 Pressure
Apply Apply
(DM) 4,2 (DM)
C92 Pressure Pressure
Apply Apply
(APA) 10,6 (APA)
C93 Pressure Pressure
Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release
C94 Pressure
Apply
Release RL1) 3,4 ((AF)
C95 Pressure
Apply
Reach RA 3,4 ((AF)
D1 Pressure
Apply Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (RL1
D2 Pressure Pressure
Apply
DM) 18,7 ((R33) Reach
D3 Pressure
Apply
Glueing Process

Position (P2S)) 16,2 (AF


D4 Pressure
Apply Apply
(APA)) 10,6 (DM
D5 Pressure Pressure
Apply
DM) 18,7 ((R33A) Reach
D6 Pressure
Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (G1B Grasp
D7 Pressure
((MA33
Eye Travel ET) 29,5 Move
D8 )
D9 Eye Focus (EF) 7,3 (EF) Eye Focus
D10 Grasp G1A) 3,4 ((AF) Apply

I-12
Work
Work Work Work Work
Element of
Operatio Elemen Elemen Element of Symbol TMU Symbol
Right
n t t No. Left Hand
Hand
Pressure
(M10B)
Move 0 (G3 Grasp
D11 )
D12 Release RL1) 0 ((T) Turn
Apply
(DM 19,7 (P2SS) Position
D13 Pressure
Apply
AF) 0 ((P2SS) Position
D14 Pressure
Apply
DM) 0 ((M10B) Move
D15 Pressure
Apply
(DM)) 0 (RL1 Release
D16 Pressure
Apply
(DM) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
D17 Pressure
D18 Release RL1) 12,2 ((M10B) Move
Apply
(AF)) 3,4 (RL1 Release
E1 Pressure
Apply
(DM)) 4,2 RA Reach
E2 Pressure
Apply Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (AF
Pressing Process

E3 Pressure Pressure
Apply Apply
(APA) 10,6 (APA)
E4 Pressure Pressure
Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (RL1 Release
E5 Pressure
Apply
(DM)) 12,8 (ET) Eye Travel
E6 Pressure
Apply Apply
DM) 10,6 ((APA)
E7 Pressure Pressure
Apply Apply
(DM)) 4,2 (RLF
E8 Pressure Pressure
1701,1
Total TMU
7
Total Time 61,24

for Removing the work element


for Replacing the work element

(Source: personal calculation and elaboration)

The table above shows the data recapitulation of several improvements


for the MTM initial condition.The improvements are categorized into two, those
are removing unnecessary work element and change an ineffective work element.

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1.3 Determination of Normal and Standard Time
To determine the normal time and standard time, the MTM that will be
used is the MTM in improved condition
The formula for determining normal time and standard time is as follows:
rating factor %
Normal Time = observation time
100%
Standard Time = normal time + (normal time allowance %)
To calculate normal time, rating factor (performance rating) needs to be
determined. The calculation for rating factor is as follows:
Skill : Good C1 (0.06)
Effort : Good C1 (0.05)
Condition : Excellent B (0.04)
Consistency : Good C (0.01)
Rating Factor = 1 + (Skill + Effort + Condition + Consistency) 100%
Rating Factor = 1 + (0.06 + 0.05 + 0.04 + 0.01) 100%
Rating Factor = 1.16 100%
Rating Factor = 116%
After the rating factor is calculated, the next step is to calculate the
normal time by using the formula above:
rating factor %
Normal Time = observation time
100%
116%
Normal Time = 61.24
100%
Normal Time = 71.038 seconds
After the normal time is calculated, the standard time could be
determined. But before that, the allowance needs to be known first. This could be
done by looking at the allowance table.
Working on a desk : 3%
Sitting : 0.5%
Normal movement : 6.5%
Continuous sight : 4%
Light : 0%

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Temperature 27oC : 0%
Good atmosphere condition : 0%
From the data above, it is known that the total allowance is 14%. Then the
calculation of standard time could be done as follow :

Standard Time = normal time + (normal time allowance %)


Standard Time = 71.038 + (71.038 14 %)
Standard Time = 71.038 + 9.945
Standard Time = 80.983

1.4 Comparison of Data Recapitulation between MTM Initial and Improved


Condition
In this subchapter, based on the observed video,
recapitulation data of initial work element of method time measurement with the
comparison of the improved work element is provided
Improved Work
No. Work Initial Work Element
Element
Element
Left Hand Right Hand Left Hand Right Hand

A2 Move Move

A3 Move Move

A4 Apply Pressure Position

B25 Position Apply Pressure

B26 Position Apply Pressure


Eliminated
B30 Position Move

B31 Position Move

B36 Position Apply Pressure

B37 Position Apply Pressure

B50 Position Move

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B51 Position Move

Apply
D10 Turn Turn Grasp
Pressure

D11 Move Grasp


D12 Release Turn

D14 Eliminated
Apply Pressure Position
D15 Apply Pressure Move

D16 Apply Pressure Release

Therefore, based on the table provided above, there are


several improved

and replacement of work element in order to create more effective and efficient
work condition.

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CHAPTER II
DATA ANAYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter consists of the data analysis for the data gathered in chapter
I. This chapter delivers the analysis of initial work operation, analysis of improved
work operation, effectiveness analysis of actual working time and standard time,
and analysis of MTM implementation in work time measurement.

2.1 Analysis of Initial Work Operation


This sub chapter consists of the analysis of initial work operation for
sticking the side video. The total TMU gathered is 2184 and converted to second
which is 78.69 while the actual video duration is 67 seconds. In this lab work
report the work conducted is 4 in total which are preparation process, glueing
process, side folding process and pressing process. However the work element is
divided into 5 elements which are element A for preparation process, element B
for glueing process, element C for side folding process, element D for glueing
process, and element E for pressing process. The work element is divided into 5
elements because it is divided based on the sequence of the work conducted by the
operator in the video, not divided based on the process conducted. In the first
element work which is preparation process, the total TMU generated is 238.3 of
which is then converted to second by multiplying TMU with 0.036 sec to be
8.5788 seconds while the actual duration is about 6 seconds. The second work
element which is the glueing process, the total TMU generated is 701.07 TMU
which is then multiplied by 0.036 sec and gathered 25.23852 seconds while the
actual duration for glueing process is 21 seconds. The third work element which is
side folding process, the total TMU generated is 717.2 TMU which then is
multiplied by 0.036sec and gathered 25.8192 seconds while the real duration is
about 33 seconds. The fourth work element which is glueing process has the total
TMU of 217.3 TMU which is then multiplied by 0.036 and gathered the time of
7.8228 seconds while the actual duration for this process is 6 seconds. The last
work element which is pressing process has total TMU of 54.2 which is then

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multiplied by 0.036 generated 1.9512 seconds, while the actual duration id about
2 seconds.
From the elaboration of each work element, there is difference in each
work element either higher or lower than the actual time. This difference is caused
by the work element motion is excessive. The division is too detailed which
makes the TMU gathered is more than the actual time of the whole process. A
recommendation generated for such difference can be solved by removing the too
detailed motion or the repetitive motions. The total of the video itself is 67
seconds while the total of converted TMU gathered is 69.4 seconds.

2.2 Analysis of Improved Work Operation


This subchapter contains the analysis of improved work operation. After
doing observation on the video, it can be calculated that the total TMU of
preparation process, glueing process, side folding process and pressing process is
1928,7 which is 69,41 seconds. But, in those 69,41 seconds, there are some
motions that are unnecessary and uneffective which add no value to the working
process. In order not to make unnecessary motion, writers make some
improvement on the working element. The improvement that is done are
removing unnecessary working element and changing ineffective working
element.
The first improvement that is done is removing unnecessary working
element. There are many unnecessary working element that is done by the
operator in the video. For example, working element B25 and B26. The motion on
the right hand is apply pressure and the motion on the left hand is position. Those
two working elements are repetitive motion from B24. In B24, the operator is
glueing the paper in a spot, but in B25 and B26, the operator is glueing the paper
again in the same spot with B24. Not only in working element B24, but there are
still many other repetitive motions that is done by the operator, for example D14,
D15, and D16. All those repetitive motion is unnecessary and add no value in the
working process, so it is removed from the list of working element. The removal
of unnecessary working element is according with the principle of Glock and

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Kunza that less movement will reduce the time and energy that is required to
complete awork operation.
The second improvement is to change ineffective motion. Effective have
a meaning to do things right. It means that the goal should be achieved by using
the fastest and easiest way. So, eventough the motions that have been done is
helping in achieving the goal, but if the motion is slowing down the process or in
another words is ineffective, those motions should be changed. For example, in
worrking element D10, the motion on both hand is turn. It means that the operator
needs to turn the paper first so that she can do the next motion. The motion to turn
the paper is not really needed and it slows down the working process, so the
working element is changed into grasp in the left hand and apply pressure on the
right hand.
After all of the improvements have been done, the total TMU of the
working element is 1701,7 which is 61,24 seconds. There is a significant
reduction on the total working that is from 69,41 seconds to 61,24 seconds. The
reductionis 8,17 seconds. With this reduction of working time, it is proven that the
best method to work is not only about minimum cost, but also the adjustment of
working principle that is examined to increase the working speed as the result in
the production process

2.3 Effectiveness Analysis of Actual Working Time and Standard Time


Actual working time is the time needed for the operator to get a task done.
Actual working time can be determine by doing observation on the video, and
based on the video length, the time needed for the work to be done by the
operator is 69 seconds. Standard time is the time that is needed by the operator
with average performance to finish a work. Based on the calculation in sub
chapter 1.3, the formula for standard time is:
Standard Time = normal time + (normal time allowance %)
The calculation provides a result of 80.983 seconds for standard time. If
the actual working time and standard time is compared, it is found that the
standard time has 11.983 seconds longer time than actual working time.

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By the results above, it can be concluded that the operators skill is
beyond the average, having actual working time is less than the standard time.
The cause is probably the psychological effect which make a task done faster
by a worker when it is done quite repetitive.
Beside that, the other factors that affect the difference in standard time
and actual working time is the allowance that related with the skill and effort
of the worker, external condition of a working area, and other allowances that
could affect the standard time.

2.4 Analysis of MTM Implementation in Work Time Measurement


Method Time Measurement (MTM) is the predetermined time standard
which is developed by symbols of work motions from industrial work operation
(Wignjosoebroto, pp. 251, 2006). MTM is one of indirect work measurements
which is accomplished by doing detailed and structured observation in order to
obtain the desirable result data of work time measurement. In this method, the
observable activity will be breakdown as detailed as possible one to another from
each motion element. Then, Time Measurement Unit (TMU) is obtained from
each work motion by using Therblig table. Next, from the result of operation the
observer could determine whether the operator is effective or efficient enough or
not. Therefore, the improved motion work could be done by eliminating several
work motion that is uneffective or unefficient to obtained higher productivity in
the work process. Next, from the result of wallet making process especially in the
side folding process, there is motion that is improved, which are in motion
element D10 by replacing it from turning work element in right hand and left hand
into grasp in left hand and apply pressure in right hand. Then, several motion
element such as A2, A3, A4, B25, B26, B30, B31, B36, B37, B50, B51, D11, D12,
D14, D15,and D16 is being eliminated because those motion is uneffective and
unefficient.
Therefore, from work time measurement that is observed by using MTM,
the author could gain several advantages and disadvantages in the process. Next,
the advantage of implementing this method are low cost due to minimum tools or
accessories used in the whole process, and also ease of implementation because

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the indirect work measurement characteristics which could be done anytime or
anywhere by only using the operators work by watching a video. In contrary, this
method require a high accuracy of the observer since it is done manually which
may result in inaccurate data obtained by using this method.
Last but not least, by implementing MTM as the work measurement
method, there are many benefit could be obtained, such as minimizing
inefficiency or ineffective work done by intial work process done by the operator,
which could result in higher productivity and also higher profit obtained by the
enterprises.

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CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter consists of conclusions and recommendation for the


laboratory work.

3.1 Conclusion
This sub chapter explains about the conclusion of the laboratory work
that has been conducted. The conclusions are as follows:
1. The working elements for sticking the side video are preparation
process, glueing which is then divided into two different work
element number because it occurs not in sequence, then the side
folding process, and pressing process. Based on sequence, the total of
working elements are 4, however since there is one work element that
occurs in different time, so it is considered as different working
element number which means the total working element numbers are
five.
2. Method time measurement is the predetermined time to do the
activities. By knowing the MTM of the activities, the comparison
between actual time to do the activities and the predetermined can be
defined to know whether there is unnecessary motions or not.
3. By knowing the MTM of an activity, the improvement is to removed
and also giving a recommendation to change the motion in order to
reduce or add the TMU.
4. After knowing the improvement and also the actual MTM, there is
difference in terms of time and TMU because some unnecessary
motions are removed in order to reduce the MTM.

3.2 Recommendation
This sub chapter consists of the recommendations gathered for this
laboratory work. The recommendations are as follows:

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1. It would be better if the assistant elaborate more about how to do the
laboratory work clearer and longer until the students get the point and
understand the objectives and how to do the laboratory work.
2. The size of the table and the object on video should be showed so that
it would be easier.
3. The division of work element should be elaborated by the assistant on
how long each motion is counted as one motion so there would be no
excess or lack of the TMU.

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Reference

Wignjosoebroto, S., 2006. ERGONOMI Studi Gerak dan Waktu Teknik


Analisis untuk Peningkatan Produktivitas Kerja. Edisi Keempat. Surabaya: Guna
Widya.

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