ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC

2009/201 BMus(Hons) Programme 200 9 /201 0

ORCHESTRATION & TRANSCRIPTION Level 2 (Unit 21A16)
Professors Professor s : Alison Kay and Jonathan Cole

ORCHESTRATION & TRANSCRIPTION (Level 2)

The unit description for the Level 2 unit Orchestration and Arrangement in the BMus programme handbook provides you with some general information on the unit objectives for this type of study. This syllabus is designed to provide you with detailed information on: • the content of lectures • suitable reading and listening/viewing material • assessment tasks and on deadlines for the submission of coursework • additional guidance relevant to this particular unit

DELIVERY:

75-minute group seminars over 22 weeks given between September 2009 and May 2010 (NB in the Summer Term this time will usually be used for individual supervisions)

OBJECTIVES:

This unit is geared towards the understanding of orchestrational techniques within musical forms, through harmonic language and contrapuntal procedures. To this end the following two main areas are explored: 1 2 understanding the ranges, transpositions, capabilities and characteristics of orchestral instruments, both in solo and chamber/orchestral contexts examining orchestrational techniques covering examples from the classical period though to the twentieth century.

During the course, you will study and prepare orchestration analyses of scores, learn to extract piano reductions from orchestral scores, and become aware of stylistic orchestration. You will learn how to prepare scores and parts for performance by hand as well as by computer setting. Outside of classes, you are encouraged to obtain information through your own exploration, interaction with peer and professional musicians and through the resources available in the RCM and other libraries.

LECTURE PLAN
The Autumn Term will cover: • • • • • • • Baroque style string orchestration Review of figured bass Typical string figurations and their equivalent in the piano score (and vice versa) An introduction to the basics of piano reduction (what to include and what should be left out) Various exercises in scoring for strings, for winds and for mixed ensembles based on combinations of the above (including horns) ‘Looking at a score’. An introduction to the different instrumental families within the orchestra; how a score is structured and how it is laid out Scoring for the Classical orchestra

The Spring Term will cover: • Various exercises in scoring for brass and percussion (you will be expected to complete further orchestrations as well as analyses of prescribed scores from the works outlined below) • Score and part preparation – on paper and computer (Sibelius software) • Scoring for large orchestral forces. • Analysis of stylistic traits in Romantic and early twentieth century orchestration. In the Summer Term you will be able to work with your tutor on a one-to-one basis. Major works covered during the Autumn and Spring Terms: String Orchestration: Vivaldi Bach Britten Warlock Classical Orchestration: Mozart Mozart Haydn Serenade for Winds (C minor K.388) Symphony No. 35 K.385 (Haffner) London Symphony (No. 104, D major) Four Seasons Violin Concerto in E major Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge Capriol Suite

Early Romantic Orchestration: Beethoven Berlioz Symphony No 5 Symphonie Fantastique

Late Romantic Orchestration: Mendelssohn Fingal’s Cave (Hebrides Overture) Tchaikovsky Symphony No. 5 (Finale) Tchaikovsky Orchestrations of Mozart Twentieth Century Orchestration: Debussy Ravel Hindemith Ravel Respighi L'apres midi d'un faune, La Mer, Nocturnes Introduction and Allegro Symphonic Metamorphosis of Themes by Carl Maria von Weber (movements 2 & 4) Orchestration of Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition and Debussy's Danse Orchestration of Rachmaninov's Cinq etudes-tableaux

You will be expected to listen to the above works in advance of class sessions.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Core Texts S. Adler, Study of Orchestration (W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 3/2002) A. Blatter, Instrumentation/Orchestration (Schirmer Books, New York, 1997) Recommended Additional Texts C. M. Widor, The Technique of the Modern Orchestra (Joseph Williams, 1906) [useful information for string double, triple and quadruple stopping; woodwind trills and tremolos] G. Jacob, Orchestral Technique (OUP, London, 1983) N. Riddle, Arranged by Nelson Riddle (Warner Bros, New Jersey, 1985) N. Rimsky-Korsakov, Principles of Orchestration with Musical Examples Drawn from his own Works, ed M. Steinberg [English trans, E. Agate] (Dover Publications, New York, 1964)

ASSESSMENT
During the Autumn and Spring Terms, you will be expected to complete assignments set regularly by your tutor. The three main orchestration assignments that are described below will be based on the knowledge that you have assimilated from these weekly exercises. ALL SUBMISSIONS MUST INCLUDE THE PIANO ORIGINAL

Assignment 1

20% of the unit mark

An orchestration, from an original piano piece, scored for strings and double winds, 2 horns and timpani (tonic and dominant). You will be given a choice of three piano works from which you must orchestrate one for the forces outlined above. The orchestration should show an understanding of idiomatic string and wind writing, use of blended scoring and an understanding of contrapuntal and orchestral pacing (with regard to colour). This will be the summation of the first term which also includes weekly assignments. This submission may be made as a hand written score or a computer inputted score. submission: 1pm, 15 201 Deadline for submission: 1pm, Friday 1 5 January 20 10

Assignment 2

30% of the unit mark

An orchestration for double winds, full brass, harp, percussion and strings. You will be given a choice of three piano works from which you must orchestrate one for the forces outlined above. This submission should demonstrate an increased awareness of orchestral colour and instrumental interaction (as developed through the weekly exercises). The length of work to be orchestrated will be extended to 2—3 A4 pages. This submission must be a computer inputted score. Friday 201 Deadline for submission: 1pm, Fri day 5 March 20 10

Assignment 3

50% of the unit mark

An orchestration scored for chamber forces (three to six players) which must recorded as a live performance. This submission may also be a transcription from a piano score or a reduction of an orchestral score to chamber forces (see above). You must produce parts, organise players and submit a recording of this work (on CD only). You should choose the piece yourself, or in consultation with your tutor. Detailed decisions regarding the chosen piece and its scoring should be made in consultation with the tutor. This submission must be a computer inputted score. 25 201 Deadline for submission: 1pm, Tuesday 25 May 20 10

IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE COMPLETION AND SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK
Written assignments must be handed in using the Registry postbox. Please note the deadlines for submission. Coursework assignments must be completed and handed in by the published deadline (no extensions are offered). Failure to do so will result in the application of a capped mark of 40% which may be lifted by the Board of Examiners only after consideration of mitigating circumstances submitted in writing by the student. For further information about the Submission of Late Coursework, and about the College’s policy on Mitigating Circumstances, you should refer to your BMus programme handbook (Part 5: ‘Learning, Teaching and Assessment’). Students missing the stipulated deadline for coursework submission should note that they have up to two weeks after this deadline to submit work if they wish this to be marked and receive a bare minimum pass (40%). Work submitted after this two-week period will not be eligible for marking, though will be marked over the Summer Vacation, should the student fail the unit and be offered a reassessment opportunity. Coursework will be marked, countermarked and returned after three teaching weeks (ie excluding vacations, Audition Weeks, Planning and Review Weeks).

ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE
(1) Recommended software for Notation

The recommended Software for notation is Sibelius Music Software. A copy of this software is available in the Sibelius room (Room Z3) on every machine. Other software, such as Finale, may also be used at the student's discretion. (2) Definition of ‘arrangement’ versus ‘orchestration’

An arrangement is a creative adaptation of an existing work (or excerpt) which adds new material and thus sufficiently changes the character of the original. An orchestration is the scoring of music for orchestra originally conceived in another instrumental medium. Latent harmonic or textural material may be expanded upon but no newly composed material will be added.

Assessment Criteria
Class % Range Description

I

80—100

Outstanding
An acute awareness of nuanced instrumental writing and varied orchestral approaches, demonstrating an original approach as well as stylistic awareness across a wide range of musical styles. A full understanding of orchestral colour and pacing, and an outstanding understanding of arranging techniques demonstrated in various instrumental combinations. Excellent recording of submitted work that reflects the invention of the orchestration/ arrangement. Score presented to publishing standard.

I

70—79

Excellent
A confident use of instrumental colours both individually and in larger orchestral combinations across a range of musical styles. A good understanding of arranging techniques for simple instrumental combinations. Good recording of submitted work. Very good presentation of score.

II.i

65—69

Extremely Good
A good awareness of instrumental colours both individually and in larger orchestral combinations. Good recording of submitted work. Clear presentation of score

II.i

60—64

Very Good
An awareness of instrumental colours in larger orchestral combinations but with flaws such as over-doubling or thickness in scoring. Good recording of submitted work. Clear presentation of score.

II.ii

55—59

Good
A basic awareness of instrumental colours in larger orchestral combinations but with flaws such as over-doubling or thickness in scoring and occasional lapses in voice leading and spacing. Somewhat cautious palette of orchestral colours. Adequate recording of submitted work. Fairly clear presentation of score.

II.ii

50—54

Fairly Good
A basic awareness of instrumental colours in larger orchestral combinations but with flaws such as over-doubling or thickness in scoring and occasional lapses in voice leading and spacing. Very cautious palette of orchestral colours. Reasonable recording of submitted work and reasonable presentation of score.

III

45—49

Satisfactory
A basic awareness of instrumental combinations and some grasp of overall orchestral colour pacing. Flaws such as thickness in scoring and lapses in voice leading and spacing. Somewhat limited palette of orchestral colours. Reasonable recording of submitted work. Basically accurate presentation of score including all necessary indications of tempo, technical and expressive information.

III

40—44

Largely Satisfactory
A basic understanding of individual instrumental ranges and capabilities and their use in combinations but with a limited palette of colours. Correct presentation of score and layout with tempo, metronome, bowing and articulation markings. Reasonable recording of submitted work.

Fail

26—39

Unsatisfactory
Significant lack of understanding of the layout of a score and poor presentation. Very little awareness of orchestration techniques or individual instrumental ranges and capabilities. Poor recording of submitted work.

Fail

0—25

Grossly Unsatisfactory
Wholly inadequate, showing no understanding of the layout of a score and illegible presentation (no tempo, metronome markings or numbers, no dynamics, no bowing or articulations). No grasp whatsoever of any concepts or techniques of orchestration. Very poor recording of submitted work.

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