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Mlange

A Medley of Research Articles

Editor Dr. Neelam Tikkha


Editor by Dr Neelam G. Tikkha

ISBN : 81-86067-23-X

Copyright@CFI 2016, Publisher : Confidence Foundation


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Price INR 900/-

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. Stored in a retrieval system or
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and originally is of individual writers and CFI holds ono responsibility for the same. Legal
Jurisdiction, Nagpur
Dedication

Mlange
A Medley of Research Articles
is dedicated to our Parents, Teachers, Children and Friends
Editorial

CFTRA is a not- for-profit organization and a knowledge sharing platform. It will also help
building creativity, intellectual growth and research sensibility. It is our endeavor to spread
knowledge and promote teachers, trainers, researchers and students worldwide. It has
become necessary to update and upgrade ourselves since communication has become fast,
inexpensive and no longer can geographical space limit it. Any communication spreads so
fast that it is glocal. A click of mouse can transport words and infinite knowledge to
millions.

We welcome original articles and value the creativity and innovative ideas therefore there are
no publication charges. Scholarly papers on any topic in any discipline are accepted.

Mlange A Medley of research Articles is a multidisciplinary book and has double blind
peer reviewed articles hence , quality is ensured . The articles are on many disciplines like,
political science, law, literature, society, and business, pedagogy of teaching language,
environment, Climate Change , Change Management , Knowledge Management , Politics ,
Teaching Methods, Research Methods and Social responsibility. Gareth Morris from China
sets out to appraise an existing course book before then offering suggestions on how
practitioners might consider building upon the perceived relative strengths, whilst
simultaneously offsetting the apparent weaknesses of the text. The rationale for this is that
many practitioners are either required to, expected to, or, quite simply, need to use
commercial materials, and that, more often than not, these often unavoidably fail to fully
cater to situation specific pedagogical demands and contextual needs given the unique nature
of each and every setting. It is also hoped that this paper will help to promote reflective
practice among practitioners, especially in terms of evaluating classroom materials. Dr.
Sanjay Singh comes to conclusion that Every writer is an individual and every writer has a
right to define his or her own role. He clearly defines his role as a Historical fiction writer. To
fix Amitav Ghosh in one peculiar country or culture would be misleading .He works a lot and
produce a new work and acts as witness.
Index

1. Intellectual Property Rights -An Innovative Way to Colonise 1-9


Dr. Neelam Tikkha

2. Mythological Woman a Saga of Woman in Flesh 10 - 19


Dr. Neelam Tikkha

3. Sustainable Change Management Practices 20 - 29


Dr. Neelam Tikkha

4. Daily Soaps and Female Voice 30 - 40


Dr. Neelam Tikkha

5. Facets of Language Teaching in Indian Context 41 - 44


Dr. Ranjit Kumar Pati

6. Theme of Alienation as Delineated by Amitav Ghosh 45 - 48


(With reference to The Circle of Reason & The shadow Lines)
Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh

7. Globalization and Displacement of Tribal Communities in Telangana 49 - 52


Dr. B. Sukumari

8. Akbar and Tolerant India : A Review 53 - 56


Sanjay Prasad

9. Changes in Economies of Occupational in Birnagar Municipality 57 - 62


Dr. Balai Chandra Das and Bilash Halder

10. Cultural Conflict in the select story of Kiran Desais 63 - 67


Prof. Sulok B. Raghuwanshi

11. A Step-by-Step Guide towards Writing Persuasive, Evidence-based 68 - 77


Argumentative Thesis
Maya Khemlani David
Syed Abdul Manan
Francisco Perlas Dumanig
ISBN : 81-86067-23-X

Intellectual Property Rights -An Innovative Way to Colonise


Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Neelam.tikkha@gmail.com,
Cell: 9422145467

Abstract :

The paper highlights the importance of intellectual property as an asset for organizations
and to project barbaric, imperialistic tendencies of developed countries to exploit poor and
developing countries with special reference to Intellectual property law. The race for
expanding the power and setting colonies far and wide to exploit the resources for gains has
not stopped even now. The only difference is that it has become more sophisticated and the
weapon used is Knowledge Management. The world is facing a proxy world war by the
knowledge societies forming intellectual pockets in underdeveloped and developing
countries. Hence, Knowledge Management has been gaining immense importance in the
recent times. It is rather becoming an imperialistic tool to exploit developing countries and
poor countries like in the past Imperial powers usurped the innovations and properties of
colonial countries. For example British had taken the Kohinoor Diamond and the technology
of making aeroplane from India and now call it their own.
Key words: Imperialistic policies, Brand Value, Intellectual colonies

Introduction:

The Sovereignty carries the horrible stench of colonialism. It is incomplete, inaccurate and
troubled. But it has also been rearticulated to mean altogether different things by
indigenous peoples. In its link to concepts of self-determination and self-government, it
insists on the recognition of inherent rights to the respect for political affiliations that are
historical and located and for the unique cultural identities that continue to find meaning
in those histories and relations.
Joanne Barker

The race for expanding the power and setting colonies far and wide to exploit the resources
for gains has not stopped even now. The only difference is that it has become more
sophisticated and the weapon used is Knowledge Management. The world is facing a proxy
world war. Hence, Knowledge Management has been gaining immense importance in the
recent times. World over there is the drive for Knowledge societies(UNESCO 2003, March
10) as UNESCO calls it. Developed countries with lot of money power are creating
intellectual colonies in developing and third world countries exploiting their resources. It is
rather becoming an imperialistic tool to exploit developing countries and poor countries like
in the past Imperial powers usurped the innovations and properties of colonial countries. For
example British had taken the Kohinoor Diamond and Wright brothers the technology of
making aeroplane from India.

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The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of intellectual property as an asset
for organizations and to project barbaric activities of developed countries against poor and
developing countries with special reference to Intellectual property law.

Noted economist Paul Romer suggests that the accumulation of knowledge is the driving
force behind economic growth. For countries to promote growth his theory goes, their
economic policies should encourage investment in new research and development and
subsidise programs that develop human capital. It is generally agreed that knowledge and
inventions play an important role in economic growth. (Idris 2003)

Mr. Romer, a 41-year-old professor at Stanford University, says ideas


and technological discoveries are the driving engines of economic
growth -- especially ideas that can be codified in a chemical formula,
or used to improve organization of an assembly line, or embodied in a
piece of computer software.
"Ideas are different. Ideas have special properties," he says. While
things such as land, machinery and capital are scarce, Mr. Romer
argues that ideas and knowledge are abundant and that they build on
each other and can be reproduced cheaply or at no cost at all. In other
words, ideas don't obey the law of diminishing returns, where adding
more labor, machinery or money eventually delivers less and less
additional output.
You might be tempted to say "big deal." Everybody knows ideas are
important. But in economics, saying you have found the way around
diminishing returns is akin to saying you have discovered the Fountain
of Youth.(Wysocki Jr. 1997)

Intellectual property has gained immense importance in recent times and would be a major
tool in creating intellectual colonies a different recourse to imperialism. Intellectual property
is the wealth for many companies. It is more important than tangible assets. Once, CEO of
Coca Cola Company was asked the worth of his company. He responded by saying that If
all my corporate houses, factories, offices, cars, and trucks that the company owned were to
be burned down in a moment, the company could get back to being operational by re-building
and buying everything lost in a year due to the value and profit generated by its intellectual
property, namely the income generated by such things as its trademarks, franchise contracts,
patents, and licenses. (Kaur, 2012)

Trademarks can play a crucial role in fortune of the company.

For 2015 these 10 mega brands are Apple, Google, Microsoft, Coca-Cola, IBM, Amazon,
GE, Toyota, Facebook and Disney. Based on the average of their values across the four lists,
they represent over $700 billion in value, of which Apple alone accounts for 25% ($175
billion). (Type2 Consulting 2015) Another example, Harley Davidson rebuilt the company
onlicense fees, which at one time were 50% of its income, from licensing theHarley Davidson
trademark for use on products other than motorcycles.

The USA also has law to protect trade secret. The secret formula of making the drink Coca
Cola is kept secret in a bank vault which can only be opened by a resolution of the company

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81

Board of Directors.Only two people know the secret.


secret Their identities are unknown.
unknown They
cannot travel together. They oversee the production.(Nanayakkara
production. 2008)

Fig 1. Coca Cola formula is a secret(Coca- Cola n.d.)

The secret formula is kept at the World of Coca-Cola a in Atlanta, where it can be viewed by
the public in a permanent exhibit titled The Vault of the Secret Formula.
Unfortunately, India has no law to protect trade secret. The worth of intellectual property is
many folds more than the physical assets. It is recognised as the most vital and powerful asset
by many of the worlds largest companies. (King)
It can further be well illustrated from the following example of S&P companies:
Over the past 25 years the market values of the S&P 500 companies
have deviated greatly from their book values. This value gap indicates
that the physical andand financial accountable assets reflected on an
average companys balance sheet today comprises no more than 20 per
cent of its true value.
Research from intellectual property bank Ocean Tomo shows that a
significant portion of this intangible value is represented
represented by patented
technology.
1976 was a breakthrough year in the development of standards for
reporting intangible assets, when the then International Accounting
Standards Committee published exposure draft E9, Accounting for
research and development costs.33% When 560 executives were
interviewed for a 2010 Hay Group report entitled The silver bullet of
success: winners and losers in the M&A game, the research found
that they attributed no more than a third of an organisations value to
its intangible
le assets. (Castelao, 2013)

There is an interesting saga that would prove that intellectual Capital is an asset and there is a
necessity to have a diligent audit of intellectual
intel property is that of The Volkswagen-BMW-
Volkswagen
Rolls Royce:

Rolls Royce Plc sold Rolls


Rolls Royce Motors to Vickers, a British company in 1973. In
1998, Vickers decided to sell Rolls Royce Motors. Volkswagen with a bidding of
430 Million outbid BMW who bid at 340 Million. However, Volkswagen later
realised that it had only bought the plant and
and the processes but not the Rolls Royce
brand, which was with the Rolls Royce Plc, the parent company.
Later that year, BMW bought the rights to the Rolls Royce brand from the parent
company for 40 Million. Thus, while Volkswagen (VW) owned the machinery
machin
BMW owned the name. VW and BMW reached a settlement that from 1998 2002
BMW would allow VW to use the name and the logo. But from 1st January2003, it
was forced to surrender production to BMW.(Sreedharan,
BMW. 2012)

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Furthermore, there is yet another classic example of The NTP v. RIM patent infringement
case. NTP had a collection of submarine patents covering the wireless email Technology.
Blackberry was a great success with its highly efficient features like its wireless e-mailing,
mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing and web browsing facilities. It was quite
popular with the governments as well. It was a useful device which developed into a classy
tool which was wonderfully crafted after weeks of intense research by a well-known
California based company, Lexicon Branding Inc.
The battle raged in the United States District Court in the Eastern
District of Virginia which finally held NTPs patents to be valid and
gave injunction to RIM. However, the BlackBerry device had gained
so much of public acceptance and had become such an integral part of
the globe-trotting universe that during the pendency of the appeal, the
US Department of Justice filed a brief requesting that RIMs service
be allowed to continue because of the large number of BlackBerry
users in the US Federal Government! Attempts at settlement failed
initially but the matter was finally resolved with a settlement of USD
612 million paid by RIM to NTP as a full and final settlement.
Initially, the hugely successful BlackBerry continues to capture major
markets worldwide. (Narayanan.P., 1990)
Licensing revenue is one of the most basic and common ways in which companies derive
income from their intellectual property. IBM is reported to have recently generated nearly
$1.5 billion in annual licensing revenue (Meyer & Tobin). Companies earn a lot of revenue
from licensing their Intellectual Property. It is evident from the following example of Jet
Airways:
The Jet Airways trade marks were originally owned by Jet Enterprise
Private Limited (JEPL), and not by Jet Airways.Although they had
a history of common promoters, the IP ownership rested with the
former company. Jet Airways was allowed to use the trademarks under
a license agreement with JEPL. When the airline company decided to
make an initial publicoffering (IPO) in the securities market in
February 2005, prospective investors were concerned about the
existing licensing arrangement. They believed that the value of JEPLs
intangible assets that is, the IP around the logo and name was
considerable, and that either the airline could be forced to pay higher
licensing terms once the company became a public enterprise, or that
the license may not even be renewed. Such a situation could
potentially leave the airline without any rights to continue using the
trademarks. Therefore, about a month before the airline was set to
open its IPO, the intangible IP assets owned by JEPL were valued. Jet
Airways thereafter purchased the entire rights, interests, and title in the
said assets for a one-time fee of U.S. Dollars Seventy lakhs. (Kaur,
2012)

It would be senseless for a company to develop and acquire a strong intellectual property
portfolio without expecting and ultimately receiving some return on its investment. (Meyer &
Tobin)

On the other hand,Laurelyn Whitt says Law, can provide a means of resistance to
oppression as well as serve as an instrument of oppression. (Whitt 2009)Professor Reichmann

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and Keith Maskus state that from a broader perspective TRIPS agreement has given birth to
an incipient transnational system of innovation that could produce very powerful
incentives to innovate for the benefit of all mankind. Someone working in a garage in
Bangladesh can reach the whole market world. (Reichman 2007)He further adds that there
exists a tendency to lock in rents from existing while making future innovation more
difficult. There are pressures on the abiliy of states to procure essential public goods public
health, education, food security , environmental security etc. because many are covered by
Intellectual and property rights.(Reichman 2007)

It is a sad thing that Intellectual and property laws favour developed countries can be well
seen from TRIPS which favours US in the following reference :

globalization of intellectual property really only benefited the US and to a


lesser extent the European Community. No one disagrees that TRIPS has
conferred massive benefits on the US economy, the worlds biggest net
intellectual property exporter, or that is has strengthened the hand of those
corporations with large intellectual property portfolios. It was the US and
the European Community that between them had the worlds dominant
software, pharmaceutical, chemical and entertainment industries, as well as
the worlds most important trademarks. The rest of the developed countries
and all developing countries were in the position of being importers with
nothing really to gain by agreeing to terms of trade for intellectual property
that would offer so much protection to the comparative advantage the US
enjoyed in intellectual property-related goods.... Of the 3.5 million patents
in existence in the 1970s, the decade before the TRIPS negotiations,
nationals of developing countries held about 1 per cent. Developing
countries such as South Korea, Singapore, Brazil and India, that were
industrializing, were doing so in the absence of a globalized intellectual
property regime. ...(Drahos and Braithwaite 2003, 2)

Moreover, premium pricing because of patents on HIV drug points at the exploitation of
US at the cost of human life . AIDS medicines are unaffordable for people in developing
nations, because of the steep price that results from the patent monopoly.

A part of the trailer is reproduced here from the documentary indicates ruthless and genocidal
power granted by TRIPS to US:
DR. PETER MUGYENYI: Over two million people were reported
to have died in that year alone.
YUSUF HAMIED: The whole of Africa was being taken for a ride.
BILL CLINTON: Its fine for people in rich countries to say this is
what it ought to be. They dont have to live in these little villages and
watch people die like flies.
DR. PETER MUGYENYI: Where are the drugs? The drugs are
where the disease is not.
DONALD McNEIL: "You fight our patent monopolies, we will
make sure you die."
NELSON MANDELA: As long as drugs are not available to
everybody, he will not take them.

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JAMES LOVE: It was just kind of a crisis of humanity. People just


werent really human for a moment.(Mohan Gray 23,January,2013)

To deal with this problem, in the 1990s Ghana and Brazil tried to import from Indian
manufacturers cheaper generic versions of the AIDS-cocktails component drugs. This action
reflected a long history of non-protection for foreign pharmaceutical patents in India, where a
large generic manufacturing sector had developed since independence. This competition
from generics prompted some multinational pharmaceutical companies to offer discounts on
their AIDS drug treatments

The use of generic substitutes for patented drugs also spurred legal action on behalf of
Merck and others by the United States against Brazil at the World Trade Organization
(WTO), however. The US Trade Representative (USTR) argued that the production and use
of generics were directly in contravention of international law and that there could be no
justification for the appropriation [sic] of US companies (intellectual) property. This was
theft, and the USTR vigorously protested that it helped no one. Despite being subsequently
dropped owing to political pressure, this action reveals much about the overall attitude of the
office of the USTR [U.S. Trade Representative]: whatever the human costs, intellectual
property rights (IPRs) must be upheld.(May and Sell 2005)

Aggressive pursuit of free trade agreements (FTAs) and customs unions (CUs) by major and
minor trading powers alike challenges the conventional wisdom in favour of such pursuit
competitive liberalization. An equally plausible explanation for an active bilateral and
regional trade agreement policy, one which effectively de-emphasizes multilateralism, may
be competitive imperialism. The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights is
one area in which new provisions, going beyond multilateral rules, are being negotiated and
written into FTAs and CUs. Such provisions may yield insights into which characterization of
bilateralism and regionalism competitive liberalization or competitive imperialism(Bhala
2007)

competitive liberalization means moving as aggressively as possible toward the goal of


global free trade by pursuing trade liberalization on three levels multilateral, regional, and
bilateral simultaneously. In theory, at least, this pursuit is mutually reinforcing(Bhala
2007, 3)

There is little question that the present world dominance of the United States has been
economic, military, and political first, and legal only in a more recent moment, so that a ready
explanation of legal hegemony can be found with a simple Marxist explanation of law as a
superstructure of the economy(Matti (2003):).

Further, there has been a row over free trade agreement in Germany because people fear that
Us will sell inferior food stuff in Germany.

Similarly, India also had been a victim of colonial power in the past. Last year, a researcher
made a shocking claim which created a buzz in India and the world. He counterattacked the
claims of Wright brothers in having designed first aeroplane.In 1906, an editorial in Paris
Herald famously wondered if the brothers were "flyers or liars". They further added "It is
difficult to fly. It is easy to say we have flown." (R. Ganesan) A data has been recovered that
states that Shivkar Talpade was the first man to fly an aircraft. He learnt making aircraft from
the Vedic scriptures. Talpade had created a flying machine powered by mercury and solar
energy, and based on ideas outlined in Vedic texts. He had ostensibly named it Marutsakha

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(friend of the air) and flew it at the Chowpatty beach in Mumbai in 1895. While hinting that
Talpade's work should be recognized, Anand Bodas, who presented a thinly-substantiated
paper at the Science Congress, also spoke of ancient Sanskrit descriptions of vimanas that
were 60X60 feet in size and travelled across countries, continents and even planets. Various
alloys for aircraft manufacturing are mentioned in Maharishi Bharadwaj's Vimana Samhita,
he claimed, adding that "the young generation should study the alloys and make them here"
(R. Ganesan) . It is the imperialistic powers

Fig 3 Rally against TTIP in Berlin (DW 2015)

Fig 2. Rally against TTIP in Berlin(King,Neil;Knuth, Marion . 2015)

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81

Fig 3. Baloon

Fig.4 : decodehindumythology.blogspot.com

This debate at this point of time is meaningless as mentioned in other context in Paris Tribune
in 1906 talking about Wright brothers ; It
It is difficult to fly. It is easy to say we have flown."
(R. Ganesan). If Intellectual property were in place then than,Shivakar ,Shivakar Bapurao
Bap Talpade
would not have losthis rightshts to be famous and royalty and , India would have been owner
of a great intellectual property right and generated perpetual revenue selling as license fee.fee

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In fine, Intellectual property Rights have become a weapon in the hands of US and to lesser
extent EU to exploit knowledge and economy of developing countries. India lags far behind
in Intellectual and Property laws. It needs to restructure and make conditions favourable for
Indian companies so that at least we are able to survive in the global digital era where
knowledge travels at the click of mouse. In the words of Ralph Waldo Emerson Build a
better mousetrap, and the world will beat a path to your door We must also prevent
biocloninalism since,if we do not resist, we will not survive. Our resistance will guarantee
our children a future.-Winona LaDuke .

Bibliography

Bhala, Raj. "COMPETITIVE LIBERALIZATION, COMPETITIVE IMPERIALISM, AND


INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY." Liverpool Law Review, 2007: 1.
Coca- Cola. VAULT OF THE SECRET FORMULA. n.d. https://www.worldofcoca-cola.com/explore/
explore-inside/ explore-vault-secret-formula/ (accessed January 6, 2016).
Drahos, Peter, and John Braithwaite. "Information Feudalism." Harvard , 2003: 1.
DW. German activists turn out in force to protest TTIP trade deal. October 18, 2015.
http://www.dw.com/en/german-activists-turn-out-in-force-to-protest-ttip-trade-deal/ a (accessed
December 14, 2015).
Idris, Kamil. Intellectual Property a Powerl Tool for Economic Growth. Geneva: WIPO, 2003.
King,Neil;Knuth, Marion . WorldLink: An in-depth look at free trade deal TTIP- DW. october 16, 2015.
http://www.dw.com/en/worldlink-an-in-depth-look-at-free-trade-deal-ttip/av-18787274 (accessed
December 14, 2015).
Matti, Ugo. "A Theory of Imperial Law: A Study on U.S. Hegemony and the Latin Resistance."
Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies , 10.1 , (2003):: 383447. .
May, Christopher, and Susan K. Sell. Intellectual Property Rights: A Critical History. Boulder, Colrado :
Lynne Rienner Pub, 2005.
"Fire in the Blood": Millions Die in Africa After Big Pharma Blocks Imports of Generic AIDS Drugs.
Directed by Dylan Mohan Mohan Gray. 23,January,2013.
Nanayakkara, Tamara. "Leveraging Intellectual Property Assets for Business Success." WIPO, April 24,
2008.
Reichman. "Does IP Help or Harm Developing Countries." Journal of Law and Technology , 2007: 96.
Type2 Consulting . Marketing Finance - Thoughts on How Buisness Value is Created and Measured .
December 11, 2015. http://www.type2consulting.com/marketingfinance/ (accessed January 7,
2016).
UNESCO. UNESCO Promotes " Knowledge Societies " to Maximize Impact of Comm'n Tech. Press
Release , UNESCO, 2003, March 10.
Whitt, Laurelyn. "Intellectual Property Rights as Means and Mechanism of Imperialism pp. 157-178." In
Science ,Colonialism and Indigenous Peoples,The Cultural Politics of Law and Knowledge, by
Laurelyn Whitt, 157-178. UK: Cambridge , 2009.
Wysocki Jr., Bernard. "For Economist Paul Romer, Prosperity Depends on Ideas." The Wall Street
Journal, 1997.

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Mythological Woman a Saga of Woman in Flesh


Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Cell: 9422145467,
neelam.tikkha@gmail.com

Abstract:

Women have been worshipped round the length and breadth of the globe at all times in the
history of humanity for her sexuality and fertility, though she has been marginalized in
leadership positions. Women as a goddess occupy so prominent position that even in
contemporary times her shrines are preserved. She has been represented in all splendors for
her sexuality and her capacity to be fertile. Drawing on the evidences on cutting edge
through literary work and archaeological evidences, women in religion tell about the lives
of the real flesh and blood women of their day.

The present study tells the story of the relationship of women with culture and religion and
holds a mirror to the society. Cultural spaces determine the way people think and behave.
Every ritual symbolizes culture of humanity. Not only this, the ways women in a particular
culture grieve determine her identity in that culture.
Key Words: Women, Culture Religion, Sexuality , Fertility

Introduction :

From the dawn of the time, women have always been the heart of divine for their ability to
procreate. Early history where they were considered as goddess represented them in
leadership positions. But, later the importance and reverence declined. The female of the
species forms 50% of the population, but she does not occupy 50% of human history. Yet, the
connection between women and the culture and divinity has been so strong in all societies
that the present study unearths new evidences for the character of humanity and a fuller, truer
picture of the world.

Women have been worshipped round the length and breadth of the globe at all times in the
history of humanity for her sexuality and fertility, though she has been marginalized in
leadership positions. Women as a goddess occupy so prominent position that even in
contemporary times her shrines are preserved. She has been represented in all splendors for
her sexuality and her capacity to be fertile. Drawing on the evidences on cutting edge through
literary work and archaeological evidences, women in religion tell about the lives of the real
flesh and blood women of their day.

The present study tells the story of the relationship of women with culture and religion and
holds a mirror to the society. Cultural spaces determine the way people think and behave.
Every ritual symbolizes culture of humanity. Not only this, the ways women in a particular
culture grieve determine her identity in that culture. Cultures have different ways of coping
even with death. The cultural education is based on the myths and mysteries a person is
brought up with. Her response to grief can be directly linked to the cultural, attitude, belief,
and practice he has grown up with. Bharati Mukherjees short story The Management of
Grief is a heartbreaking, despondent and a testimony to the way two genders from different
culture respond to grief. Man has to immediately forget the lost family and move on, whereas
women have to live with grief and manage by reading books or resorting on religious rituals.

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The present situation is worse than the times, when women in India committed sati (burning
in the funeral pyre along with her husband). This ritual was highly symbolical of low status
of woman in the society and lack of identity, which becomes zero at the death of her husband
and she must stop living and show her valiancy by the ritual of Johar by burning herself.

On the other hand, we have a strong cultural space determined by women like Tarabai
Shinde, a Marathi writer, who challenges the man like Nirbhaya, the Delhi gang rape victim,
very boldly. Her boldness represents an identity which retaliates mans dominance very
strongly in a mans world. She erupts like a volcano and spits fire. In this attempt she clearly
defines her identity in opposition with the women of her time and the cultural space occupied
by them. Another writer Bahna Bai who became very popular with her work talks of life as
burning pan on cook stove fire sansar sansar jasa tawa chulha wari reflects a subdued
female identity that determines a second class status of women in that period of time.

Objective: To observe how religious deities define womens space in Indian society and
holds a mirror to the woman of real life and blood.

Justification: The topic is highly relevant since women is a very powerful gender that
determines the culture of a particular civilization.

Review of Literature:

Kinsley, David. Hindu Goddesses Vision of the Divine Feminie in the Hindu Religious
Tradition . Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas , 1987. This study traces the expression of Hindu
female deity .

There is a study by Historian Betteny Hughes titled Hand Maids of God. This was also
shown as a three part serial on BBC but, this study lacks the literary perspective hence the
author proposes to present a literary perspective.

Hughes, Betteney. Hand Maid Of God. London, March 2014. Gives an occidental perspective
which is far from the actual culture of Hindus.

Maity, Pradyot Kumar. Historical Studies in the Cult of the Goddess Manasa . Calcutta :
Punthi Pustak, 1966. This study focusses on serpant Goddess Manasa believed in the cult of
West Bengal.

Bhattacharya, Narendranath. The Indian Mother Goddess: Forms of the Cult, Mother
Goddess in Literary, Mythological Records and Archeology. New Delhi: 1970.

Manohar. Caldwell, Sarah. Oh Terrifying Mother: Sexuality, Violence and Worship of the
Goddess Kali. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1999. This study deals with the sexual and
ferocious aspect of goddess Kali.

Scope of the Subject: Archaeological evidence and prayers to the Goddesses project women
in a different light and is an uninvestigated field of study. The work which has been so far
developed has failed to see women in leadership position. Moreover, the work done so far is
in no way sufficient to reconstruct the history of goddess. Furthermore, the materials has not
been properly explored with an Indian perspective since women is projected as second class
citizen only. Another, important aspect is that very little has been done to study the subject
historically and scientifically. Western scholars have not emphasized on the historical value

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of prayers sung in the glory of goddess thus missed out on the socio cultural aspect. Prayers
are records of genuine desires, aspirations, genius, creativity, emotions and thoughts of
people.

Thus, bearing in mind the importance of prayers and the carvings and idol in temples an
attempt is made to study the goddess Durga and Kali .

Methodology: The methodology mainly followed would be Qualitative.

The approach would be basically of the following type:

Exploratory research will help to identify and define a problem or question.

Constructive researchwill help to test theories and propose solutions to a problem or


question.

Empirical research, will test the feasibility of a solution using empirical evidence that is
Architecture.

Next step, would be content analysis and interpretive research.

The present study throws light to the socio cultural history of the country, one of whose most
important aspect is religion. It begins with the analysis of women in leadership position as
represented in the form of Goddess. The primary source of study would be drawing
evidences from Archeology. Secondary source would be evidence from literature like
Puranas, Devi Mahatmya and other relevant books. The study of cultural practices would be
done.

Women in Leadership in Ancient India:

Goddess Durga

One of the most remarkable goddesses of Hindu pantheon is goddess Durga. She is also
called as Vaishno mata. In this role she is a soft woman, a mother. She has also been
associated with fertility of vegetation. Since her festival is held at the time of the harvest in
Bengal. She is at times associated with lord Shiva as his wife. She is mother of four children.
In Bengal the idol is represented with four children Kartikeya, Lakshmi, Ganesh and
Saraswati. She is very popular in Bengal and is offered fish during the festival. Fish happens
to be the staple diet of Bengal. In north India as well she is associated with harvest festival.
She is represented as mother and is supposed to be the kind goddess, who protects her
devotees from evil demons like Mahishasur. She is seen riding a lion wearing chunari which
newlywed women wear. This also represents that she is worshipped in the form of a
newlywed bride.

Small girls decked like newlywed bride sit in the way to Vaishno mata shrine. People offer
them food and money. Navratri is celebrated twice in a year. Once after the Holi festival in
the month of Chaitra Shukla Paksha from Ekam (First day) to Navmi (Ninth day). These are
called Vasanth Navratri. In this, prayers are offered to Lord Vishnu.

Maha Navratri is celebrated once before Dussehra in the month of Ashwin Shukla Paksha on
Ekam (first Day) to Navmi (9th day). These are called Sharadeeya Navratri. In these nine
days of Navratri, we pray to Durga Maa. In North India, during Navmi festival a small pot

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filled with water is kept on a dish with sand where grains of wheat are sowed. This pot with
coconut on the top is decorated with mango leaves and is called a ghat or kalash. On the top
of the pot, in the centre is placed a coconut. The coconut represents the face of Goddess
Durga. The mango leaves represent her saree and red color chunri with dazzling golden tinsel
border is put on the top of the coconut. Above it are placed red colored flowers. Red color
represents the life and blood. A mauli that is a sacred red thread is tied round the neck of
the kalash. On the last day, when it is time to send Godess Durga back to her husbands
house, small girls, pre puberty, dressed like goddess are invited home. These girls are fed
favorite food of goddess which constitutes of sweet halwa or porridge and black gram with
fried Indian bread called puri. They are given red chunris and money. Married women touch
the feet of the girls to get the blessings. These girls are called Kanchikas. They represent
purity of Goddess and are worshipped thus.

Image 1 : Pic from serial Yeh Hain Mohabbatein Starplus

An analysis of the prayer in the glory of goddess Durga will also reveal multiple identities a
woman was capable of acquiring during those times. Aarti or prayer of Goddess Durga
praises her both identities- one that of Durga and the other that of Kali. The prayer begins
with:

Jai Ambe Gauri, Mayya Jai Shyama Gauri Durga is considered mother Goddess, since
Ambe means mata. There is a clue that Kali and Durga are the same, since it praises in the
same line goddess Kali Jai Shyama Gauri. Shyma means dusky color or bluish color of
Goddess Kali. Ink blue color or dusky color depicts the poison Goddess Kali has stored
within her body for the destruction of demons like Shumbh, Nishumbh, Chandu, Mund and
Mahishsur. She is keen sighted enough to recognize the demon in buffalos guise , though
people are taken off guard since the eyes of goddess look smoky and in a drunken haze as if
she is self engrossed. The prayer describes her eyes beautifully; Dhoomra Vilochana Naina,
Madhura Vilochana Naina, Nishidin Madmati Jai!! This is also reflective of the keen
insight of women to recognize the evil within the body of a person wearing the masque of
innocence. Hence she is also referred to as Mahishsur Mardini. Furthermore, her eyes are
referred as Dhoomra
Vilochana Naina, Madhura Vilochana Naina, Nishidin Madmati Jai!! A line in the
prayer attributes her as having 64 identities which are masculine since the word Yogi means
man and formation of Yogini from it means woman, who has masculine power within
her. This proves the point that she is one woman with multiple identities. She can acquire 64

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forms of Yogini, 10th century Choladynasty, Kaveripakkam, Tamil Nadu,India. from


the Smithsonian Institution

2. Image from Wikipedia (Yogini)

Yognis singing the song and making lord Shiva or Bhairo, as mentioned in the prayer, dance
to her tune. She is capable of changing the identity from time to time and as the need may be.
Jai Ambe Gauri means Jai mata or mother goddess care taker of human kind. Gauri is
incarnation of Parvati. Jai Shyama Gauri The color blue is also representative of the poison
within her body which she has stored to kill the demons. Tumko Nishidin Dhyavat , Tumko
Sabdin Sevat, Hari Brahma Shivji . Women were revered so much that the most powerful god
Shiv and Brahma also hold her in veneration because of her qualities. She is shown very
learned with great knowledge of all religious scriptures like Ved and Purana Aagam Nigam
Bhakhani. She is bold enough to ride the lion. Her immense powers are immeasurable since
she is the one who can tame a lion. Chaunsath Yogini Gavet, Nritya Karen Bhairon Female
power here denotes balance like that acquired through Yog . She has such powers that she
can help reach people to the pinnacle of glory in acquiring anything the devotee desires.

Durga Maa ki Aarti is Sung:

Jai Ambe Gauri, Mayya Jai Shyama Gauri...


Tumko Nishidin Dhyavat, Tumko Sabdin Sevat, Hari Brahma Shivji... Jai!!
Manga Sindoor Virajat, Teeko Mrigmad Ko, Maiya Teeko Mrigmad Ko...
Ujjwal Se Dou Naina, Ujjwal Se Dou Naina, Chandra Vadan Neeko Jai!!
Kanak Saman Kalevar, Raktambar Raje, Maiya Raktambar Raje
Raktapushpa Galmala, Lalpushpa Galmala, Kantahan Har Saje Jai!!
Kehari Vahan Rajat, Khadag Khappar Dhari, Maiya Khadag Khappar Dhari
Sur Nar Munijan Sewat, Sur Nar Munijan Sewat, Tinke Dukkhahari Jai!!

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Kanan Kundal Shobhit, Nasagre Moti, Maiya Nasagre Moti


Kotik Chandra Diwakar, Kotik Surya Diwakar, Samrajat Jyoti Jai!!
Shumbhu Nishumbha Vidare, Mahishasur Ghati, Maiya Mahishasur Ghati
Dhoomra Vilochana Naina, Madhura Vilochana Naina, Nishidin Madmati Jai!!
Brahmani Rudraini, Tum Kamala Rani, Maiya Tum Kamala Rani
Aagam Nigam Bhakhani, Aagam Nigam Bhakhani, Tum Shiv Patrani Jai!!
Chaunsath Yogini Gavet, Nritya Karen Bhairon, Maiya Nritya Karen Bhairon
Bajat Tal Mridanga, Bajat Dhol Mridanga, Aur Bajat Dumroo Jai!!
Bhuja Char Ati Shobhit, Var Mudra Dhari, Maiya Var Mudra Dhari
Manwanchhit Phal Pavat, Man Iccha Phal Pavat, Sewat Nar Nari Jai!!
Kanchan Thal Virajat, Agar Kapoor Bati, Maiya Agar Kapoor Bati
Malketu Mein Rajat, Malketu Men Rajat, Koti Ratan Jyoti Jai!!
Durgaji Ki Aarti, Jo Koi Nar Gave, Maiya Jo Sunder Gave
Kahat Shivananda Swami, Ratata Shivananda Swami, Sukh Sampati Pave!!
Jai Ambe Gauri, Mayya Jai Shyama Gauri...
Tumko Nishidin Dhyavat, Tumko Sabdin Sevat, Hari Brahma Shivji!!
Bolo Durga Maiyya ki Jai!!!(Festivals of India)

Goddess Kali
The earliest reference to Kali in the Hindu tradition date to the medieval period (Around AD
600) and usually locate Kali either on the battlefield or in situations on the periphery of
Hindu society . (Kinsley) She is usually associated with darkness and black magic. She
represents the strong power of woman, who can be so immense that she could kill demon like
Mahishsur. Her anger could not be contained and so lord Shiva had to lie down to protect the
destruction of the earth by crushing underneath the feet of Kali. Devi rasad15 the scripture
that glorifies woman written by Ved Vyas . Kali is born out of anger of Durga. When Chand
and Mund approach Goddess Durga, she becomes so angry that her face turns dark blue and
Kali springs from her forehead. Hence, Kali is also addressed as Chamunda devi. Durga is
shown beautiful, fair skinned whereas; Kali is dark skinned with unkempt hair, her tongue
sticking out, with a bowl of blood in one hand and in another cut head of a demon. She also
has weapon in one of her hands the trident with which she kills the demons. She wears
garland of skulls round her neck and tiger skin as her attire. Durga and Kali represent two
identity of one woman. One woman is docile and the other a valiant fighter. Goddess Durga
is a soft- a mother figure worshipped for her fertility and Kali is ferocious worshipped for her
bravery. Poly handedness represents the multiple tasks a woman could perform with her two
hands. She can at times get so angry that her anger could destroy many living beings. Many
ancient temples and other archaeological evidences depict lord Shiva lying down under Kalis
feet to control her anger. She is represented more powerful than Lord Shiva the God of
destruction.

This is reflective of the society where women were not just second class citizens in
comparison with man. She was not only praised and revered for her fertility, but physically
more powerful as well. She could also perform the role of the hunter. She is not merely
gatherer of the fruits of labor of mans hunting. She is depicted as a powerful woman who
could kill lion and in the form of Kali kill demons like Chand and Munda.

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Women power can be also verified from the Ramappa temple which dates to medieval period
i.e. 1213. It is dedicated to Ramalingeswara ( the linga installed by Lord Rama and
worshipped by him before the siege of Lanka ) . Women identity is represented in all her
facets. The temple was built under Kakatiya dynasty which is located around 70 Kilometers
from Warangal. The original temple steps were quite heighted, which shows that men and
women were quite strong and tall enough to climb those steps. This temple also reflects dual
identity of women. There are women who are delicate and have curvy erotic figures. There
are two statues right at the entrance of the temple, where Shivling is situated. One of them
has lotus in her hand and the other has banana. These women can be gate keepers to heaven.
One welcomes and the other sends off the devotee with prasad.

Image 3 Photo by Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Image 4 :Photo by Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Then there are 12 dancing Mandakinis . One of them is such an expert dancer that when her
necklace breaks she covers it skillfully while dancing. Then you have another image which is
seen in the form of welcoming

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Image 5:Photo by Dr. Neelam Tikkha

This temple is very beautiful and quite well preserved to tell the tale of powerful women folk.
The architecture is extremely stunning. Intricate carvings are present on all the walls of the
temple depicting various mythological stories.

Image 6 :Photo by Dr. Neelam Tikkha

This carving projects her as hunter woman, who is much taller and stronger than the man who
is seen removing thorn from her feet.

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Image 7 :Photo by Dr. Neelam Tikkha

This image clearly shows two women identity. One very small depicted by two women
flanked on the sides of the woman carved in the centre. Physical features and expression also
reveal that women were quite masculine. Some of the carvings it is difficult to make out
between man and woman. Sometimes, it is difficult to determine the gender when men and
women are seen as warriors. The height, size and structure of both men and women seem to
be the same. One has to intently observe to differentiate. The clothes also seem to be of the
same type.

Image 8 :Photo by Dr. Neelam Tikkha

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The above photograph is reflective of Durga and Kali identity in a woman. One image is that
of a woman who is so bold can fight out a snake while the other is ofthe woman who is
delicate and la mode, chic, dashing, modish, posh, smart, stylish, swanky, classy and
trendy, wearing high heel sandals adorned and with beautiful ornaments.

Another image in red stone carving depicts her as a woman who can be seen taming a lion.

Image 9 :Photo by Dr. Neelam TikkhaRamappa temple

In fine, religious scriptures and the temple carvings tell a saga of women in leadership
positions in the ancient times. They were not only worshipped for their power of fertility and
eroticism, but also were capable of asserting themselves in the form of multiple identities in
leadership roles where she puts a challenge before the man. She is depicted so powerful that
she can in the form of Kali threaten the God of Gods Mahadev . She can make him dance to
his tune. She can dominate him in all respect.

Bibliography:
Hughes, Betteney. Hand Maid Of God. London, March 2014. BBC
Kinsley, David. Hindu Goddesses - Vision of the Divine Feminie in the Hindu Religious
Tradition . Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas , 1987. Print.
Maity, Pradyot Kumar. Historical Studies in the Cult of the Goddess Manasa . Calcutta : Punthi
Pustak, 1966. Print.
Wikipedia . Yogini. web 15 Feb 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yogini>.
Festivals of India. Web 16 Feb 2015. 17 Feb 2015
<http://www.festivalsofindia.in/navratri/navratri_puja.aspx>.
(C) for article and images Dr. Neelam Tikkha, neelam.tikkha@gmail.com. Cell: 9422145467

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Sustainable Change Management Practices


Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Neelam.tikkha@gmail.com
Cell: 9422145467

It is sad that nature is telling something and we are not listening.


Victor Hugo
Abstract:

The paper explores the changes that are taking place around us in the backdrop of
environment and climate changes and highlights the necessity of continual change
Management practices along with sustainable approaches that must be taken up by
organizations to overcome the aftermath shocks because of the transformations and to be at
par in the race of progress.
Key words: Change Management, sustainable approaches, change in culture

Introduction:

The world today operates on the philosophy perform or perish. It is the age where even
carbon is traded. In the TV show on the Summit on Climate change discussion on France 24
Ian Parry Principal Environmental Fiscal Policy Expert from International Monetary Fund
says that: There is a price on carbon. There is a carbon tax and carbon trading going on.
(Ian) No one could ever imagine that carbon emission could have a price. It is the age of
economics, which is a fast changing one with a wink of an eye. It is the age where change in
culture can bring changes in the preservation of environment and change management
practices. Climate change is one such issue, which is being dealt by incorporating changes in
the culture.

In Paris huge ice boulders were brought from Greenland to make people aware of the need of
decarbonizing the world as snow caps are melting which will raise the sea level and many
islands will get submerged. Furthermore, unusual rains are causing penguin chicks to die in
Antartica since, their feathers can protect them from cold but they do not protect from rains.
If this continues soon all penguins will die and become extinct. (LEPETIT,
ABDELKHALEK and BOSC) This will lead to perish of all other flora and fauna in the food
chain.

There is a fear of islands getting submerged for example the Kutubdia Island in Bangladesh,
and Maldives the entire country may disappear from the map of the world. China has
constructed seven new artificial islets by piling sand onto reefs in the South China Sea. It
is straining geopolitical tensions that were already taut. (Watkins) . Bill Clinton had
remarked during his visit to the island It is an intelligent piece. But neither Bill Clinton nor
China ever thought that the sand which has been removed from the original place will
damage the environment. Moreover, the new island that has been created will impede ocean
fauna. Human kind is greedy to change the economy rapidly.

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Fig 1 :Chinese construction on Johnson South Reef


(Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs ) (Tiezzi)

Similarly, petrol was called the Black gold and was the most sought product after yellow
gold but, now the oil bubble has burst (Hamaidan), we find that its value is gradually
declining and it is being termed as dirty energy. More people are moving towards cleaner
and greener renewable energy. India and China have accepted it only partially. A race is
underway to strike a global deal in Paris to cap greenhouse gas emissions. Wael Hmaidan,
Director, climate action network on TV debate All Roads Lead to Riyadh on TV France 24,
said that nobody ever thought that price of renewable energy would continue to go down .
The companies feel it is the renewable energy where the future is. (Hamaidan) Earlier, this
would have been said about fossil fuel now it is being said for renewable energy. India with
its laid back attitude is sacrificing 400 lives for every 4 cars per year in coal industry.
(KAMINKA and TANDON) Although New Delhi has committed to developing an
ambitious solar energy programme, its whole industry is based on coal, the only fossil fuel
present in large quantities on its territory. For this fast-growing demographic giant, coal is
also the cheapest energy, albeit bad for the environment. (KAMINKA and TANDON)
Ecologists, and climate change campaigners, warn coal mines are ticking "carbon
bombs"(France 24 ) but Saudi Arabia, India and China are not bothered. Similarly,
Australia is also heedless to the greenhouse gases that it emits by riding coal trains since,
mining giants and politicians, argue they are vital for economic success. It is a battle
being played out around resource-rich Australia. (Coorey)

Furthermore, earlier, people could sell products but, now there is age is of knowledge trading
o which depends the economy. Countries whose economy relies on oil and fossil fuel need to
shift it to knowledge based technology and diversify to other sectors for the sake of change
since the writing on the wall has already changed. Coal-dependent India was the third-

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largest emitter of atmosphere-warming greenhouse gases in 2014, accounting for around 7


percent of total emissions, according to scientific estimates. China and the United States
were the world's highest emitters, accounting for 25 percent and 15 percent of greenhouse
gases respectively. Yet India is reluctant to accept world decarbonisation plans.

Fig. 2 AFP/File / by Madeleine Coorey | Coal is the nation's second most valuable export, adding almost $30 billion to the economy
in 2013-14, and supports 150,000 jobs, according to the Minerals Council of Australia (MCA) SYDNEY (AFP) -
It is a battle being played out around resource-rich Australia.

Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi said to the world leaders at the opening ceremony of the
key UN summit:
We still need conventional energy," "We should make it clean, not
impose an end to its use. And, there should be no place for unilateral
steps that become economic barriers for others."
That message that India would pursue ambitious goals to make its
energy cleaner, but not at the expense of improving standards of living
among its citizens was echoed by Indian officials and members of
civil society.
"We will build up a system where renewables are our first choice, but
we need coal to meet the demand of the poor", Dr. Ajay Mathur,
director general of India's Bureau of Energy Efficiency told FRANCE
24, adding that India would seek to increase the use of renewable
energy sources seven to tenfold while at the same time doubling or
tripling the use of coal. (Bamat)

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Similarly, China and Saudi Arabia are creating hindrance in helping to create carbon free
world. Fahad Nazer, former political analyst Saudi Embassy in Washington, talks with
tongue in cheek and remarks that: it is knowledge economy to which people of Saudi Arab
countries are focusing (Nazer) . Bernard Haykel feels Leadership will not come from
Saudi Arabia because it wants to stick to its oil economy (France 24 ).

The changes happening are so immense and quick that in this race France has reached No
mans land. It was called no mans land since nobody lived there and conditions were
difficult to survive. But, we see now that France is the first country to have a piece of land in
Antarctica in No mans land and it is run like a district with proper governance and governing
body. It has a proper health care system and a post office. It is called Adlie Land and lies
between 136 E ( near Pourquoi Pas Point at Alden at 6648S 14202E), with a shore length
of about 350 kilometres (220 mi) and with its inland part extending as a sector of a
circle about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) toward the South Pole. Adlie Land has border with
the Australian Antarctic Territory both on the east and on the west, namely on Clarie
Land (part of Wilkes Land) in the west, and George V Land in the east. Its total land area,
mostly covered with glaciers, is estimated to be 432,000 square kilometres (167,000 sq mi).
(wikipedia)

Similarly, robots would be replacing human beings leading to accumulation of electronic


junk which is not sustainable for environment. Nowadays, we observe science fictions
becoming a reality. Sixth sense present in the human being helps mankind to conjecture
decisions by willing suspension of disbelief. Sixth sense helps in doing things and helps
making decisions because of the presence of 3 Is namely, instinct, intuition, and inspiration.
This has led to designing of robots with sixth sense in Japan who would replace workforce.

Fig: 3 (The Leading Edge: What Science Reveals About the Sixth Sense)

But, innovations like Bitcoin would help preserve resources like paper and contribute to
sustainable development. There is introduction of new money called Bitcoin. Bitcoin is an
innovative payment network and a new kind of money.

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Fig 4 : Bitcoin (Bitcoin)

Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority or banks; managing
transactions and the issuing of bitcoins is carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin is
open-source; its design is public, nobody owns or controls Bitcoin and everyone can
take part. Through many of its unique properties, Bitcoin allows exciting uses that could not
be covered by any previous payment system. (Bitcoin)

Fig 5:Intel India

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Now days, big things have become smaller and soon invisible for naked eyes. Sometimes,
sponsorship, governance and related change Management activities are seen as afterthoughts
that can be added when needed without effort and at no extra cost. (SIMPSON and
RAYNER) . The changes that are taking place are very fast and it is highly essential for the
corporates and organizations world over to take change as a challenge. It is not enough to be
the manager of change but, be the initiator of change.

Fig. 6 Artist Colin Davidson with his painting of Angela Merkel commissioned for the cover of TIME's 2015
Person of the Year issue(Gibbs)

Furthermore, war is another challenge that people need to be ready since it brings numerous
pitfalls in the environment. For example the war is not contained only in Syria, Iraq but has
spread all over Europe . Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel has been awarded the honor
of Time's Person of the Year award for leading Europe through debt crisis and standing firm
in support of aid to refugees. (Glenza) But, even she had not thought what massive
hazardous problem this would lead to for her own people. The condition of the hospitals and
employability will give jitters to anyone.
the estimated 1.3million migrants who have entered the country are
"completely unemployable" because they do not speak the
language.the burden on the country's failing health service will only
get worse because at least one in ten of the women arriving are
pregnant. (Gutteridge)

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Moreover, the diseases the migrants brought are numerous. The disease like Poliomyelitis,
scabies, cholera, measles, HIV thought to be completely eradicated from Germany has
surfaced. Deadly disease like Leishmans disease has also started surfacing. Flesh-eating
Aleppo boil disease spreads through Syrian city as parasite-spreading flies thrive on
mounting waste and sewage. (GAYLE)

The molesting of two women in public by 100 Arab migrants in Cologne on the new years
eve of orthodox Christians- that is 6th January(Russia Today) is a criminal act of
unprecedented measure. Germany is paying a heavy price. Open arm policy of Angela
Merkel is called erroneous and slogans like Refugees repercussion Angela Merkels
monumental mistake(Russia Today ) are being echoed all over Germany. There are a
number of protests on the streets of Germany. People are carrying banners and placard which
say, Angela Merkel you go and take Muslims with you.

Fig 7: German anti-immigrant movement on the rise(Shubert)

The shifting geopolitical sands have turned into tsunami. If Angela Merkel had perceived the
changes in the writing on the wall about the challenges that she would have to face with the
open arm policy which, opened faucet of migrants flow and her actions had been fast
enough in tackling migrant crisis than the safety of German women, condition of hospitals
and beating of doctors and hospital staff would have been spared. One problem has led the
Germans to another one. Now, Germans would have to face the epidemic of deadly diseases
and sexual assaults on women. Merkels own people will have to seek asylum from sex
violence.

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PA
Fig 8 A refugee waits in a new refugee outpatient clinic in Leipzig, Germany(Gutteridge)

Fig 8: India's environment minister blamed the Chennai floods on developed nations' climate change [Arun Sankar
K/AP](aljazeera.com/news)

Similarly, when Indians drowned in Chennai floods they woke up and started blame game.
India's environment minister blamed developed nations for climate change to be the cause of
Chennai floods. We waste time in blame game rather than action beforehand. It is good news
a boon in disguise that Russia has cancelled project of oil line through Turkey through the
Mediterranean sea to UK in the wake of Turkey downing Russian fighter plane. If there was a

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war and Zihadist would burst oil pipe line there would be a major disaster for the water body
and it would take toll on sea life. Moreover, it would increase the temperature surrounding
the pipe. It is the right step taken by many world leaders to use renewable energy. It is a good
step that companies have started giving CEOs of company incentives, if they move the
company towards greener energy instead of fossil fuel.

Conclusion:

All nations are in a rat race to be ahead of the other nation and hence buzzword is research
and innovation. Change has become a mantra for growth and survival. But, we fail to see
whether it is sustainable. Since we feel that it will not affect us if we are rich and powerful. It
will definitely disrupt the life of future generation whether rich or poor. The changes are
taking place very fastand to survive one has to continually strive for sustainable practices and
change tactics. People take steps backward and sideways instead of two steps ahead. The
very little we can do we must do to help implement change management practices in our
organization. In fact, there is a need to bring cultural changes that need to be imbibed since
childhood to save resources, protect environment and ourselves.
Bibliography:
aljazeera.com/news. India blames industrialised nations for deadly floods. Doha, 5 December 2015.

Bamat, Joeseph. "India searches for right energy mix at COP21 climate talks." Paris : France -24 , 3
December 2015.
Bitcoin. 2015. 9th December, 2015 <https://bitcoin.org/en/>.

Coorey, Madeleine. Australia riding coal train despite climate pleas. NEWS . Sydney , Australia:
AFP, 3, December , 2015.

France 24 . Paris Climate Change Conference 20015 . Paris, 8 12 2015.

GAYLE, DAMIEN. Flesh-eating Aleppo boil disease spreads through Syrian city as parasite-
spreading flies thrive on mounting waste and sewage. 21 June 2013. 31 12 2015
<http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2345972/Flesh-eating-Aleppo-boil-disease-
spreads-Syrian-city-parasites-thrive-mounting-waste-sewage.html#ixzz3vsi37YDl >.

Gibbs, Nancy. Behind TIMEs Person of the Year Cover. NEWS. New York: Times Inc. Network,
2015, December, 9.

Glenza, Jessica. Angela Merkel named Time's Person of the Year the first woman since 1986.
NEWS. New York: The Guardian, 2015,Dec,9.

Gutteridge, Nick. UK next? Doc's warn AIDS TB and diseases eradicated generations ago brought in
by migrants. News Paper. UK: Express UK, 2015,october, 28.

Hamaidan, Wael. All Roads lead to Riyadh - France- 24 Francois Picard. 10 December 2015.

Ian, Parry. People and Profit :Carbon: The price to pay Markus Karlsson. 04 December 2015.

KAMINKA, Louise and Surabhi, SIMON,Constantin France 24 TANDON. Indias coal addiction.
Paris, 8 12 2015.

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LEPETIT, Sylvain, Hakim ABDELKHALEK and Laurne BOSC. Journey to Antarctica, a continent
under threat. NEWS . Paris: France 24 , 2015.

Nazer, Fahad. All Roads Lead to Riyadh - France-24 Francois Picard. 9 December 2015.

Russia Today. NEWS. Moscow, 7 January 2016.

SIMPSON, STEPHEN and PAUL RAYNER. "Field Report: Project Governance and Change
Management: Getting it Right at Scottish Water." Journal (American Water Works
Association),Vol. 103, No. 5 (2011, May): 58-60, 62.

The Leading Edge: What Science Reveals About the Sixth Sense Tomoko, Kimura. 2 December
2015.

Tiezzi, Shannon. "Revealed: China's Reasons for Island-Building in the South China Sea." NEWS.
2015, April, 10.

Watkins, Derek. What China Has Been Building in the South China Sea. News Paper. New York: The
New York Times, 2015, October,27.

wikipedia. n.d. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad%C3%A9lie_Land>.

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Daily Soaps and Female Voice


Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Cell: +91-9422145467
neelam.tikkha@gmail.com
Abstract :

Using Bollywood films Welcome, Band Baja Barat ,Dum Laga Ke Hainsa directed by
Sharat Katariya and Soaps to name a few Bhabhiji Ghar pe hain, Diya aur Bati , Yeh
Hain Maohabattein as a few cases in point , this paper argues that popular Bollywood
films with their appeal to mass media has changed dramatically in projection of women.
Women are painted with bold strokes as mentioned by Akhtar in his comparison of
Bollywood and European films.
The paper explores the changes in society as reflected in the recent Indian movies and
soaps which provide a mirror to Indian society. There is a decline in gender inequality in
India and this is projected in the movies and soaps. In fact, females are painted with
powerful and bolder stroke .
Key words : Bold women, gender inequality , woman identity

Bollywood and daily soaps are a part of masses in India. Every day people wait for their
favorite soaps.The characters live in the hearts of the people. They even modify peoples
thinking and way of life.

Bollywood has a powerful role in shaping mindsets and


behaviors in India. I would argue its much more than just an
entertainment industry. Movies have reflected the aspirations of
many Indians for decades. Often, celebrities are revered in a
manner akin to religious fervor.
As India continues to modernize and in many ways, Westernize,
Bollywood keeps up by showcasing modern relationships.
Some mainstream movies now portray realities of the urban
Indian youth: pre-marital sex, live-in relationships, and women
and men who are relatively independent from familial
obligations.(Tulshayan)

Indian films are very elaborate and have a wider canvas. They are more
lifelike and project variety of emotions.

"European films tend to deal with one emotion, or one problem. You
can see them as short stories; whereas, an Indian film is more like a
novel. If you would make a film in India called It Happened One Night
people would feel cheated! They want larger than-life stories. Indian
sagas have to have every emotion in the book. In our first talkie from
1933 there were fifty songs! There was never any doubt that we
wouldn't use songs. As a lyricist, I write to an existing tune and I try to
solve a narrative problem in the content of the lyrics. But I'm always
dependent on whether a story is conducive to writing a song, whether

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ithas certain sensibilities." Perhaps even more so than other cinemas,


masala films reflect changes in India's society and politics. "You can
analyze India from the films," said Akhtar. "Art records hopes, fears,
pride, and humiliation. Behind the glamor and the dances you can see
our contemporary aspirations. In the Fifties, there was idealism and
hope in politics and cinema. Prosperity seemed just around the corner,
but since there was a socialist climate, rich people were the bad guys.
In the Seventies there was a breakdown of our institutions, martial law,
the rise of vigilantes and the angry young man. The Eighties saw a dip
in politics, music, films, and art. The industrialization of the Seventies
had led to the rise of a middle class that was different from the landed
gentry. They were the first generation to get educated on a massive
scale." During the rule of the Hindu BJP party from 1994 to 2004,
masala films reached high levels of technical excellence, providing
picture-perfect visuals and soundtracks - but with storylines and
attitudes reflecting the party's conservative stance, emphasizing family
values and religious patriotism.(Sharma)

Contrary to this you find soaps and films that project women in an entirely different frame.
Women were considered second class citizen earlier and the role that they played was that of
a procreator, a mother, a sister, a lover, seductress in daily soaps. She would assist in the
development of the male gender in various aspects. The story was and of male gender playing
a major role. Man was caste in powerful roles. They were shown as business tycoons (Shanti)
Mr. Bajaj or police officers and doctors, whereas women were cast in traditional roles that of
mother daughter, lover or seductress or a sister and if at all they were shown as career women
they were cast in the roles of a Obstetrician, a nurse , a reporter , a teacher or an interior
designer.

The trend seems to be changing as more and more women are being projected in powerful
roles. For instance, the role of men is very secondary in the soapPyar Ka Dard Hai Meetha
Meetha Pyara Pyara.(Rajshri )Avantika Kumar is a highly glamorous woman yet, a leading
CEO, who is also a chairperson for grievance committee of Business and Commerce. She
has put in her heart and soul to make her family business empire grow to amazing heights.
Her brother is shown lacking with such skills. Not, only this she has taken care of her other
siblings and is the one who works towards keeping the family united. She is a better
Managing Director than her brother. Brother and other male characters are shadowed by her
dominant presence in the soap. Her daughter in law Punkhudi is shown as meek woman, yet
in the times of crisis, emerges a strong woman capable of hiring a spy for spying on her
husband Adi and Vikram Dhanrajgir her cousins Brother in law. Grandmother Anisha or
Annie is yet another glamorous woman and is also projected as a powerful character. She
elopes to Australia with her lover and marries there. She marries against the wishes of her
entire family. On her return to India for marriage of her student Varun to her granddaughter
Kaira. She counsels Varun for marriage. She guides Pankhudi to hire a spy to know about her
husbands cause of worry. She over dominates family and is rightly addressed as Mogambo
by her daughter in law Kairas mother.

Diya Aur Bati Hum (Ghadiali): It is a serialon Star Plus. It is a daily soap about
Sandhya's struggle, who dreams to become an IPS officer. She dreams to break the

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boundaries of her narrow confined existence of middle class values. The story is also about
Sooraj, who is a sweet talker and a self made man. Sooraj runs a sweet shop near his house
which is famous. Sooraj and Sandhya get married. Sandhya will not be able to finish her
graduation. Soon she is part of the family she does not even know. This story is about
Sandhya's struggle to fulfill her dream and a journey where she finds help from the most
unlikely quarter - a lover who can make it possible.(India Forum)It is the first time that a
woman is cast in the role of an IPS officer. She is bold enough to fight the terrorists and gets
trophy of best cadet. She is shown striking a balance between her professional and personal
life. A desi Rajasthani bahu with her head covered wearing a lot of jewelry, leaves for
Hyderabad police training centre, with her husband and inlaws, diffident of the co traveler
who is staring at her jewelry. But, after 11 months of training, Sandhya Rathi returns
confident, wearing an IPS cap and dress and is a winner of best cadet trophy to her credit.On
the first day of her duty at Pushkar she takes the decision of suspending a few hooligan police
officers, who are under the influence of a local goon. They mock and pass gender sensitive
remarks that police cap does not suit a woman. But, she proves otherwise. She is able to
confiscate wine and money which is brought for distribution during elections. She does not
care for her life but tries to save people from fire. The local goon while praising her says
you are the only one mard meaning one man in the entire group. If a woman does
anything good or which is appreciable is comparable to a man. Why cant anything super be
comparable to a woman still symbolizes the second class status of a woman. She displays
extreme degree of feminity when her husband Suraj visits her office to give her breakfast.
She is being projected as a woman who displays perfect balance in the two role one of an
IPS officer and the other of a wife. When she is pregnant she is compared to a lioness with
triple power , since she is carrying two kids.

Image 1 Singh Trainer for IPS officers

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Image 2 : Suraj Sandhyas husband

Image 3 : Sandhaya Rathi at IPS Academy Hyderabad.(Star Plus)

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Ye hain Mohabbattein,(Star Plus)is a serial of a multi tasker dentist who makes the barren
life fertile of Ruhi by becoming a mother of hers. She marries Raman only for the sake of
Ruhi but gradually his family becomes an integral part of her life . She is a good and
compassionate daughter in law, who cares for the family. She gives support to her sister in
law in the time of crisis and financial difficulty by going out of the way. She is a good
neighbor and risks her life for a pregnant neighbor by trying to reach her to the hospital,
during riots. When all her attempts to reach her to the hospital fails, she assists in the delivery
of the baby and successfully delivers the baby. She is strong enough to protect her self-
respect from the lust of her brother in law. She stands strongly and complains to her sister in
law, whose husband misbehaves with her and also to her mother in law without being guilty
of the fact that she is draped in a modern dress which has made him fall for him or any other
guilt which would make her feel conscious that she is responsible for the action in any way.
When she is not heard by the two women she dares to tell it to her husband Raman. This is
the changing image of women in society.

Tumhari Pakhi(Suman)is a story of a female guide in Chittorgarh, who has been married in
childhood to a man who has later turned into a successful businessman. She is a good mother,
a wonderful wife who is a symbolical guide for her family as well. She trains the child, who
was a brat, to be more disciplined and also guides him to have healthy food. She saves her
husband Anshuman from a vamp Tanya who fakes love and later her true character is
revealed through various instances like misguiding Aayan the child to go and have fun in the
water park rather than participating in the school competition. She also steals money from
Aayans piggy bank to win the bet with Pakhi. When she loses the bet she tries to scare
Aayan so that he manipulates his father Anshuman to marry her and to send Pakhi back to
Chittorgarh. When all her efforts fail she tries to kill Pakhi so that she is out of her way in
marrying Anshuman. Pakhi is ready to accept the challenge of being a good house wife, a
good girl friend and a good mother . But, she refuses to accept challenge of proving her
chastity. This shows how womens identity emerges as a strong women. Further, Pakhi
leaves the house of Anshuman and reaches Delhi and becomes a tourist guide because
Anshuman assassinates her character. She goes to Delhi in search of her identity. She stays
with a woman who, has had a bitter experience in her married life and a girl who is going to
get married and is a photographer.

Bhabhiji Ghar pe haain(Bali, Shashank , & TV ) : It is a comedy serial soap. It is a story of


two couples Mr Tiwari and Mrs. Angoori Tiwari and Mr. Vibhuti Mishra and Mrs. Anu
Mishra. Mishras are very modern and Tiwaris are laid back. Comedy is because of the
interest of Mr. Tiwari in Anu Bhabhi and Mr. Vibhuti Mishras interest in Angoori Bhabhi .
Vibhuti Mishra is a house husband and in a scene which is ultimate in comedy when, Anu
wins a bungalow in lottery and wants to shift Vibhuti resists and is being pulled by Anu.Anu
is delineated with powerful strokes. Anu is a working woman whereas her husband Vibhuti is
a house care taker. There is a clear role reversal. In one of the episodes Anu wins a Bungalow
and wants to shift but Vibhuti cannot bear the idea of being separated from Bhabhiji . This is
the height of comedy Anu is dragging Vibhuti and like a small child he is crying his lungs
out. The images from 4 to 6 show Vibhuti being dragged by his wife from Angoori bhabhi.

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Image 4:Angoori Bhabhi crying(& TV )

Image 5 : Vibhuti holding bhbhijis hands while being dragged(& TV )

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Image 6: Vibhuti dragged so hard and pushed in the card that he loses grip of
Angoori bhabhijis hand Bhabhiji Ghar Par Hain (& TV )

Saraswatichandra(Bhansali, Sanjay Leela Star Plus) is a story of a village girl called


Kumud , who teaches in a school. Her fathers friend who makes a good fortune in Dubai
wants his son to be married to Kumud. He sends his son to meet the family and soon Saras
falls in love with Kumud and marries her. She tries to uncover the past of her step mother in
law called Gumaan, who had been a tamashe wali and a prostitute. She risks her life and tries
to unearth her secret by going in red light area. She goes through various problems but does
not give up . In this process she comes to know that Kabir is the real brother of her husband
and Gumaan had plotted to kill him on birth itself. This incident had created rift between
Sarass father and mother Saraswati and they fell apart .This helped the entry of Gumaan
into the life of Sarass father.

Veera Ek Veer ki Ardas(Patnaik, Mamta, Shekhar, Purnendu ) has more number of women
in lead characters. Two women singly bring up two children. They give all support to the
female child called Veera so that she studies in London. Veera, who has the best of
education in her childhood, rides a motor cycle and is shown to be tom boyish. She also is
capable of managing farm affairs very well. She is a very strong personality and can fight
with a number of boys. She is projected quite stronger than even her childhood friend Baldev.

Sath Nibhaana Sathiya(Sharma, Rashmi, Telefilms), also rests on a number of female


characters. Men are very few and play no significant role. Kokila is the head of the family,
who is a powerful character and she dares even to punish her grown up son Ahem by hitting
with a scale on the hands of her son.

Balika Vadhu Kachchi Umar Ke Pakke Rishte(Shekhar,Purnendu )shows the struggle for
self-assertion by Anandi a child bride . She is a bright girl child who struggles hard and
becomes a sarpanch and helps her family.

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We find a number of women CEOs like Chandana Kochar from ICICI , IndiraNyooi from
PEPSI in real life and the same is being reflected by TV Soaps. TV soaps show a changing
trend in female identity. The female identity reveals the dynamic multifaceted aspect of
women. No longer women are seductive vamps like Kaumaulika or a second class citizen just
playing minor role of providing fulfillment in mans life but, a powerful dynamite giving
great impetus to the people and herself around her.

Is Pyar Ko Kya Nam Doon ?:(Pandey, Akash )This serial reflects two types of women
existing in the present society. Anjali, the mother in law, is being beaten by her husband
daily for over thirty years. Her daughter Jyoti also suffers similar type of treatment at the
hands of her husband. He along with his aunt illegally aborts two female fetus of Jyotis . To
avoid all this she runs away from the house but, again she falls in the same trap. She does not
want to go back to her husbands house but, her father is a staunch believer that a girls house
is not her mayeka but her husbands home. She is brutalized, ill-treated but nobody raises
voice because of the firm belief that man has right to do whatever he likes since a woman is
mans property. Anjali, the mother of Jyoti says She is a doormat and she is used as and
when needed after that nobody bothers about her. Aastha, sister in law of Jyoti, helps her by
complaining to police about Jyotis ill-treatment at the hands of her husband. She represents a
woman who has an identity of hers and is able to think for herself and decide what is right for
her and others. She helps Jyoti by complaining to the police about Jyotis husband. She is
able to convince her entire family that Jyoti should be supported and parents home is also
her house. She should be saved from the clutches of bad in-laws. Aastha represents a
progressive woman who is a multi tasker who can rock the world.

Ek Hasina Thi( Cinevistaas Limited): Durga Thakur reminds of lordess Durga . She sheds
her weak skin of Nitya and transforms into Durga who can avenge the rape of her sister. She
is strong multitasker capable of punishing evil men. She is brilliant and capable of
manipulating people for teaching them a lesson. She is good at heart. She is a caring
daughter and a caring sister. She is honest but she deals the rapist Shourya and his family
with an iron hand.

Women in Film:

Band Baja Barat(SinghRanveer): This is a typical film that shows how powerful women are
becoming in society. No longer does she need the support of a man to stand on her own. She
has sex when she wants to and does not feel guilty about it. She can leave the man if she
thinks it appropriate. She is no longer is a handmaid of man. The story is about two
youngsters Anushka and Ranbir who are looking for a job and land up in event management
business which they raise to great heights together. But, after some time they fall apart and
the main decision maker in this film is Anushka. It is a very feministic movie. The movie is
a clear indicator that sex is no longer considered to be a sin which binds a man and a woman
forever despite crack in harmony.

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Image7 : (Singh Ranveer)

Welcome (Akshay Kumar): The movie is a hilarious comedy but, Katrinas role of rescuing
Akshay Kumar from fire shows the change in trend.

Image 8 (Akshay Kumar)

Dum Laga Ke Hainsa(Ayushmann Khurrana): The movie is about a girl who is fatand plain
looking. Anshuman Khurana is the lead actor and he has played the role of her husband. He
was reluctant to marry but, because of family pressure he had to marry her. He finds it very

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embarrassing to go along with her anywhere. Girl is better educated and is very dominating.
She even puts her opinion in front of her in laws. She even files for her divorce when she
feels that relationship is not a happy one . She is not afraid of societys opinion. She makes
her husband sleep on the floor instead of the usual docile heroines preferring to give more
privileges to husband. She is not ashamed of her over weight and she dances freely in the
marriage ceremony of a friend.

Image 9 :(Ayushmann Khurrana)

These movies show a contrast with earlier movies like Kabhie Kabhie and Sholay where
womans role was highly passive and she was not complete without a man. In fact, her
existence was questionable without a man. There is a change in society women are emerging
more powerful than man and this is being reflected through the films like PK , Dum Laga Ke
Hainsa , Welcome Band Baja Barat and daily soaps like Diya aur Bati Hum, Ek Hasina Thi .

Conclusion:

The present days Indian movies and soaps provide a mirror to Indian society. There is a
decline in gender inequality in India and this is projected in the movies and soaps. In fact,
females are painted with powerful and bolder strokes.

Bibliography:
Cinevistaas Limited. " "Ek Hasina Thi." Star Plus, 2014.
& TV . "Bhabhiji Ghar Pe Hain ." 2015.
Bali, Shashank , & TV . Delhi- Mumbai, 2015.

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Band Baaja Baaraat. Dir. Maneesh Sharma. Perf. Sharma,Anushka SinghRanveer. 2010.
Band Baja Barat . Dir. Maneesh Sharma. Perf. Sharma, Anushka Singh Ranveer. 2010.
Bhansali, Sanjay Leela Star Plus. "Saraswatichandra ." Gujarat India , 2013-2014.
Colors . 2014.
Dum Laga Ke Haisha . Dir. SHarat Katariya. Perf. Sanjay Mishra, Bhumi Pednekar, Vidushi Mehra
Ayushmann Khurrana. 2015.
Ghadiali, Jay B. "Diya Aur Bati HUM ." Rajasthan India, 2014.
India Forum. Diya Aur Bati Hum. 2014. <http://www.india-forums.com/tv-show/767/diya-aur-baati-
hum/about/>.
Pandey, Akash . "Iss Pyar Ko Naam Doon ?" India: Star Plus, 2011.
Patnaik, Mamta, Shekhar, Purnendu . "Veera." India: Star Plus, 2013.
Rajshri . "Pyar ka Dard Hain Meetha Meetha Pyara Pyara." 2014.
Sharma, Kanika. "Emulating or Ridiculing: Foray Into." New Man International Journal Of
Multidisciplinary Studies ,VOL. 2 Issue 6 JUNE (2015): 166.
Sharma, Rashmi, Telefilms. "Sath Nibhana Sathiya." India, 2010.
Shekhar,Purnendu . "Balika Vadhu Kachchi Umar Ke Pakke Rishte." India: Colors TV Channel,
2008.
Star Plus. "Diya Aur Bati Hum." 2014.
. "Yeh Hain Mohabatten ." 2014.
Suman, Shashi. "Tumhari Pakhi." Rajasthan, 2013.
Tulshayan, Ruchika. "How Bollywood Is Failing The Women Of India." FORBES, 19 April 2014.
Welcome . Dir. Anees Bazmee. Perf. Anil Kapoor, Nana Patekar, Katrina Kaif, Paresh Rawal, Malika
Sherawat Akshay Kumar. 2007.

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Facets of Language Teaching in Indian Context


Dr. Ranjit Kumar Pati
Reader in English
S.K.C.G.(Autonomous) College, Paralakhemundi, Odisha
Affiliation : Berhampur University
Cell No. +91 88957 21343, +91 9861474333
E-Mail: rkpati59@gmail.com

Abstract:

English was introduced in India to familiarize the native elite with Englishness. But the
teaching and learning English has become the focal point of all quality improvement
programmes now. Teaching and learning of English failed to achieve its goal because of so
many factors. Unconscious fear of mistakes of students of vernacular schools; the
unfamiliarity with the culture transmitted by English and the difficulty in different uses of
English language in context are some of the major factors standing between the programme
and its success. At present, the new curricular design based on the past experience aims at
bringing English into the class rooms through reinforcing situation analysis, need analysis,
goal setting, syllabus design and evaluation. The methodology is a search for rational
Principles instead of a set of readymade rules. The new technology such as programmed
learning and instruction, uses of software and computer assisted programme in the age of
science can make the teaching effective.
Key Words: Vernacular, Curriculum, Methodology, Programmed learning

Introduction :

English literature was introduced in Indian colleges in 1890 to familiarize the native elite
with Englishness. But the desire to learn the language is no longer confined to Indian elite
only. The teaching and learning English has become the focal point of all quality
improvement programmes, not only for higher education but also for social, economic and
political arena.

Teaching and learning English failed to achieve its goal successfully because of the following
major factors.
1) Students from vernacular schools often encounter a peculiar problem in learning.
Unconscious fears of mistakes reasons behind the failure of a large portion of the
students from vernacular medium schools to learn English. Since the English they
have learnt from their childhood appears rather bucolic to them, they are much more
inhibited in teaching strange words.
2) The unfamiliarity with the culture transmitted by the English language results in
confusion in the Indian learners, because the semantic structure and the social
structure are intimately connected.
3) Another difficulty is the different uses of language. In its lyrical use, one language
cannot be translated into another without loss. This is because a word in one
language is rarely the equivalent of its translation into another (Forrester 54).
Further it is different from the scientific use in which language has one single fixed
sense resulting in confusion when one use of the language is taken for another.

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4) In the school and college curriculum, English is just another subject. It is taught like
History and Geography. The elementary facts of language learning are ignored. What
is required is the responsive teaching.
5) Most of our learners come from rural and vernacular background. Their level of
English or competence in English language varies from poor to average. For
improving their language skills, their ability is to be recognized first and then suitable
material could be produced and pedagogic methods could be followed.

The traditional method of teaching English could not bring the success for the Indian
learners. It concentrated on vocabulary structure and helped to learn in that why which is not
adequate. The use of mother tongue is no solution. Teaching through translation refrains the
learners from the scope to think and express in English naturally. That language is highly
complex is shown by the fact that upto now it has not proved possible to translate
mechanically from one language to another with satisfactory results. (Palmer 10)

Next comes the examination process. The traditional pattern of paper-setting and evaluation
is not condusive. The question pattern requires to be objective and the evaluation process
needs to be modified. The traditional evaluation process should be substituted with practical
valuation process. The ideal model question pattern can boost the students and give a scope to
secure very high marks even 100 out of 100 if they so deserve.

The teaching and learning English from elementary level to college level at present is in a
transitional phase. It is a progress from twilight to daylight. In spite of all hurdles, it is
reinforced with gradual success. English in India today is more of a requirement and
necessity than luxury or exclusivity.

Language acquisition is an informal act carried out by the individual himself/herself, but
learning is formal one guided by a teacher. Teaching and learning may be considered as
two mutually defining aspects of the same process, for the teacher is not just a given but also
a receiver and the learner is not just a passive recipient of made to measure packages of
knowledge but also an active participant.(Verma 10) The teacher as a role model has a
challenging task ahead. He has to use his innovative method, whether inside the class-room
or outside the class room. He has to monitor and see that practice, not explaining the rules
can deliver the goods for the learners, keeping in mind that proclivity forwards learning by
heart is a death to the learners of language.

Curriculum ought to be designed in such a way that it suits the purpose of the learners.
Curriculum development in language teaching has a new face now. It provides a systematic
introduction to the issues involved in developing, managing and evaluating effective English
language teaching programme. This includes situation analysis, need analysis, goal setting,
syllabus design, evaluation along with teaching and teacher support. Curriculum serves an
important source to transmit values and knowledge.

The methodology has been modified. It is a search for rational principles instead of a set of
readymade rules. The traditional teaching of literary text with lecture notes is not adequate in
the class-room now. It aims at developing the skills and stimulating the habit of reading and
writing as well. Travel accounts, humorous stories and such other literary pieces can be cited
for their motivational element. It is to be noted that the school methodology cannot be
transformed to college environment.

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While bringing English to class-room, the subject matter of text-books keeps the students in
wild guess, as the books lack the kind of English that students are expected to grasp. The
foreign language conveys a foreign subject which is far away from the reach of the
imagination of Indian learners. Hence Indo-Anglian authors are preferred in the syllabi in
Indian universities and schools which is a welcome step. Shakespeare has been confined to a
higher group of readers.

The modern approach takes into account the need analysis as well as goal setting seriously.
As the goal is learning, specific learning objectives along with procedures training and
experience are taken into account. For this the teachers can introduces co-operative learning
work in the class-room. The views of Richards and Rodgers in their study on current
communicative approaches has a great relevance in the present context :

Communicative Language Teaching is best considered as approach rather than a method. It


refers to diverse set of principles that reflect a communicative view of language and language
learning and that can be used to support a wide variety of class-room procedures. These
principles include :

Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.


Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of class-room activities.
Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
Communication involves the integration of different language skills.
Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error. (Richards &
Rodgers 172)

Good teaching is more than communication. Mere presentation of a message or lesson by the
teacher may be a communication, but cannot be effective unless it leads to true learning. True
learning has not taken place unless the teaching as an act of communication has succeeded in
making a permanent and meaningful addition to the students communication skills.

Error analysis should be substituted with contrastive analysis for its effectiveness. Contrastive
analysis can predict potential errors whereas Error analysis results in lists of errors actually
made. Students do not feel diffidence in learning and using the language through Contrastive
analysis.

Programmed learning and instruction is the most appropriate example of the latest concept of
instructional technology, which is educational innovation and auto-instructional device. It
helps the learner to teach himself at any place and pace according to his convenience. The
analytical thinking and self-direction of learners are also promoted through the use of
programmed learning material.

The traditional system of teaching in class has changed in the age of information and
technology. The computer is used as a part of instructional system. The Software approach is
based on the use of principles of psychology for behaviour modification purpose. It implies
use of methods, techniques and media in teaching-learning process. The academic materials
and methods like Radio and Television programmes, teaching models like programmed
instruction and instructional analysis are used for assessing and evaluating learning outcomes.
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) and Computer
Managed Learning (CML) bring success to the teaching programme. CAI provides
information on a topic and raises questions and accepts answers. CAL covers a range of

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computer based packages and provides interactive instruction. CAL is investigation and a
process of searching more knowledge.

In the present scenario, it has become a prerequisite that the learner should have a learner-
centered view of the entire teaching-learning process and moreover he needs to have new
age feel at every step of learning and all these requirements can be fulfilled only through
integration of technology in teaching-learning. An absolute water tight curriculum and
structure without modern technological support cannot produce a qualitative output.
Technology based education, advocates online education that creates a virtual class-room
worldwide. Students become re-energised and much more excited about learning. Teachers
can embrace technology if they are given the kind of professional development and support
they need. Technology makes instruction more students centred, encourages co-operative
learning and stimulates increased teacher-student interaction. Hence to make the teacher
techno friendly, aspects such as e-lecture, e-learning, e-quality are to be taken into account
for quality improvement in the language teaching-learning process.

Bibliography :
Forrester, Jean F .Teaching Without Lecturing, OUP, Delhi, 1972
Palmer, Frank . Grammar, Pelican Books- ELBS edition, 1978
Richards, Jack & Rodgers, Theodore S, Approaches and methods in language Teaching, Cambridge University
Press, 2002
Verma, S.K . Introduction to English Language Teaching, Linguistics, Vol.I, Oxford University Press, New
Delhi, 1974

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Theme of Alienation as Delineated by Amitav Ghosh


(With reference to The Circle of Reason & The shadow Lines)
Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh,
Associate Professor (Sr. Grade) & Head, Department of Humanities,
OP Jindal Institute of Technology, Raigarh (CG)49600, INDIA
e-mail:drsksingh27@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Diaspora, etymologically derived from the Greek term "diasperien" where "dia" means
"across" and "sperien" means "to sow or scatter seeds", diaspora can perhaps be seen as a
naming of the other which has historically refereed to displaced communities of people who
have been dislocated from there native homeland through the movements of migration,
immigration or exile. Amitav Ghosh is a finest contemporary Indian English
Writer whose fictional and non-fictional works have been critically acclaimed in the
academic world. He deals with experience of alienation, among other issues like migration,
belonging, subaltern, dislocation both in the contemporary and bygone era. He is one of the
diasporic Indian writers who have already established their credentials by winning numerous
literary awards and honours. His first novel, The Circle of Reason, set in India and Africa
and winner of the 1990 Prix Mdicis tranger, was published in 1986. Further novels
are The Shadow Lines (1988); The Calcutta Chromosome (1996), about the search for a
genetic strain which guarantees immortality and winner of the 1997 Arthur C Clarke Award
for Best Science Fiction. His fictional narratives tend to be transnational in sweep, moving
restlessly across countries, continents and oceans. The proposed paper is an attempt to
examinediasporic characters and theme of alienation in The Circle of Reason and The
Shadow Lines.

Key words: Diaspora, Alienation, Indian Writers.

Introduction:

For me, the value of the novel, as a form, is that it is able to incorporate elements of every
aspects of life- history, natural history, rhetoric, politics, beliefs, religion, love, sexuality. As I
see it, the novel is a meta form that transcends the boundaries that circumscribe other kinds of
writing, rendering meaningless the usual workday distinctions between historians, journalist,
anthropologist etc.
Amitav Ghosh
In the last three decades from Salman Rushdie to Chetan Bhagat, a great body of
fiction, written by writers of Indian diaspora, has emerged on the world literary scene.
A large number of these writers have given expression to their creative urge and have
brought credit to the Indian English fiction as a distinctive force. Along with Salman
Rushdie and V.S. Naipaul, Amitav Ghosh stands out as the most influential leader of the
fictional world, holding the center stage in the contemporary literary scenario. A writer
as an activist -Amitav Ghosh- is the finest among those who were born out of the
Midnights Children revolution in Indian English fiction. This paper will highlight the
use of contemporary social political- milieu and history at innovative, creative tools to
enrich literariness of literature in The Circle of Reason and The Shadow Lines.

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Amitav Ghosh one of the Indias top fiction talents, who thinks- There is something only a
thin line between the languages of description and prescription- and says - I believe that
literature is one of many paths to self awareness- was born in Calcutta in 1956 but grew-up
in East Pakistan (now in Bangladesh), Sri Lanka, Iran and India. As a youngster, he was
greatly influenced by the stories of partition, Independence and the Second World War.
These stories and anecdotes of such epochal events related by his parents, family members
and neighbors made an indelible impression on his mind. He took his early education in Doon
school and graduated from St. Stephens College, Delhi. He completed his MA in Sociology
at Delhi University in 1978 and D.Phil in Social Anthropology at Oxford University in 1982.

Amitav Ghosh is an exceptional novelist of human situations, A master of human situations, a


master of depicting sensitive psychic processes and one aspect of his literary genius is his
peculiar treatment of history. An anthropologist, historian, traveler and research scholar
Amitav Ghosh has written eight novels - The Circle of Reason, The Shadow Lines, In an
Antique Land, The Calcutta Chromosome, The Glass Palace, The Hungry Tide, Sea of
Poppies and latest The River of Smoke ; travelogues and many essays who reveal his deep
interest in history and culture and deep understanding of life in all its richness and variety.

As a novelist Amitav Ghosh has been immensely influenced by the political and social milieu
of the world. His novels represent no surface of escapism, but a deep, unconscious movement
towards national homogeneity. In his novels, travelogues and articles, his engagement with
history, anthropology and culture is not the same kind as that of a true historian. He evokes
post- colonial situations, cultural dislocations and anxieties of his own period.

Amitav Ghosh published his first novel The Circle of Reason in 1986 when he was teaching
at the Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi and this novel marked a break from
the traditional themes of Indian English novels. This novel is a unique combination of myth
and history. Divided into three sections, Sattva: Reason, Rajas: Passion and Tamas: Death,
the book is picaresque in nature and as the name suggests it is a book written in defense of
reason, logic and rationality. The real strength of novel lies in its power to bring before us the
problems of our troubled times without making it a case history. The protagonist, Alu, the
Nachiketa, goes through life, makes mistakes, stumbles, learns and is finally on his way to
salvation. Initially located in a refugee village the story refers back to Bangladesh, and
Calcutta, finally moving to the Middle East Via Kerala. Science Philosophy, history, politics,
culture, art, language, The joy of living, the despair of repeated loss- these are only some of
strands which make the scope of these novel fairly formidable. Character Balram is a
rationalist and advocates the professional education and the kind of education that should be
imparted to the children is education for life.

It would be wrong; it would be immoral, children go to school for their first glimpse into
the life of the mind. Not for jobs. If I thought that my teaching is nothing but a means of
finding jobs; I would stop teaching tomorrow.(TCR-52)

Dealing with the history of weaving and cotton Amitav Ghosh shows the appetite of
Europeans for colonialism and the blood shed and destruction takes place in the history.

When the history of the world broke, cotton and cloth were behind it. The machine had
driven men made millions of Africans and half of America were enslaved by
cotton.(TCR- 57)

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It is a gory history in parts: a story of greed and destruction every scrap of cloth is stained by
a bloody past. But it is the only history we have and a history is hoe as well as despair. (TCR-
57)

Dealing with the art of weaving Ghosh describes the influence of weaving on science. He
wrote and then weaving changed mechanical man again with the computer. In the mid-
nineteen century when Charles Babbage built his first calculating achine, using the
principlkes of storing information on punched cards, he took his idea not from systems of
writing or from mathematics, but from the draw- loom. (TCR- 57)

Describing refugee problems and the reasons of being exile Ghosh wrote:

The war ended a few days after crash, and not long after some of the refugees flowed back
to the new country across the border, and others wondered off to the cities or spread out over
the countries. (TCR-87)

Advocating socialism Amitav Ghosh comes to the conclusion that money is at the root of all
evils and socialism should rise from the death of capitalism to cleans the world of all its dirt.
In simple ironical way the author comments on the unhygienic condition of India, in a land
whose people have always talked of purity of soul as well as surroundings.

Ghosh focuses not only on simultaneous re colonization or neo- colonization of the globe by
multinational economic forces but also on dangerous ways of modern politicians who lack
sincerity of purpose and charisma is to hive workers and through them acquire requisite
number of audience as to display their strength and might.

With the help of Rakhan, Ghosh discussed about the condition of an unemployed person by
showing how unemployed,.Underemployed youth in a desperate bid resort to destructive
activities, unaware of the likely dreadful consequences of their dangerous actions. In this way
he proves the age-old maxim- an idle is a devils workshop.

Amitav Ghoshs second novel, Sahitya Akademi award winner, The Shadow Lines, published
in 1988, is a complex novel interweaving memory and contemporary life. It is a masterpiece
which evokes postcolonial situations, cultural dislocations and anxieties in the period
between 1962 and 1979. In words of Amitav Ghosh :

The Shadow Lines is a book that led me backward in time , to earlier memories of riots,
ones witness in childhood. It became a book not about any one event but about the meaning
of such events and their effects on the individuals who live through them.

Divided into two parts Going Away and Coming Home, it is a story of three generations
spread over Dhaka, Calcutta and London. Mainly the novel is against the back drop of the
civil strife in post-partition East Bengal and riot hit Calcutta .The personal drama in each case
is played out against a canvas of sweeping historical events- the freedom movements and the
rise of insurgency in Bengal, Englands war against Hitlars Germany , the Chinese
aggression and the Indo-Pak war , the desecration of the Hazaratbal shrine in Srinagar in
1963, and the communal riots in Khulna and Calcutta in 1964.

The Shadow Lines focuses on the changing middle class ethos in India during the pre and
post Independence era and the lives of the characters in this novel are determined largely by
their idea of Freedom

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But I would have prayed for strength, and God willing, yes, I would have killed him. It was
for our Freedom: I would have done anything to be free. (TSL-90)

The title of the novel, The Shadow Lines, is a symbolic of barriers and partitions. The novel
establishes its socio- historical situations through its careful observation of concrete socio-
reality and as such can be regarded both as a social document and a political novel.

The meaning of the political violence is one of the major themes of this novel. This
acknowledges the restlessness and the political turmoil of the times. The force of nationalism
in the quest for freedom or an ideology is often a source of violence. So the shadow line
between people and nations is after mere illusions. The complexities of majority and minority
communalism are very sensitively handled in this novel. Despair is the dominant note struck
by Amitav Ghosh in The Shadow Lines.

In this novel Amitav Ghosh brings out the futility of drawing lines across a nation to form
two nations. The over all focus is on the meaning and shades of political nuances in
contemporary life. Novy Kapadia points out that the quest for political freedom , the violence
in modern life , the role of rumour in riots are aptly delineated in he novel. The narrators
story unfurls itself through fragmentary streams of consciousness where the private turmoil of
the individual is reflected in the public chaos and crises. The need to articulate silence throws
the notions of secularism, nationalism and meaning continues without finality.

To Amitav Ghosh, novel writing is a passion. Novels have always been great pleasure in life.
But he is not a purely fictional writer. His works are based on extensive research and first
hand experience. Although he lives in Brooklyn yet by heart and sense his works are deeply
rooted in history, culture and society. As contemporary diasporic writer he looks into the
matter thoroughly and depicts everything as truth.

Every writer is an individual and every writer has a right to define his or her own role.He
clearly defines his role as a Historical fiction writer. To fix Amitav Ghosh in one peculiar
country or culture would be misleading .He works a lot and produce a new work and acts as
witness.

Works Cited:
Dhawan , R.K. The Novels Of Amitav Ghosh, New Delhi: Prestige Publication, 1995
Dhawan, R.K. Indian Literature Today (Vol.I$II), New Delhi: Prestige Publications,
Ghosh, Amitav.The Circle Of Reason, New Delhi:Roli Books International,1986
Ghosh, Amitav. The Shadow Lines, New Delhi:Ravi Dayal Publications,1988
Bhatt, Indira & Nityanamdam, Indira. Interpretations: Amitav Ghoshs The Shadow Lines, New Delhi:
Creative Books, 2000
Kapadia, Novy (Ed.). Amitav Ghoshs The Shadow Lines: Critical Perspectives, New Delhi: Asia book
Club, 2001
Tiwari, Shubha.Amitav Ghosh: A Critical Study, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2003

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Globalization and Displacement of Tribal Communities


in Telangana
Dr.B.Sukumari
Senior Lecturer in English
A.S.M. College for Women,Warangal.

Abstract:
In a global context, Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG policy) are no
longer an option but a fact. The gains of globalization have so far accrued to those who
already have education and skill advantage. For the Tribals, globalization is associated with
rising prices, loss of job security and lack of health care. It intends to integrate the Indian
economy with the world economy. Globalization means different things to different people.
As Robert J. Samuelson puts it Globalization is a double-edged sword.The impact of
globalization is strongest on these populations. They occupy the last pristine places on earth,
where resources are still abundant: forests, minerals, water, and genetic diversity. All are
ferociously sought by global corporations, trying to push traditional societies off their lands.
Keywords:Impact, Global context, Tribal upliftment

Introduction:
To look into how globalization has laid its impact on the tribal people.
The word 'tribe' is generally used for a "socially cohesive unit, associated with a territory, the
members of which regard them as politically autonomous" .Often a tribe possesses a distinct
dialect and distinct cultural traits. The term 'primitive tribes' was often used by western
anthropologist to denote "a primary aggregate of peoples living in a primitive or barbarous
condition under a headman or chief" .Various anthropologists define tribe as a people at
earlier stage of evolution of society.

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Objective:

This paper is an attempt to present comprehensive picture of the impacts, that have not been
paid adequate attention so far, that the process of globalization has had on the rural tribal
communities in different parts of India. To focus and bring into light the livelihood of the
tribal people as a result of globalization. The impact of it on the socio Economic conditions
of tribals. Measures to be taken to improvise their conditions.

Globalization:

Globalization which is appearing to be an inevitable for most of the developing countries has
brought in some opportunities as well as some issues which we have to address in recent
future. We have to admit that globalization affects tribal communities differently and more
severely. The paper focuses specifically on the effects of globalization on the Indian tribal
community in sectors like, cultural, Social, economic, educational, employment and
livelihood. The voice of tribal communities regarding the issues they are/have faced needs to
be heard and a national and state plans need to be prepared to intervene in the worsening
situation of tribal communities. The most outstanding issues is of displacement due to the
process of globalization and subsequent developmental activities and the projects. As a nation
we need to be extra careful while facing the globalization process and its even more
important because we have a huge population of 122 crore of which tribal/s are most
vulnerable, whom we have to support and also we have to become a fastest growing
economy. This is toughest ever challenge for all of us.

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The tribals are part of the Indian society, at the same time they are different. Special
policy and programmes are required to address and redress these differences especially in the
context of globalization. When we plan for tribal development, we have to regard these
differences, take a special note of their situations and capabilities and provide them facilities
to develop on the line they want to take. Outsiders cannot develop tribals; they can become
only facilitators if they want to do so. If they have to unfold from within, they must have
participation in any development decision. The total tribal population inIndia is 104,281,034.
In this rural population is 93,819,162while the urban population is 10,461,872. The tribal
populationis increasing along with the Indian population butthe tribal population from 1951
to 2011increased by 85.1 millions. at as a rate lower than that of general population.The tribal
way of life is verymuch dictated by the forest right from birth to death. It isironical that the
poorest people of India are living in theareas of the richest natural resources. Past history
showsthat, tribals have been pushed to corners owing to economicinterests of various
dominant groups. The term tribe denotes a group of people living in primitiveor barbarous
conditions.The essential characteristics, first laid down by theLokur Committee, for a
community to be identified as Scheduled Tribes are
a) indications of primitive traits;
b) distinctive culture;
c) shyness of contact with the community at large;
d) geographical isolation; and
e) backwardness

To focus light on the above topic three villages namely: Thegarajupally, Somula,
Dasura of Warangal district were taken for study. Factors such as marriage, education
,agriculture were concentrated upon. On a survey it was found them despite the influence of
globalization still child marriages ,dowry system still continue till today. Education is
approximately being uplifted . Liquor problem is to be controlled to a large extent. House
facility is to be looked into. Agriculture needs to be shifted from chemical usage to Kendriya
method of growing the needed crops so that the life span may be improved.

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Enjoying the Impact of Globalization in their own culture.

Conclusion:
The word 'tribe' is generally used for a "socially cohesive unit, associated with a territory, the
members of which regard them as politically autonomous" .This paper is an attempt to
present comprehensive picture of the impacts, that have not been paid adequate attention so
far, that the process of globalization has had on the rural tribal communities in different parts
of India.The impact of it on the socio Economic conditions of tribals. Measures to be taken to
improvise their conditions.To focus light on the above topic three villages namely:
Thegarajupally, Somula, Dasura of Warangal district were taken for study.Their felt needs
should be transformed in development programmes. The tribals can participate in their
development programmes only if they are considered to be equals and if unique identities are
respected. Despite globalization impact still the Tribles need to be given an uplifting hand to
reach the core of the world.
References :
Pathy, Janganath, "Impact of Development Projects on Tribals" in "Tribal Situation in India",. Vidyut Joshi (ed.)
Rajat Acharya and Sugata Marji, "Globalisation and Inequality":,EPW, 23 September 2000, p. 3503
Joshi Vidyut (ed.): "Tribal Situation in India", Rawat Publication, 1998, pp.15

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Akbar and Tolerant India : A Review


Sanjay Prasad
Assistant Professor in History
Saltora Netaji Centenary College, Saltora - 722158
District- Bankura (West Bengal)
Mobile- 09932644004
Email Id 214sanjay@gmail.com

Abstract

In the domain of art and architecture, the so called Islamic style with its rectangular
buildings , domes, arches, lofty minarets, accurate ceilings had to confront the trabeate
Hindu style with its flat roofs, conical domes, arch based on cantilever principle, corbel
brackets, small ornamental columns and pilasters and jutting shades all round. The two
styles influenced each other without mingling for more than three hundred and fifty years. In
the second half of the sixteenth century, the Mughal emperor, Akbar made a deliberate
attempt to fuse the two styles by incorporating many Hindu architectural motifs and
peculiarities ,such as, flat roofs, corbel brackets, ornamental columns, jutting shades, beams
and struts, and many other ornamental designs in his buildings . Thus emerged the Indo-
Muslim or Mughal style of architecture which was unhesitatingly adopted by the two
communities in their secular buildings. Thus, it can be said that not only geographically and
culturally but also politically , administratively, economically and to some extent socially too,
almost the whole of Northern India and a good part of the Deccan had reached the status of a
nation during the last quarter of the sixteenth century.
Key-words- Polity, statecraft, architecture, administration, sovereignty

Introduction

Akbar (1556-1605) is generally recognized as the greatest and most capable of the Mughal
rulers. Under him , the Mughal polity and statecraft reached maturity; and under his
guidance, the Mughals changed from a petty power to a major dynastic state. Catherine B.
Asher states, From the time of Akbar to the end of the Mughal period, artistic production on
both an imperial and sub-imperial level was closely linked to notions of state polity ,religion
and kingship (Asher1985,p.39) .A .L. Srivastava states:

The so-called Islamic architecture is a composite structure consisting


of the secular as well as religious styles of Arabia, Persia and various
Central Asian, Egyptian, African and South-Western countries of
Europe which evolved under the Arab and Turkish domination during
the 7th and the three succeeding centuries A.D. to form broadly into a
single style of architecture.(Srivastava 1972, p.270).

The peculiar features of this accurate style were: (a) the dome,(b) the lofty towers or
minarets, (c) the semi-circular radiating arch, and (d) the vault. Some of the fundamental
forms of this style , such as, the pointed and trefoil arches, the transverse vault, the dome and
the octagonal form of the building , had their birth in India, at least as ideas, but were
developed in Persia. There was thus some Indian share in the composite style of Central Asia,
which is miscalled Saracenic or Islamic art. The Arab and the Turkish invaders, who brought
the above style to India, found here a highly developed indigenous system of architecture
based on the principle of beam and bracket. The new-comers tried to have in this country the

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exact prototype of the buildings, particularly mosques and tombs of Central Asia, but they did
not completely succeed, because their buildings, including even their mosques were greatly
influenced by Hindu art traditions and other factors. Consequently, the new style that
emerged resulted in being an amalgamation of the foreign and the indigenous architectural
styles. Never in Indias long history have Hindu and Muslim arts and architecture mingled
together on equal terms to the same extent as in Akbars time. His inherited Turko-Irani
culture was constantly refreshed by talented immigrants but his patronage extended equally to
Indian music and poetry, Indian painting , Hindu philosophy , Hindu literature and Indian
forms of architecture.S. M .Burke opines ,

Though the British also practiced religious toleration and


administrative even-handedness between the different peoples of the
sub-continent , culturally theirs was a period of confusion because the
best brains of India were lured by the English language and western
modes, which were then at a premium.(Burke1989,p.175).

S.M .Burke again states, It was in Akbars more stable, more affluent and more prolonged
rule that Mogul architecture really arrived. Akbar did not share his grandfathers distaste for
the Indian scene and his buildings are a composite of Indian and foreign features. (Burke
1989,p.191)

It would require a volume to describe all the buildings erected by this remarkable
man during his long reign of forty nine years, and a hundred plates would hardly suffice to
make known all their peculiarities. Had Akbar been content to following the lines of the style
invented by the Pathans and perfected under Sher Shah , it might be easy enough to follow
the sequence , but nothing in his character is so remarkable as the spirit of tolerance that
pervaded all his acts. James Fergusson states, Akbar seems to have had as sincere a love and
admiration for his Hindu subjects as he had for those of his own creed, and whether from
policy or inclination , to have cherished their arts as much as he did those that belonged
exclusively to his own people.(Fergusson 1876,p.288). In this context, Vincent A. Smith
states,

Architecture, the queen of arts, was practiced with eminent success


under the sway of Akbar , whose tolerant policy permitted the votaries
of all creeds to worship God each in his own fashion and to build fanes
of any pattern in honor of the divine ruler of the universe. (Smith
1966,p.313)

The buildings constructed by Akbar at Fatehpur fall into two categories: secular and
religious. Among the secular class are the palaces bearing the names of Jodha Bai, Maryum,
Sultana and Bir Bal. Another secular building that invites notice is the Diwan-i-Khas (hall of
private audience). Akbars choice of a style that appealed to all subjects regardless of
sectarian affiliation is better understood if we consider certain imperial policies promulgated
with Fatehpur Sikri and the Agra and Ajmer forts were built. Abu al-Fazl mentions in his
Ain-i-Akbari (Institutes of the Emperor),Akbar, adhering to well-established Perso-Islamic
concepts of sovereignty, believed that the ultimate justification for the Mughal empire was
the propagation of the justice.(qtd in Asher 1985, p-51). Under Akbar, Abu al -Fazl reports,
the canopy of justice was extended officially to all subjects regardless of religious affiliation
. This is his policy of sulh-i-kul , or universal toleration . Abu al-Fazl also indicates a pan-
Indian secular basis for Akbars buildings in the Agra fort. He remarks that the Agra fort was
built in the fine styles of Bengal and Gujarat, commonly taken to indicate that Akbar

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based his palaces on Hindu buildings from Bengal and Gujarat. Perhaps, the most
characteristic of Akbars building is the tomb, he commenced to erect for himself at
Sikandara, which is quite unlike any other tomb built in India either before or since, and of a
design borrowed from a Hindu, or more correctly ,Buddhist model. Ananda K.
Coomaraswamy states,

Passing over a millennium and a half without endeavoring to trace the


royal craftsmans footsteps one by one, we come to the time of great
Mughal emperors in the North. From the Ain- i- Akbari or Institutes of
the Emperor, Akbar, one of the three great rulers in whose mind the
conception of a united India had taken shape, and one of the greatest
rulers that the world has seen , we are told of the skilled Indian and
foreign craftsmen maintained in the palaces of the Mughals. Weekly
Akbar inspected the work of every artist, and gave due reward for
special excellence. No wonder that the crafts flourished under such
conditions; and it is very certain that the Musalman Puritanism did not
as a matter of fact, injure Indian art in the way that the contact with
Western civilization has injured it. (Coomaraswamy 1909, p.22)

The Ain-i-Akbari states that Akbar took a great delight in painting, and had in his service a
large number of artists.George Birdwood states, In the armory also , the emperor personally
supervised the preparation of the various weapons which were forged and decorated there in
every stage of their manufacture(Birdwood 1884,p.141). This wonderful artistic sympathy
and understanding of Akbar led to the growth of India as a nation.

Akbar showed his marvelous political genius more conspicuously in his


understanding of art than in the organization of the machinery by which he collected his
revenues, or in his measures for securing justice and social order. Wherever the monuments
of Akbars reign exist, Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Muslim alike testify to the gladness and
contentment which his benevolent despotism brought to the people. E.B. Havell states,

No Anglo-Indian statesman has fully understood the administrative


uses of art as did Akbar. It may be that art is merely a matter of
sentiment; but sentiment has brought Japan where she is today, and if
the centuries can be trusted, sentiment rules the world. The bigotry of
Aurangzeb destroyed the art of the Mughals and broke up the empire
which the sword of Babar and the statesmanship of Akbar founded.
Actually, Akbar fully recognized the political uses of art. One cannot
expect to gauge the profound depths of peoples sentiments if you do
not understand their art. This wonderful artistic sympathy and
understanding were inherited by his son and grandson- Jahangir and
Shah Jahan- with Aurangzeb, who had neither artistic sympathy nor
understanding , began the decline of the Mughal empire .( Havell
1907,p.155)

Mountstuart Elphinstone states, It is to his internal policy that Akbar owes his place in that
highest order of princes, whose reigns have been a blessing to mankind (Elphinstone1 843,
p.532).

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Conclusion

The above mentioned studies make it amply clear that Akbar combined within himself a
remarkable variety of attributes. He was a fearless sportsman and warrior and a great
conqueror; he was an industrious and conscientious king; he sought and valued talented
persons; he was a keen seeker after knowledge ; and he was a liberal patron of architecture
and the arts. Akbars success in establishing a lasting Indian empire contributed to the
conception of the sub-continent as one country and later, in the age of nationalism, as one
nation. The British fancied themselves as the successors of the Mughals and it were in the
glorious tradition of the Great Mughals that queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of
India. India was, thus, treated as a single administrative and political unit over a long period.
Had there been no Akbar , the subcontinent could very well have become divided into a large
number of states. The British , in that case, were likely to have treated the different regions as
separate units, just as they and other European conquerors did in Africa and Indo-China. This
might have caused nationalism in India to grow on the basis of the usual ties of geography,
language, history and common interests. There could have developed a Bengali, a Punjabi, a
Hindi-speaking, a Maratha , and a Dravidian nation and so on. That this was by no means a
remote possibility, is apparent from the fact that regional feelings in South Asia continue to
manifest themselves with palpable vigor .Really speaking the phenomenon of local
nationalism has been rendered obsolete by the development of supersonic travel and instant
communication systems. In the shrunken world of today , the need is for greater integration in
the form of larger economic and political units with One World as the ultimate achievement.
Akbars message to the present generation of South Asians as well as the entire world is that
genuine toleration and a little generosity on the part of the ruling elements in a mixed society
can win the loyalty of its weaker and deprived elements to an extraordinary degree.

Bibliography-
1. Ananda, K. Coomaraswamy. The Indian Crafts-Man .London: Probsthain & Co. ,1909.
2. Ashirbadilal, Srivastava. Akbar ,the Great, Society and Culture in 16th Century India,Vol.III. Agra: Shiva
Lal Agarwala& Company, 1972.
3. Catherine, B . Asher. The New Cambridge History of India- Architecture of MughalIndia. New Delhi:
Cambridge University Press, 1985.
4. E.,B. Havell. Essays on Indian Art, Industry & Education. Madras: G .A. Natesan & Co., 1907.
5. George, Birdwood. The Industrial Arts of India .Delhi: Idarah -i- Adabiyad- i- Delli,1884.
6. James, Fergusson .History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, Vol.2. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal
Oriental Publishers, 1876.
7. Mountstuart, Elphinstone. The History of India. London: Publisher-John Murray, 1843.
8. S.M., Burke. Akbar, The Greatest Mogul. New Delhi : Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1989.
9. Vincent, A. Smith. Akbar, The Great Mogul , 1542-1605,Delhi: S .Chand & Co., 1966.

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Changes in Economies of Occupational in Birnagar Municipality

Dr.Balai Chandra Das1 and Bilash Halder2*


Krishnagar Govt. College, Krishnagar, Nadia-741101,
Mobile N: 9734946535
e-mail: halder.bilash71@gmail.com

Abstract:

Birnagar is a Municipality town under Taherpur police station of Ranaghat sub-division in


Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India.("District Wise List of Statutory Towns".
Census of India 2001, Urban Frame.Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal
.Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-10-06). The geographical
location of this Municipality is 23.1424N, 88.3326E (website: nadia.nic.in). As per the
2001 Indian census Birnagar has a population of 26597, total worker 8809(33%) and non-
worker 17788(67%), as per the 2011 Indian census Birnagar has a population of 30799,
total worker 11091(36%) and non-worker 19708(64%). During last 10 years total increase in
population is about 16%, percentage of working population has been increased 3% and non-
working population has been decreased 3%. From Indian census 2001 to 2011, main and
marginal workers are 91% and 9% in 2001 and 94% and 6% in 2011. Besides this
municipality is lightly affected by child labour. Yet, changes in occupational structure of
Birnagar Municipality are very much effective.

Key Words: Occupational structure, diversity of studies.economic opportunities

Introduction

Occupational structure plays an important role in a diversity of studies, including those


related to the level of economic development and social inequalities. Since occupation
reflects the individuals position in a technical division of labor, it is taken to be a central
determinant of current and future economic opportunities in modern societies (Mills, 1956;
Rose and Pevallin, 2001). Occupational structure may also reflect the level of discrimination
and segregation among social groups, if we believe that the occupational attainment is not
just a result of individuals choice (Boskin, 1974; Brown et al., 1980; Filer, 1986; Gill,
1989; Schimdt and Strauss, 1975). Moreover, changes in the occupational structure are also
related to changes in the demand for different occupational services, as a result of
socioeconomic improvements and technological advances (Blau and Duncan, 1967). Since
technological development affects the division of labor, it impacts on almost every aspects of
the social structure (Williams, 1979).

This paper analyzes the role of occupational structure as a source of socioeconomic


inequalities in Birnagar Municipality, making a change in occupational structure on Birnagar
Municipality, Nadia, West Bengal, India.

1
Krishnagar Govt. College, Krishnagar, Nadia-741101
2
* Asstt. Teacher, Daulatpur Jr. High School, e-mail: halder.bilash71@gmail.com Mobile N: 9734946535

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The paper provides important elements to understand the complex level of development and
inequity in this Municipality through the light of occupational structure. Moreover, this
change allows us identifying eventual trends of centralization and decentralization of
socioeconomic development, as well as changes in the patters of social inequalities.

N

WESTBENGAL

Location of study Wards of Birnagar Municipality

Materials and Methodologies:

Materials for this study are primary and secondary on occupation and employment of the
population concerned. In order to accomplish the paper on the urbanization and changes in
occupational structure of Birnagar Municipality of District Nadia, some particular
methodologies have been followed:

At first a holistic idea about the study area Birnagar Municipality was gathered and visited
the municipality offices. Besides several professional institutions have also been visited.
After that a detailed objective oriented questionnaire were prepared and penned-down

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responses of all the queries by random sampling (10% household were chosen of 5 wards).
This perception survey is a paramount significance because this is one type of ground-truth
verification. And finally analyzed all the primary and secondary databases obtained from
household survey and several institutions and MS-excel was employed for graphical
representation of the findings.

Findings and Discussions:

Indian census 2001 and 2011 of this municipality shows that during last 10 years total
increase in population is (30799-26597)=4202 person(about 16%) and percentage of working
population has been increased 3% where as percentage of non-workers have been decreased
3% (Table no. 1). Because men-women both workers are engaged in different types of
occupation. This change in occupational structure of Birnagar Municipality indicates a
positive trend and its become a well developed urban area.

Table: 1

Workers
Census Year Total Population Non-workers
Male Female Total
2001 26597 7265(82%) 1544(18%) 8809(33%) 17788(67%)
2011 30799 9050(82%) 2041(18%) 11091(36%) 19708(64%)

In the wards of Birnagar Municipality most of the workers are main workers (Who get job
more than 180 days/year), 91% in 2001 and 94% in 2011(Table no. 2). Otherwise some
workers are also engaged as marginal workers (Who get job less than 180 days/year), 9% in
2001 and 6% in 2011(Table no. 2). Although during last 10 years overall main workers are
increased 3% (Table no. 2) but percentage of male main workers is decreased 3% (Table no.
2) and female main workers are increased 3% (Table no. 2). On the other hand male marginal
workers are lesser than female marginal workers (because female workers are unable to do or
find out their job more than 180 days/year), 22% in 2001 and 20% in 2011(Table no. 2) but
percentage of male marginal workers is increased 1% and female marginal workers is
decreased 1% (Table no. 2) during last 10 years. So, it is clear that the above mentioned
change in occupational structure will take this municipality in better place in future.
Table: 2

Census Total Main Workers Marginal Workers


year Worker Male Female Total Male Female Total
2001 8809(33%) 6955(87%) 1056(13%) 8011(91%) 310(39%) 488(61%) 798(9%)
2011 11091(36%) 8786(84%) 1639(16%) 10425(94%) 264(40%) 402(60%) 666(6%)

Actually main and marginal both workers are divided into four different types of occupation:
Cultivators, Agricultural labourers, Household industrial labourers and other labourers. These
different types of main and marginal workers have been changed within 2001 to 2011 census
(Table no. 3). In different types of main workers, male main workers are greater than female
main workers. On the other side in different types of marginal workers, male marginal
workers are greater (Except- Household Industrial Labourers in 2001 and Cultivators,
Household Industrial Labourers, Other labourers in 2011 census) than female marginal

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workers. In main workers, male main workers are greater in number because males are able
to do or find out their job more than 180 days/ year. Otherwise females are unable to do or
find out their job not more than 180 days/year, so maximum females are belong in marginal
sector. So, one matter is clear that male and female both workers are engaged in various types
of occupation as a main or marginal worker, this is an important effective step for this
municipality.

Table: 3

Census Different Main Workers Marginal Workers


Year occupations
Male Female Total Male Female Total
Cultivators 337(98%) 8(2%) 345(4%) 6(75%) 2(25%) 8(1%)
Agricultural 1060(98%) 21(2%) 1081(13%) 57(76%) 18(24%) 75(9%)
2001 Labourers
Household
Industrial 765(69%) 351(31%) 1116(14%) 48(14%) 294(86%) 342(43%)
Labourers
Other 4793(88%) 676(12%) 5469(68%) 199(53%) 174(47%) 373(47%)
labourers
Cultivators 364(99%) 2(1%) 366(4%) 10(36%) 18(64%) 28(4%)
Agricultural 1061(95%) 59(5%) 1120(11%) 59(88%) 8(12%) 67(10%)
Labourers
2011 Household 524(58%) 385(42%) 909(9%) 15(8%) 173(92%) 188(28%)
Industrial
Labourers
Other 6837(85%) 1193(15%) 8030(77%) 180(47%) 203(53%) 383(58%)
labourers

Primary data (2015) shows that main employed workers are always greater than marginal
employed workers, where the percentage of main and marginal employed workers is 77% and
23% respectively (Table no. 4). On the other hand females are much more unemployed than
males (male-39% and female-61%....Table no. 4) because females are physically not strong
as males and they unable to do or find out their job as males, besides their life is chained by
some different man made social rules. The people of Birnagar Municipality have also been
practised some important miscellaneous occupations (Like-fruit processing, fishing, car
repairing, shop worker, business of old clothes etc). So, these primary data collected by
random sampling prove that occupational structure of this municipality has been positively
changed.

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Table: 4
Employed people Unemployed Miscellaneous Worker
people
Ward
WORKER

Processing
Marginal

repairing
Worker

Worker

Fishing
Female

worker
No.
Main

Male

Shop
Fruit

Car
1 41(14%) 19(21%) 3(14%) 4(12%) 6(10%) 4(44%) 7(37%) 3(14%)
2 61(20%) 17(18%) 2(9%) 6(18%) 11(19%) 0 2(11%) 2(9%)
3 67(22%) 23(25%) 5(23%) 9(26%) 12(21%) 2(22%) 3(16%) 5(23%)
4 81(27%) 18(20%) 8(36%) 9(26%) 17(29%) 3(34%) 5(26%) 8(36%)
5 52(17%) 15(16%) 4(18%) 6(18%) 12(21%) 0 2(10%) 4(18%)
Total 302(77%) 92(23%) 22(39%) 34(61%) 58(54%) 9(8%) 19(18%) 22(20%)

On the basis of primary household survey by random sampling on some selected wards, one
matter is clear that this municipality has been suffered by child labour. Here, the maximum
and minimum number of child labours is found in the ward no. 4 and 5 respectively, where
the percentage is 27% in ward no. 4 and 11% in ward no. 5 (Table no. 5). This is a social
curse as well as a social shame at present time for each and every society.

Table: 5

WARD AGE WISE CHILD LABOUR


NO. 6-8 8-10 10-12 Above 12 Total
1 0 3 (20%) 5 (33%) 7 (47%) 15 (16%)
2 2 (9%) 4 (19%) 6 (29%) 9 (43%) 21 (23%)
3 0 5 (25%) 3 (15%) 12 (60%) 20 (22%)
4 0 8 (32%) 5 (20%) 12 (48%) 25 (27%)
5 0 2 (18%) 5 (46%) 4 (36%) 11 (12%)
.
Conclusion
From the above study it can be concluded that after the analysis of primary and secondary
databases regarding the occupational structure of Birnagar Municipality of District Nadia in
details some above mentioned problems have come out in the forefront of Birnagar
Municipality (like: male workers are too much than female workers, a huge differentiation
between main and marginal workers, child labour etc). Yet we can say that if these
occupational problems can be eradicated and if Local Government as well as Non-
Governmental organizations take positive initiatives to involve the unemployed persons in
proper jobs depending on their skills and potentialities and if some fruitful urban planning
and management measures are taken into considerations, then automatically the occupational
scenario of Birnagar Municipality will be changed and definitely will become better in near
future.

References
"District Wise List of Statutory Towns". Census of India 2001, Urban Frame. Directorate of Census
Operations, West Bengal. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-10-06.

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Website: nadia.nic.in
MILLS, W. White collar: the American middle classes. New York: Oxford Univ, 1956.
ROSE, D.; PEVALIN, D. J. The national statistics socio-economic classification: unifying official and
sociological approaches to the conceptualization and measurement of social class. Colchester: University of
Essex, ISER Working Papers. n. 4, 2001.
BOSKIN, M. A conditional logit model of occupational choice. The Journal of Political Economy, v. 82, n.
2, pp. 389-398, 1974
BROWN, R. S.; MOON, M.; ZOLOTH, B. S. Occupational attainment and segregation by sex. Industrial
and Labor Relations Review, v. 33, n. 4, 1980, pp. 506-517.
FILER, R. K. The Role of Personality and Tastes in Determining Occupational Structure. Industrial and
Labor Relations Review, v. 39, n. 3, 1986, pp. 412-24.
GILL, A. M. The role of discrimination in determining occupational structure. Industrial and Labor
Relations Review, v. 42, n. 4, 1989, pp. 610-623.
SCHIMIDT, P.; STRAUSS, R. The prediction of occupation using multiple logit models. International
Economic Review, v. 16, n. 2, pp. 471-486, 1975.
BLAU, P. M.; DUNCAN, O. D. The American occupational structure. The Free Press, 1967.
WILLIAMS, G. The Changing U.S. Labor Force and Occupational Differentiation by Sex. Demography, v.
16, n. 1 pp. 73-87, 1979.

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Cultural Conflict in the select story of Kiran Desais

*Prof. Sulok B. Raghuwanshi


Assistant Professor (English)
Orange City College of Social Work, Nagpur
Mob. : 07709492953, 09850394582
E-Mail: sulokraghuwanshi@rediffmail.com

Abstract:

Kiran Desais The Inheritance of Loss revolves around the inhabitants of a town in the
north-eastern Himalayas, its effects on the lives of these people brought about by a Nepalese
uprising- Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) and the vicissitudes of the cooks son
Biju struggling to realize the American Dream as an illegal immigrant in New York City.
Kiran Desai depicts the clash of her anglophilic culture with downstream culture. The
cultural clash is evident from the characters of the novels, immobilized in an ever-expanding
web of debilitating Western influences. Bijus working environment showcases the grave
clash of the Eastern and the Western culture. The train of varied characters, from a very
particular cultural milieus are caught in a strikingly contrast cultural clutch. Moreover, the
major characters haplessly lack the prominent quality of a human being viz. adaptation and
assimilation, evidently leading to disappointment and the pain of broken hopes.
Key Words:GNLF, Cultural Clash, Colonialism, Anglophilic.

Introduction:

Kiran Desai is a name that has gained popularity in the whole world. She is a product of
multiculturalism and post-colonism, an immigrant, well-bread, where rootlessness itself has
become a kind of shelter, a form of poetry. Fiction is a family business for Kiran Desai. Her
mother, the novelist Anita Desai, was shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize thrice. But it was
the daughter who finally claimed Britains most prestigious literary award in 2006 for her
second novel The Inheritance of Loss. She has also won National Book Critic Circle Award
and Orange Prize for Fiction in 2007. At the age of 35, she turned out to be the youngest
woman to make it. If it is her own inheritance and disinheritance that has come with
globalization, of which Kiran Desai sings so purely in the most celebrated novel The
Inheritance of Loss . This second novel of remarkable breadth and beauty won 35 year old
Kiran Desai, the Man Booker Prize for the year 2006.

Kiran Desais novel The Inheritance of Loss, like many important works of literature, can
be read on several levels as an inventive, fast-moving, delicious tale, which is full of rich
descriptions and marvelous comic cartoon-like personalities, but also as a deeper study of the
pathos of familial misunderstanding, the absurdity of hero-worship, the impulsiveness of
commercialism and the clumsiness of bureaucracy.

The story of The Inheritance of Loss revolves around the inhabitants of a town in the north-
eastern Himalayas, an embittered old judge, his grand-daughter Sai, his cook and their rich
array of relatives, friends and acquaintances and the effects on the lives of these people
brought about by a Nepalese uprising- Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF). Running
parallel with the story set in India we also follow the vicissitudes of the cooks son Biju as he
struggles to realize the American Dream as an illegal immigrant in New York City. The

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cook, it emerges, is a natural-born storyteller, inventor of a wonderful, perfect life in America


for his illegal immigrant son, Biju, creator of a magnificent, haveli-born past and passionate
loving marriage for the judge, who in truth had neither.

Other finely sketched characters include Anglophile Indian sisters who sip tea and read Jane
Austen, safe within the confines of the estate they call Mon Ami, and a Swiss priest named
Father Booty who keeps a dairy and dreams of teaching Indians to make cheese. Kiran
Desais grasp on the physical details of the world is assured. Her prose lingers lovingly on
the quotidian and invests it with magic. One can exquisitely observe passage of its residents
caught in a colonial time warp, others dreaming of the changes that a political upheaval can
engender. Her characters are finely imagined and persuasive. But above all, this is a novel
about dislocation. The way in which Kiran Desai communicates the immigrants daily
despair, his desire to only connect, the imaginary homeland-shaped hole at the heart of his
foreign experience gives it its unique bleakness and compassion.

The second novel of Kiran Desais The Inheritance of Loss tackles the lingering effects of
colonialism of two kinds of South Asian people: those who attempt to leave India and those
who remain. Set in 1986 in Kalimpong a Himalayan town in Indias northeastern corner
as well as in New York, the book details the beginning stages of a love affair. Here and there
it unleashes some moments of bleak comedy, but the sweet-natured playfulness that cart-
wheeled through, Desais first novel, Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard (1998), is
conspicuously absent. Instead, the prevailing mood is implacable bitterness and despair.

The three of them- the cook, the judge and the young teen-age girl- are helpless, unwilling
witnesses to the identity struggle playing out in the hills as the GNLF and other parties claim
a land, a language and a respect that have all already been denied the Nepali immigrants
turned settlers. The rituals of Lolas marmalade on toast and the tunes from Uncle Pottys
gramophone player, Father Bootys cheese-making dairies and Nonis library books are
disrupted by bandhs, food shortages, killings and property takeovers. Gently but
relentlessly, and with only an occasional excess of liberal guilt, Kiran Desai puts us in the
prison of the settler who knows the language of privilege better than the local mountains
passionately while retaining the distance of the outsider. Sais story is beautifully balanced
by Bijus journey territory just as uncharted and exotic for the judges cooks son from the
Himalayas as the journeys of Englishmen and Scotsmen into the hills of Kalimpong were in a
previous generation. Bijus New York is the backstairs, underground, precarious and
rambunctious universe of the Third World cooks and busboys that staff first-class, first-world
restaurants. The clash is everywhere in the novel. Between the two richly imagined
narratives, Kiran Desai interrogates our ideas of entitlement and belonging, unpicks the
identities of immigrant and settler.

Kiran Desai observes a fine balance in the sentences of the narrative, as well as in the overall
structure of her novel, thus depicting the cultural clash between this remote retreat in the
Himalayas and the bustle of New York. Constantly oscillating between inner and outer,
upper and lower, she brings the Sublime down to earth. Just as the The Inheritance of Loss
works through an affirmation of negatives, so her descriptions of the mountains combine
substantial and ethereal elements-like photographs developed through their negatives. With
plume in hand, Desai pens the contrast among the light and darkness, height and depth in her
poetic prose. The vastness of the first paragraph gives way to a domestic scene; Sai, sitting
on the veranda, was reading an article about giant squid in an old National Geographic. In
her seeming isolation, Sai reaches out to the larger world through her global magazine, where

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the giant squid extends its tentacles towards Kanchenjungas wizard phosphorescence
two macrocosmic creatures in a surreal cosmos.

The characters in The Inheritance of Loss, are insecure and unmoored, and frequently
struggling to survive in the modern world. They are unsure of whether they shall ever see the
benefits and profits of globalization. Kiran Desai doesnt present any easy answers to the
problems of those who are left behind by unstoppable economic growth-in fact, Desais
world view is quite cynical: where one side travels to be a servant, and the other side
travels to be treated like a King.KiranDesais seventeen-year-old protagonist, Sai Mistry,
takes part of her name from Desai and part from Rohinton Mistry, but she also partakes of the
sigh of love and fatalism, as well as the mist and mystery that dominate the atmosphere of
Kanchenjunga, the mountainous border region between India and Nepal, where much of the
novel is set. Desais opening paragraph hints at the Sublime: All day, the colors had been
those of dusk, mist moving like a water creature across the great flanks of mountains
possessed of ocean shadows and depths. Briefly visible above the vapor, Kanchejunga was a
far peak whittled out of ice, gathering the last of the light, a plume of snow blown high by the
storms at its summit.

Jemubhai Patel, the retired Indian Civil Service judge, living a quite life in a small town
called Kalimpong, which is a picaresque rural town nestled at the foot of the Himalayas. He
had earlier a company of his cook Pannalal and his dog, Mutt. He just ponders over his past
and spends his days staring at his chessboard, burning the memory of his beginnings.
When the judge hears that, his orphaned grand-daughter, Sai will be coming to stay with him,
the cultural clash is averted as Sai is angelical in her ways of life too. Sai is Westernized
Indian brought up by English nuns. She has a type of estranged Indian living in India. In
fact,Sai can only be an asset to the judge, who sees himself as unadulteratedly Anglophilic.
However, Jemus hopes of deliverance are shuttered when Sai falls in love with Gyan, her
Nepali math tutor, someone below her socio-economic strata, thus paving the way for the
clash of an anglophilic culture with that of a downstream culture of Gyan, a poor, common
Nepali boy.

Gyan, the math tutor of Sai, is born of poverty and proudly Indian. His familys house is
stillmade of mud with a thatch roof. He feels demoralized by the judges very English and
superior ways. He is also fed up with the fact that Indian-Nepalese are being treated like the
minority in a place where they are the majority. In their native land they have been treated
badly by the settlers. As a result he rejects Sais privileged life. Intent to scream victory over
oppression, Gyan raises his fist to authority, eventually connecting with a crowd of angry
Nepalese insurrectionists.

On the other hand, young Biju, the judges cooks son, is essaying to eke out an existence as
an undocumented worker in New York City. Stumbling from one low-paid restaurant job to
another, Biju lives with groups of other immigrant men. He imagines what life would be like
with a sofa, TV and a bank account. Spurred on by his father, Biju comes to the States
thinking the American dreamcould be achieved by him. But the reality is otherwise. Its a
whole world of basement kitchens, living so intensely with others only to have them
disappear overnight, one giant shadow class of men condemned to movement, who end up
leaving for other jobs, towns, are deported and return home or change their names.

Bijus sympathy for Saeed, his inmate, leaked into sympathy for himself, then Saeeds shame
into his own shame that he would never help all those people praying for his help, waiting
daily, hourly, for his response. He, too, had arrived at the airport with a few dollar bills

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bought on the Kathmandu black market in his pocket and an address for his fathers friend,
Nandu, who lived with twenty-two taxi drivers in Queens. Nandu had also not answered the
phone and had tried to hide when Biju arrived on his doorstep, and still found Biju to his
distress, standing at the door two hours later. No jobs here anymore, he had said.

Nandu abandons Biju among foreigners, where in the Summer, families moved out of
cramped quarters and sat on the sidewalk with boom boxes. They nodded kindly at him.
However, Biju awfully feels awkward and displaced among these. He experienced a cultural
chasm among them and thus even though sometimes, they offered him a beer, but Biju did
not know what to say to them. Even his tiny brief Hello came out wrong: too softly, so
they did not hear, or Justas they had turned away.

The cultural clash is evident from the characters of the novels, who find themselves
immobilized in an ever-expanding web of debilitating Western influences: Jemubbhai Patel,
a Cambridge-educated retired judge whoseunrequired Anglophile has condemned him to a
lifetime of loneliness and self-hatred; his convent-educated 17-year-old granddaughter, Sai,
whose parents were killed in the Soviet Union, where her father was training to be an
astronaut, and who now lives with the judge in his grand, crumbling mountain home; Gyan,
a young accountant who abandons his budding romance with Sai when he joins a group of
insurgents agitating for an independent Nepali state; and Biju, the only son of the judges ill-
treated cook, who roams silently through a series of menial New York restaurant jobs.

The working environment of Biju too showcases the grave clash of the Eastern as well as the
Western culture. Perfectly first-world on top, perfectly third-word twenty-two steps below:
This is Kiran Desais succinct description of Bijus working environment, where his position
in Manhattans rat-infested basement kitchens is firmly fixed. Its a position in which the rest
of her characters are metaphorically pinned as well. All of them are living in exiles whether
at home or abroad, and all of them struggle and fail to maintain a foothold and a shred of
dignity in the encroaching morass of Westernization.

As the events unfolds, the novel alternates between Kalimpong and the New York City. At
the same time, it shuttles back and forth between Sais youth and that of her Anglophilic
grand-father, Jemubhai Patel, the retired judge. It eventually leads to a past and present clash.
Through Jemubhai, a Third World Horatio Anglican, the post-colonial era in all the cruelty of
its old, ingrained hatreds and prejudiced is experienced. Through Sai, the precarious present
is experienced.

India is both the haven for Biju, who is Indian, dreams of escaping and Father Booty, who is
not Indian, but longs to remain. But once in New York Biju is not able to emancipate himself
from nostalgia. He can feel the pulse of the forest, smell the humid air, the green black
lushness: he could imagine all its different textures, the plumage of banana, the stark spear of
the cactus, the delicate gesture of ferns. Rarely does a page pass without one exquisitely
observed passage of its residents caught in a colonial time warp, others dreaming of the
changes that a political upheaval can engender pregnant with the probability and potency of
a clash.

Conclusion: Kiran Desai in her novel The Inheritance of Loss, like an able craftsmen,
portrays the cultural clash among East and West by frequently shifting the narrative from
Kalimpong to New York. The train of varied characters, from a very particular cultural
milieus are caught in a strikingly contrast cultural clutch. Moreover, the major characters
haplessly lack the prominent quality of a human being viz. adaptation and assimilation among

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themselves, evidently leading to disappointment and the pain of broken hopes. Kiran Desai
offers no prominent resolutions to these cultural clashes. However, the novel ends on a
positive note through Bijus home-coming from U.S.A., as being the same self as he was
while leaving for America. Biju, who is robbed by GNLF men, while on his way home, not
only betokens the usurp of his material possessions borne by him from America, but the non-
material too. The novel however, bids adieu to the readers with a moralistic message that the
truth is always there and is ever present. All one has to do is to reach it.

References:

1. Desai, Kiran: The Inheritance of Loss, Penguin Books, New Delhi, 2006.
2. Desai, Kiran: Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard, Penguin Books in association with Faber and Faber,
London, 1998.
1. Alphonso-Karkala, John B.: Indo-English Literature in the Nineteenth Century, Mysore University,
1970.
2. Barnet, Sylvan & other: An Introduciton to Literature, Longman, 1997.
3. Gangadharan, Geetha, Denying the Otherness, Indian Communicator, 20 Nov. 1994.
4. Khatri, C. L.: Indian Literature in English (Critical Discourses), Book Enclave, Jaipur, 2003
5. Shirwadkar, Meena: Image of Woman in Indo-English Novel, New Delhi: Sterling, 1979.
6. Srinivasa Iyengar, K. R.: Indian Writing in English, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
7. Vishwanathan, Vanamala: A Womans World All the Way?
Literature Alive, 1/3, December 1987.
8. No Supermen, The Sunday Observer, 11 February 1911.
9. Review by Kirsten Fournier for Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006
Websites :
http://www.amazon.com
http://www.speiamutiny.com
http://www.waterbridgereview
http://www.adirondackreview.homestead.com
http://www.arnavneil.wordpress.com
http://www.vectoreditors.wordpress.com

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A Step-by-Step Guide towards Writing Persuasive, Evidence-


based Argumentative Thesis
Maya Khemlani David3
University of Malaya
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Syed Abdul Manan4


Balochistan University of Information Technology
Engineering and Management Sciences
Quetta, Pakistan

Francisco Perlas Dumanig5


Buraimi University College
Buraimi, Sultanate of Oman

Abstract
In writing a thesis postgraduate students have to convince the reader that their reasons for
conducting the research are authentic and legitimate. They have also to convince the reader
that previous studies do not provide a comprehensive scenario of the statement of the
problem and there is an urgent need to study the problem. Even in the analysis of the data,
the writer has to be logical and make connections to previous studies and convince the
reader that the study conducted results in findings which help resolve the problem earlier
cited. In this workshop we discuss ways to teach post graduate students the art of making an
argument. Students will be first shown the importance of collecting and considering multiple
data sources, and critically and reflectively reading and evaluating them. Students will be
shown how to discern credible from noncredible sources when forming an evidence-based
argument. The workshop will show students how to assess and increase background
knowledge using note-taking from various sources, and a thinking plan that will inspire self-
questioning by asking students to assess the credibility of various sources. The workshop will
guide students step by step toward writing persuasive, evidence-based argumentative thesis.

Keywords: purpose statement, research gap, credible scholarly sources

Introduction

This paper is divided into parts. Utilizing examples from previous postgraduate studies, the
first part tries to illustrate how researchers craft their introductory part of the thesis to make a
strong purpose/thesis statement. It lines up several strategies researchers make to achieve
various goals such as highlighting the scope of the topical area, giving authentic reasons for
conducting research, identifying research gaps, underlining the urgency of new research, and
showing logical connection to previous research. In the following part, we discuss several

3
Researcher at Humanity Cluster, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Email:
mayadavid@yahoo.com
4
Department of English, Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering &
Management Sciences
(BUITEMS), Quetta, Pakistan. Email: rm_manan@yahoo.com
5
Faculty of Languages & Linguistics University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. Email:
fdumanig@yahoo.com

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strategies which researchers need to adopt during their research and write-up stages. They
include sourcing multiple data collection and its reflective evaluation, sourcing credible data,
differentiating between scholarly and non-scholarly sources to ensure that they make
evidence-based argument.

1. Making a strong thesis/purpose statement

It is conventional for a researcher to lay down a strong and vivid thesis/purpose statement to
foreground what follows in the thesis. A thesis statement is a sentence that makes an assertion
about a topic and predicts how the topic will be developed. It does not simply announce a
topic: it says something about the topic. It makes a promise to the reader about the scope,
purpose, and direction of the paper. It summarizes the conclusions that the writer has reached
about the topic. A thesis statement is generally located near the end of the introduction. A
thesis statement is focused and specific enough to be proven within the boundaries of the
thesis. Key words (nouns and verbs) should be specific, accurate, and indicative of the range
of research, thrust of the argument or analysis, and the organization of supporting
information. A thesis statement is simply the main idea of your research work. It tells readers
exactly what your paper is about and what specific point you are trying to make. A
Thesis/purpose statement makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states
the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. It makes a promise to the reader
about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. It is focused and specific enough to
be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper. Is generally located near the end of the
introduction; sometimes, in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or
in an entire paragraph. It identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence that
you are using to support your argument.

1.1 Highlight the scope/ importance of the topical area

To emphasize their arguments, researchers tend to highlight the importance of the topical
areas under investigation. They may highlight the scope of the particular topic within the
particular discipline to convince the readers that their research work holds importance. The
following two examples illustrate the argumentative strategy of the researchers to accentuate
the importance of their topic. As the first examples shows, the researchers highlight the
importance of learner autonomy and its different aspects that gave rise to the concept of
learner autonomy. Similarly, in the second example, the researcher tries to underline the
scope of bilingual education in the context of Africa.

EXAMPLE

Due to the wide acceptance of learner-centered methods and approaches to teaching foreign
languages, more weight is currently put on the role of the learner in the learning process. No
more are learners viewed as passive recipients of information, but as active interpreters
and processers of knowledge, which they seek based on their own interests and needs.
This interest in the learners role in the learning process has given rise to the concept of
learner autonomy, which means the learners ability to control and take responsibility of his
or her own learning (Ikonen).

EXAMPLE

...among other reasons, the fact that African languages continue to be deprived of capital
value in mainstream societal markets, while at the same time being regarded by their

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speakers as languages of locality/tradition, makes bilingual education an important field of


contradiction and contestation worth being studied (Chimbutane).

1.2 Give authentic/legitimate reasons for conducting the research

Another crucial strategy most researchers adopt during their introductory section is to give
authentic reasons for conducting research on that particular area. The following examples are
presented to illustrate how researchers give reasons to justify their research:

EXAMPLE

As Heller and Martin-Jones (2001) point out, schools play a key role in affirming the
legitimacy of the dominant language and culture and in reproducing the sociolinguistic
order. This is particularly true in Mozambique especially in the light of the fact that access to
Portuguese is unequally distributed. Indeed, given this background, among other questions, it
may be asked why African languages are not accorded official status? Why would people be
motivated to invest in formal learning of their local languages if such languages are not
valued or have low exchange value in the mainstream societal markets? (Chimbutane).

EXAMPLE

The teachers perspective has been essential in various ways. I have carried out the research
with the belief that, on the one hand, it can help bring new light onto informed and effective
uses of trans languaging in early additional language teaching; and, on the other, bearing in
mind that what has been done in a Catalan Primary School can be generalizable and
beneficial in different contexts, and can be carried out by different teachers with students of
different ages and levels of proficiency, albeit perhaps with somewhat different outcomes
(Lpez).

EXAMPLE

This study is significant in several ways. This could be the first study, which conducts a
critical analysis of the low-fee English-medium schools with special reference to English-
medium education policy. As far as the theoretical and practical implications of the study
are concerned, it is expected that the findings of the study would help not only highlight the
problematic areas underlying the policy, perception and practices, but it would also point
towards the critical issues of equity, access, marginalization and exploitation that take
place without being publically noticed. The spread of the low-fee English medium schools
is seen as a positive trend in the society and the low-priced provision of English-medium
education is perceived to narrow the gap between children of the elites and children of the
others (Manan).

1.3 Identify research gaps in the area

Researchers also identify research gaps in the body of knowledge to convince readers with
their arguments. They provide a comprehensive scenario of the existing literature to identify
gaps which the new research is aimed to fill. They may explicitly state the scholarly
contribution which their new research makes. The following examples illustrate the same:

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EXAMPLES

Like many other educational and ELT fields, L2 motivation has been an under-researched
area in Pakistan (Shahbaz and Liu, 2012). Moreover, the limited body of literature available
on this topic focuses only on the traditional dichotomy of instrumental and integrative
motivation (e.g. Akram, 2007, Mansoor, 2003, Malik,2010). No study so far, except Shahbaz
and Liu (2012), has investigated L2 motivation from a self perspective ein the Pakistani
context. Even Shahbaz and Liu (2012) did not include the preventional aspect of future
selves, Ought-to L2 self, in their study, which may be an important feature of L2 motivation
in Asian contexts (Kormos et al., 2011). This study may provide a diverse and detailed view
of the L2 future selves of a sample of Pakistani students as it aims to investigate both
components of future selves included in Drnyeis L2 Motivational Self System (2009a)
(Islam).

EXAMPLE

I also take this study as an African contribution to a growing body of empirically informed
work on the ideological and ideologised nature of bilingualism and bilingual education (e.g.
Freeman, 1998; Heller and Martin-Jones, 2001; Heller, 2006, 2007). More specifically, this
study adds to the understanding of the role of bilingual education in social and cultural
transformation, including in changing speakers perceptions about the value of low-status
languages and associated cultural practices (Chimbutane).

1.4 Underline the need/urgency for new research

Having identified gap in the existing body of research, the researchers tend to underline the
need for a new research. They also try to impress upon readers that the existing gap calls for
an urgent research in the given area. The following excerpts exemplify the above goal:

EXAMPLE

This study comes after a language-in-education policy shift that has extended over several
years and after widespread curriculum innovation in the country, involving a move away
from a Portuguese-only system of education to a situation in which local African languages
have also been accorded a space in formal education through the gradual introduction of a
bilingual programme.Unlike many other African countries, however, Mozambique does not
have any prior tradition of bilingual education. It is therefore currently facing many
challenges in the implementation of the programme, including in defining the appropriate
role and place of African languages and associated local cultures in the classroom. Within
this scenario, this study may provide empirically grounded insights for diagnosing as well as
informing policy and implementation of this innovative programme in the country. Against
this background, I expect this study to make a practical as well as a theoretical contribution
(Chimbutane).

1.5 Show logical connection with previous research

Researcher also refers to previous research to make connection between their and the other
existing work in the give area. This strategy can be utilized both within the introduction as
well as conclusions to bolster arguments. Making such connection is especially important at
the concluding part of the thesis to convince the reader that the study conducted results in
findings which help resolve the problem earlier cited.

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EXAMPLE

While much research exists on the political and cultural membership of Overseas Chinese in
their host societies, little is known about the identity crisis of Malaysian Chinese residing
abroad. The identity issue of these second wave diasporas is particularly complicated
due to the many intricate geopolitical and socioeconomic factors involved, as well as the
increasingly fragmented nature of the global ethnic Chinese population. The existing
literature on these issues tends to be over-generalized, often assuming only a single flow of
ethnic Chinese from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan to other countries, while neglecting the
mobility of Chinese populations elsewhere. This leads to further generalizations about a
global ethnic Chinese population that is oriented towards China, as well as a shared
identity of the Chinese ethno- cultural nation, although many of the second wave diaspora
ethnic Chinese have never been to China (Ling).

EXAMPLE

Many thousands of languages are dying and that thousands more are destined to die out
during the first half of this century (Fishman, 2001:1). The increasing number of researches
and studies done in the field of language maintenance and shift (LMLS) reveal that the
impact of this phenomenon is most keenly felt in bilingual and multilingual societies such
as those in the Southeast Asian nations (Collins, 1998). The fact that the linguistic diversity
found within such settings, in which the co- existence of the dominant or majority
languages and minority languages is universal. Hence, the greater tendency for the majority
languages to gradually replace the functions and roles of the minority language is
inevitable leading to significant changes in language choice within the speakers of the
minority group (May, 2001). In a similar tone, the Jaffna Tamil community, a minority
immigrant community set in a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual Malaysia are also facing a
critical language situation of losing its ethnic mother tongue, the Jaffna Tamil dialect to
other majority languages. Here, the present study aims to document the changes in the
language choice of the different generations of speakers within the Jaffna Tamil community
in Malaysia. A macro-sociolinguistic approach was deemed most suitable to give an
overview of the language situation in which the study will attempt to demonstrate how the
process of language shift was initiated and accelerated against the socio-historical, socio-
political, socio-economic and socio-psychological backdrop of the Jaffnese speech
community...(Chelvakumaran)

EXAMPLE

A large amount of research evidence from different quarters substantiates the problems and
dilemmas associated with English-only policies in the postcolonial context or any other
context where children study a second and a foreign language as medium. Therefore, this
study may be taken as a Pakistani contribution to a growing body of empirical research
conducted around the English-or-mother tongue issue in schools across African continent,
India and numerous other countries of the world. To the best of my information, this research
can be one of the few academic studies deploying the dynamic approach to language policy.
Thus, in theoretical terms, this research delves deep, primarily into the micro-level school
setting to unpack the complex landscape that encompasses stakeholders perceptions about
languages, language policies, practices and various paradoxes and mismatches. In the
broader sense, the major findings of the study, which are bolstered by multilayered evidence,
testify to the theoretical as well practical dilemmas most children from the post-colonial
countries confront about the medium of instruction policies in schools (Manan).

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1.6 Use credible scholarly sources

At the graduate level undertaking academic research, it is not enough to formulate your own
opinion on a topic. Instead you are expected to understand the literature available in your
field and to form your own critical opinion in response to the ideas of others. This means that
you are expected to read many sources and refer to those sources in your writing. The most
common academic sources are journal articles, conference papers and books. However, a
variety of other sources may also be relevant to your discipline, such as websites, reports,
brochures, films and television or radio programs.

When you write an academic assignment such as journal paper, thesis or conference paper,
you create an argument for your point of view, giving evidence for that view. The evidence
that you give will come from the sources you have read. Hence, the quality of your argument
will partly depend on the quality of your sources. If you use a source that is not accurate or
well-informed, you do not look like a good academic writer. Your readers may suspect that
you used the first sources you found and will assume that you do not have a good
understanding of ideas related to your topic. Choosing good sources means paying attention
to who wrote the information, why and how they wrote it. To help you select the most
credible sources, thereby improving the quality of your work, ask yourself the following
questions when faced with print and electronic source materials.
a) Is the author reputable e.g. university-based or from a research institution?
b) Does the reference list or bibliography appear comprehensive in its coverage?
c) Does the author present relevant background/context information?
d) Is the research methodology carefully presented to the reader?
e) Is the information presented still valid and applicable today?
f) Does your lecturer/tutor recommend the site?
g) Who is responsible for the site? Is it associated with a respected organization or
institution?
h) Is the organization responsible for the site clearly identified (e.g. with an official
logo) and are contact details provided? Is there obvious bias in the site?
i) Does the source use correct grammar and spelling?
j) Was the site recently updated?

1.6.1 Recognize scholarly versus non-scholarly sources

It is critical for academic researchers to recognize, and differentiate between scholarly and
no-scholarly sources. For any academic study, writers are required to consider who would be
the intended readers of a source. Broadly, sources can be divided into (1) scholarly or
academic sources and (2) non-scholarly or popular sources.

1.6.1.1 Scholarly sources

When university academics write about their research and ideas for other academics to read,
we call their writing a scholarly or academic source. Often this type of writing is published in
scholarly journals which are peer reviewed (i.e. read and approved for publication by other
scholars). Many databases of electronic sources allow you to limit your search to peer-
reviewed or scholarly journals. For example, Academic Search Premier allows you to tick a
box for Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals. Your lecturers may also use or tell you the
names of respected scholarly journals in your field or you can check if any are listed on the
library resource guidefor your discipline. Other ways to identify scholarly sources:

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they are not usually published as often as daily or weekly magazines or popular
sources
they use discipline-specific rather than everyday language
they do not usually include commercial advertisements or excessively flashy graphics
they are written by people who are experts in their area/s
they include specifically detailed information that is interesting to specialists in their
area/s
they acknowledge sources in sufficient detail for you to check the information or read
more
they use an academic style of referencing (e.g. a footnote, endnote or author-date
style).

1.6.1.2 Non-scholarly sources

When somebody writes some interesting ideas about a topic for anybody who might be
interested to read, and do not necessarily base those ideas on research, we call their writing a
non-scholarly or popular source. Usually this type of writing is published in magazines or
periodicals that exist to make a profit. Some examples of popular sources are Time, The
Economist and National Geographic. Ways to identify non-scholarly sources include:
they are often not written by experts
they are usually published weekly or monthly
they usually give broader rather than more detailed information
they are written in a language style that anybody could understand
they look visually exciting with lots of colour and pictures
they usually include advertisements
they often do not include any references, or include only a few references in an
informal style.

1.6.1.3 The Internet

It is especially important to carefully consider web-based sources before using them in


academic assignments. There will be many websites that could be relevant for any topic you
may have to write about at university. However, it is not always easy to determine whether
the information they contain is trustworthy. In general, it is best not to trust information you
find on the World Wide Web until you can determine who wrote it. Consider the following
internet domain names.
Government .gov Commercial .com
Education .edu Organisation .org
Academic .ac Network .net

The domains .gov, .edu and .ac can only be registered by government and educational
institutions. For this reason, they reflect a higher order of authority than .com, .org or .net
sites.

1.6.1.4 Wikipedia

Wikipedia has a wide range of information that can be useful to read when you are first trying
to understand a topic. Wiki pages sometimes also have references or links to further
information that could be useful for your assignments. However, Wikipedia was designed to

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be a collaborative and constantly developing encyclopedia. Any person can write a new wiki
page and any person can edit or change any existing wiki page. Because of this, information
from Wikipedia is not considered acceptable in academic assignments. However, if you take
the time to read the sources listed in the references section of a Wikipedia page, these sources
themselves may be acceptable if you reference them directly.

1.7 Employ multiple data sources

Academic researchers need to utilize more than one research tools in data collection to
enhance the validity and generalizability of the data. One of the best strategies in this regard
is the mixed method which involves more than one research tools. In one of his books,
Creswell provides us a comprehensive definition of the mixed method:

Mixed methods research is a research design with philosophical


assumptions as well as methods of inquiry. As a methodology, it involves
philosophical assumptions that guide the direction of the collection and
analysis of data and the mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches
in many phases in the research process. As a method, it focuses on
collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in
a single study or series of studies. Its central premise is that the use of
quantitative and qualitative approaches in combination provides a better
understanding of research problems than either approach alone (Creswell
and Plano Clark).

Scholars have employed various terms and phrases for mixed method research. We find that
Campbell and Fisk () called this method as multi-trait/multimethod research that recognizes
the collection of several quantitative methods in a single investigation. Several other scholars
have employed interrelated terms that signify a mixed method research. Mixed method has
been named as integrated or combined (Steckler et al.); methodological
triangulation(Morse), which recognizes the convergence of quantitative and qualitative data;
combined research (Creswell Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed
Methods Approaches) and mixed methodology, which acknowledges that it is both a
method and a philosophical worldview (Tashakkori and Teddlie).

Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or a team of researchers
combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative
and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, and inference techniques) for the broad
purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration (Johnson, Onwuegbuzie
and Turner 124).

Examining the published research over the recent time, Greene, Caracelli and Graham ()
constructed the following five broad purposes or rationales of mixed method studies: (a)
triangulation (i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of results from different methods
studying the same phenomenon), (b) complementarity (i.e., seeking elaboration,
enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results from the
other method), (c) development (i.e., using the results from one method to help inform the
other method), (d) initiation (i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a
reframing of the research question), and (e) expansion (i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and
range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components). One of the
striking characteristics of a mixed method is that it concurrently incorporates and integrates
not only statistical information, but it also grasps a contextualized understanding of

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individual voices and feelings (Bryman). Additionally, as Creswell (Qualitative Inquiry and
Research Design : Choosing among Five Approaches) suggests, mixed method design is a
good method to use if you seek to build on the strengths of your multiple data sources. Mixed
methodology is used because variation in data collection tools may lead to greater validity.
Besides, it can afford some other advantages and it offers multiple perspectives; it fills up
gaps between the information collected and can compensate for the limitations of either of the
methodologies. Therefore, the fundamental rationale behind combining qualitative and
quantitative data was to enhance the validity of the results (Creswell, 2013) and to develop an
in-depth understanding of the research issue and that,

we can learn more about our research topic if we can combine the
strengths of qualitative research with the strengths of quantitative research
while compensating at the same time for the weaknesses of each method.
This has been called the fundamental principle of mixed methods research
(Johnson and Onwuegbuzie).

Conclusion

In this paper, we presented excerpts from a variety of academic thesis to show that the writers
tend to convince their readers that their research is driven by authentic and legitimate reasons.
The illustrations also demonstrate that to emphasize their arguments, the researchers rely on
various strategies that include highlighting the significance of the topical area, giving
legitimate reasons for the research, identifying research gap in the existing body of
knowledge, and underlining the urgent need of the research. In addition, to impress upon
readers, the researchers also create logical connection between his/her work and the work
already existing in the field. This attempt also lends substantial amount of validity to the
intended work. In addition, we also proposed researchers to use credible resources and
suggested ways to differentiate between scholarly and non-scholarly sources to add value and
reliability to the claims made in the thesis. Towards the end, we put forward recommendation
that researchers should deploy multiple data sources and multimethods for their research
particularly mixed methodology, which based on a premise to provide better insight to the
research problem, and enhance the potential for the validity and reliability of the information.

References

Bryman, Alan. "Conducting Mixed Methods Research." 2011. Print.


Campbell, D T, and D Fisk. "Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitraitmultimethod

Matrix." Psychological Bulletin 56 (1959): 81-105. Print.

Chelvakumaran, Selvarani. "Language Shift/Loss among the Sri Lanka Tamil Minority in Malaysia: An Insight
into the Attitude and Perception of the Younger Generation Towards the Ethnic Languages and
Identity." University Kabengsaan Malaysia, 2011. Print.

Chimbutane, Feliciano. "The Purpose and Value of Bilingual Education: A Critical, Linguistic Ethnographic
Study of Two Rural Primary Schools in Mozambique." The University of Birmingham, 2009. Print.

Creswell, John. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design : Choosing among Five Approaches. 3rd edition. ed.
Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2013. Print.

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---. Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 3rd ed. ed. Los Angeles ;
London: SAGE, 2009. Print.

Creswell, John, and Vicki L. Plano Clark. Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. Thousand
Oaks, Calif. ; London: SAGE, 2007. Print.

Greene, J C, V J Caracelli, and W F Graham. "Toward a Conceptual Framework for Mixed-Method Evaluation
Designs." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 11 (1989): 255-74. Print.

Ikonen, Anni. "Promotion of Learner Autonomy in the Efl Classroom: The Students View." University of
Jyvskyl, 2013. Print.

Islam, Muhammad. "L2 Motivational Self System and Relational Factors Affecting the L2 Motivation of
Pakistani Students in the Public Universities of Central Punjab, Pakistan." The University of Leeds,
2013. Print.

Johnson, R Burke, and Anthony J Onwuegbuzie. "Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time
Has Come." Educational Researcher 33.7 (2004): 14-26. Print.

Johnson, R Burke, Anthony J Onwuegbuzie, and Lisa A Turner. "Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods
Research." Sage 1.2 (2007): 112-33. Print.

Ling, Hock Shen. "Negotiating Malaysian Chinese Ethnic and National Identity across Borders." Ohio
University, 2008. Print.

Lpez, Cristina Corcoll. "Translanguaging in the Additional Language Classroom: Pedagogically-Based


Codeswitching in a Primary Education Context." Universitat Ramon Llull, 2011. Print.

Manan, Syed Abdul. "Mapping Mismatches: English-Medium Education Policy, Perceptions, and Practices in
the Low-Fee Private Schools in Quetta, Pakistan." University of Malaya, 2015. Print.

Morse, J. "Approaches to Qualitative-Quantitative Methodological Triangulation." Nursing Research 40 (1991):


120-23. Print.

Steckler, A, et al. "Toward Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: An Introduction." Health
Education Quarterly 19.1 (1992): 1-8. Print.

Tashakkori, Abbas, and Charles Teddlie. Mixed Methodology : Combining Qualitative and Quantitative
Approaches. Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London: SAGE, 1998. Print.

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Name of the Account: Confidence Foundation
Account No. 116110001096
RTGS/IFSC code BKDN0 521161,

Paper format
Abstract

Abstract (14 font center aligned )

There should be margin of 1 on all sides like this document . The abstract should be of
150 words . It should be justified on both sides . It should be in italics . The font should be
times New Roman 12

Key words :Upto 5 , separted by a comma eg. Change , management , resources.

Introduction : Paper should start from here .

Citation :Use inbuilt citation in the computer MLA style . go to references and click on
Insert citation pop up will appear select the style to MLA for Language and literature for
science select Chicago , for example : (Neelam)

Bibliography :

When paper is over insert Bibliography and the entire list will appear as below .

Neelam, Tikkha. Guidelines for Paper . Nagpur : CFTRA Global, 2015.

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