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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

School of Architecture, Industrial Design and the Built Environment


Manila, Philippines

A Proposed Integrated Tourist Urban Market Center:


Redevelopment of City of San Fernando Public Market in Pampanga
Transforming Public Market and its Environmental Systems through Micro and Green Urbanism

A Thesis presented to
The Faculty of School of Architecture

In partial fulfillment of the course requirements in


Architectural Design 11: Architectural Design Thesis
For the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Architecture

Submitted by
Alonzo F. Nedic

On
August 2012
A Proposed Integrated Tourist
Urban Market Center:
Redevelopment of City of San Fernando
Public Market in Pampanga

Transforming Public Market and its


Environmental Systems through
Micro and Green Urbanism

Alonzo F. Nedic
2008121506

August 2012
Abstract

The gradual decline of local economic activity in the City of San Fernando, Pampanga is one of the many problems faced by the city. This activity is seen on their
public market that has become one of the major trading centers in Central Luzon region before suddenly became unpopular to the public due to common problems and
lack of facilities that could attract both locals and foreign nationals.

In accordance with this problem, the author attempts to give the best solutions by investigating the existing public market, conducting interviews, reading various
sources, formulating case studies and exploring new concepts and technologies. As the author eye to incorporate tourism as part of the development process then he
proposes redevelopment of the existing public market together with tourist facilities such as furniture making unit with exhibition center, eatery plaza and a
transportation terminal to revitalize the present condition of the public market. With these facilities, it will provide more job opportunities; preserve their local
industries while strengthening their linkages to other economic centers in Central Luzon region.
Acknowledgement

With all humility, I would like to convey my sincere thanks to people behind this another accomplishment in my life,

Thank you, God and Jesus Christ

Thank you, Daddy, Mommy, Sander, Sheena and Sedrick

Thank you, Arch. Junar Tablan, Arch. Aristeo Garcia, Arch. Cristina Miraflor, Arch. Albert Zambrano, Arch. Carlos Sauco, Arch. Perry Sanga and Arch.
Cristina Ealdama

Thank you, Bianca Dinao, Katrina Aterrado, Rob Cruz, Abigail Macatangay, Tim Fajardo, Jodie Lavaro, John Causing, Janice Gamayao, John Manalaysay,
Hannah Albino and Lea Tolentino

Thank you, United Architects of the Philippines Student Auxiliary (UAPSA) Mapua Chapter and Christian Brotherhood International (CBI) Mapua
Chapter

Thank You, City of San Fernando, Pampanga officials and to those persons who made a valuable contribution for the betterment of my architectural thesis
CONTENTS
1.0 The Problem Page
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Goal, Objectives and Strategies 4
1.4 Significance of the Study 4
1.5 Review of Related Literature 5
1.6 Conceptual Framework 18
1.7 Research Methodology
1.7.1 Oral Investigation 19
1.7.2 Archival Investigation 21
1.7.3 Case Studies 66
1.8 Scope and Limitations of the Study 89
1.9 Definition of Terms 90

2.0 Research Focus


2.1 Rationale 92
2.2 Discussion of principles and relevance to the project 93
2.3 Recommendations for application 97

3.0 Site Identification and Analysis


3.1 Site Analysis 98
3.1.1 Laws and Ordinances Pertaining to the Site 112
3.1.2 Site Development Options 113
4.0 Architectural Design Translation
4.1 Design Program 114
4.1.1 Design Objectives 114
4.1.2 Design Criteria 114
4.1.3 Design Considerations 114
4.1.4 User Analysis 115
4.1.4.1 Primary Users 116
4.1.4.2 Secondary Users 117
4.1.5 Organizational Structure 118
4.1.6 Behavioral Flow 118
4.1.6.1 Primary Users 119
4.1.6.2 Secondary Users 123
4.1.7 Movement Pattern 126
4.1.7.1 Primary Users 126
4.1.7.2 Secondary Users 130
4.1.8 Space Programming and Allocation 133
4.1.8.1 Space Programming on Users 133
4.1.8.2 Space Programming on Fixtures and Furniture 139
4.1.8.3 Space Allocation on Site and its Restrictions 149
4.1.8.3.1 Floor Area Definition per NBC 149
4.1.8.3.2 Maximum Allowable Percentage of Site Occupancy 149
4.1.8.3.3 Maximum Allowable Total Gross Floor Area 150
4.1.8.3.4 Building Height Limit Definition per NBC 150
4.1.8.3.5 Parking Computation per NBC 151
4.1.9 Functional Zoning 151
4.1.10 Matrix Diagram 151
4.1.10.1 Market Hall 151
4.1.10.2 Depot 151
4.1.10.3 Terminal 152
4.1.10.4 Administration 152
4.1.11 Circulatory Diagram 152
4.1.11.1 Market Hall 153
4.1.11.2 Depot 153
4.1.11.3 Terminal 153
4.1.11.4 Administration 154
4.1.12 Interrelationship Diagram 154
4.1.12.1 Macro 154
4.1.12.2 Micro Market Hall 155
4.1.12.3 Micro Depot 155
4.1.12.4 Micro Terminal 155
4.1.12.5 Micro Administration 156
4.2 Concept Development 156
4.2.1 Architectural Concept 156
4.2.1.1 Design Concept 156
4.2.1.2 Form Concept 157
4.2.1.2.1 Mangrove Tree 157
4.2.1.2.2 Form Evolution 158
4.2.1.2.3 Color Scheme 158
4.2.2 Structural Concept 158
4.2.2.1 Mat Foundation 158
4.2.2.2 Solid Slab Mat Foundation Detail 159
4.2.2.3 Lift Slab Construction 159
4.2.2.4 Three Way Truss Grid Space Frame 160
4.2.3 Utility Concept 160
4.2.3.1 Water 160
4.2.3.1.1 Gray Water System 160
4.2.3.1.2 Drainage System 161
4.2.3.1.3 Green Roofing 162
4.2.3.2 Wind 163
4.2.3.3 Light 163
4.2.3.4 Innovations 164
4.2.3.4.1 Waterless Urinals 164
4.2.3.4.2 Double Skin System 164
4.2.3.4.3 Green Facade 165
4.3 Presentation Drawings 166
4.3.1 Concept Board 166
4.3.2 Perspectives 167
4.3.2.1 Exterior Perspectives 167
4.3.2.2 Interior Perspectives 168
4.3.3 Site Development Plan 169
4.3.4 Floor Plans 170
4.3.4.1 Ground Floor Plan 170
4.3.4.2 Second Floor Plan 171
4.3.4.3 Third Floor Plan 172
4.3.4.4 Fourth Floor Plan 173
4.3.5 Elevations 174
4.3.5.1 Front Elevation 174
4.3.5.2 Right Elevation 174
4.3.6 Sections 175
4.3.6.1 Longitudinal Section 175
4.3.6.2 Cross Section 175
List of Figures

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Diagram


Figure 2. Distribution of Establishments by Size and by Region: 2000
Figure 3. Distribution of Employment by Size and by Region: 2000
Figure 4. Pie Graph on Percentage Distribution of Value of Domestic Trade by Commodity Section: First Quarter 2011
Figure 5. Pie Graph on Percentage Distribution of Value of Domestic Trade by Commodity Section: First Quarter 2010

List of Tables

Table 1. Distribution of Establishments by Size and by Industry: 2000


Table 2. Distribution of Employment by Size and by Industry: 2000
Table 3. Employment by Industry Group, Year and Quarter
Table 4. Classification of Existing Business Establishment: 2005
Table 5. Area, Location, and Production of Fishpond: 2004
Table 6. Inventory of Livestock and Poultry Farms: 2004 (Swine and Poultry)
Table 7. Tourist Expenditures
Table 8. Road Data
Table 9. Population per Barangay
A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

1.0 THE PROBLEM Public markets in the Philippines often described as a dingy environment
ventilated with foul odor. Consequently, these situations and conditions of
1.1 Background of the Study public markets lead to the construction of modernized supermarkets and
Public markets in the Philippines historically provide an active public space for hypermarkets which are fully air conditioned that promotes convenience
trade and commerce. It can be observed that both Filipino producers and shopping that leads to its rapid popularity. However, public markets still support
consumers participate in the marketing of goods and products locally known as a pivotal role in promoting public health and local food systems. Many of the
tawaran. This transaction scheme makes public market popular throughout agricultural, fishery and forestry products are delivered into the public market
the country selling varieties of goods and products at very low and affordable by various traders from different parts of the country.
price.

Pampanga was considered one of the richest and leading providers of market
For many years, public markets in the Philippines are thriving to grow urban and goods and products in the Philippines. Because of its fertile land, they produces
rural economies. It encourages development and keeps money in the local the best and biggest yield of rice, corn, sugar cane, vegetables, and fruit crops
neighborhood. It also offer low-risk business opportunities for entrepreneurs while its waters are a prolific source of seafoods and its ample forest area
and feed money back into the rural economy where many traders grow, raise produces ideal raw materials for building and construction needs. Even Manila
and produce their products on their backyards, farmlands and wetlands. and surrounding regions were then very much dependent on Pampangas
agricultural, fishery, and forestry products.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

There are public markets in Pampanga that are quite different from other public
markets throughout the country. Aside from its primary function as a typical
public market, it also serves as the trading center for both producers and
Furthermore, due to its vast indigenous resources of fertile land and waters,
consumers where bulk fresh trades are delivered and sold in an affordable and
Kapampangans is best known for their culinary expertise earning the title as
reasonable amount. The City of San Fernando Public Market pioneered this
Culinary Center of the Philippines. They are proud to exhibit their unique style
market category.
and flavor of various Filipino cuisines and delicacies especially on their famous
pasteurized and processed meat products such as tocino and longaniza and on
their special exotic dishes of farm frog and mole cricket.
The City of San Fernando Public Market was classified as a public market since it
is owned and operated by the city local government intended to extend the
service to the general public on their daily needs. Apparently, it became a food
In addition, attracting and interesting annual festivals are also celebrated in the
terminal locally known as bagsakan after several years where goods and
city such as the Giant Lantern featuring competition on giant lantern making
products such as fresh fruits, vegetables, beef, meat, seafoods, poultry and the
that also earned them the title as Christmas Capital of the Philippines. This
like from other regions and neighboring provinces are also being sold in a
attraction and lantern making serve as a potential not only on their trade and
wholesale basis. Today, the City of San Fernando Public Market is in the stage
commerce but also to their tourism as it attracts both locals and foreign
wherein its physical condition and mercantile image are being deteriorated
nationals alongside with the rattan furniture making and water lily handicrafts.
affecting its efficiency and functional relevance which resulted to an unhealthy
and unpleasant environment.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

The proponent aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the local government presently doing to answer the problems


of their public market?
1.2 Statement of the Problem
2. What specific steps can be done to address and alleviate the problems
in their public market?
The deteriorating condition and its lack of supporting facilities have become the 3. What are the usual and common activities inside and outside their
predicament of the City of San Fernando Public Market. These scenarios lead to public market?
a sudden decrease in patronage coming from the public. Moreover, the 4. What are the factors that could affect the efficiency and capacity of
changing market pattern and interest of the consumers also adds to the their public market?
situation leaving the public market and the vicinity a sickly environment. 5. How could environment nurture the situations and conditions of their
public market?
6. What type of environment and facilities could maximize the use of their
public market?
The existence of these problems may pose a threat to the sustainability of the
7. How could their public market be transformed to invite also foreign
City of San Fernando Public Market. Issues that can be addressed are the market
nationals and further cater traders, sellers and consumers giving new
environment, tourism development and livelihood as part of income and
activities and market shopping experience?
employment.
8. What are the extent needs of their public market that can be answered
through architectural interventions?

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

1.3 Goal, Objectives and Strategies

The goal is to revitalize the City of San Fernando Public Market that will invite
1.4 Significance of the Study
both locals and foreign nationals through architecture.

The significance of the study varies from different related aspects. These include
Objectives:
impacts on locals and foreign nationals as part of tourism, on domestic

1. To provide functional and well designed spaces. livelihood, economic level and most importantly, its contribution to the

2. To re establish tourism and promote local industries through tourist architectural development of public market design not only in the Philippines

oriented facilities. but also globally. This study will further flourish what public space is all about.

3. To redesign the existing market in new approach.


Tourism Significance:

Strategies:
The study will benefit locals and foreign nationals by having a tourist oriented

1. Investigating the existing public market. urban market center. This facility would allow them to know and experience City

2. Conducting interviews with the city local government officials, sellers of San Fernandos local industries such as rattan furniture and water lily

and consumers. handicrafts as well as eating different authentic kapampangan cuisines and

3. Reading various sources such as books, magazines and the like. exotic dishes.

4. Formulate both local and foreign case studies.


5. Exploring applicable solutions including concepts and technologies.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

Domestic Livelihood Significance: Architectural Significance:

The study will benefit the domestic livelihood of City of San Fernando, The study will rejuvenate and empower the thinking of architecture that
Pampanga including other provinces and neighboring cities and municipalities architectural solutions can uplift the awful situations and conditions of public
by having remuneration on different aspects including agriculture, fishery and market in the Philippines.
forestry as well as local industries that strengthens local food production and
consumption.
1.5 Review of Related Literature

The Relationship of Public Markets to the Development of Economy and Tourism


Economic Significance:
According to Econsult (2007), Public markets are unique economic and social
The study will benefit the country by bringing life and linking urban and rural
institutions which are increasingly being viewed as tools to achieve a wide
economies aiding regeneration.
variety of goals. These goals include improved access to quality food, better
marketing opportunities for family farmers, improving social interaction in
urban neighborhoods, increasing social cohesion, providing employment
It also encourages social interaction particularly between rural and urban
opportunities to local communities, creating entrepreneurial environment to
communities stimulating national economic development by increasing
increase small business formation, and enhancing community economic
employment.
development.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

For public markets to provide the benefits discussed above, they first must be These local economies are large enough to provide many business services to
economically sustainable, and this often requires some form of external markets and vendors, and also have rural areas with farmers that are essentially
financial support. A key issue in obtaining public and other funding for public in the same local economy.
markets is whether the markets can demonstrate that they deliver economic
benefits to the community. The goal of this analysis is to examine only one of
the potential benefits of public marketstheir direct and indirect impacts on By contrast, in large city markets, virtually all of the purchases from producers
local economic activity. flow outside the local economy. The outflow of funds from local economies
from producers, are however, relatively small because, producers generally are
much smaller in scale than other vendor types. (From Estimating the Economic
Market characteristics: First, the market may be selling products that do not Impact of Public Markets)
directly compete with nearby retail venues, and second, shoppers in some
communities might be inclined to travel outside the local community to
purchase the same goods. Public markets are vital in human life. It creates business opportunities to the
small traders and entrepreneurs starting their businesses and this opportunity
will take effect to the economic growth of the community.
Hence the introduction of the public market could potentially reduce the
leakage from the local community. It should be noted that large city markets
like Pike Place Market are likely to have economic impacts associated with In addition, foreign nationals could be essential in attaining this situation and
visitors and tourism that are fundamental export businesses and likely to have proper utilization of facilities and services for them should be addressed in
significant, additional local economic impacts. every aspects of the public market.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

According to Raluca and Gina (2009), Tourism has grown to be an activity of


worldwide importance and significance. For a number of countries, tourism
represents the largest commodity in the international trade, and in many others
However, a public market should limit its competencies with other nearby it ranks among the top three industries, becoming a major social and economic
public markets to balance traders, entrepreneurs and consumers although force in the world lately.
attracting them is a good sign of effective marketing strategy.

The leisure in tourism represents the principal method to limit, individualize and
Likewise, the existing public market in City of San Fernando, Pampanga provides diversify the tourism offer, the firms and tourism destinations. More than that,
not only the needs of their fellow Fernandinos but also to their neighboring city the leisure determines the increase of the competitive degree, the revenue
and municipalities giving business opportunities as they constituted the ten to obtained and the economic efficiency.
twenty percent of stall owners. In addition, neighboring city and municipalities
visited the public market due to its food terminal or bagsakan status.
As a major component shopping has become one of the most significant leisure
activities and the development of this segment stands to stimulate the future of
amusement services and their major influence in the tourism industry.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

As a major component, the tourism services have increased over the years Leisure is usually described as the free time, or better said the non-work time. In
representing the fastest growing industry in the world. Regarding the tourism its large sense, leisure encompasses all those activities that are not work
services, the main component of this are accommodation services, transport activities. This description is not a fair one, taking into consideration the
services, food and beverage services and leisure services. important role of leisure in the tourism industry.

The leisure services were always analyzed as supplementary services, but over Even though the term leisure is considered to be a synonym to the words free
the years the role and importance of these has changed dramatically. At first, time or recreation, its meaning is more profound including a large variety of
the main components were lodging and food and beverage, later on the leisure activities. Shopping has become one of the most common activities of leisure
segment has risen in the eyes of the consumers. and has changed its initial part as a need to survive to a want to enjoy.

So, the development of tourism is determined not only by escaping from routine The shopping activity can be regarded from to points a view: as a functional
activities, but also by the customers need to spend the free time in a pleasure activity and as leisure activity. As a functional activity, shopping presents the
way. More than that, the leisure services represent a major factor for increasing following characteristics: high expectation, predictable, meets identified needs,
the competitively degree, a major method to limit, individualize and diversify time efficient, and target activities.
the tourism offer and to increase the revenues obtained.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

The leisure shopping encompasses several particularities such as values


different, wants novelty, creates wants; consume time, browsing and
opportunistic. Shopping and leisure describe the activity of purchasing goods in an
environment that offers different types of leisure facilities theatres, cinema,
bowling alley, etc., usually found in malls, and other venue that incorporates
In other words, the functional shopping is valued because it meets identified such entertainment opportunities.
needs, but leisure shopping creates want rather than satisfying those needs. The
functional shopper has high expectation and prediction based on the shopping
center offer, while the leisure shopper is impressed by novelty and different Shopping as leisure and therefore the leisure shopping that has been underline
merchandise. previously accentuate the idea of shopping as a recreational, amusement,
entertainment pastime and therefore as leisure.

The notion of leisure shopping can sometimes be subjective involving a large


variety of concepts such as: shopping for leisure, shopping and leisure and As the consumers ideas and conceptions of buying have evolved it mustnt
shopping as leisure. eliminated the necessity of buying for functional purposes only, but to
understand and concentrate on the segment of shopping for leisure. It can be
neglect the main interest in shopping, but it should be proper analyzed the
The concept of shopping for leisure presents the activity of buying goods that leisure shopping and its trends by all the actors implicated in the
can be used in the leisure time, perceived here as a free time, as it was commercialization of goods and services.
mentioned before books, sporting equipment, and so on.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

Regarding to the leisure shopping experience it is notable that more and more
the shopping activity is connected to the general leisure activities and is Nowadays and future trends shows that the shopping centers have begun to
perceived together or definitely liked to each other. include in their offer recreational facilities, and leisure shopping and
entertainment interbreeds forming shoppertainment phenomena where
people visit shopping centers to rather to participate in a recreational activity
A special place in leisure shopping is expressed by the environments. The than purchase goods and services.
general environment of shopping determines an increase or a decrease of this
activity. For instance, the ambience of shopping would include visit to a food
court, seen a performance and creates a pleasant shopping environments, for In conclusion, the leisure shopping has a great benefic influence on the
extending the shopping stay and therefore the shopping enhancement. consumer and on the store seller, owner, etc. If the shopping is presented as a
leisure activity, the consumer, often the tourist perceives a well-being state, a
modality to pleasantly occupy the free time in a recreational environment and
The various facilities offered by an establishment, as the synergy between enjoy him. More and more people chose to interact in leisure activity to reduce
shopping and other recreational activities has a major potential for impulse stress, to enjoy them and to develop their physical and emotional particularities.
purchasing, influencing the environment of general shopping in a store,
hypermarket, mall, etc.
Shopping remains one of the most interesting satisfying and stimulating form of
leisure that will change the form of future travel and tourism industry. (From
By extending the retail environment into a broader leisure setting commercial THE IMPACT OF SHOPPING TOURISM ON THE FUTURE OF LEISURE SERVICES)
establishments are able to draw in more people and keep them for longer
periods of time, influencing higher expenditures.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

Impacts on Trade and Commerce of Agricultural Markets

According to Orden, Torero and Gulati (2004), The world development report
Tourism is one of the important factors to the development and success of a
elaborated by the World Bank (1994) defines infrastructure in a concise manner,
structure as it gives vitality to its environment and generates income. One form
making reference to long-life engineering structures, equipment and facilities,
to attract foreign nationals and even locals is the integration of leisure to the
and also the services that are derived from and utilized in production and in
shopping experience. By adding leisure, people would tend to stay longer and
final household consumption. Other authors, like Ahmed and Donovan (1992),
have the chance to participate in leisure activities as part of their shopping.
refute this type of infrastructure definition, indicating that the concept has
evolved since the early work of Arthur Lewis and Albert Hirschman towards a
more comprehensive definition that includes a wider range of public services
The City of San Fernando, Pampanga Public Market may be lack of this concept.
that facilitate production and trade.
As people change their lifestyle over the decades the concept to make them
stay was lost as people move towards modernized supermarkets and
hypermarkets. It can be observed that supermarkets and hypermarkets are
Authors such as Fosu et al. (1995), reflecting this broader definition, distinguish
usually built in a shopping mall or at least near shopping malls, this is because
up to 11 components of agricultural infrastructure: irrigation and public access
people are invited to stay longer within the area for these commercial
to water; means of transportation; storage services; commercial infrastructure;
establishments will generate income and make their consumers happy with the
processing infrastructure; public services; agricultural research and extension
leisure shopping experience as foreign nationals and even locals much prefer
services; communication and information services; land conservation services;
nowadays.
credit and financial institutions; and, finally, health and education services.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

This listing makes reference to rural infrastructure before agricultural


infrastructure, thus, as Fosu et al. state, the conjunction of infrastructure With emergence of modern agricultural production processes, and with the shift
services includes items that not only facilitate the development of agricultural in international trade toward higher-value products, these regulatory measures
activities, but also rural activities and sometimes even urban activities. and standards have assumed greater importance.

A similar classification of agricultural infrastructure developed earlier by Moreover, within the growing high-value markets, consumers are increasingly
Wharton (1967), which we adopt, identifies three categories: one that is capital expressing preferences about the process by which their food is produced, and
intensive (like roads, bridges and dyers); one that is capital extensive (principally are demanding verification of such claims. These phenomena are not restricted
extension services or vegetable and animal sanitation services); and the to wealthy countries, as the rise in supermarkets and introduction of their
institutional infrastructure (that consists of formal and informal institutions). supply-chain management systems for domestic markets within developing
countries (discussed above) demonstrates.

Regulations and standards related to food safety and quality are a dimension of
the international markets for agricultural and food products that has come to But increased regulation is posing new challenges to developing countries in
bear increasingly on poor farmers in developing countries. Controls on the international markets, just as the growing high-value demands are creating
spread of animal and plant pests and diseases, and grades, standards and other potential new income streams for those agricultural producers who can meet
quality criteria, have always impacted on international trade in bulk agricultural the emerging demands.
products.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

Once viewed as niche markets, process-based agricultural production has According to Barrett and Mutambatsere (2005), The history of agricultural
become big business and an opportunity for poor countries. (From Agricultural markets in developing countries reflects attempts to establish the appropriate
Markets and the Rural Poor) government responses to the inefficiencies created by incomplete institutional
and physical infrastructure and imperfect competition. Government
intervention in the 1960s and 1970s to resolve market failures gave way in the
Agricultural products are being delivered and sold to the market. With these 1980s to market-oriented liberalization to get prices right and, more recently,
million tons of goods and products, it draws the attention for constructing an to get institutions right. But markets openness may accentuate the latent
infrastructure that is efficient and could cater agricultural goods and products dualism of a modern, efficient marketing sector, accessible only to those with
that leads to existence of different market categories such as public market, adequate scale and capital, alongside a traditional, inefficient marketing channel
private market, food terminal, satellite market, wet market, dry market even to which the poor are effectively restricted.
modernized supermarket and hypermarket. This only shows that market is one
of the basic structures in a community feeding every household and supporting
lives. Similarly, well-functioning markets underpin important opportunities at the
micro level for welfare improvements that aggregate into sustainable macro-
level growth. For example, without good access to distant markets that can
The public market in city of San Fernando, Pampanga although exists, problems absorb excess local supply, the adoption of more productive agricultural
occurring should be address and eradicate that may include its physical, social technologies typically leads to a drop in farm-gate product prices, erasing all or
and environmental contexts. If it is resolved, further efficiency and capacity to many of the gains to producers from technological change.
cater and serve the community is still an achievable one.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

Thereby dampening incentives for farmers to adopt new technologies that can
stimulate economic growth. Agricultural markets play a crucial role in the process of economic development.
Yet, by virtue of the spatial dispersion of producers and consumers, the
temporal lags between input application and harvest, the variable perishability
The micro-level realities of agricultural markets in much of the developing and storability of commodities, and the political sensitivity of basic food staples,
world, however, include poor communications and transport infrastructure, agricultural markets are prone to high transactions costs, significant risks and
limited rule of law, and restricted access to commercial finance, all of which frequent government interference. The relative power of developing country
make markets function much less effectively than textbook models typically governments and private domestic or multinational firms in agricultural markets
assume. has varied over time. But the fundamental functions of input and output
distribution, post-harvest processing and storage, as well as the persistent
challenges of liquidity constraints, contract enforcement and imperfect
The history of agricultural markets in developing countries reflects evolving information; have characterized agricultural markets in developing countries
thinking on the appropriate role for government in trying to address the under all forms of organization. (From Agricultural Markets in Developing
inefficiencies created by incomplete institutional and physical infrastructure and Countries)
imperfect competition. The emphasis in the 1960s and 1970s on government
intervention to resolve market failures gave way in the 1980s to market-
oriented liberalization to get prices right and, more recently, to a focus on It further discusses the relationship of agriculture to the public market.
getting institutions right.

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A PROPOSED INTEGRATED TOURIST URBAN MARKET CENTER:
REDEVELOPMENT OF CITY OF SAN FERNANDO PUBLIC MARKET IN PAMPANGA

Approach on Sustainable Design

Agricultural goods and products are being delivered and sold to the public According to Gregory (2011), Innovations are occurring around the country to
market for traders and entrepreneurs will generate income while providing promote walkable, compact, complete, and connected mixed-use districts,
consumers daily needs. Public markets also noted to be accessible enough from campuses, and neighborhoods that are linked to mass transit. Such districts can
agricultural sources to eliminate price increase on goods and products when it is forward deep green and social goals. In the early days of the green building
delivered to the public market. In addition, public markets should also be well movement, the thinking was often focused around reducing the environmental
constructed and offer good competition with other public markets or even with footprint (energy, water, or materials) of an individual structure while
modernized supermarkets and hypermarkets. minimizing toxins that would degrade human health. The design effort centered
around the building as an individual object. Considerations of off-site issues
were certainly integrated into the thinking, but in fact, social, economic,
We cannot dictate the location of the public market although this thought is location, and transportation implications were often overlooked. That
advisable before constructing a public market. A well planned public market will movement transformed design at the building scale to improve environmental
benefit not only the traders and entrepreneurs on their expenses but also the performance and human well-being. This has become a standard in the industry
whole community. When it is fully established providing better goods, products and is moving increasingly to becoming a code requirement.
and services in good governance, competition with other markets is ideal. It will
not only allow all markets to perform their marketing strategies but will also
balance the consumers so that production of goods and products are maintain However, we must look beyond individual buildings to reach our broader
and well distributed. societal goals while optimizing human well-being, costs, and resources.

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Moving beyond the building scale to create efficient, walkable, mixed-use On a more detailed level, these categories include storm water management,
districts linked by low-carbon mass transportation is fundamental. A district, local food production, neighborhood schools, housing and jobs proximity, and
campus, or neighborhood is also an important unit of identity and community. compact development. This type of systems-level integrated thinking about
Broader civic goals around economic development, public health, and projects leads to more holistic, deeper green solutions.
knowledge can be imbued at this scale.

To achieve the next level of sustainability, it will be important to focus on that


Integrated systems thinking and action beyond water and energy can also build scale while continuing to innovate at the building level. As with any effort
robust community collaboration and expand to areas of economic development involving sustainability, integrated thinking, clear metrics, common values, and
and human well-being. a shared vision will be instrumental in achieving success. (From Green
Buildings to Green Neighborhoods)

Innovative districts, campuses, and neighborhoods can work within a local


watershed to use, reuse, and deliver clean water back to the ecosystem, Sustainability is one of the issues and trends that draw the attention of every
maximize efficiency of energy through renewable strategies, or extract energy individual. Due to climate change, methods of construction are also affected.
from biomass and waste heat. Architects and engineers conceptualized better construction techniques and
methodologies. In this case, public markets are also encouraged to be
sustainably design. This would allow public market to have sort of freshness and
The growth of district-level strategies is evidenced by the evolution of healthy environment.
sustainability metric systems extending beyond the building, one example being
the Sustainable Sites Initiative.

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The public market in city of San Fernando, Pampanga is lack of this concept. Designing major renovations and retrofits for existing buildings to include
That is why common problems on sanitation, ventilation and circulation exist in sustainability initiatives reduces operation costs and environmental impacts and
the public market. To eliminate these common problems one answer is the can increase building resiliency.
sustainability concept. This would help not only human well - being but also on
costs and preservation of natural resources.
Recent answers to this challenge call for an integrated, synergistic approach that
considers all phases of the facility life cycle. This approach, often called
According to WBDG (2010), Building construction and operation have extensive sustainable design, supports an increased commitment to environmental
direct and indirect impacts on the environment. Buildings use resources such as stewardship and conservation and results in an optimal balance of cost,
energy, water and raw materials, general waste (occupant, construction and environmental, societal and human benefits while meeting the mission and
demolition) and emit potentially harmful atmospheric emissions. Building function of the intended facility or infrastructure.
owners, designers and builders face a unique challenge to meet demands for
new and renovated facilities that are accessible, secure, healthy and productive
while minimizing their impact on the environment. The main objectives of sustainable design are to avoid resource depletion of
energy, water, and raw materials; prevent environmental degradation caused
by facilities and infrastructure throughout their life cycle; and create built
Considering the current economic challenges, retrofitting an existing building environments that are livable, comfortable, safe and productive. (From
can be more cost effective than building a new facility. Sustainable)

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The sustainability concept is a wide and complex in its form. It ranges from
different aspects affecting several fields. However, sustainably designed building
is a better building in this generation. This would help not only to lasts the
structure itself but also to preserve the natural resources which all living A process was created to guide the proponent to the proposed project. It begins
creatures benefit. with determining the problem and its considerable factors that through
research, investigation and case studies relevant information will be collected.
1.6 Conceptual Framework
This information will lead to data analysis through deep interpretation and
assumption. A concept will then exist that will be enhance by architectural
solutions and the site that will be bounded by various horizons concluding to
the proposed project.

1.7 Research Methodology

The system of inquiry used by the proponent is positivism. This is done through
collection of relevant information to clarify the study. The strategy is qualitative
to gather significant data about the public market regarding its present
situations, conditions and future endeavors that is supplemented from
government documents. The tactics are observation, interviews, collection of
data from secondary sources, photo documentation and case studies.

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1.7.1 Oral Investigation Moreover, as time goes by, a sudden change was experienced by the public
market. Engr. Limbitco strengthens the point that it could be the accessibility
Series of interviews were conducted to gather relevant information regarding
and the flood condition of the City of San Fernando Public Market site that
and for the development of the proposed project from various Fernandinos in
drawn the occurrence of problem. In addition, the construction of SM
the City of San Fernando, Pampanga. This includes the participation of city local
Pampanga and Robinson Star mills in North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) worsen
government officials from the City Planning and Development Coordinators
the situation.
Office (CPDCO), the City Economic and Enterprise Division (CEED), the City
Assessors Office (CAO), the City Agriculture, Veterinary, Environment and
Natural Resources Office (CAVENRO) and the City Environment and Natural
Furthermore, Engr. Limbitco told that the development of public market could
Resources Office (CENRO).
be finance through Treasury bond, Build Operate Transfer (BOT), and loan on
commercial bank or totally outsource.

According to Engr. Fernando Limbitco, the City Planning and Development


Coordinator, the City of San Fernando Public Market in Brgy. Del Pilar was
Ms. Mila of CEED told awful conditions in the City of San Fernando Public
constructed in between 1970s to 80s in a 3.7 hectares of donated parcel land
Market such as stealing, flooding and inconvenient facilities. In addition, the
to extend the market service of the Old Public Market that is only half an
public market is apart from the old city district where there is little public
hectare in size, that loss the capability to cater the growing numbers of
transportation that traverses to the site.
entrepreneurs and consumers during that time.

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Furthermore, she stated that the public market has three sections known as
Camarin A for fruits and vegetables, Camarin B for groceries and eateries and
Camarin C for wet section. Camarin A usually open starting six in the evening
while Camarin B and C starts from 12 midnight and all Camarin are closed Summary on Findings and Analysis
before 11 in the morning.
The different city departments had shared their thoughts about the City of San
Fernando Public Market. It is confirmed that the public market is not totally new
as it is constructed 30 to 40 years ago. This duration of time post severe
Engr. Francisco of CAVENRO stated that the City of San Fernando Public Market
deterioration not only to the facilities but also to the whole structure itself.
is lack of cold storage facilities for agricultural products mainly vegetables. He
Since the site of the public market is donated, the call to construct the extension
also added the potential of their agricultural products such as sugarcane to be
of the Old Public Market before was achievable. Thus, it could be interpreted
extracted for vinegar making, green leafy vegetables such as lettuce, mustard
that the construction of the City of San Fernando Public Market does not
and pechay and fish known as pangasius to the tourism development of their
undergo better analysis that is proven by several years as people leave the
city in the near future.
public market and rather stay in the Old Public Market. The same activity that
the Old Public Market offered suddenly left to a food terminal or bagsakan
that only become income generating from midnight until morning.
According to Ms. Adelaida Zapata, the OIC of CENRO large scale of solid
biodegradable waste from public market was delivered to the composting
center converting it into fertilizer as part of city income while non
biodegradable materials are sent to the biosphere in Barangay Lara.

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According to a concern citizen, if there are 1 million people before in the old city 1.7.2 Archival Investigation
district where two public markets are situated, it diminished into 100,000
people who stayed to shop in the public market while the remaining huge
numbers of people move to the new shopping destination, the SM Pampanga According to the IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS TO GOVERN THE

and Robinson Star mills. However, this sudden turnover of people cannot be PROCESSING OF APPLICATION FOR LOCATIONAL CLEARANCE OF MARKETS AS

maliciously pointed to the two giants. Therefore, it could be interpreted that AMENDED by the HLURB they defined Market as a general term referring to a

these could be part of the changing market pattern and interest of the public place, building or structure where commodities such as foodstuffs, wares

consumers. This could also be the time to analyze and re evaluates the City of and other merchandise may be bought or sold. It includes any of the following:

San Fernando Public Market.


1. Public Market - a market owned, operated and/or managed by the
government intended to serve the general public.

The stealing, flooding, the inconvenience and lack of facilities and the
2. Private Market - a market owned, operated and/or managed by private
availability of public transportation become the factors why consumers loss
individuals or entities, cooperatives, institution or corporation.
their interests to the public market or reason why they pinagtitiyagaan the
public market due to its low price of goods and products.

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3. Food Terminal - a market where products such as seafoods, fruits,


vegetables and other food merchandise are being sold on a wholesale basis
In addition, according to PPS Organization, there are many kinds of Public
(e.g. fish landing, trading posts, "bagsakan", "consignacion").
Markets:

4. Satellite Market/Talipapa - a type of market with less than 150 stalls that 1. Open Air Markets - it is temporary, operating one or a few times a week.
cater to a limited number of customers.

2. Covered Markets it is sheds or flexible indoor space, including winter


5. Supermarket - a market distinct from a wet or dry market and larger than a markets- a trend that is growing in the northeast.
grocery in which shoppers serve themselves by using baskets or pushcarts in
selecting commodities from shelves or cold display storage and pay their 3. Market Hall it is indoor building with permanent stalls for vendors.
purchase at the exit.

4. Market districts it is multi acre hubs of market-related activity including an


6. Wet Market - a market where most of the commodities for sale are readily indoor market, mix of wholesale and retail usually- usually lots of food
perishable foods. related businesses, such as restaurants.

7. Dry Market - a market where most of the merchandise displayed for sale is
dry goods.

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It provides a basis for developing a new market to replace an existing market or This guide attempts to demonstrate the clear linkages between agricultural and
for rehabilitating an existing one. The key issues that need to be considered in urban development policies, market-infrastructure planning, economic viability,
deciding whether to proceed with a market infrastructure investment are: market management and the role of the various involved parties.

What type and size of market facilities are needed and where should they The guide has two main areas of concern, which are:
be located?
The rural context - which is primarily concerned with the infrastructure
What technical, financial and institutional factors need to be considered and
needs of producers for the assembly and marketing of surplus produce to
what preliminary work is needed on which to make informed decisions?
urban areas and, sometimes, for export; and
What planning horizon should be used for forecasting?
The urban context - which is concerned with the wholesale and retail
Who should be involved in the design process (such as market users,
distribution of food products to consumers within an urban area and with
farmers and traders)?
further distribution to other urban areas and for export.
What is needed to brief a team of technical specialists and consultants in
preparing surveys and pre-feasibility and feasibility studies and detailed
designs for the investment?

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Agricultural produce is normally channeled through the following types of


market:

a) Rural Primary Markets: In rural markets, trade is characterized by direct sales


In order to make any effective interventions in a marketing system it is
of small quantities of produce by producers to village traders and by sales by
necessary to define the types of marketing channels, their linkages and
retailers to rural consumers. Rural markets form part of a trade network and are
functions. The linkage between rural and urban areas is normally provided by a
normally arranged on a periodic basis on specific weekdays, and are commonly
network of market intermediaries, including:
organized at a central place in a village or district centre or beside the villages
access road. In some instances, provincial and district-level markets also serve
Farmers selling directly in the market (more common in rural markets);
this function, as well as providing an assembly function (i.e. assembling produce
Petty traders and assemblers;
in larger quantities for onward sale to outside buyers).
Wholesalers (and semi-wholesalers);
Commission agents, sometimes acting as auctioneers, and brokers;
Transporters and transport agents; and
b) Assembly Markets: Larger rural markets are found where greater quantities
Retailers.
of produce are traded, either by the producers themselves or by traders. These
assembly markets (often combined with local rural markets), are normally
situated on main highways, or near to ferries and other local transport nodes.
Produce is predominantly bought by traders or collection agents on their own
behalf or on behalf of urban wholesalers.

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e) Other Marketing Channels: Channels other than markets often exist,


particularly in the case of horticultural produce. These include on-farm sales,
where collectors purchase the produce (usually under contracts between the
producers and distributors) and arrange transport to wholesale outlets, packing
houses or supermarkets. The extent to which this is done depends primarily on
c) Wholesale Markets: Terminal wholesale and semi-wholesale markets are the general state of development of the economy and the demands of
located within or near major cities (usually with populations exceeding 0.5 consumers.
million). These markets may be supplied by purchasing or assembly centers in
the rural areas or directly from farms, either by traders or by large farmers.

The pressures for change derive from two sources: internal factors from within
the food marketing system and external factors.
d) Retail Markets: These are markets directly serving consumers and are found
a) Internal factors: Changes occur due to the changing organizational structure
in main urban areas, such as provincial, town and city centers. Although
of commerce:
primarily retail, they may have some semi-wholesale functions, particularly if
they allow farmers to trade. In that case, they are often called farmers markets.
Increasing volumes of produce to be handled;
Alterations to commercial practices and trading patterns, such as the
private sector taking over markets from state-operated distribution
systems, or the expanding influence of supermarkets;
The emergence of professional specialized wholesalers.

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b) External factors: The main external causes for change are demographic Changes can also be precipitated by new legislation and greater public
factors, including: awareness:

An overall increase in population of a city as a result of migration and New town planning controls and zoning regulations;
natural growth, overwhelming the existing market capacity and the road New environmental impact and energy conservation controls; and
system; Increasing consumer-protection laws, including new public health, food
Population shifts within cities and moves to the suburbs; and quality and safety regulations.
Changes in the location and nature of workplaces.

Assembly and Wholesale Markets


Changing transportation patterns will have a significant impact through:
The primary function of all markets is to facilitate the movement of produce
Increased traffic growth and resulting congestion; between producers and consumers. The assembly and wholesaling of produce
Shifts in transport mode (i.e. the proportion of different types of vehicles); often occurs most efficiently within the framework of a developed wholesale
and market system. This system will also assist in price formation for domestic
Changes in the capacity and size of delivery and distribution trucks. produce. However, when economies are developing or being liberalized it may
take some time for wholesalers to emerge.

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Retail Markets

Where the marketing system is not organized, with a formal wholesale market, Municipal authorities are also involved with the provision of low-cost retail
wholesaling premises tend to be scattered throughout cities. This is neither facilities such as covered markets and street markets. Appropriate
convenient for producers delivering produce, nor for retailers, although such organizational structures for managing these are often not very satisfactory,
wholesalers (or semi-wholesalers) do provide a helpful service for small resulting in the markets being poorly maintained. A frequent complaint
retailers, when they deliver produce directly to them. concerns high rental values for stalls, which may drive the traders out of the
market onto the street. Some markets are leased to single entities or franchises,
which might lead to a distorted rental structure and may be counter-productive
to the long-term development of retail markets.
However, the existence of such a dispersed pattern tends to lead to imperfect
market price formation. A similar situation may also emerge when an already
established assembly or wholesale market has outgrown its site and additional
markets are established or where the urban areas have expanded so rapidly Establishment of new retail markets and upgrading of existing market areas
that the central market facilities cannot effectively function. Although the requires that a positive programme is adopted so that they can be properly
development of integrated marketing of produce through supermarket chains is integrated with development proposals for cities and towns, including any new
emerging in many countries, in the medium-term it is likely that wholesaling will wholesale markets. Improvements might include the provision of redesigned
continue to be important. Wholesale markets still account for 50-80 per cent of stalls for vendors, improved water supplies, better street surfacing and
the overall trade in fresh produce in most developing countries. drainage, and the provision of facilities for the daily collection of solid waste.

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Rural Markets

Similar conditions to those which occur with retail markets apply to rural The lack of a planning strategy for new or relocated markets, including land
primary markets, but usually with a lower value and volume of produce and, availability; and
therefore, with less potential for generating revenues for improving services The misuse of markets to provide municipal revenues, at the expense of
and infrastructure. The improvement of rural markets is often combined with promoting the horticultural and agricultural sectors.
programmes for general upgrading of post-harvest handling facilities or for
access road improvements.

The main justification for infrastructure development is to provide a suitable


environment for more effective marketing. To understand this process, the
SUMMARY OF TYPICAL MARKETING PROBLEMS marketing development needs to be placed within an overall policy framework.
Typical marketing policies and means to achieve them, that could have an
A lack of understanding (and data) on the location and role of major crop
impact on a development project include:
producing areas and the extent of internal, export and import trade flows;
Difficulties in defining marketing channels, when formal wholesalers hardly Liberalizing of agricultural marketing and removal of price control, thus
exist; increasing the type and number of market intermediaries;
Unclear marketing policy and institutional arrangements;
A lack of understanding of the changes occurring in the pattern of food
distribution;
Crowded conditions in existing markets in which wholesale, retail and
transport functions are often combined;

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Encouraging farmers groups and cooperatives in producing and


marketing higher value crops;
A fundamental step in understanding a marketing system is to know what
Upgrading rural markets to reduce post-harvest losses and to improve
produce is being traded, where it is coming from and when are the peak times
handling;
that it will reach the market. For smaller rural and urban retail markets this
Improving access to market facilities by:
information may be possible to obtain by undertaking a simple interview survey
Increasing the density of rural markets so that the average
in the existing markets.
distance of farmers to market facilities is reduced;
Facilitating construction of a network of wholesale markets,
possibly in collaboration with the private sector;
Encouraging the export of vegetables and fruits; However, for larger rural assembly markets and urban wholesale markets a
Establishing an effective market information service to promote trading; more comprehensive approach will be needed. To do this it is necessary to
Improving urban nutritional standards by increasing the availability of define the cropping patterns and cropping calendar for the main production
fresh produce in urban areas; areas serving the markets.
Enhancing the revenue-earning base of local government; and
Enhancing the capacity of communities and small-scale entrepreneurs
to operate and maintain infrastructure.

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Physical problems: The main elements or functions to be included in a market project should be
self-evident. However, it is very easy to include too much in a programme
Poor site location and road access. This is often the main issue. It becomes
without realizing the consequences of this. It is necessary, therefore, to:
difficult to resolve where there are planned road improvements that would
provide access advantages, but have not yet been carried out; Identify the demand for the project facilities and their relationship to
Insufficient sales space, particularly of temporary spaces at peak periods existing infrastructure.
and during peak seasons, leading to produce being sold in the open, with Identify what standards are required to be adopted; and
consequent spoilage; Identify who the likely participants are and how will they be involved? Thus,
The presence of poorly designed and constructed sheds, making the the main actors in the market development and their particular
marketing process inefficient and inhibiting customer flow; requirements will need to be defined.
A general lack of building and facilities maintenance;
Insufficient circulation space and traffic management measures, leading to
vehicular and pedestrian congestion;
The physical organization of new markets (and restructuring of existing markets)
Lack of parking provision and areas for unloading;
would need to take into consideration all the relevant technical and institutional
Poor condition of roads and paving;
factors, including:
Inadequate drainage and severe flooding problems, leading to produce
losses and potential health problems; The suitability of the markets location (present or proposed) and its future
Inadequate site security and overnight storage facilities; and expansion needs (whether it would be possible to easily expand in the
Inadequate hygienic provision for meat, poultry and fish handling, including future);
a lack of refrigeration facilities. The organization of incoming and outgoing traffic;

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The designation of suitable locations in the markets for the sale of each crop The type of pedestrian and vehicular traffic delivering and collecting
and the designation of a specific time for commencement of the sale, produce (e.g. pickups, trucks, animal carts, buses, motor bikes, cycles)
whereby the buyers and sellers can organize more efficiently the use of Specific environmental requirements, such as fresh/clean water and cooling
their time; facilities for meat or fish;
The conditions of licenses and leases issued to the traders, which will The method of operation and the types of equipment which will be
determine the characteristics of those transacting in the market; and required; and
The existence of regulations and laws for standardizing the packaging used
for a specific variety of fruits and vegetables and prohibiting
misrepresentation in the packaging.
The markets activities may need to be supported by the following marketing
services and facilities:

Storage units, both cold storage and regular ambient storage, ripening
To develop the design brief it will be necessary to define the specific factors
chambers and ice plants;
which will govern the layout, relationships and priorities of the market. These
Grading facilities for specific qualities of produce (although this should
might include:
preferably be undertaken at farm level);
The number of traders and the size of trading units; Facilities for washing (cleaning) of fruits and vegetables;
Effective methods for protection of produce from climatic factors, such as Facilities for the sale of packaging materials;
rain, wind, and dust. This could be in the form of permanent structures or Communications facilities (telephones, facsimile, etc.);
temporary facilities (such as the umbrellas often used in retail markets); Market information service facilities; and
Banking, catering and other facilities for farmers and traders.

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Market infrastructure is influenced by many factors, the most fundamental of


which is the size and use of selling space and its relationship to traffic circulation
and parking.

Occasional Markets: Markets have always been transit points - the traditional
periodic markets or country fairs (including livestock markets) being the most
There are four main factors relating to food supply and distribution which may obvious examples. In the case of occasional markets, the sites are only
ultimately influence market planning and infrastructure provision: temporarily used. Their most important feature is not that they provide specific
infrastructure for marketing, but that they take place on the same day of the
Increased food crop production, leading to surpluses being available for sale
week or season, or once a year. These occasional markets are often abandoned
and to a greater demand for marketing facilities in rural areas;
over time or relocated to new, more appropriate, locations. As land use
Loss of agricultural land and kitchen gardens through urbanization, both
becomes increasingly constrained by land-value increases and the introduction
within and on the edge of urban areas, necessitating supplies from more
of land-use zoning and planning systems, it is necessary to specifically set aside
distant sources;
land for market development and to provide specialized infrastructure.
Pressures caused by traffic growth and related congestion, requiring
suitable sites to be found for locating new wholesale and retail markets; and
Changes in consumption habits creating the need for new cold storage
facilities and food processing industries.

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Changing Shopping Patterns - Shopping Malls and Supermarkets: Recent


decades have seen an evolution of the shopping centre from the corner and
roadside strip shops to the mega-malls of the USA and some Western
European countries (such as the hypermarkets of France). These facilities often
combine one-stop retail shopping with entertainment facilities. In some cases
the development of supermarkets may completely replace the traditional The key feature of market design has become the ease of circulation, parking
neighborhood shops and retail markets. In parallel will be the decline of the and maneuvering of vehicles. For example, where the practice is to use larger
wholesale markets serving the older retail suppliers. trucks, the incorporation in the design of loading bays becomes essential. How
they are designed (raised or at grade) will depend on how the produce is
handled within the market (mechanically or manually).

Impact on Location and Market Layout: The dominance of the truck has meant
that there has been a tendency to design (and redesign) market structures to
provide adequate parking and to facilitate an uninterrupted flow of goods. This In preparing a development it is likely that two basic situations will need to be
has led to a demand for larger sites, resulting in a tendency to decentralize considered:
facilities to the outskirts of cities where space is available at a lower cost. With
markets, this change of emphasis away from the structure of the buildings, to
the flow of produce, has resulted in the development of new design
characteristics.

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Facilities at a new location

Facilities at existing sites The construction of new market facilities (at a green field site); or
The conversion and adaptation of existing facilities (for example where an
The complete or partial replacement of existing facilities (which may create
existing central food distribution warehouse or other building is converted
problems of continuing the operation of a market during the demolition and
into a market).
construction works);
The extension or alteration of the existing facilities (which may allow the
continuing operation of the market, but might involve too many design and
Providing new market facilities creates a number of design problems. A major
management compromises); and
consideration will be the potential resistance by traders to change and to
The introduction of an operational technique such as facilities
moving to a new location. Other issues may also need to be resolved, including:
management, which is a system that monitors the use of services to ensure
(i) the potential competition between markets and other distribution channels;
that spaces are utilized as effectively and economically as possible to create
(ii) the possibility of constructing facilities that are too large; (iii) the type of
an acceptable internal and external environment. This technique may be an
institutional controls that will be appropriate for the new location; and (iv) the
alternative to the creation of new facilities or may be implemented in
issue of long-term viability of the market related to city and hinterland size. This
addition to other measures.
is particularly relevant with new wholesale markets and in a city with a
population of less than half a million a wholesale market is unlikely to be viable.

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Planning and Design Alternatives: Usually the basic design approach is not The choice of location of any market is a key decision, particularly for urban
immediately obvious and a project may need to consider several alternatives wholesale markets. The question of location is closely bound up with that of
and to evaluate which one is preferable. The choice between modifying an transport, as markets are essentially only transit stops. Transportation changes
existing facility or constructing a new one should not be based on expediency or and evolving road networks will significantly influence whether it is still viable
ill-informed decisions. It is necessary to approach the problem by thinking for a market to remain in its present location or whether a new site should be
clearly about what the facility has to do in order to offer solutions which would sought. The types of transport changes which will have an impact are:
function at the lowest cost and with the simplest form. The development of the
The privatization of transport facilities (as in former centrally planned
options should also take account of possible socioeconomic changes and any
economies);
potential environmental impact (such as pollution and noise impact). Many
Increased availability of different types of transport, such as animal carts
options are likely to be available and there is unlikely to be one correct solution.
being replaced with small motorized vehicles or trucks replacing small pick-
ups;
Changes caused by the relocation of a bus station or by road improvements,
However, in choosing options, care is necessary to ensure that there is no over-
such as the construction of a ring road or a new interurban road which
design of physical facilities. The facilities will have a limited life span (say 25
brings produce from an entirely new direction; and
years) and will inevitably be subject to frequent change.
A trend for transport facilities to be used as mobile markets -including
display in the open and with direct selling from the trucks parking space.

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The preferred location for markets is one with good access to a main road
system and with compatible adjacent land uses (such as catering and
Altering the road pattern to work on the basis of a one-way system and
agribusiness industries). Urban retail markets must be convenient for
extending or changing market trading hours may solve the problem, but this will
customers, preferably within walking distance of lower-income housing areas.
not help if the parking of vehicles inside the market is uncontrolled and there is
These location requirements will need to be balanced against other factors such
a lack of traffic management.
as the suitability of the site in terms of its cost, present ownership, size,
suitability for construction and availability of services. Optimum site locations
will reduce the financial costs of transportation for both sellers and buyers,
lowering margins, and ultimately decreasing the costs to consumers. In addition, Market operations are influenced by management methods and by the physical
the reduced costs also have an economic and environmental impact in creating lay-out. They need to achieve:
the opportunity for energy savings and for reducing potential air and noise
pollution. An unobstructed traffic circulation pattern and effective parking control
with adequate parking facilities being provided;
Maximum possibility for interaction between the market users leading to
the possibility of optimum price formation;
Congestion is often the main factor influencing the need for market
Provision and full utilization of support facilities;
improvements. Problems often occur where access is limited to only one
Adequate arrangements for display and sale of produce to maintain
operating entry and exit and where the market authority uses the gate to
produce quality; and
control entry in order to maximize revenues. If the lead-in length of the internal
Efficient produce handling (such as by pallets and forklifts).
access road is also very short and the parking of vehicles is not rigorously
controlled, congestion is inevitable.

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Desirable environmental and social impact of a market project

Component Environmental impact Socio-economic impact


Land No loss of natural habitat Limited land acquisition
No land-use conflicts No land ownership conflicts
General amenity gain Limited loss of existing property Waste No hazardous waste Improved solid-waste
No additional soil pollution collection Limited construction waste No additional disposal quantities
Labor None Benefits local construction industry Construction Use of renewable resources Use of local materials
Use of local labor not requiring
Energy Marginal resource depletion Marginal increase in market
additional accommodation
operating costs
Health Improved hydrological and Improvement to sanitation system
drainage conditions Air pollution Marginal change None
Noise Marginal change None
Reduced health hazards
Heritage Conservation gain Parallel socio-economic gain
Public health benefits
Reduction in disease
transmission
Reduced water
contamination
No impact on water table

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There are a number of factors which always need to be resolved before taking a
development any further than has been discussed so far. These could include:

Legal framework: a legal framework for marketing activities may need to be


Planning consent: when the market is to be constructed on a new site it may
established, together with the introduction of new market regulations. As
be necessary to confirm that a change of use certificate is available or that a
this process can often take longer than the actual market construction it
structure plan amendment decree has been issued;
needs to be initiated as rapidly as possible;
Land title and value: new market sites may require land acquisition if the
Organizational issues: agreements may need to made on the type of
site is not presently in the ownership of the implementing agency. With new
organizational change and responsibilities, including confirming the legal
urban markets it is normal for the implementing agency not to own the site.
status and structure (composition of board of directors,
This may necessitate either lengthy negotiations or the use of compulsory
management/auditing system) of any existing company or institution;
purchase powers. It may be necessary to obtain both a formal valuation and
Investors: the level of participation of potential stakeholders (such as
an official land-allocation decree (including cadastre plans) to ensure that
municipalities, transport companies, traders, banks, other private
the site is unencumbered (e.g. there are no claims from private individuals
companies, and individual investors) may need to be defined. This may
with former ownership or usage rights).
require confirmation that these potential investors are being actively
identified through individual meetings and/or publication in local
newspapers and would become shareholders by contributing equity in cash
or in kind;

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In-kind contributions: with rural markets, the market users are sometimes Social and environmental impact assessments: it may be necessary to
required to donate the land as their contribution to the project. In that case, commission, from an accredited consultant, an environmental assessment
a Memorandum of Understanding would need to be drawn-up between the of the market site, as required under local environmental laws. This may
implementing agency, the beneficiaries and the local community; also be required to satisfy the concerns of other government departments,
a donor or a lending agency.

Traffic and road system: often, one of the main justifications for the choice
of a selected site is that it is able to accommodate the substantially Social and environmental mitigation measures: if the social and
increased traffic flows caused by market development. However, environmental impact assessment identifies specific impacts, there may be
confirmation will need to be obtained from the authorities (usually the a need to include civil works or other mitigation measures to overcome the
Ministry of Transport) that the design and location is acceptable. Particular impact. These may need to be defined as preconditions and agreed with an
attention will be required in relation to junction location and spacing on environmental agency.
national highways, and to the design of approach roads.

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General Issues Relating to all Market Types

Are there existing marketing problems which suggest the need for a new or What are the management and institutional factors that should be
improved market? If not, what evidence is there that the development is considered?
required? How should the project involve the market users in the improvement
Should the project rebuild an existing market(s) or relocate to another site? programme?
Have the market users been fully consulted in formulating the project? What basic information is needed for deciding on whether to proceed?
What is the ideal location for the market and how will the market relate to What is the markets existing throughput and what could be the markets
the whole system of markets? future throughput?
What factors should be considered in site selection and site planning? How large should the market be and what facilities should the market
What are the main design (planning and infrastructure) issues? contain (such as type and size of stalls)?
What are the next steps to consider before proceeding with detailed
studies?

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Urban Wholesale Markets and Food Centers

Are there pressures for private ownership of markets?


Could this result in a loss of monopoly and potential competition between
Rural Primary Markets
markets?
What are the implications for rentals?
Will the market operate daily, weekly or seasonally?
In the development of the food distribution system is there the possibility of
Will it be possible to recover all or part of the costs?
developments which will reduce the importance of a wholesale market?
How should the project deal with special needs, such as livestock and dry
Has the role of the urban planner in facilitating market development, both
goods sales?
through land allocation and in stimulating economic development, been
Rural Assembly Markets fully exploited in market-location decision making?
With regard to urban planning, have issues of urban agriculture and hobby
Are the marketing channels for the assembly of produce understood? gardens been addressed which may reduce the need to further import
Will the market only trade seasonally and what will the facilities be used for produce from outside the urban area?
in the off-season? Is there a need to take account of the needs and regulations of other local
Is trading from trucks likely to be the most usual practice and how will this government departments, such as the public health department?
influence the design? Has the need for rights-of-way easements for pedestrians, drainage courses
and electricity supply been considered?
Is a clean water supply available?

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Are there difficulties because the proposed site is remote, with problems of Urban Retail Markets
access for staff, availability of public transport and loss of casual
Does the new project fully meet neighborhood food needs, particularly for
employment opportunities (particularly for female labor)?
low income areas?
Has the design made optimum use of land, minimizing the amount of land
Have retail markets been considered as amenities within planned residential
that needs to be used consistent with efficient market operations?
developments?
Is the introduction of an efficient handling system constrained by lack of
Is there competition with supermarkets and has this been considered in the
space?
project design, by reducing the scale of the market or by providing special
Is there competition for land from other land uses, leading to a conflict of an
facilities which enable the market to compete more effectively?
ideal market location with site value?
Is there a nearby bus stop or other form of public transport for the market
With small wholesale markets, are there difficulties in mixing semi-
users and has allowance been made for new access facilities?
wholesaling and retailing with wholesale functions?
Is there adequate provision for delivery trucks and for off-street parking?
Have traffic issues and environmental impact, particularly the handling and

treatment of solid waste, been fully considered and are there any specific
impact mitigation measures required?

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The most important criteria for selection of markets for improvement are likely
to be whether:

The markets are presently in an unimproved state;


Assurances have been obtained that adequate financial revenues from the
They have a special function, such as an assembly market (used by
improved markets could be generated to cover all operational and
producers) or are serving a large rural or urban catchment area. Rural
maintenance costs and provide funds for further market improvements; and
primary markets and urban street markets that have solely a local retail
The private sector is willing to take responsibility for improving individual
function may not be either financially or economically viable;
sheds and stalls, and the project limits its activities to investment in the
They trade in fresh produce (with the majority of permanent and visiting
upgrading of common basic infrastructure, such as:
traders selling fresh fruits, vegetables, fish or meat);
Site preparation, fencing, parking areas, internal road works and
The sites are on land already owned by local government, a market body or
main covered sheds and open sales areas;
authority, or the local community;
A simple surface/storm water drainage system, sanitary
They can be subject to a formal agreement where the developments would
accommodation and a water supply; and
be implemented through market committees established with the
Garbage collection points, collection carts and shade tree
agreement of the traders;
planting.
There is a willingness on the part of the market traders to improve the
efficiency of the present market operations and to accept higher fee or
rental charges as a condition of improvements being made;

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The quantity of horticultural and other food supplies into a sub-


region or town - from elsewhere in the country and from
The information required would normally include the following:
abroad;
Products not marketed because of post-harvest losses; supplies
What are the existing wholesale and retail market channels for fresh
to agri-processing facilities; what goes into temporary storage;
produce and other foodstuffs? Where are the products sold (in wholesale
what is used for animal feed and seed requirements; and what
and retail markets, supermarkets, through institutional buyers or through
is directly consumed by the consumer;
direct sales to consumers) and what is the estimated throughput and role of
The existing and projected consumption of food products in the
these different channels?
sub-region or town, including that coming from the consumers
Background details on existing traders, their type, location and scale of
own sources; and
operation.
What would be the share of trade that is likely to go through
Estimated existing and projected throughput of the new market facilities.
the new market, in the short and long term.
For simple markets this can be based on a survey of just the overall
Legal and financial data relating to the local authoritys marketing
quantities of produce traded. For assembly and wholesale markets a more
department, a market authority or private company.
comprehensive food balance approach is needed:
Details of any relevant background studies on horticulture and/or
The quantity of production in a sub-region or town, including
marketing, including existing and planned wholesale and retail trade
what is produced at home or in hobby gardens;
developments.

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Additional archives relate to the regional and City of San Fernando trade and
industry statistic as well as relevant information regarding on its tourism are
also gathered.

Very small establishments accounts for more than 90 percent of the total
number

The total number of establishments in operation during the year 2000 was
estimated to be about 820,960, generating employment of about 6 million.
Dominating the total number (747,740 or 91.1 %) were micro establishments,
In terms of employment generation, micro, small and medium establishments
each employing less than 10 workers. Small establishments, each employing 10
absorbed 69.6 percent of the workers in the formal sector, with respective
99 workers, numbered 67,166 (8.2 %), while only 3,070 (0.4 %) were medium
contributions of 36.7, 25.8 and 7.1 percent. On the other hand, 30.4 percent of
establishments, with employment size of 100 199. Only 2,984, or 0.4 percent,
the workers were employed in large establishments.
were employing 200 or more workers and were considered large
establishments.

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In terms of size of establishments in the sector, 95.2 percent establishments in


the Wholesale and Retail Trade were micro establishments, while small,
medium and large establishments were accounting for respective shares of only
4.6, 0.1 and 0.07 percent. On the other hand, establishments in the
manufacturing sector tended to be relatively larger, with percentage
distribution of 86.9, 11.3, 0.9 and 1.0 percent, respectively.

Wholesale and Retail Trade has the largest employment, but Manufacturing
follows very closely.

Wholesale and Retail Trade establishments are the most numerous, majority
(53.3 %) of the 820,960 establishments in operation in 2000 were in the
Wholesale and Retail Trade, followed by Manufacturing establishments,
contributing 15.3 percent to the total count. Other industries accounted for the
following shares in the total number of establishments: Hotels and Restaurants,
10.9 percent; Other Community, Social and Personal Services Activities, 5.0
percent; Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities, 4.9 percent; Health and
Social Work, 3.5 percent; Financial Intermediation, 2.9 percent; and Transport,
Storage and Communications, 1.9 percent.

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Since establishments in the Wholesale and Retail Trade were primarily very A similar pattern may be noted for Transport, Storage and Communications with
micro, the sector was able to absorb only 1.8 million workers, or 30.3 percent of only about half of the workers employed in micro, small or medium
the total, with 62.2 percent working in micro establishments. On the other establishments and the other half working for large establishments.
hand, Manufacturing showed a reversal as it employed a total of 1.6 million
workers, or 26.9 percent of the workers. In addition, 45.9 percent of
manufacturing workers were working for large establishments, in contrast to
Sectors that are dominated by workers in micro, small and medium
only 12.0 percent for the Wholesale and Retail Trade.
establishments were: Other Community, Social and Personal Services with 87.2
percent of its workers in the said type of establishments; Financial
Intermediation, 73.6 percent, Health and Social Work, 71.1 percent, Education,
Hotels and Restaurants was still third as far as work generation was concerned 63.4 percent; and Fishing, 60.4 percent. On the other hand, sectors that were
with the sector employing 485 thousand workers, 93.6 of them in micro, small dominated by workers in large establishments were Mining and Quarrying with
or medium establishments. Workers in the Real Estate, Renting and Business 66.8 percent of its workers employed in large establishments; Construction,
Activities numbered about 431 thousand, with 59.0 percent in micro, small and 66.6 percent; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply, 62.7 percent; and Forestry, 54.7
medium establishments. percent.

Compared to the other large sectors, relatively larger number of workers in this
sector, or 41.0 percent was working in large establishments.

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H - Hotels and Restaurants


I - Transport, Storage and Communications
J - Financial Intermediation
K - Real Estate, Renting and Business Services
M - Education
N - Health and Social Work
O - Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities

Food and live animals contributes the biggest share in the total domestic trade
value

Industry Description Among the commodities that were transacted throughout the country in the
first quarter of 2011, food and live animals contributed the largest with value
A - Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry amounting to PhP38.15 billion (29.8%). This was followed by machinery and
B - Fishing transport equipment with PhP26.63 billion (20.8%) and manufactured goods
C - Mining and Quarrying classified chiefly by material followed with PhP17.10 billion (13.4%). Animal and
D - Manufacturing vegetable oils, fats and waxes shared the least value of PhP2.18 billion (1.7%).
E - Electricity, Gas and Water
F - Construction
G - Wholesale and Retail Trade, Repair of Motor Vehicles, etc.

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Likewise, food and live animals dominated the domestic trade in the first
2010
quarter of 2010, with a share of 28.9 percent (PhP27.07 billion) of the total
Average
value. This was followed by machinery and transport equipment with 21.8
Wholesale and Retail Trade 7,035
percent share (PhP20.45 billion), mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials
with a share of 17.9 percent share (PhP16.79 billion). Contributing the least
value of PhP1.65 billion (1.8 percent) was animal and vegetable oils, fats and
waxes.

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According to the City Planning and Development Coordinators Office (CPDCO) Aquatic Resources
of City of San Fernando, Pampanga
The total area converted to fishpond consists of 38.23 hectares in year 2004.
These are located in 15 barangays. The biggest is in Barangay Calulut which
comprised 49.04 percent of the total area. A combined production worth P12.61
M tilapia was realized in the year 2004.

Agriculture

Although City of San Fernando is urban in classification, 3,251 hectares or 48


percent of its land area is still being utilized or declared agricultural. Some lands
though classified agricultural have become uneconomically viable for crop
production due to frequent flooding. Other declared agricultural areas
especially in the northern and western portions have increased in market value
due to closeness to the commercial center.

Hence farmers opted to sell their lands and shift to other occupation. Sugarcane
and rice are still the dominant crops utilizing 44.17 percent and 25.83 percent of
the total farm area, other crops being produced are cassava and vegetables.

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Livestock and Poultry

The farmland being utilized for livestock and poultry raising constitute 91.0565
hectares; 53.383 hectares for swine and 37.6735 hectares for poultry. There are
17 swine raisers registered in the City of San Fernando producing 8,644 heads
with a value of P38,177,663.00 for 2004.Economic Benefits Tourism is an option for socio-economic development.

Receipts from tourist expenditures for various items from accommodations


to food to shopping and recreational activities;
Linkage with other production/economic sectors parti cularly in serving as
stimulant to the growth of cottage and small scale industries;
Flow of direct investments for the establishment and operation of tourist
and tourist-related facilities and services and relatedly, construction impact
which are one-time in nature, as facilities and buildings are constructed;
Generation of employment opportunities;
Payment of taxes by owners of hotels, resorts/lodging facilities, tourist-
related establishments, shopping centers, entertainment/recreational
establishments, tourist buses/coaches operators; and
Ancillary spin-offs as money earnings are respent or what is referred to as
the multiplier effect of the tourism industry in terms of output, income and
jobs.

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Sex
Profile of Visitors
Domestic and Foreign Visitors In 1996, among domestic tourist, 51.2% were female and 48.8% male. Among
foreigners, the proportion of male was 75% and female 25%. In the previous
Age
surveys of 1988, 1990 and 1993, the male comprised the greater percentage of
visitors to the region.
In 1996, the dominance of visitors below 50 years old was notable among all
visitors of the region. Among the domestic tourists 76.74% were below 40 years
old while among foreign visitors, 62.88% were below 40 years old. Using 50 Education

years old as the cut-off, it was noted that 93% of domestic tourists are below 50
while 90% of foreign visitors were below 50 years oId. By province, about 71.5% In the 1996 survey, most of the visitors, both domestic and foreign were

of the visitors of Nueva Ecija were below 40 years old; 30.7% of Pampanga university/college degree holders. Per survey, 79% of domestic tourists were

visitors belonged to the same age group; Tarlac and Bulacan shared an equal degree holders and 77% of foreign visitors belonged to the same category.

percentage of 50%, 72% for Zambales, 65.7% for Bataan visitors.

In the previous surveys, it was noted that foreign and domestic visitors were

During the 1993 survey, preponderance of visitors below 30 years old is notable primarily university/college students/graduates except in 1993, where 74% of

while the 1990 survey indicated that about 47% belong to the 30-39 years old the domestic tourists were high school students or whose level of education

aggrupation. was lower.

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Occupation

In 1996, among domestic visitors, 32.6% were reportedly professionals, 20.9% Previous studies showed that the pleasure/holiday visitors accounted for a

government employees and another 20.9% were employees in private significant portion of the regional visitors. Among the foreign visitors,

establishments. Among the foreign visitors, 39.4% were businessmen, 19.70% percentage share in 1988 was 50.0% and in 1993, 71.4 percent. Among the

were executives or hold managerial positions while 15.9% were professionals. domestic visitors, percentage share in 1988 was 58.3% and visited the region
said that their trip did form part of a tour package. Likewise, only a minority
(4%) of foreign travellers travelled in the region as part of a tour package.
In 1988 and 1990, private firms and government employees comprised the
greater bulk of tourists in contrast to the 1993 survey results where about 80%
of domestic tourists were students. Results of 1996 survey show that by province, purpose of visit mentioned are as
follows:

Purpose of Visit
For Bulacan visitors, 50% visited the.province for pleasure and holiday and

In a survey taken in 1996, regarding their purpose for visiting the various 50% for commerce/business;

provinces, among domestic tourists, 55.81 % claimed they were there for For Bataan visitors, 52.3% came for pleasure/holidays and 22.9% to attend
pleasure/holiday, 41.86% were visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) and 13.95% conferences/ conventions;
were there for business reasons. Among foreign visitors, majority (90.9%) went For Nueva Ecija, VFRs comprised 42.8%;
to the. region for pleasure and holiday, 24% for business while the VFRs
accounted for 15.8%.

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Source of Information on Tourist Attractions/Facilities


For Pampanga, 58.6% were pleasure/holiday visitors, 24% were VFRs and
13.8% for business reasons, Queried on the source of information about the tourist attractions/facilities in
For Tarlac, the pleasure/holiday visitors accounted for 59.4% of the visitors the region, responses given by domestic tourists during the 1996 survey are as
and 21.9% came for commerce/business reasons; and follows: (a) by word of mouth i.e. through friends and relatives (60.4%); (b)
For Zambales, the pleasure/holiday visitors accounted for 52.8% of the previously visited the place (37.2%); and (c) through travel publication (2.3%).
visitors and 30.4% came for commerce/business reasons. Among foreign visitors, 44.7% learned about the place through friends and
relatives and 26.5% because of previous visits.
Among domestic visitors, the overall purpose for visit cited, in the order of
highest frequency, are: (1) with friends and relatives living in the region; (2)
Recreational Activities Undertaken
province is construed safe and secure; (3) had good experience during previous
visit/s; and (4) sports and recreational facilities. Among foreign visitors,
Per survey undertaken in 1996, among the recreational activities engaged in or
purposes enumerated are: (1) they have friends and relatives in the region; (2)
undertaken during their stay in the region, domestic tourists generally went
due to good experiences during previous visit/s; (3) sports and recreation
shopping; sightseeing and engaged in water sports. In contrast, foreigners'
facilities; (4) safety and security factors; and (5) good visitors facilities.
primary activity was for sightseeing, followed by shopping and water sports.

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Pampanga - 76.9% have visited the province between 2 to 6 times, 11.5%


By province, predominant activity undertaken by foreign and domestic tourists have visited the province more than 10 times;
are as follows: (a) Bulacan - sightseeing; (b) Bataan - sightseeing, water sports Tarlac - 100% have visited the province between 2 to 6 times; and
and shopping; (c) Nueva Ecija - shopping and sightseeing; (d) Pampanga - Zambales - 31.8% are first time visitors, 63.6% have visited the province
sightseeing and shopping; (e) Tarlac - shopping and sightseeing; and (f) between 2 to 6 times.

Zambales - water sports, sightseeing and shopping.


In terms of regional totals, 83.7% of domestic tourists have been to the province
between 2 to 6 times while about 68.7% of foreign visitors have visited between
two to six times.
Frequency of Visit

On the question of frequency of visit to the respective provinces, responses


Place Stayed/Staying
obtained during the 1996 survey showed:

Bulacan - 75% are on their first visit while 25% reported repeaters from 2 to Per study undertaken in 1996, domestic tourists generally stayed with friends
6 times; and relatives when they visited the place. Of the total respondents, 58%

Bataan - 28.9% are first time visitors, 68.4% have visited the province reported staying with friends and relatives, 20.9% stayed in hotels and 11.6%

between 2 to 6 times; stayed in inns and lodging facilities. On the other hand, majority (50.8%) of

Nueva Ecija - 15.9% are first time visitors, 85% have visited the province foreign visitors stayed in hotels, 37% stayed in resorts and 10.6% stayed with

between 2 to 6 times; friends and relatives.

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Bulacan visitors generally stayed with friends and relatives (50%), followed by Per 1996 survey, domestic tourists stay in the province was about 3.36 days
those who stayed in inns/lodging houses (25%) and resorts (25%). Among those while foreign tourists average stay was about 6.48 days. Compared to 1988
who visited Bataan, 68.4% stayed in resorts and 28.9% stayed with friends and figures, length of stay among domestic tourists did not change from the 3.4 days
relatives. Thirty eight (38%) of tourists who go to Nueva Ecija stayed with reported in 1988.
friends and relatives, an equal percentage stayed in hotels and 23.8% patronize
At the province level, length of stay of the tourists are as follows:
inns/lodging houses. For Pampanga visitors, the preponderance of visitors
staying in hotels was notable with 76.0% reportedly staying in the various Bulacan - average stay of 3.5 days;
hotels, 11.5% stayed in resorts and another 11.5% stayed with friends and Bataan - average stay of 4 days;
relatives. Tarlac visitors generally stayed in hotels (85%), 10% stayed with Nueva Ecija - average stay of 6 days;
friends and relatives and 5% stayed in resorts. Among the Zambales visitors, Pampanga - average stay of 11.9 days;
47% stayed in hotels, 33.3% stayed in resorts and 19.7% stayed with friends and Tarlac - average stay of 11.2 days; and
relatives. Zambales - average stay of 2.6 days.

Travel Arrangements
Length of Stay

With reference to travel arrangements, 53.5% of domestic tourists claimed that


The 1996 survey showed that on the average, the length of stay of foreign
they themselves arranged for their trip/travel to the province while 47%
visitors in the region is 6.6 days while the domestic tourists stayed about 3.6
arranged their travel through friends and relatives. A similar trend is noted
days but declined from the 17.3 days reported in 1988.
among foreign visitors. with 61.4% reportedly arranging by themselves their trip
to the province and 34.8% arranging their trip through friends and relatives.

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Composition of Traveling Party Mode of Transport

In the 1996 survey, it was noted that about 39% of domestic visitors came with A variety of modes of transport from land, air and water is utilized by the
friends and relatives, 23.2% visited the province with their spouse while 16.3% visitors both to go to the province and to travel within the various
came with their spouse and children Approximately 38% of foreign visitors came towns/provinces. Among domestic visitors, majority use public vehicles followed
alone, 28% came with friends and relatives and 25.8% with business associates. by boats and rented cars. Among foreign visitors, preferred mode of transport is
also public vehicles followed by boats and rented cars.

By province, composition of traveling party are as follows:

Country of Residence
50% of those who visited Bulacan came with friends and relatives;
57.9% of those who visited Bataan came with friends and relatives,
In the 1996 study, it was shown that about 29% of the foreign visitors are from
38% of those who went to Nueva Ecija traveled alone,
North America, 28.5% from Asian countries, 15.4% from Europe and an equal
50% of those who went to Pampanga went alone;
percentage from Australia. In diminishing order, the six top countries reported
40% of those who went to Tarlac went alone; and
as place of residence of the foreign visitors are USA (23.5%), Australia (15.1%),
42% of those who went to Zambales were with business associates while
Japan (10.6%), Taiwan (10.6%), Germany (6.06%) and Malaysia (5.3%).
31% were accompanied by friends and relatives.

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Origin of Domestic Tourists


Ranked fair are disco/night clubs, tourist assistance, tourist information and
tour guides. Ranked poor are public transportation and communications.
Per the 1996 study, approximately 56% of domestic tourists came from the
National Capital Region (NCR), 2.3% from other provinces of Region IV. About
42% stated they come from other regions of the country.
Expenditure of Visitors
Perceptions on Facilities/Services Offered
In 1996, daily expenses of the domestic tourist was placed at P1,768 while
Among foreign tourists, ranked excellent are accommodations, food and expenses of the foreign tourists were about 98% higher with P3,514 per day.
restaurants, tourist assistance and information. Rated good are food and Among the provinces, Nueva Ecija reported the lowest receipt from domestic
restaurants, shops and accommodations. Ranked fair are tourist information tourists registering only P661, followed by Pampanga with P917, Tarlac with
provided, domestic transport, tourist assistance and disco/night clubs. Ranked P950, Bataan with P3,000 and Zambales with P3,395. Bulacan domestic visitors
poor are communications, domestic air service, and public transportation. registered the highest daily expenditure with P7,775. 1/1/File Pampanga visitors
are expected to register the highest daily expenditure, with the presence of
major magnets as duty free shops and other shopping/entertainment facilities,
Among domestic tourists. ranked excellent are accommodations, food and
Pampanga ranked next to the lowest. This may be attributable to the fact that
restaurants, tourist assistance, tourist information and tour guides. Rated good
during the time of survey, the respondents had not yet gone shopping and/or
are tourist transport, accommodations, and shops.
respondents deliberately gave lower expense information.

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Expenditures of foreign tourist who visited Nueva Ecija spent comparatively the
Bulacan - processed meat, bakery products/candied preserves both by
lowest with P1,435. Those who visited Tarlac, on the other hand spent an
domestic and foreign tourists;
average of P1,907, followed by Pampanga with P2,476, Zambales with P4,241,
Bataan - processed meat among domestic tourists and preserves/
Bataan with P4,416 and Bulacan with P7,725.
confectioneries/bakery products among foreign visitors;
Nueva Ecija - processed meat among domestic tourists and
garments/clothes by foreigners;
Comprising the largest expenditure item of foreign visitors was
Pampanga - processed meat among domestic tourists and garments among
accommodations pegged at an average of P1,169 and food and beverage at
foreigners;
P736 and recreation at P613.
Tarlac - processed meat and preserves among domestic and foreign tourists;
and

Of the various items available in the province, clothes/garments, handicrafts Zambales - garments, handicrafts and delicacies both by foreign and

and candied preserves/delicacies/bakery products appeared as the items highly domestic tourists.

demanded by both foreign and domestic visitors. Items greatly in demand vis--
vis the various provinces are as follows:

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A review of the tourist expenditure pattern would indicate that every Proposed Strategies
peso/dollar spent by the tourist, whether foreign or domestic, is distributed as
Economic-related strategy underscores the development of the market for
follows:
products in line with tourism development. This would respond to the
constraint of "limited domestic market demand", one of the identified critical
problems for growth of industrial sector.

Establishment of strategically located venues for the display of the province's


products and the institutionalization of trade and food fairs and "fangges". This
may be in terms of one-stop shops as envisioned in the Bulacan International
Trade Center and presently operated/managed by the Bulacan Chamber of
Commerce and Industry or it may be less structured, taking off from the set-up
found along the Friendship Highway in Angeles City or the Friday tiangge at the
Apo Church in Angeles. The pervading idea is to provide a highly accessible area
which would regularly display products of the province at the same tirne
provide vital information on how and where to access these products.

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Alongside, this is the exploration of ways and means to expand/improve market


Conceptually, the scheme would involve:
places/palengke of the municipalities to serve as readily accessible places where
Non-government organizations (NGOs)/associations comprised of micro,
the domestic tourist can readily shop and get a glimpse of socio-economic
cottage, small and medium enterprises (MCSMEs) shall spearhead the
microcosm of the municipality within a very short time. This augurs well if
project
viewed against the preponderance of excursionists and domestic visitors who
The local government unit (LGU) can provide the necessary infrastructures
only stay for a day or two in the municipalities.
or allot certain sections in any of the LGU-owned buildings for use as trade
Plans and Programs display. DTI and DOT shall serve as advisory bodies, assisting primarily in
facilitating identification of marketable/quality products. DTI, shall take the
1. Establishment of community trade display centers in identified strategic lead in providing technical assistance along areas of product development,
areas of the provincial capital and /or city and at the CSEZ and SBFZ. The product design and packaging (through Product Development. and Design
purpose of these establishments is to showcase/ highlight the best products the Center), and market linkaging. The NGO with LGU, DTI and DOT in advisory
province could offer and concurrently serve as business center. With this, capacities, shall jointly screen and evaluate products to be displayed.
requirements of those leisure tourists interested in purchasing some of the The trade display center shall be operated and managed by the NGO/ local
products and those of the business tourists on the look-out for business chamber of commerce and industry (under an expanded membership to
opportunities, could be viably addressed. include MCSMEs). It shall also function in endorsing products for display.

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Regular conduct of training courses covering organization development and


A three tiered or graduated schedule of fees shall be paid by the lessees strengthening, enterprise development, business management, business
based on their financial capability and magnitude of business operations. A laws and regulations, product development, product and productivity
cross subsidy arrangement shall be effected to ensure project viability and improvement; provision of business counseling services.
at the same time afford the "infant but promising" industries opportunities
to grow and mature.
Sale of items shall be encouraged with a prescribed percentage being At the CSEZ and SBFZ, it is recommended that the designated areas within the
ploughed back to defray operations and maintenance of the center Duty Free Shops (DFS) or adjacent to the DFS serve as display/trading centers
Profile/business directories shall be maintained in the center together with for local handicrafts and products not only of the provinces of Pampanga and
sample displays provided in the exhibit center. Zambales, respectively, but of all provinces comprising the region.
Sharing of salespersons shall be encouraged to reduce overhead expenses
for sales personnel
Trade display centers shall double up as business incubators. For this 2. One Barangay One Product (OBOP). - Program involves the identification
purpose, recommended facilities to be provided are conference rooms to and development by the community of a particular product to which they
serve as venue for trainings and for meeting prospective clientele, facilities could identify and relate with. Mechanics involved are the mobilization of
as telephones, facsimile, reproduction/mimeographing machines, etc. the people in the barangay to jointly support a specific product, and pursue
it vigorously till excellence is achieved.

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5. Market day/tiangge - institutionalization of the tiangge as part and parcel of


3. Viewed against the tourism industry, this OBOP movement, may refer to the tourism activities to attract bargain hunters in keeping with the thrust of
tourism products as attractive places, monuments, cultural celebrations, promoting Central Luzon as a shopping paradise/haven. This same theme of
fiestas or model farms which one could be proud of and can be visited. It shoppers paradise may be incorporated in the over-all plan to "reinvigorate"
may also refer to service products as food, restaurant, hotel or resorts or the Paskuhan Village. Items sold would not only be local products but items
identified crafts/products of the area. produced in the various ecozones within the region, the latter forming the
greater bulk of merchandise sold. Arrangements may be made to
systematically handle the "exportover runs and seconds" subject to the
4. Crafts/artisan village - The pervading concept of this proposal is to provide a
payment of the required taxes pursuant to existing laws and regulations.
community-based fora where production of specialized products of the
province can be viewed by the tourist supplementing the regular
display/sales center. These villages normally house common service 6. Encourage use of local materials and products for furniture fixture and
facilities (e.g. kiln, lathe, etc.), warehouses to stockpile raw materials, and furnishings, construction materials via continuing/sustained assistance
include seminar rooms where courses on product and productivity through product development, design promotions and market linkages;
development, institutional development/entrepreneurial values formation encourage the growth of symbiotic relations between producers and tourist
and management, production management, enterprise development and facility owners through discounts/deferred payments to be given by
productivity improvement are conducted. In addition, periodic business chamber of furniture makers to owners of hotels/lodging facilities,
clinics and funding clinics can be held here. restaurants and other tourist-related establishments who shall patronize
these products.

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Identification of the Basic Problems of the Tourism Sector

a. Upgrade the tourism services, facilities and establishments


Hotels, on the other hand, can allow sections of their establishments for
periodic displays of crafts/products locally produced and are being
Along the tourism highways, tourism loops are developed to cater a particular
promoted to tourist. Variables of consignment arrangements may be
geographical setting offering tourism attractions. Loops are defined by sheer
further explored.
geography, not by type of tourism assets nor by an aggregation of types or by
similar items within a type. A loop always touches base with the tourism
7. Use of local materials such as marble and bricks for construction vis-a-vis highway utilizing the primary and secondary routes connecting to respective
architectural designs which are in keeping with the local color/ambiance. A municipalities.
scheme which may be pursued to obtain the best use of indigenous
b. Tourism Loop
materials would be through architectural competition conducted by the
United Architects of the Philippines or of CREBA/REBAP.
The advantage of geographically locating the needed development is that it
helps in clarifying the order of development actions that will follow. It also
8. Culinary arts/gastronomic uniqueness of the province which could be served permits defining the communities or ethnic groups and administrative units
in hotels, restaurants, festivities/cultural activities food fairs scheduled (LGUs) circumscribed by the geography who will be involved in the development
culinary tours, joint trade and food festivals/exhibits etc. Bulacan has of the loop.
successfully promoted its various cuisine through food festivals in strategic
venues in Metro Manila. This, combined with the display of local
handicrafts, may be replicated by other provinces, initially on a per province Also, a loop allows greater opportunities for gradual staging of development
basis, subsequently as a regional effort. and modernization of the countrysides without jeopardizing the natural
environment.

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From this process will emerge a better understanding of geographical and


locational strategies. Therefore, development can be devoted to specific tourist
sites and that infrastructure and services can, by complementation, provide
encouragements for synergies, hierarchies, priorities as well as a better
selection of networks for self generated tourist activity circuits.

Creation of loops are discussed below.

1. Pampanga Loop
Loop 1: San Fernando->Mexico--> Sta. Ana->Arayat->San
Fernando

Loop 2: Angeles City--> Mabalacat->San Fernando-> Guagua-


>Sta. Rita--> Porac->Angeles City

The destruction of arterial roads brought about by lahar limits the creation of
tourism loops for Pampanga. As soon as the road network is restored, more
tourism loops are expected to be developed.

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1.7.3 Case Studies

It is conducted to know how existing related local and foreign public markets List of structures under case study:

facilitate their market amenities, activities and facilities. The strengths and
Local
weaknesses of these public markets could be further interpreted to help the
proposed project be more successful. City of San Fernando Public Market, City of San Fernando; Farmers Market,
Quezon City and Calapan Market, Calapan City

Foreign
Moreover, key features and latest developments on some modernized foreign
public markets were also assessed to integrate those applicable design solutions Deira Market, Deira City; Urban Market, Tianjin City; Market Hall, Rotterdam

for the betterment of the proposed project. City and Garak Wholesale Market, Seoul City

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City of San Fernando Public Market, City of San Fernando

EXTERIOR:

The delivery trucks of producers also park in the public parking area.
The City of San Fernando Public Market is situated in a 3.7 donated parcel land
as an extension of market service in the Poblacion area.

However, the existing public market does not meet its function as an active
public space.

The existing photos prove that the public market does not fully take its role to
The comfort room at the back of the public market that is not well maintain.
provide active and better public space that will be beneficial to all.

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The fair public market lights as seen from the unpaved alley.
The abandoned Philippine Rabbit Bus Terminal located along the national road
in front of the site of the public market.

The low visibility of the public market seen from the national road. The abandoned commercial building near the location of existing site.

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The pale painted frontage of the public market. It shows the dimmed aisles, It shows the dilapidated aesthetic and structural members of the public market.
closed stalls and the emptiness of the public market as early as noon time.

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INTERIOR:

It shows the rows of stalls with exposed electrical wirings and unsanitary Dimmed and narrow market alley showing the unventilated area and stored
walkway. materials.

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Farmers Market, Quezon City

Historically, it is one of the first structures built roughly 30 years ago in the
Araneta center area after the construction of the Araneta coliseum. The market
is approximately 3 - 4,000 square meters of covered area. It is one of the
commercial establishments pioneered the old Cubao commercial district.

The market has a hundreds of entrepreneurs in total. Generally, there are two
levels in the market: the upper level that houses the stalls selling fruits,
vegetables, flowers and the like while the lower level is the wet section of the
market selling beef, fish, meat, poultry and the like. It also has a stalls and shops
selling dry goods such as groceries, eggs, plastic wares, bags, native products,
Farmers Market is considered one of the best dry and wet markets in Metro delicacies and gifts also including food court that is covered by a warehouse
Manila. It is located within the Araneta center area in Cubao commercial district type roof that sits very high.
adjacently located on the long stretch of Epifanio Delos Santos Avenue (EDSA).
The best part about the market is the variety of goods offer starting from early
in the morning.

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Photos of Farmers Market The market has the following potential strengths according to observation:

1. It is placed on a central location seating at the heart of Cubao commercial


district in Quezon City where two groups of people meet: the entrepreneurs
who comes from different parts of the country offering volumes of goods
and products and the consumers who comes regularly with the buying
power that varies from locals, foreign nationals and students mostly
enrolled in culinary and HRM programs.

VEGETABLES SECTION FRUITS SECTION


2. It is accessible from various modes of public transportation via EDSA such as
train (MRT line 3) in Araneta - Cubao station, buses and FX bounding Cubao
routes and taxis.

3. It has different types of consumers ranging from nearby low and middle
income families, the cook of a wealthy family, the cook of nearby restaurant
up to visiting foreign nationals.

FISH SECTION BEEF, MEAT AND POULTRY SECTION

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However, the market also has potential weaknesses that old Cubao commercial
districts image passed relating to peace and order situations due to incidences
of theft and petty crimes. Minor issues include waste collection and MARKET ENVIRONMENT:

management.
1. It has clean, airy and well lit market environment.

2. It doesnt have too much dreaded market odor.


The market has the following key features according to observation:

3. It has wide elevated pathways that is paved and tiled for convenient
MARKET MANAGEMENT:
market shopping where there is also ramps sprouting the market.
1. Primarily, it has an organized levels and sections for varieties of goods and
products in competitive prices. It has color coding scheme on stalls: red for 4. It has wide elevated pathways that is paved and tiled for convenient market
beef, meat, poultry and the like, blue for fish/seafoods, green for vegetables shopping where there is also ramps sprouting the market.
and yellow for fruits.
5. It has private commercial stalls outside for various establishments including
Jollibee, 7eleven, Siomai House, Appliance Center and Banks.
2. It is well maintained and offers better basic facilities such as water,
electricity and toilets which are located near entrances/exits.
6. It has shared parking area with the Farmers Plaza that could cater vehicles
3. It has organized delivery bays: the first bay is for fish/seafoods and poultry from motorcycles to large cars.
while the other bay is for vegetables, fruits and flowers.

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Calapan Market, Calapan City

MARKET ATTRACTIONS:

1. It has attractive kapis lighting within the market.

2. It offers push cart for convenient market shopping.

3. In the morning, the wet section selling fish/seafoods, goat, poultry and the
like offers an animal picking to be butchered.

4. It has a dampa concept in the food court where anyone can have their
paluto on their fresh bought goods and products. The price ranges from
90 to 200 pesos depend on what type of dish to be cook. There is also a
mezzanine floor on food court which caters private restaurants. Calapan Market is the award winning and most modern public market not only
in Mindoro, Marinduque, Romblon, Palawan (MIMAROPA) region but also to the
5. It has Farmers Radio for entertainment.
whole country. It is located in the commercial area of Aurora blvd. in Calapan
city. The market design and its facilities are their initial offering to attract and
gain more consumers.

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Historically, it is built after the old single-story market gutted by fire in May
2008. It is funded by the city local government of Calapan and the Land Bank of
the Philippines (LBP) being the loan provider of the project that cost 199 million
pesos.

The market is a two storey building comprising 907 stalls of dry and wet
sections, contradicting to the public market design, its ground floor contains
stalls selling dry goods and products such as RTW and household items while
the second floor serves as the wet section selling beef, fish, meat, poultry and
PARKING AREA ENTRANCE AREA
the like. The market is covered by a long span roof with insulation.

Photos of Calapan Market

WALKWAY WET SECTION

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The market has the following potential strengths according to observation:

However, the market also has potential weaknesses this may include the
1. It is strategically located in the commercial area of Calapan city in the
population congestion and traffic situation in the future. Other minor issues of
stretch of Aurora blvd. where people could buy conveniently before or after
theft could also be included.
going to the other commercial establishments.
The market has the following key features according to observation:
2. Since Calapan city is routed by RORO buses, passenger such as locals and
MARKET MANAGEMENT:
foreign nationals could have easy access to visit the market.

1. It offers better basic facilities such as toilets, water and electricity.


3. It is accessible from various modes of public transportation via Aurora blvd.
such as jeepneys and tricycles.
2. It has an open space for other stalls.

4. It is the Agri business trading center in Oriental Mindoro, considered as the


food basket of Southern Luzon catering various traders not only from the
Calapan city but also to other nearby provinces.

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MARKET ENVIRONMENT: Deira Market, Deira City

1. It is a newly constructed structure and considering to have an expansion.

2. It is clean and well ventilated market environment.

3. It has paved and tiled flooring for convenient market shopping.

4. It is covered by a long span roof with insulation to protect both


entrepreneurs and consumers from direct sunlight.

5. It is covered by a long span roof with insulation to protect both


entrepreneurs and consumers from direct sunlight. Deira Market is one of the leading public markets in the emirate of Dubai. It is
located in the city center of Deira on Al Khaleej Road near the Deira Corniche
6. It has a passenger terminal where consumers could have an easy access to
close to the Shindagha Tunnel. The public market boasts its premier wet section
transportation after buying in the market.
which includes varieties of seafood that is caught as far away as Spain and
Taiwan and neighboring country of Oman where selling starts at five in the
MARKET ATTRACTIONS:
morning.
1. It has additional modern amenities such as elevators and escalators.
Historically, it is a temporary market built in 1988 to bear the demolished public
market before. It is one of the commercial establishments that contribute to the
development of city of Deira today.

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Photos of Deira Market

The market aside from locals also caters hundreds of traders and entrepreneurs
from neighboring countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Deira Market is
divided into dry and wet sections. The dry section offers a wide range of locally
produced fruits and vegetables better than in supermarkets while the wet
section covers the largest area of the public market which highlights their
primary industry, fishing. FRUITS SECTION VEGETABLES SECTION

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has about 600 kms. of coastline, making fishing
one of the most prosperous businesses. Fishing has been a pivotal business for
the Emirates for centuries, providing a valuable source of food and nutrition for
the Emirati. Today, fishing is a popular sport among residents and tourists alike,
and there are many opportunities to take part.

FISH SECTION PARKING AREA

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The market has the following potential strengths according to observation:

1. It is located in the city center of Deira. Therefore, many consumers MARKET ENVIRONMENT:
patronize the public market.
1. Some parts of the public market are air conditioned for convenient market
shopping.
2. It has a vast parking area that could accommodate hundreds of vehicles.

2. The wet section is open on all sides that create less market odor than other
However, although the public market has a vast area allocated for parking public markets in the emirate of Dubai.
vehicles, many of the consumers still has no slot to park in that represents its
potential weaknesses.

MARKET ATTRACTIONS:

The market has the following key features according to observation: 1. There is a presence of wheelbarrow man concept; the man will carry the
consumers bought goods and products through the use of wheelbarrow.

MARKET MANAGEMENT: 2. New facilities to be developed are the marina, floating restaurants, mosque
including support offices and administration facilities.
1. It has systematized dry and wet sections.

2. It has an attractive fresh fruits and vegetable stalls.

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Urban Market, Tianjin City Clad in transparent materials, the building allows the interior program to
engage the surrounding streets. The structure curves dramatically upward
from the riverside and converges with the opposing six story south facade.

Just like the other winning projects, the design was chosen for its design
quality, program resolution, innovation, thoughtfulness and technique. The
The buildings form engages the disconnected edges of the site and unites them
project, entitled Urban Market, is for Tianjin, China. The urban center is a way
within a single carapace. Two major interior boulevards allow pedestrians to
to reinvigorate the river banks through new uses, such as cultural institutions.
flow from the east to west side of the site, and gather at a large central plaza.
The hope it that the center will grow to establish a new identity for the city
This porous circulation allows passersby to filter through the building at
that links its culture to its historic place of commerce.
different entry points.

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This frequent flow of people turns the building into a modern version of a
traditional bustling merchant setting.

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Market Hall, Rotterdam City

The project, commissioned by Provast, includes an open air market that due to
new hygienic constraints of Dutch laws has to be covered. It also includes 246
residences that form an arc that covers the open market area.

This results on a 3,000sqm retail area, with a 1,600sqm catering area on the
ground level and first floor, a 1,800sqm supermarket and an underground car
park for 1,100 cars.

The interior face of the arc will be covered with LEDs for an ever changing

Location: Tianjin, China interior. The front and backside are covered with a flexible suspended glass
facade, allowing for maximum transparency and a minimum of structure.
Completion: 2014

Program: Retail
This new icon for Rotterdam is expected to be completed in 2014.

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Garak Wholesale Market, Seoul City

Green roof design for Seoul covers a massive 131 acres. The project gives an
eco-upgrade to the run-down Garak Wholesale Market by inserting an
extensive public garden into the newly restored commercial center. The roof
becomes a large public park that mitigates rainwater runoff, insulates the
interior spaces, and infuses Seouls city center with a breath of fresh air. The
design also includes three market pavilions which contain eco-tubes, channels
that slice through the entire structure allowing daylight and ventilation to reach
lower levels.

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Summary and Recommendations:

Parking is in great importance mostly to foreign markets. Like Deira Market,


parking for them is a great factor for them to visit by the consumers. Likewise,
local markets also provide sufficient parking area for vehicles whether it is for
consumers or for delivery and services.

Furthermore, most of these markets are arranged into different sections. This is
important not only to perceive it as organized but to bring convenience to the
consumers so that they could easily track where will be the next good or
products they will going to buy.

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1.8 Scope and Limitations of the Study

Attractions are also one very important factor in a market. This will allow The study will only focus in the City of San Fernando Public Market. Other

consumers to stay longer than typical market shopping they do. It will provide a commercial establishments that engage in shopping will be not included in the

place for good social interaction that could revitalize the market environment. study.

Through this, it will increase the popularity of the market that will bring more
opportunity to the producers for them to grow their business, to the community
and country as a whole. The study is limited to the role of City of San Fernando Public Market to the City
of San Fernando including other provinces and neighboring cities and
municipalities; the effect of the public market to the economy, community and

Modernized markets constructing as of these days provide interesting new society of City of San Fernando and the importance of public market to the

concepts and design ideas. This will help to integrate those applicable solutions general welfare of Fernandinos.

for the advancement and betterment of the proposed project.

Furthermore, it will also study architectural solutions that are applicable to their

Therefore, totality is one vital characteristic that market should obtain from site public market that touches considerable factors that could uplift the City of San

up to the finest details of the design. Fernando given that their public market once became the trading center not
only in the province of Pampanga but also in the Central Luzon region.

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1.9 Definition of Terms

The proposed project will be a redevelopment of the existing public market with Agriculture - science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops and
rattan furniture and water lily handicrafts depot that will serve as a principal raising livestock; farming.
source of wide range goods and products that also promotes local industries. To
Bagsakan To drop of goods and products in one gathering place.
develop and achieve this proposed project, it would include related facilities,
amenities and activities that could possibly bring not only consumers but also Build Operate Transfer Is a form of project financing, wherein a private entity
traders and entrepreneurs into the new horizon of public market experience. receives a concession from the private or public sector to finance, design,
Facilities that may be included are the dry and wet sections of the public market construct, and operate a facility stated in the concession contract. This enables
with support facilities, furniture and handicrafts depot, eatery plaza, the project proponent to recover its investment, operating and maintenance
transportation terminal, administration and service buildings. Amenities that expenses in the project.
may be included are parks that can be converted to an event center and the
Commerce - The buying and selling of goods, especially on a large scale, as
like. The furniture and handicrafts depot will serve as a supplement facility that
between cities or nations.
will uplift the local economy and tourism of City of San Fernando providing
employment to the skilled laborers of the city. To enhance the proposed Consumers - One that consumes, especially one that acquires goods or services
project as an active public space it would include activities like paluto as there for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and
will be a recreation and leisure for tourism development. manufacturing.

Domestic Produced, distributed, sold or occurring within a country.

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Entrepreneur - A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a
business venture.
Marketing The business activity of presenting products or services in such a
Fishery - The industry or occupation devoted to the catching, processing, or way as to make them desirable.
selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals.
Outsource To buy labor or parts from a source outside a company or business
Forestry - The science and art of cultivating, maintaining, and developing rather than using the companys staff or plant.
forests.
Producers A person, company or country that produces goods or services for
Hypermarkets - A very large commercial establishment that is a combination of sale.
a department store and a supermarket.
Supermarkets - A large self-service retail market that sells food and household
Livelihood Something that provides income to live on, especially paid work. goods.

Loan An amount of money given to somebody on the condition that it will be


paid back later.

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2.0 RESEARCH FOCUS


Transforming Public Market and its Environmental Systems Through
Micro and Green Urbanism
Tawaran To bargain; to ask for a discount. 2.1 Rationale

Trade - The business of buying and selling commodities.


The City of San Fernando, Pampanga once became the major trading center of

Traders - A person who engages in trade; dealer; merchant. central Luzon region. The redevelopment of their existing public market is the
ideal and best way to reestablish the trading center now with pride and honor
Transform - To change in composition or structure; to change the outward form
by integrating local tourism as part of the development.
or appearance of; to change in character or condition.

Treasury Bond An interest bearing debt security issued by the government,


with an initial life of between years. The redevelopment of their existing public market could be the prime model of
public markets in the Philippines in terms of facilities, amenities and activities.
Wholesalers - Engaged in the sale of goods in large quantities for resale.
However, application of such architectural solutions to the proposed project
may post a problem if not properly analyzed but can be subjected for
considerations.

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Achieving one of the objectives of City of San Fernando, Pampanga to become a c. Optimizing orientation and compactness to help reduce the city districts
city with a healthier environment, the good transition of micro and green heat gain or losses.
urbanism principles to the market is an acceptable project for the city.
d. Minimizing environmental footprint by working with the existing landscape,
topography and resources particular to the site.

2.2 Discussion of Principles and Relevance to the Project Principle 2: Waste Management

Green Urbanism by definition is interdisciplinary. These are its following Sustainable waste management means to turn waste into a resource. Zero-
principles: waste urban planning includes reducing, recycling, reusing and composting
waste to produce energy. We need to plan for recycling centers, for zero landfill
Principle 1: Climate and Context
and eliminating the concept of waste and better understanding nutrient flows

Every site or place has its own unique individual conditions in regard to (Braungart, 2002).

orientation, solar radiation, rain, humidity, prevailing wind direction,


Principle 3: Water
topography, shading, lighting, noise, air pollution and so on.
The various aspects of this principle include:
The various aspects of this principle include:
a. Reducing water consumption.
a. Climatic conditions, which are seen as the fundamental influence for form-
generation in the design of any project. b. Finding more efficient uses for water resources.

b. Understanding the site and its context, which is essential at the beginning of c. Ensuring good water quality.
every sustainable design project.

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It needs to maximize the resilience of the eco-system through urban landscapes


that mitigate the urban heat island effect, using plants for air-purification and
Storm water and flood management concepts need to be adopted as part of the
urban cooling.
urban design, and this includes storm water run-offs and improved drainage
systems and the treatment of wastewater. Principle 5: Sustainable transport and Good public space

Principle 4: Landscape, Gardens and Urban biodiversity Good access to basic transport services is crucial, as it helps to reduce
automobile dependency, as does reducing the need to travel. We need to see
Sustainable city takes pride in its many beautiful parks and public gardens.
integrated non-motorized transport, such as cycling or walking, and,
Ready access to these public parks, gardens and public spaces, with
consequently, bicycle/pedestrian-friendly environments, with safe bicycle ways,
opportunities for leisure and recreation, are essential components of a healthy
free rental bike schemes and pleasant public spaces.
city. As it is arresting the loss of biodiversity by enhancing the natural
environment and landscape, and planning the city using ecological principles
based on natural cycles as a guide, and increasing urban vegetation.
It is important to identify the optimal transport mix that offers inter-
connections for public transport and the integration of private and public
transport systems. Some ideas here include:
A city that preserves and maximizes its open spaces, natural landscapes and
recreational opportunities is a more healthy and resilient city. The sustainable a. Eco-mobility concepts and smart infrastructure
city also needs to introduce inner-city gardens, urban farming/agriculture and
b. Integrated transport systems
green roofs in all its urban design projects (using the city for food supply).

c. Improved public space networks and connectivity

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Principle 6: Livability, Healthy communities and Mixed-use programs The sustainable city makes provision for adequate land for food production in
the city, a return to the community and to the allotment gardens of past days,
A mixed-use city delivers more social sustainability and social inclusion, and
where roof gardens become an urban market garden. It is essential that we
helps to repopulate the city center. Demographic changes, such as age, are a
bridge the urban-rural disconnect and move cities towards models that deal in
major issue for urban design. It is advantageous for any project to maximize the
natural eco-systems and healthy food systems. The people of the eco-city would
diversity of its users. We have to understand migration and diversity as both an
garden and farm locally, sharing food, creating compost with kitchen scraps and
opportunity and a challenge. Mixed land uses are particularly important as it
garden clippings and growing community vegetables. Buying and consuming
helps reduce traffic.
locally will be necessary to cut down on petrol-based transport.

Principle 7: Local food and Short supply chains

The various aspects of this principle include:


Principle 8: Cultural heritages, Identity and Sense of place

a. Local food production


All sustainable cities aim for air quality, health and pollution reduction, to foster

b. Regional supply resilient communities, to have strong public space networks and modern
community facilities. This is the nature of sustainable cities.
c. Urban farming and agriculture including eat local and slow food initiatives.

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Cities will grow according to the details and unique qualities of localities,
Micro urbanism is a more humble scale of greater projection and capacity for
demographic qualities of the populace and the creativity of the authorities and
innovation. With regards to the former strategies and within a domestic scale:
citizens. The aim of a city is to support the health, the activities and the safety of
its residents where densities are high enough to support basic public transit and
a. Improving the urban quality of existing neighborhoods by increasing the
walk-to retail services.
variety of the public space.

b. Prioritizing pedestrian areas.


The principles describe the strategies necessary for eco-districts, although they
need to be adapted to the location, context and scale of the urban c. Introducing bicycle carriages.
development. It may be difficult at first to achieve some of the principles, but all
are important; they can potentially save money, reach early payback, improve d. Developing different outdoors sports.
livability and increase opportunities for social interaction of residents.

e. Increasing the number or size of green areas and the biodiversity.

f. Refurbishing neighborhoods and buildings.


The principles offer practical steps on the path to sustainable cities, harmonizing
growth and usage of resources. Much of Green urbanism is common sense
g. Integrating or renovating open spaces on the basis of a broad flexibility
urbanism. In the future, Green urbanism has to become the norm for all urban
of use, etc.
developments.

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The social and technological context enables and demands progressive


experimentation with different ways of acting and different urban designs that
2.3 Recommendations for Application
enable setting up open processes. Many are the examples of innovative urban
actions; they happen spontaneously in public spaces, places or spaces. The recommendation is to make the two urban design principles collaborated so
that formulating and achieving architectural solutions will be beneficial to the
proposed project. Another point is to follow design guidelines including those of
The two essential principles of urban design when combined would fit in to the the mandated laws, ordinances and such principles in designing the proposed
proposed project producing a more vibrant and healthy market environment. project.
This will allow market shoppers to enjoy and feel refresh to the new
atmosphere that the market has to offer. This type of proposed project could
develop boundless relationship between people and the nature allowing market Through Micro and Green urbanism principles the formulation of solutions will
shoppers to recreate, have leisure and be entertained with the environment. be guided accordingly in terms of its sustainability by maximizing the use of
natural resources wherein it could be a healthy approach for a development like
this particularly to a public market. This approach will help not only to save the
Furthermore, these principles envision to minimize all forms of energy built environment of the proposed project from pollutants but also to save the
consumptions preserving other parts of the proposed project for future nature even in a small but helpful way.
expansion without altering its built environment.

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3.0 SITE IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS


3.1 Site Analysis

MACRO

Map showing the CENTRAL location of City of San Fernando


The City of San Fernandos primacy may be best explained not simply by its
location at the core but its position relative to the established major arterial
roads in the region.

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Physical Features The City of San Fernando has a total land area of 6,774 hectares and consists of
35 urban barangays. The largest barangay is Calulut and the smallest barangay is
Juliana. The city has no lands classified as forest which may also mean that all
lands in its political boundary are all under Alienable and Disposable (A & D)
classification.

Existing General Land Use and Estimated Areas of the City of San Fernando
No. Land Use Area (Ha) Percent
Share (%)
Built up 2,333.85
34.45%
Agricultural 3,175.50
46.88%
Agri-Industrial/ Livestock Farms 88.56
1.31%
Idle Land/ Vacant Lots 171.70
2.53%

The City of San Fernando is bounded in the East by municipality of Mexico, Swampy Areas 118.48

North by Angeles City, West by municipality of Bacolor and South by 1.75%

municipality of Sto. Tomas. It is the capital city of Pampanga and the regional Rivers/Creeks 109.00

center of Central Luzon (Region III). 1.61%

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Major Road 150.05 Existing Urban Land Use and Estimated Areas of the City of San Fernando
2.22% No. Land Use Area
Local Roads 583.46 Share
8.61% Residential 1,491.22
Railroad 33.40 22.01%
0.49% Commercial 316.45
Controlled Dumpsite 10.00 4.67%
0.15% Institutional 151.33
TOTAL 6,774.00 2.23%
100.00% Industrial 332.80
4.91%
The Built-up area was broken down into the following uses: Park/Playground/Open Space 19.75
0.29%
a) Residential Cemetery 22.30
b) Commercial 0.33%
c) Institutional Swampy Area 118.48
d) Industrial 1.75%
e) Park/Playground/Open Space River and Creek 109.00
f) Cemetery 1.61%

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Idle Land / Vacant Lot 171.70


2.53%
SAFDZ, 1994 1,302.20
19.22%
Area Outside SAFDZ of 1994 1,873.30
27.65%
Agri-Industrial / Livestock Farm 88.56
1.31%
Major Road 150.05
2.22%
Local Road 583.46
8.61%
Railway System 33.40
0.49%
Controlled Dumpsite 10.00
0.15%
TOTAL 6,774.00
100.00%

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Road and Transportation Features

Climate Features

The City of San Fernando falls under Type I classification. Type I experience
two pronounced seasons, where it is generally dry from December to May and
wet from June to November with a maximum rainy period from July to October.
This is generally exposed to the southwest monsoon and gets a fair share of
rainfall brought about by the tropical cyclones occurring from July to October.
The monthly range of temperature is from 20.4C to 34.9C with an annual
average ranging from 22.8 C to 32.1C. The warmest temperature recorded
was 38.5C while the coldest was 15.1C. The principal wind regimes affecting
the area are the northeast wind flow from January and February, the southwest
wind flow from June to September, and the trade winds. The annual prevailing
wind in the area is southwesterly.

Road availability wise, access within City of San Fernando between adjacent and
neighboring areas should be relatively quick and easy.

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This is primarily due to major arterial road networks that pass through it: First North Luzon Transit
Genesis Bus Line
i) Gapan -San Fernando-Olongapo (GSO) Road Partas
ii) Old MacArthur Highway Saulog Transit
iii) North Luzon Expressway (NLEX) Victory Liner

B. FX also provides inter regional and inter provincial public transportation.


GT Express
UV Express

In C. Jeepneys are the primary mode of inter city and intra city public
terms of conveyances, different forms ply the streets of the city. This includes: transport.

A. Buses provide inter regional and inter provincial public transportation. Dolores Palengke route
Maimpis Palengke route
Baliwag Transit San Matias Palengke route
Bataan Transit SM Big R Intersection Palengke route

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Angeles San Fernando route


Apalit San Fernando route via Minalin
Arayat San Fernando route via Mexico
Bacolor San Fernando route
Guagua San Fernando route
Malolos San Fernando route via Calumpit
Masantol San Fernando route via Macabebe
Santo Tomas San Fernando route

D. Intra barangay public transport, on the other hand, is being offered by


tricycle, tri wheelers and the calesa.

E. North rail line Manila-Clark passes through City of San Fernando in the
future. The city is experiencing traffic congestion in its main thoroughfares particularly
sections of old MacArthur Highway and GSO road where built-up is very
heavy. Mostly, these places are road intersections or areas where the road

For, air travelers may reach City of San Fernando via the Diosdado Macapagal right-of-way is encroached. Prior to the construction of San Fernando fly-over

International Airport (formerly called Clark International Airport). Visitors may congestion is being experienced along the GSO especially in MacArthur

take taxis, shuttles, jeepneys or buses. highway-GSO road junction. The problem is still being experienced today at
GSO-Lazatin boulevard intersection.

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Social Features

MICRO

Different maps showing the location of the site

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Physical Features

Location
Land Use

The site is located in Brgy. Del Pilar, City of San Fernando, Pampanga. It has a
According to the 2007-2011 Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP), the site has a
total land area of 3.7 hectares owned by the city local government. It has a
commercial land classification.
rectangular lot shape.

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Topography

The site is located in the central areas of San Fernando that is prone to excessive
flooding due to its low area.

Climate Features
Wind Analysis

The principal wind regimes affecting the area are the northeast wind flow from
January and February, the southwest wind flow from June to September, and
the trade winds. The annual prevailing wind in the area is southwesterly.

Sun Analysis

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Road and Transportation Features

Traffic Analysis

The site is far from relative traffic congestion. The two nearest traffic congestion
were characterized as Medium traffic that occurs in Brgy. San Nicolas along old
McArthur Highway while the Heavy traffic is situated in the old city district.
These traffics are cause by huge number of public transportation loading and
unloading passengers. Although the proposed project has the potential to

The site is connected through the old McArthur Highway. It is accessible to create traffic in the future, the site that has an entry road lessen the traffic

various cities and municipalities in the region. congestion and a drop off area should be considered to eliminate traffic in the
vicinity.

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Social Features

Noise Analysis View Analysis

The noise can obviously be heard from busiest roads and area. This includes the The views can be seen and characterized as a place where peace and serenity
horn and noise generated by public transportation particularly jeepneys and lives. These views are set to the area facing vast agricultural land.
private vehicles that traverses the old McArthur Highway.

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SWOT ANALYSIS
Strengths
1. The site has the proximity from major road, the Old McArthur Highway.
2. The site is located near the old city district.
3. The site is accessible.
4. The site is near residential areas and subdivisions.

Weaknesses
1. The site has fair visibility from the major road.

Opportunities
1. The site could invite both locals and foreign nationals.
2. The site could also attract traders, entrepreneurs and consumers from
other provinces, neighboring cities and municipalities.
3. It could create more livelihoods and job for nearby residents.

Threats
Nearby Developments 1. It could be a traffic prone area.
2. The overflow of nearby San Fernando River.

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3.1.1 Laws and Ordinances Pertaining to the Site

As of the moment, there is no definite governing law that covers the function
and use of the site in the covering barangay. However, according to Engr.
Limbitco, public market projects follow the basic codes. This includes the
National Building Code of the Philippines and the National Market Code of the
Philippines.

Setbacks for Commercial, Industrial, Institutional and Recreational Buildings

Road Right-of- Front Side Rear


Way (meters) (meters) (meters)
(RROW) Width
(meters)
30.00 & above 8.00 5.00 5.00
25.00 to 29.00 6.00 3.00 3.00
20.00 to 24.00 5.00 3.00 3.00
10.00 to 19.00 5.00 2.00 2.00
Below 10.00 5.00 2.00 2.00

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3.1.2 Site Development Options

SCHEME 1 SCHEME 2

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4.1.3 Design Considerations

International Codes

International Building Code (IBC) 2009


4.0 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TRANSLATION
Local Codes

4.1 Design Program National Building Code of the Philippines (NBC) and its revised implementing
rules and regulations (IRR) 2005

4.1.1 Design Objectives Batas Pambansa 344 (B.P. 344) The law to enhance the mobility of disabled
persons and its implementing rules and regulations
1. To design an iconic structure that will catch the attention of the public.
2. To design a bio inspired structure that will change the public market National Plumbing Code of the Philippines

condition into a green development. Fire Code of the Philippines (FCP) - P.D. 1185
3. To design a bold and flood resilient structure that will cope on its flood
National Public Market Code of the Philippines
prone vicinity.
HLURB Application for Locational Clearance of Markets

4.1.2 Design Criteria Public Markets Organization and Management

Meat Inspection Code of the Philippines


Architecture completes Nature.
The Code on Sanitation of the Philippines
-Giorgio De Chirico
Retail Planning Guidelines

Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance (CLUPZO) OF City of San
Fernando, Pampanga 2011

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Note

AGE Preferably all users should be in legal age (minimum of 18 and above).
This is to protect the minors from any forms of human trafficking such as child
labor.
4.1.4 User Analysis

Users are divided into two categories:


INCOME The target users mostly belong to the CLASS B and C.
PRIMARY These are people involves in transaction, the PRODUCERS and
Class B any household earning at least above the minimum wage per day not
CONSUMERS.
exceeding 100,000 Php per month.

SECONDARY These are people involves in managerial and services, the


Class C any household earning preferably at least the minimum wage per day
ADMINISTRATIVE and SERVICE PERSONNEL.
not exceeding 10,000 Php per month.

However, Class A users are also welcome but are not that prioritize.

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4.1.4.1 Primary Users

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4.1.4.2 Secondary Users

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4.1.5 Organizational Structure

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4.1.6 Behavioral Flow

4.1.6.1 Primary Users

Traders Wholesalers/Retailers

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Entrepreneurs/Concessionaires Laborers

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Consumers Passengers

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Drivers

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Secondary Users

Administrative Officers Administrative Staffs

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Security Personnel Maintenance Personnel

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Utility Personnel

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4.1.7 Movement Pattern

4.1.7.1 Primary Users

Traders Wholesalers/Retailers

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Entrepreneurs/Concessionaires Laborers

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Consumers Passengers

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Drivers

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4.1.7.2 Secondary Users

Administrative Officers Administrative Staffs

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Security Personnel Maintenance Personnel

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Utility Personnel

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4.1.8 Space Programming and Allocation


4.1.8.1 Space Programming on Users

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4.1.8.2 Space Programming on Fixtures and Furniture

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4.1.8.3 Space Allocation on Site and its Restrictions

4.1.8.3.1 Floor Area Definition per NBC 4.1.8.3.2.1 Actual Computation

Building bulk shall be generally determined by the application of the FLAR, LOT AREA PSO ISA USA TOSL
vertically projecting the AMBF, establishing the OFB and quantifying the AMVB. 37, 320 sq. m. 75 20 5 25
The building bulk may be ultimately governed by the width of the RROW and 27, 990 sq. m. 7, 464 sq. m. 1, 866 sq. m. 9, 330 sq. m.
other applicable provision for the light and ventilation.

TYPE OF TYPE OF BUILDING FLAR DESIGNATION 4.1.8.3.2.2 Actual Computation 2


USE/OCCUPANCY STRUCTURE
Commercial Commercial 2 (Com-2) 3.60 up to 9.00 (at a 15
storey or 45.00 m. BHL)

4.1.8.3.2.3 Actual Computation 3


4.1.8.3.2 Maximum Allowable Percentage of Site Occupancy

Commercial % OF TOTAL LAND AREA (TLA)


ZONING PSO ISA USA TOSL
Commercial 2 75 20 5 25
(Com-2) (w/o
firewall)

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Determination of the Building Height

4.1.8.3.3 Maximum Allowable Total Gross Floor Area a. Building Height Limit is the maximum height limit to be allowed for
buildings/structures based on their proposed use or occupancy; the BHL
CHARACTER OF TYPE OF ALLOWABLE is generally determined after the application of other development
USE/OCCUPANCY BUILDING/STRUCTURE MAXIMUM TOTAL controls and certain other parameters. The BHL shall be generally
GROSS FLOOR AREA BY
measured from the established grade line to the topmost portion of the
TYPE/LOCATION OF
LOT proposed building/structure.
CORNER THROUGH b. BHL excludes the height of the permitted/allowed projections above the
LOT roof of the building/structure.
Commercial GROUPS B, Commercial 2 (Com-2) 12 X 90% of TLA c. The BHL of any proposed building/structure shall only be as allowed
C, E, H, I under this rule or under duly approved city/municipal zoning ordinance,
whichever is more restrictive.

4.1.8.3.4 Building Height Limit Definition per NBC


4.1.8.3.4.1 Actual Computation

4.1.8.3.4.2 Actual Computation 2

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4.1.8.3.5 Parking Computation per NBC


4.1.10 Matrix Diagram
4.1.8.3.5.1 Actual Computation 4.1.10.1 Market Hall

4.1.8.3.5.2 Actual Computation 2

4.1.10.2 Depot
4.1.9 Functional Zoning

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4.1.10.3 Terminal

4.1.11 Circulatory Diagram


4.1.11.1 Market Hall

4.1.10.4 Administration

Desired

Related

Not Related

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4.1.11.3 Terminal

4.1.11.2 Depot

4.1.11.4 Administration

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Public

Semi Public 4.1.12.2 Micro Market Hall

Private

4.1.12 Interrelationship Diagram


4.1.12.1 Macro

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4.1.12.3 Micro Depot 4.1.12.4 Micro Terminal

4.1.12.5 Micro Administration

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4.2 Concept Development Incorporating biomimicry concepts into design and innovation processes can
provide a number of advantages when developing new products or solving
4.2.1 Architectural Concept problems:

4.2.1.1 Design Concept Sustainable Nature inspires products and processes that are natural and
adapted to the environment.
Biomimicry
Efficient - The natural environment seems to be more efficient than the

Nature can teach us about systems, materials, processes, structures and environments created by humans.

aesthetics. By delving more deeply into how nature solves problems that we Cost effective - Nature has a tendency to design structures and shapes that

experience today, we can extract timely solutions and find new directions for utilize materials efficiently thereby cutting down on materials and associated

our built environments. costs.


Energy saving - Nature maximizes the use of natural resources by using
We can benefit from biomimicry to make buildings better by pushing for more processes and systems that optimize energy usage.

natural, integrated, efficient and healthy solutions. We also need to take a look Minimal waste - In nature, materials and waste are minimized or recycled into

at the role aesthetics plays in nature with the way function and form so value-added products. Both waste and new materials are integrated in natural

synergistically merge. Perhaps this is a way for buildings to harmonize with systems.

nature in renewed ways making built environments more environmentally Differentiated brand Nature has a tendency to create its own unique shapes

sound and healthy for occupants. that define its brand which becomes enduring.

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4.2.1.2 Form Concept

4.2.1.2.1 Mangrove Tree

These are trees that have the common trait of growing in shallow and muddy
salt water or brackish waters, especially along quiet shorelines and in estuaries.

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4.2.2 Structural Concept

4.2.2.1 Mat Foundation

It is a large footing extending over a great area, frequently an entire building. All
vertical structural loadings from columns and walls are supported on the
common foundation. The mat is frequently utilized as a method to reduce or

4.2.1.2.2 Form Evolution distribute building loads in order to reduce differential settlement between
adjacent areas. To function properly, the mat structure will be more rigid and
thicker than individual spread footing. A mat foundation is typically used when
there are poor and weak soil conditions.

Mangrove Tree is such a green concept and relevant in having a sustainable


environment. The project will mimic its activities, functions and aesthetic.

4.2.1.2.3 Color Scheme

Exterior Dark Brown, Dark Green, Steel Silver, White

Interior Light Brown, Light Green, White

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4.2.2.2 Solid Slab Mat Foundation Detail Basically, the method entails casting floor and roof slabs on or at ground level
and jacking them up into position. Bond breaking compounds are applied
between slabs to separate them. After the slabs have cured long enough to
reach a prescribed strength, powerful hydraulic jacks mounted on top of the
columns lift the slabs into their respective positions. The big advantage of
erecting concrete buildings using lift slab construction is elimination of most
formwork, an especially important factor in areas where labor costs are high.
Concrete floor construction at ground level is convenient and requires no
shores, scaffolds or cranes.

4.2.2.3 Lift Slab Construction

It has become a basic method of economical concrete construction, especially


for office buildings, apartments, parking garages, hotels and other structures
characterized by repetitive framing from floor to floor.

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4.2.2.4 Three Way Truss Grid Space Frame

It is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts


in a geometric pattern. Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and
are often used to accomplish long spans with few supports. Space frames are
double layered grids, excellent in appearance with large column free spaces. All
type of elegant shape could be made by these systems using variety of grids.
4.2.3 Utility Concept
Two-way actions of space frames provide both economy and enormous
spanning capability. 4.2.3.1 WATER
4.2.3.1.1 Gray Water System
It reuse either rainwater or water that has already been used such as shower,
The top and bottom layers are of an identical shape and are positioned such
bath and washing machine water, for secondary, non potable purposes such as
that their plan views are coincident. Also, all the web elements lie in vertical
flushing WCs and watering the garden. The reuse of grey water and rainwater
planes. The result is a double layer grid that effectively consists of a number of
potentially reduces the need to use potable water for non potable applications,
intersecting plane trusses. A grid of this type is referred to as a 'truss grid'. A
with the water effectively being used twice before discharge to the sewer.
truss grid may be regarded as a flat grid whose elements are trusses.

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4.2.3.1.2 Drainage System


Grey water systems would result in the conservation of water resources and
The drainage system in the City of San Fernando consists of drainage channels
reduce demand on both public water supplies and sewage collection and
and facilities, namely; creeks, outfalls, open drainage, road gutters, and
treatment facilities. They could also save the consumer money in the long run.
drainage pumping stations.
The collection and storage of rainwater also offers potential to reduce runoff
flows into the surface-water sewer network.

This diagram explains the complex network of piping, tubes, water collection,
and recycling.

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4.2.3.1.3.1 Extensive Green Roofs

3- 6" of light weight growing medium.

All garbage disposals will be collected once a day at 2pm. The garbage are Low-maintenance ground-cover plants.
segregated into biodegradable and non biodegradable. Biodegradable materials
will undergo process that result to fertilizers while non biodegradable materials Ideal for large flat-roof buildings and apartments.

will be sent to the biosphere in Brgy. Lana.


Suitable for low-sloped residential roofs and retrofits.

4.2.3.1.3 Green Roofing


Desert grasses and succulent plants.

These are engineered roofing systems incorporating the use of vegetation that
After one year, they do not require watering.
make environmental, economic, and social contributions to urban areas.

It reduce water runoff


It can provide a cooler atmosphere inside the building.
It is energy efficient
It can double the lifespan of your roofing. The plants can provide a protective
layer against the UV rays of the sun which can make your roof acquire rust It improves the air quality
faster especially when there is a frequent change in climate.

It can provide beauty to your building roof tops. Undoubtedly, plants and
flowers can beautify the surroundings.

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4.2.3.3 LIGHT
Polycarbonate Panel System
4.2.3.2 WIND
It ushers a new era of high-tech materials in day lighting; this saves
Passive Ventilation System
substantial energy, prevents condensation, water repellent, reduces sound
transmission, and will be an aesthetic asset to any building at a reasonable cost.
It uses the natural forces of wind and the stack effect by which air rises in order
This is also a green and energy-efficient system.
to renew the air within the building. Moist and stale air is extracted directly
through ducting up to a roof termination and then vented to outside. The air
inside a property is normally warmer than that of the outside air so rises
naturally up the ducting carrying the moistened content with it. By positioning
the air inlets in the dry area this provides a flow of replacement fresh air into
the building. Perforations in the roof and ceiling surfaces support stack
ventilation in the building. Acting in concurrence with these passive systems are
a ductless cooling system and a radiant heated floor system, both of which pull
energy from the geothermal vents besides the building. The passive ventilation
system will provide a significant reduction in energy consumption.

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4.2.3.4 INNOVATIONS 4.2.3.4.2 Double Skin System

4.2.3.4.1 Waterless urinals As indicated by the term double-skin such a faade is intended to mean a
It feature some form of odor suppressant that requires regular renewal. Claims system in which two "skins" - two layers of glass - are separated by a significant
for large water and maintenance savings are made about these devices but the amount of air space, that is to say, a second glass faade is placed in front of the
pipe work must be installed and maintained correctly if prolonged service life is first. These two sheets of glass act as an insulation between the outside and
to be achieved. inside enabling the air to circulate between the cavity of the two facades skin
providing good air circulation, thermal and acoustic performance, etc. The type
of double-skin faade then determines the type of air circulation. This
configuration also helps to reduce the noise coming in from the road.

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4.2.3.4.3 Green Faade

It is a type of green wall system in which climbing plants or cascading


groundcovers are trained to cover specially designed supporting structures.
Plants are rooted at the base of these structures, in the ground, in intermediate
planters or even on rooftops. It can be anchored to existing walls or built as
freestanding structures, such as fences or columns.

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4.3 Presentation Drawings

4.3.1 Concept Board

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4.3.2 Perspectives

4.3.2.1 Exterior Perspectives

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4.3.2.2 Interior Perspectives

Exhibit Area (Left)

Market Hall (Bottom Left)

Eatery Plaza (Bottom Right)

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4.3.3 Site Development Plan

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4.3.4 Floor Plans

4.3.4.1 Ground Floor Plan

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4.3.4.2 Second Floor Plan

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4.3.4.3 Third Floor Plan

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4.3.4.4 Fourth Floor Plan

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4.3.5 Elevations

4.3.5.1 Front Elevation

4.3.5.2 Right Elevation

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4.3.6 Sections

4.3.6.1 Longitudinal Section

4.3.6.2 Cross Section

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Appendices
About the Author

Alonzo F. Nedic

He was the 2004 and 2008 Valedictorian from Mary and Jesus School in Bustos, Bulacan. He pursued Bachelor of Science in Architecture with specialization in Project
Construction Management at the Mapua Institute of Technology in Intramuros, Manila. While there, he was a consistent scholar of Mapua Institute of Technology
Filipino Chinese Alumni Association (MITFCAA) and an active student who joined and headed different school organizations including the Christian Brotherhood
International (CBI) and United Architects of the Philippines Student Auxiliary (UAPSA) - Mapua Chapter where he became the A.Y. 2011 2012 Vice President for Internal
Operations, developing plans and managing internal affairs for the organization. In addition, he was a modern architecture enthusiast who was inspired from simple and
minimalist designs yet elegant and cozy.