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ISSN - 2454-2105

CFTRA Global
Confidence Foundation
A peer Reviewed Refereed Journal
Dr. Neelam Tikkha Vol. II June to August, 2015
Chief Editor
M.A. (English), MBA (HR), M.A. (Soc.),
DCE (N.D.), Ph.D. (American Literature),
TEFL (Tampa, US)

ISSN - 2454-2105
IMJ
A Peer - reviewed Journal
A forum for professional Development
Vol -11/ 2 May- August
The International Multidisciplinary Journal.
IMJ
CFTRA Global
Confidence Foundation
A peer Reviewed Refereed Journal
Vol. II June to August, 2015

Chief Editor - Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha


Chief Editor - Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

ISSN No. - 2454 - 2105

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INDEX
1. Indian Americans 1
- Dr. Madan Lal Goel

2. Intellectual Property Rights a Subtle Way of Hegemony of West on India 7


- Dr. Neelam Tikkha

3. Reconsidering Syllabus Design : The Importance of Learner Goals and Motives 12


- Gareth Morris

4. India - US - China in the Indo-Pacific : A Find Blaance 17


- Dona Ganguly

5. Framing the Meaning of Life 24


- M. P. Terence Samuel

6. The Speeches of Swami Vivekananda : A Study in Literary Perspective 38


- Krishna Pratap Singh
- Dr. Vinay Shankar Shukla

7. The Social Function of English Language and Literature in India 43


- Prof. Nitin Gohad

8. Bologna Process to Mitigate Bologna Expression while Learning Eglish 47


- Dr. Neelam Tikkha

9. Realistic Portrayal in V.S. Naipauls Half a Life : An Exploration 52


- Dr. K.P. Singh
- Dr. Vinay Shankar Shukla

10. Emerging Demands of Small States - Challenges and Difficulties 57


- Mr. Raju P. Lipte

11. A Comparative Study on Performance Related Fitness Status of State Level 61


Athlete and Handball Players
- Dr. Deba Prasad Sahu

12. Politeness and Interpersonal Communication in Organisations : 64


A Phenomenological Perspective
- Mr. T. Sunand Emmanuel

13. Use of Multimedia Software in English Language Laboratories 69


- Rukhiya Begum

14. ICT Based Teaching: Empowering Teachers to Excel in Language Teaching 72


- Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh

15. "EH$M mcm' Yrc JS>H$mMr qgYy d VH$mcrZ r 79


- S>m. AemoH$ ^o$
Indian Americans

Dr. Madan Lal Goel


Professor Emeritus of Political Science
University of West Florida
www.uwf.edu/lgoel

In September 2014, Prime Minister Modi received a roaring reception in New York City from
some 20,000 Indian Americans, or NRIs. During his five-day visit to the United States, PM
Modi addressed the UN General Assembly, met with leading U.S. business leaders and was
hosted by President Barack Obama for an intimate state dinner at the White House.

The positive reception received by Modi highlighted the growing power and presence of the
Indian American community. Two state level governors, Bobby Jindal of Louisiana and Nikki
Haley of South Carolina are of Indian ancestry. Preet Bharara is the much acclaimed U.S.
Attorney for Manhattan, NY, as is Neel Kashkari, who stood for Governors race in California in
2014, although he lost. Sri Srinivasan was appointed to the DC Appeals Court in 2014, a
position which may lead to appointment to the Supreme Court. According to a survey, there are
some 35,000 Indian physicians in the United States, and some 10,000 professors at Americas
leading colleges and universities. Richard Rahul Verma, whose family hails from Punjab, was
appointed US Ambassador to India in 2015. The list of Indian business and high-tech luminaries
is a long one.

While Indians excel at individual level, it may be noted that Indians are notorious for lack of
solidarity. They seldom pull together as a united community. When Indians do get together,
there usually is turf battle. Leadership positions are used as photo opportunities. Indians love
to be seen in the company of famous people. US-India Political Action Committee (USINPAC)
works to improve Indo-US relations. Hindu American Foundation (HAF) seeks to protect the
rights of Indians and Hindus around the globe. These and similar other groups wield some
influence, but they are no match to the better funded and more aggressive Islamic, Jewish and
Christian groups.

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Indian Americans are titled Asian Indians in US censuses to distinguish them from American
Indians, also sometimes called the Red Indians or the Native Americans.

The number of Indian Americans has increased dramatically in the recent decades. The 2015
estimate is 3.5 million, up from 2.8 million in 2010, or about 1 percent of the U.S. population of
315 million. Indian migration increased in the decades after 1965, when drastic changes were
made in the U.S. immigration laws. Given below is the history of U.S. immigration policy.

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION TO AMERICA


The history of America is a history of waves of migrations. People have come here from all
known civilizations. The blood that flows in American veins has received sustenance from every
bloodline. In the 17th century, the English Puritans settled in the New England States as the
Spanish settled in Florida. Early in the 19th century came a great flood of Irish and Germans -- 2
million Irish and 1.5 million Germans came to America between 1815 and 1860. The next wave
brought some 10 million to America's shores between 1880 and 1890. These were mostly
Western European -- English, Dutch, Swedes, and Norwegians. The third wave was even bigger:
16 million from 1890 to 1914. Most of the newcomers (80%) were Eastern and Southern
Europeans Italians, Greeks, Poles, Czechs, and Russians. A small number of Asians also
entered the United States in the 19th Century. Nearly 200,000 Chinese laborers came to the
West to build the railroads, but in 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act eliminated this flow.
Then in 1924, immigration was severely curtailed and almost eliminated for certain countries.
The 1924 National Origins Act established quotas for each country outside the Western
Hemisphere. The 1924 Act was directed against Eastern Europeans, and it was particularly
prejudiced against Asians.The 1924 Immigration Act sought to freeze the ethnic composition of
America. Those allowed to enter were primarily the British, Germans, Irish and the
Scandinavians. Those from Southern and Eastern Europe were limited to smaller quotas. Asians
were banned altogether.
Pressure built up after the World War II to change the unfair immigration policy. The pressure
came from the Eastern and Southern Europeans: Italians, Greeks, Poles and Jews settled in
Russia. They fought to bring their families and their co-religionists to the U.S. Sweeping
changes in immigration policy were enacted in 1965 under President Lyndon Johnson. The new

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law eliminated ethnicity and race as factors in immigration. Every nation regardless of size,
race, religion, and political ideology was allowed 20,000 immigrants with a total for all countries
not to exceed 170,000 per year. For the first time, India and China were placed on the same
footing as Germany and England.
The number of Asians migrating to the U.S. was not expected to be large. Even though the 1965
bill sought to benefit essentially the Eastern and Southern Europeans, the Asians actually
benefited the most. Without the sweeping changes enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1965, most
Indians in the United States would not be there.
ASIAN AMERICANS
Indians are part of the Asian immigrant community. The number of Asians has increased rapidly
since 1965. First to benefit were people from Philippines, Taiwan, and Korea. Political
repression in Indo-China added Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians. Many students from
India took advantage of the changed law and settled down in the U.S. instead of returning home.
In 1984, six of the seven top countriesto send immigrants to America were Asian countries.
Asians are Americas fastest growing ethnic minority. High birth rates and legal immigration
have contributed to this growth. The 1990 Asian-American population in the U.S. was 7 million
- or nearly 2.5 percent of the total US population. In 2000, this increased to 11 million or
approximately 4.1 percent of the U.S. population, and in 2010 to 14.7 million or 5 percent of the
U.S. population. Census data are given below.

The major Asian nationality groups in America are ranked as follows: Chinese, Indians,
Filipino, Koreans, Vietnamese, and Japanese. There is a smaller number of Malaysians, Thais,
Pakistanis and Bangladeshi's. Interestingly, the Japanese play no major role in the current wave
of Asian migration. Most Asians settle in California, followed by New York, Texas, New
Jersey, Illinois, and Florida.

Although the total Asian population in America is small at 5 percent (2010 data), Asian
immigrants are compiling an amazing record of achievement. The enrollment of Asian students
at the nation's elite colleges far exceeds their population share. On the average, Asian students
constitute 14 percent of the freshmen class at Harvard, 20 percent at MIT, 21 percent at the
California Institute of Technology, and 25 percent at the University of California at Berkeley.

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Indian children excel at winning many spelling-bee contests.

Partly as a result of their academic accomplishments, Asians are climbing the economic ladder
with remarkable speed. Their average family income now exceeds both white and black incomes
in America. Indian income on the average is the highest among all groups.

What accounts for the remarkable success of Asians in America? No single factor will suffice as
an explanation, although the Asian family structure and a well developed work ethic are part of
the explanation. Asian families are bound together: parents make many sacrifices for their
children and brothers help brothers. Chinese grocery stores, Indian motels, and Vietnamese
fishing boats are usually acquired by pooling together extended family resources.

The Asians have a strong work ethic. Unlike the earlier European mass migrations, which
originated from the working class poor, the post-1965 Asian immigrants tend to be highly
educated. The Asian movement is largely middle class.

PERSONAL NARRATIVE

The best explanation for the Asian success story is perhaps the psychological factor. The Asian
immigrant brings with him drive and motivation to succeed at all costs. A personal example will
illustrate the point.

Through appeals to relatives and friends in India, I managed to collect Rs. 2,500 (or $500 at the
1960 exchange rate) necessary for the sea voyage from India to the U.S. I arrived at New York
Harbor as a youth of 20 with insufficient fare to reach my destination to the University of
Oregon. In New York, I had to beg and borrow $15 to have enough bus fare. I worked my way
through college, sometimes working 12 hour shifts at $1 per hour (1960) in the peach orchards of
California in the 40 C weather.

Education was a dream in spite of the fact that my father had seventh-grade education, and my
mother was completely unlettered. Success came in response to persistence and hard work while
failure always lurked in the background. I graduated first among a dozen doctoral students
enrolled in the program at the State University of New York, Buffalo. At the University of West
Florida where I taught, I achieved promotion to the rank of Full Professor rapidly, ahead of my
American-born colleagues by a decade. I have published five books and have received a number
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of awards, both in Research and Teaching (see Vita at www.uwf.edu/lgoel). These
accomplishments have come in spite of difficulties with English language, notwithstanding a
brown skin in a white world, and in spite of a different cultural background. I am an American
resident now and I love America, but I still derive my greater strength from my Indian heritage.
Many members of the larger Indian and Asian community will share similar stories of hard work
leading to success.
My life story may be read at www.uwf.edu/lgoel.
Many Indians and other Asians complain that they are victims of racial discrimination. They have
to work harder than native-born Americans to compete for the same jobs or to get promotions.
Ivy-league colleges use negative quotas to keep the number of Asian students down. In some
xenophobic communities, buying or renting a home may cause problems. Although racially
motivated physical violence is rare against Asians, it does occur.

Americans have always been ambivalent about and somewhat hostile to new immigrants. What is
meted out to Asians is a part of the long American tradition of suspicion about new immigrants.
The hostility faced by members of the Asian community is no worse than hostility faced by
Italians three generations ago.

CONCLUSION:

America is a country that endlessly reinvents itself. The secret to American genius is that it adds
new bloodlines every generation, thus renewing and refurbishing the genetic pool. The energy of
new combinations produces something different and better. The faces of immigrants are different
now, mostly Asian. They do not arrive at Ellis Island as previous European generations did; they
come through the airport terminals. The end result is the same - a more vigorous and vibrant
America. Today Indians are adding to the American bloodline. Indians are distinguished by their
high educational and economic achievement, much higher than the general American population.
It is estimated that 50 percent of IIT graduates migrate to the United States.

5
Asian population data are given below.
MAJOR ASIAN GROUPS IN THE U.S. (ROUNDED).
K=thousand; m=million
1990 Census 2000 Census 2010 Census
Chinese 1.6m 2.4m 3.1m
Indian 815K 1.7m 2.8m
Filipino 1.4m 1.8m 2.5m
Vietnamese 614K 1.1m 1.5m
Korean 799K 1.1m 1.4m
Japanese848K 797K 763K
All Other Asian924K 2.1m 2.6m

Total Asian 7.0 m 11.0 m 14.7 m


Total U.S. 249m 282m 310m

REFERENCE LIST

Asian Americans are the highest-income, best-educated and fastest-growing racial group in the United States. They now make up the largest share
of recent immigrants. See the Pew Research reports at: Asian Americans | Pew Research Center
www.pewsocialtrends.org/asianamericans-graphics/
"Asian Population Demographics | Largest Asian Growth". Proximityone.com.
Assisi, Francis C. (2007-01-04). "News & Analysis: Skilled Indian Immigrants Create Wealth for America". INDOlink.
"Asian Indian Women in America". Aiwausa.org.
" US India Political Action Committee | Indian American Community". www.usinpac.com.
Ghosh, Palash (5 November 2012). "Why Do Indian-Americans Love Barack Obama And The Democrats?". International Business Times.
5 facts about Indian Americans | Pew Research Center
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/09/30/5-facts-about-indian-americans/
A historical perspective of Americans of Asian Indian origin
www.infinityfoundation.com
The Namesake: A Novel by Jhumpa Lahiri (2004) - Made into a movie. The book narrates the struggles and promises of a Bengali immigrant
family in America.
Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People by Helen Zia, 2001. Thebook traces the transformation of Asian
Americans from small, invisible ethnic groups into a highly successful community that has begun to influence many aspects of American society.

6
Intellectual Property Rights a Subtle Way of
Hegemony of West on India
Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Neelam.tikkha@gmail.com
+91- 9422145467

Abstract : Intellectual property has gained immense importance in recent


times. It surpasses the tangent wealth of a company. Tapping on this US
has started creating intellectual pockets in developing and underdeveloped
countries. The survival gradually would be at stake if there are not any
limiting laws to contain US.
Key Words: Intellectual Property, Barbaric activities, colonies

Introduction : Recently, a researcher made a shocking claim which created a buzz in


India and the world. He counter attacked the claims of Wright brothers in having
designed first aeroplane. In 1906, an editorial in Paris Herald famously wondered if the
brothers were "flyers or liars". They further added "It is difficult to fly. It is easy to say
we have flown." (R. Ganesan) A data has been recovered that states that Shivakar
Talpade was the first man to fly an aircraft. He learnt making aircraft from the Vedic
scriptures. Talpade had created a flying machine powered by mercury and solar
energy, and based on ideas outlined in Vedic texts. He had ostensibly named it
Marutsakha (friend of the air) and flew it at the Chowpatty beach in Mumbai in 1895.
While hinting that Talpade's work should be recognized, Anand Bodas, who presented
a thinly-substantiated paper at the Science Congress, also spoke of ancient Sanskrit
descriptions of vimanas that were 60X60 feet in size and travelled across countries,
continents and even planets. Various alloys for aircraft manufacturing are mentioned in
Maharishi Bharadwaj's Vimana Samhita, he claimed, adding that "the young generation
should study the alloys and make them here". (R. Ganesan)

7
Image: decodehindumythology.blogspot.com

This debate at this point of time is meaningless as mentioned in other context in Paris
Tribune in 1906 talking about Wright brothers ; It is difficult to fly. It is easy to say
we have flown." (R. Ganesan) . If this incident had taken place now then, Shivakar
Bapurao Talpade would not have only lost his rights to be famous and royalty but,
India too would have lost a great intellectual property right.

The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of intellectual property as an


asset for organizations and to project barbaric activities of developed countries against
India with special reference to Intellectual property law.

Intellectual property has gained immense importance in recent times and would be a
major tool in creating intellectual colonies a different recourse to imperialism.
Intellectual property is the wealth for many companies. It is more important than
tangible assets. Once, CEO of Coca Cola Company was asked the worth of his
company. He responded by saying that If all my corporate houses, factories, offices,
cars, and trucks that the company owned were to be burned down in a moment, the
company could get back to being operational by re-building and buying everything lost
in a year due to the value and profit generated by its intellectual property, namely the
income generated by such things as its trademarks, franchise contracts, patents, and
licenses. (Kaur, 2012)

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Trademarks can play a crucial role in fortune of the company, for e.g. the brand value
of the Coca Cola trademark is USD $6.7Bn. Another example, Harley Davidson rebuilt
the company on license fees, which at one time were 50% of its income, from licensing
the
Harley Davidson trademark for use on products other than motorcycles.

US also has law to protect trade secret. The secret formula of making the drink Coca
Cola is kept secret in a bank vault which can only be opened by a resolution of the
company Board of Directors. Only two people know the secret. Their identities are
unknown. They cannot travel together. They oversee the production. (Nanayakkara)

Unfortunately, India has no law to protect trade secret. The worth of intellectual
property is many folds more than the physical assets. It is recognised as the most vital
and powerful asset by many of the worlds largest companies. (King)

It can further be well illustrated from the following example of S&P companies:

Over the past 25 years the market values of the S&P 500 companies have
deviated greatly from their book values. This value gap indicates that the
physical and financial accountable assets reflected on an average companys
balance sheet today comprises no more than 20 per cent of its true value.

Research from intellectual property bank Ocean Tomo shows that a significant
portion of this intangible value is represented by patented technology.

1976 was a breakthrough year in the development of standards for reporting


intangible assets, when the then International Accounting Standards Committee

9
published exposure draft E9, Accounting for research and development
costs.33% When 560 executives were interviewed for a 2010 Hay Group
report entitled The silver bullet of success: winners and losers in the M&A
game, the research found that they attributed no more than a third of an
organisations value to its intangible assets. (Castelao, 2013)

There is an interesting saga that would prove that intellectual Capital is an asset and
there is a necessity to have a diligent audit of intellectual property is that of is The
Volkswagen-BMW-Rolls Royce:

Rolls Royce Plc sold Rolls Royce Motors to Vickers, a British company in
1973. In 1998, Vickers decided to sell Rolls Royce Motors. Volkswagen with a
bidding of 430 Million outbid BMW who bid at 340 Million. However,
Volkswagen later realised that it had only bought the plant and the processes but
not the Rolls Royce brand, which was with the Rolls Royce Plc, the parent
company.

Later that year, BMW bought the rights to the Rolls Royce brand from the
parent company for 40 Million. Thus, while Volkswagen (VW) owned the
machinery
BMW owned the name. VW and BMW reached a settlement that from 1998
2002 BMW would allow VW to use the name and the logo. But from 1st
January2003, it was forced to surrender production to BMW. (Sreedharan, 2012)

Furthermore, there is yet another classic example of The NTP v. RIM patent
infringement case. NTP had a collection of submarine patents covering the wireless
email
Technology . Blackberry was a great success with its highly efficient features like its
wireless e-mailing, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing and web browsing
facilities. It was quite popular with the governments as well. It was a useful device
which developed into a classy tool which was wonderfully crafted after weeks of
intense research by a well known California based company, Lexicon Branding Inc.

The battle raged in the United Stated District Court in the Eastern District of
Virginia which finally held NTPs patents to be valid and gave injunction to
RIM. However, the BlackBerry device had gained so much of public acceptance
and had become such an integral part of the globe-trotting universe that during
the pendency of the appeal, the US Department of Justice filed a brief requesting
that RIMs service be allowed to continue because of the large number of
BlackBerry users in the US Federal Government! Attempts at settlement failed
initially but the matter was finally resolved with a settlement of USD 612
million paid by RIM to NTP as a full and final settlement. Initially, the hugely
successful BlackBerry continues to capture major markets worldwide.
(Narayanan.P., 1990)

Licensing revenue is one of the most basic and common ways in which companies
derive income from their intellectual property. IBM is reported to have recently
generated nearly $1.5 billion in annual licensing revenue. (Meyer & Tobin)

10
Companies earn a lot of revenue from licensing their Intellectual Property . It is evident
from the following example of Jet Airways:

The Jet Airways trade marks were originally owned by Jet Enterprise Private
Limited (JEPL), and not by Jet Airways.Although they had a history of
common promoters, the IP ownership rested with the former company. Jet
Airways was allowed to use the trademarks under a license agreement with
JEPL. When the airline company decided to make an initial public offering
(IPO) in the securities market in February 2005, prospective investors were
concerned about the existing licensing arrangement. They believed that the
value of JEPLs intangible assets that is, the IP around the logo and name
was considerable, and that either the airline could be forced to pay higher
licensing terms once the company became a public enterprise, or that the license
may not even be renewed. Such a situation could potentially leave the airline
without any rights to continue using the trademarks. Therefore, about a month
before the airline was set to open its IPO, the intangible IP assets owned by
JEPL were valued. Jet Airways thereafter purchased the entire rights, interests,
and title in the said assets for a one-time fee of U.S. Dollars Seventy lakhs.
(Kaur, 2012)

It would be senseless for a company to develop and acquire a strong intellectual


property portfolio without expecting and ultimately receiving some return on its
investment. (Meyer & Tobin)

India is far behind in Intellectual and Property laws. It needs to restructure and make
conditions favourable for Indian companies so that at least we are able to survive in the
global digital era where knowledge travels at the click of mouse. In fine in the words of
Ralph Waldo Emerson Build a better mousetrap, and the world will beat a path to your
door.

Bibliography :
Castelao, L. (2013, July 16). The increasing value of intangible assets. Retrieved Mar 15, 2015, from CIMA: http://www.fm-
magazine.com/infographic/data/increasing-value-intangible-assets
Kaur, G. (2012). Strategic Planning for Commercialisation of Intellectual Property . In S. Sreedharan k, Strategic Planning for
Commercialisation of Intellectual Property (p. 5). New Delhi : IGNOU .
King, K. (n.d.). The Value of Intellectual Property Intangible Assets and Goddwill,WIPO Program Activities: Small and Medium
Sized Enterprises. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from WIPO: http:/www.wipo.int/sme/en/documents/value_intangible_assets.htm
Meyer, S., & Tobin, C. (n.d.). Strategic Intellectual Proerty Planning . Retrieved March 16, 2015, from Fenwick:
http://www.fenwick.com/publications/6.2.0.asp
Nanayakkara, T. (n.d.). Leveraging Intellectual Property Assets for Business Success. Retrieved March 15, 2015, from WIPO:
www.wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/.../wipo_smes_uln_07_www_89153.ppt
Narayanan.P. (1990). Intellectual Property Law. Calcutta : Eastern Law House. .
Rainmaker. (2011). Strategic planning for Commercialisation of IP. New Delhi : Rainmaker Training & Recruitment Private
Limited, 2011.
Sreedharan, S. K. (2012). Entering Markets. In G. Kaur, Comercialisation of IP (p. 6). New Delhi: IGNOU.

11
Reconsidering Syllabus Design:
The Importance of Learner Goals and Motives
Gareth Morris
gareth.morris@xjtlu.edu.cn
+86 13862576680

Abstract: This research focuses on Chinese undergraduate English majors


employment goals and language learning motivation. It considers whether they know
what they would like to do after graduation; how prominent employment goals are as
an L2 motivational drive compared to situation specific alternatives; to what extent
the institution or subject sub-discipline have an effect on any evidenced prominence,
and what students believe can be done, in light of their employment goals, to improve
their courses. The research is post-positivistic in nature. A questionnaire survey was
administered to collect the data. Respondents were all students at two institutions
within the same city. These institutions were a Chinese university and Chinese
college. In total 637 participants took part. Both descriptive and inferential statistics
were utilized to analyze the data. The results suggests that, for the Chinese university
and affiliated college, the students in question do have relatively clear employment
goals; that as a motivational force employment goals are the second most prominent
drive, and that this is the case irrespective of institution or sub-discipline; and that,
after coding the data, nine categories of desired changes were evidenced.

Key Words : Syllabus Design, Goals, L2 Motivation

Introduction: English majors today enter an increasingly competitive employment


market. In order to increase the likelihood of gaining preferential employment upon
graduation it is not only important that students achieve good academic scores, but that
they are also able to demonstrate possession of professionally desirable skills. To
enhance the possibility of achieving either of these outcomes typically necessitates
learners to be motivated to work hard throughout their time at university, and to possess
reasonably clear goals in order to channel their efforts appropriately (Locke and
Latham, 1994). This is especially important in cases where the learners academic
courses may not adequately prepare them for future employment realities. The problem
however is that many Chinese undergraduates often have not considered their future
career direction upon entering university (Ding, 2004; Keng and Partridge, 2008). This
is because their parents have often decided upon their educational path (Chao, 1994).
With many learners therefore unaccustomed to assuming personal responsibility (Mills,
2011), and others seeming to lack the motivation which will be required to succeed,
especially in light of how many English courses fail to develop the skills learners
require, securing initial employment can be a challenge.

12
Literature Review: An essential feature in helping to facilitate language learning, L2
motivation is regarded as the force behind why a language is learnt, for how long, and
with what amount of effort (Dornyei, 2001; Gardner, 2001). Early field developments
have included Gardner and Lamberts (1959, 1972) Socio-Educational Model, which
highlighted the importance of the socio-cultural environment; Deci and Ryans (1985)
Self Determination Theory, which brought to the fore the notion of intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation; and Dornyei and Ottos (1998) Process Model, which considered
the importance of the temporal nature of motivation.Within the Chinese context, Gao et
al., (2004), in their seminal research on Chinese undergraduates language learning
motivation, identified seven prominent motives for the student population to whom this
paper attaches importance. These motivational drives were intrinsic interest, immediate
achievement, the learning environment, language as an information medium, individual
development, social responsibility, and going abroad. It was also identified that that an
intrinsic interest in the language, followed by social responsibility were the two most
prominent motives at the then time of publication. However, given socio-cultural
developments, such as an increasing number of graduates who are also more language
proficient, and a more competitive job market, alongside educational reforms, it is
unlikely that such a rank order will remain in place today.

Enquiry Design: This research set out to determine whether:

1. Chinese Undergraduate English majors knew what they want to do after


university;
2. How prominent employment goals were as an L2 motivational drive for the
students in question relative to alternative situation specific motives;
3. To what extent the institutional environment and subject sub-discipline
impacted upon the prominence of employment goals as an L2 motivational
drive;
4. In light of their employment goals, what Chinese undergraduate English majors
believed should be done to improve their courses.
The participants in this study were the English major students attending a university
and affiliated college in the city of Suzhou. In all, 637 out of a possible 749 participants
took part in the research, a response rate of 85%. These institutions were selected as it
was believed that the students in question were likely to be representative of a wide
target population. Additional justification resulted from the access the researcher had to
both sites. To gather the sought after data a modified questionnaire of the one Gao et
al., (2004) employed was adopted. The fact that the updated tool reported a respectable
Cronbach Alpha figure of 0.77 for the motivational component of the survey lent
additional credence to its use. Instrument administration was conducted by either the
researcher, class teacher or both, with variation the result of practical time constraints.
In all instances however, the researchs purpose, scope and ethical commitments were
communicated to participants. Both descriptive and inferential statistics have been used
when interpreting the data. This was conducted on SPSS 19.0, with the parametric tests
13
justified because the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro Wilks normality tests indicated
that the data was normally distributed.

Results and Analysis: Research Question 1: To assess whether Chinese undergraduate


English majors know what they want to do after university, the responses to an open
ended question were coded based on an open axial process. This was iterative, and
continued until saturation resulted. Based on the findings presented in table 1 below it
appears that 72%, a relatively high percentage, do have a clear idea about what they
would like to do after university. The English and Education majors harbour the
clearest notions in this respect, and this is both in terms of the generic nature of their
responses and the degree of specificity. By contrast, the English and Translation
majors, despite as a group exhibiting signs of wishing to attain employment in a
profession naturally aligned to their respective major, were more divided en-mass. Like
the General English majors at both institutions, almost a third of respondents were
unsure, or simply had no idea what they would like to do after graduation. That said,
and teaching aspirations aside, irrespective of context the General English majors
tended to give fairly uniform responses.

Table 1: Do Chinese undergraduate English majors know what they want to do after university?

Specific Employment Goal University EE University ET University GE College GE ALL

Teacher 105 72% 6 7% 21 12% 58 25% 190 30%

Translator 2 1% 23 28% 31 18% 30 13% 86 13%

International Company Employee 3 2% 15 19% 22 12% 24 13% 64 10%

(Any) Company Employee 4 3% 3 4% 17 10% 18 8% 42 7%

Unsure (between possibilities) 19 13% 14 17% 39 22% 33 14% 105 16%

No Idea 6 4% 12 14% 16 9% 43 19% 77 12%

Number of Respondents (in Total) 139 / 145 96% 73 / 83 88% 146 / 177 82% 206 / 232 89% 564 / 637 89%

Note: Selected Results


Abbreviations: EE (English and Education) ET (English and Translation) GE (General English)

Research Question 2: Having determined that the students in question did for the most
part harbour employment designs, to assess the relative prominence of generic
employment goals as a motivational force relative to situation specific alternatives the
mean average of each motivational construct, alongside its associated standard
deviation, was calculated. The results are presented in table 2 below, and the results
would appear to suggest that the employment goals are a forceful motivational driving

14
force for Chinese undergraduate English majors. Indeed they rank second. This is
irrespective of the institution or subject sub-discipline. The accompanying standard
deviations, which are reasonably low, additionally suggest that a relatively high level of
agreement exists regarding the responses being offered, which increases the likelihood
that the statistics are indicative of the majoritys responses.

Table 2: How prominent are employment goals as a L2 motivational drive for Chinese undergraduate English
majors relative to other situation specific motives?

Motive University EE University ET University GE College GE ALL

Individual Development - Mean (Std. Dev) 4.09 (0.78) 3.93 (0.81) 4.10 (0.86) 4.00 (0.87) 4.03 (0.83)

(Generic) Employment Goals - Mean (Std. Dev) 3.94 (0.84) 3.75 (0.89) 3.85 (0.82) 3.87 (0.94) 3.85 (0.87)

Information Medium - Mean (Std. Dev) 3.57 (0.87) 3.68 (0.85) 3.65 (0.92) 3.60 (0.93) 3.63 (0.89)

Intrinsic Interest - Mean (Std. Dev) 3.43 (0.97) 3.49 (0.96) 3.47 (0.99) 3.46 (0.99) 3.46 (0.98)

Social Responsibility - Mean (Std. Dev) 2.95 (0.97) 2.98 (1.07) 3.06 (1.03) 3.20 (1.05) 3.05 (1.03)

Going Abroad - Mean (Std. Dev) 2.94 (1.12) 3.07 (1.05) 2.96 (1.13) 3.18 (1.09) 3.04 (1.10)

Immediate Achievement - Mean (Std. Dev) 2.95 (1.13) 2.70 (1.12) 2.81 (1.17) 3.10 (1.17) 2.89 (1.15)

Learning Situation - Mean (Std. Dev) 2.81 (1.06) 2.70 (1.12) 2.66 (1.11) 2.85 (1.13) 2.76 (1.11)

Total 3.34 (0.97) 3.29 (0.98) 3.32 (1.00) 3.40 (1.02) 3.34 (1.00)

N = 145 N = 83 N = 177 N = 232 N = 637

To assess if the derived rankings are likely to be a genuine reflection of reality a series
of ANNOVAs were conducted. The findings were that there was a statistically
significant difference at the p < .05 level for the motivation scores for each of the four
groups: English and Education (university): F (7, 4632) = 154, P = .000; English and
Translation (university): F (7, 2648) = 79, P = .000; General English (university): F (7,
5656) = 189, P = .000; and, General English (College): F (7, 7416) = 142, P = .000. In
addition, Post Hoc Tests (Multiple Comparisons) confirmed the majority of the rank
order placements. The effect sizes were however found to be small (Cohen, 1988).
Listed in the same order as the previous information, the exact figures are .19, .17, .19,
and .12. However, in an educational setting it is worth noting that small effect sizes do
not necessarily detract from the value of the findings (Coe, 2002). Planned comparisons
were also conducted between the employment goals motive and the situation specific
alternative drives. A Bonferroni adjustment was initiated which set the alpha level at
.007. The following figures were derived: English and education (university): F (1,
4632) = 103, P = .000; English and translation (university): F (1, 2648) = 130.33, p =
.000; general English (university): F (1, 5656) = 206.21, P = .000; general English
(college): F (1, 7416) = 96.26, p = .000. As indicated, statistically significant results
were returned for all four groups lending further credence to earlier findings.
15
Research Question 3: To evaluate the impact that the institutional environment and
subject sub-discipline had upon the prominence of employment goals as a L2
motivational drive for Chinese undergraduate English majors a MANOVA was
conducted. The dependent variables were the eight motivational constructs, and the
independent variable the (four) institutional / subject sub-disciplines. During
preliminary assumption testing to check for normality, linearity, univariate and
multivariate outliers, homogeneity of variance - covariance matrices, and
multicollinearity, no serious violations were noted. Results indicated that there were
statistically significant scores between the institutional / subject sub-disciplines on the
combined dependent variables, F (24, 1816) = 3.08, p = .000; Wilks Lambda = .89;
partial eta squared = .04. When the results for the dependent variables were considered
separately, the only differences to reach statistical significance, having first used a
Bonferroni adjusted alpha level of .00625, were social responsibility F (3, 633) = 4.962,
p = .002, partial eta squared .023; going abroad F (3, 633) = 4.456, p = .004, partial eta
squared .021; and immediate achievement F (3, 633) = 4.430, p = .000, partial eta
squared .035. In these cases, an inspection of the mean scores indicated that general
English majors at the college reported slightly higher averages than all their
contemporaries at the university across all three constructs. Thus, the relative
prominence of the four most prominent motives (as well as the least influential) would
not appear to be affected by the institution / subject sub-discipline.

Research Question 4: Before discussion turns to what students would like to see
improved about their courses, it is first worth noting that 61% of English and Education
majors, 76% of English and Translation majors, 78% of university General English
majors, and 59% of General English majors at the college felt, at least to some extent,
that their courses helped to prepare them for their desired future employment. In
addition, an additional, 36% of English and Education majors; 18% of English and
Translation majors, 19% of university General English majors, and 26% of college
General English majors actually felt that their courses did help to prepare them.
However, this did not stop almost all, 85% of participants, offering suggestions for
further ways improvements could be made. These suggestions to what was an open
ended question were coded based on the common themes which emerged and selected
results can be seen in table 3 below. Indeed, the highest percentage irrespective of the
sub-discipline, 25% in total, stated that they would like to see more courses being
offered with greater choice flexibility. More interactive classes were also desired,
seemingly suggesting that pedagogy ought to become more student centered. The other
major finding was that 13% of students felt that they would like to receive additional
employment skills training and careers advice.

16
Table 3: In light of their employment goals what do Chinese undergraduate English major students believe
should be done to improve their courses?

Principal Preferred Change University EE University ET University GE College GE ALL

More Course Options / Flexibility 33 23% 23 28% 57 32% 44 19% 157 25%

More Interactive Classes (SS / ST) 27 19% 3 4% 23 13% 61 26% 114 18%

More Employment Skills and Advice 18 12% 18 22% 29 16% 20 9% 85 13%

No Comment 9 6% 5 6% 8 5% 30 13% 52 8%

Update Pedagogy (Content / Material) 6 4% 2 2% 16 9% 26 11% 50 8%

Number of Respondents (in Total) 93 / 145 64% 51 / 83 61% 133 / 177 75% 181 / 232 78% 458 / 637 72%

Note: Selected Results / Respondents only stated the


change they would most like to see implemented

Conclusion: This research has found that Chinese undergraduate English majors
harbour specific (if underdeveloped) employment designs, and that generic
employment goals are a prominent motivational force. Indeed, out of the four
motivational forces which were found to drive the students in their academic
endeavours, employment goals ranked second. In addition, the students also had clear
notions of how they would like to see their courses enhanced. On a final note, this
research has also highlighted that, with the motives of Chinese undergraduate English
majors having evolved since Gao et al., (2004) conducted their seminal fieldwork
almost a decade ago, the research instrument they devised, namely the questionnaire
survey, appears to require updating.

Bibliography:
Chao, R. (1994). Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the
Cultural Notion of Training. Child Development, 65(4), 1111-1119.
Coe, R. (2002). Its the Effect Size, Stupid? What Effect Size Is and Why It Is Important. Retrieved July 17, 2013 from:
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/00002182.htm
Deci, E. Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic Motivation and Self Determination in Human Behaviour. New York: Plenum.
Ding, X. (2004). The Tracking Survey about the Employment Situation of University Students. In China International Symposium
on Education. Volume 3. Beijing: Peoples Education Press.
Drnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow: Longman.
Drnyei, Z. Ott, I. (1998). Motivation in Action: A Process Model of L2 Motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics,
Thames Valley University, 4, 43-69.
Gao, Y. et al. (2004). Motivation Types of English Learning among Chinese University Undergraduates. Asian Journal of English
Language Teaching, 14, 45-64.
Gardner, R. (2001a). Language Learning Motivation: The Student, the Teacher and the Researcher. Texas Papers in Foreign
Language Education, 6(1), 1-18.
Gardner, R. Lambert, W. (1959). Motivational Variables in Second-Language Acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13,
266-272.
Gardner, R. Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. Rowley: Newbury House.
Locke, E.A. Latham, G.P. (1994). Goal Setting Theory. In ONeil, H. F. Jr. Drillings, M. (Eds.). Motivation: Theory and Research
(pp. 13-30). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mills, E. (2011, May 22). Enter the Dragons. The Sunday Times Magazine, 20-26.
Partridge, R. Keng, N. (2008). Tackling Graduate Unemployment: Enhancing Employability amongst Students of Chinese
Universities. Retrieved May 11, 2013 from: http://www.york.ac.uk/services/careers/nyjcee/res/emplychinaukperspective.pdf

17
India US China in the Indo-Pacific : A Find Blaance
Dona Ganguly
Assistant Professor
Department of ONA GANGULY
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science,
The Bhawanipur Education Society College, Kolkata
donajadavpur@gmail.com
91-9831852639/7687980041

ABSTRACT: The region of Indo-Pacific can develop into a prolific geo- economic zone if
each of the three nations- India, US and China mitigate the risk of the escalating conflict and
initiate a fine balance by maintaining clarity, transparency, mutual trust and unambiguous
communication free of misperceptions.

Key words: Indo-Pacific region, Asia Pivot policy, hub and spokes model, extended
neighbourhood

INTRODUCTION : In the contemporary world political state of affairs, the centre of gravity
of the power is now shifting towards a new economically and strategically important region
which encompasses the Western Pacific, the Eastern Pacific, the Eastern Indian Ocean rim
and the Western Indian Ocean reaching the East African shores as a single geo-strategic arc.
This new geopolitical strategic construction, well known among scholars and diplomats as
Indo-Pacific Asia or Indo-Pacific, was elucidated by the geopolitics scholar Karl
Haushofer as Indopazifischen Raum, the home to an enormously populous and diverse mix
of ethnicities, cultures, political systems, religions and economies. Indo-Pacific is the vein
that carries the resources fuelling the growth of the economies of China and India and in
which the US has declared a permanent future presence. The present study deals with 4
research questions: (a) Why the Indo-Pacific Region is becoming geo-economically as well
as politically significant? (b) How the region is strategically important for India, the US and
China? (c) What are the potential areas of coalition, co-existence and the tipping points for
clash among these nations? (d) Is it possible that the power relations these three nations are
currently sharing with each can satisfy their long term national interests? The present study
has been inter-disciplinary one. It is based on the historical and analytical method. The data
used here is essentially based on secondary resources like journals, articles, speeches and
statements

GEO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF INDO-PACIFIC : Indo-


Pacific is an emerging geostrategic and geo-economic construct that has been gaining
prominence in the international discourse in the last few years. Indo-Pacific is the
geographical connotation of the area straddling the Western Pacific, the Eastern Pacific, the
Eastern Indian Ocean rim and the Western Indian Ocean reaching the East African shores as
a single geo-strategic arc. It is rapidly making the once dominant Asia-Pacific obscure and
irrelevant as the centre of trade, investment, competition and cooperation. In the post cold
war period the concept of Asia- Pacific was propounded and promoted throughout the 1970s
and 80s. However it is being now felt that the Asia- Pacific construct is too narrow and
restrictive with its focus on East Asia and Southeast Asia only. While the term has focused
much on western Pacific and power play of US, China and Japan;Indian Ocean with the huge
economic and human resource potential, emerging as a key strategic arena in the 21st century

17
was left out, largely overshadowed by Pacific.Piracy in the Strait of Malacca, the rise of
China and its assertive maritime behaviour particularly in South China Sea and Indian Ocean,
political, economic and military rise of India, greater salience of energy issues, growing
interaction between the two Oceans due to ever-increasing trade, Australians trade interest in
the broader Indian Ocean and Western Australia, US rebalancing strategy; all have induced
perceptive shifts in the opinion.

The prime geopolitical significance of the region is attached to the often-talked Asia Pivot
policy. Given Asias economic rise and the strategic competition that is now ensuing in the
region, Great powers are creating their pivots in the region. The US re-balancing of its forces
and the economic initiative of the Trans Pacific Partnership intends to establish a US Asia
pivot. The US led alliance system ties the emerging powers with the United States in the hub
and spokes1 model. US security guarantees with these powers is bolstered with extensive
economic interdependence and trade. India has growing and deepening economic exchanges
with the emerging powers of the Pacific and reciprocally the emerging powers have been
investing in India and have also limited forward presence in the Indian Ocean. Indias
economic and strategic exchanges with the emerging powers positions India into the Indo-
Pacific as part of its extendedneighbourhood2. China on the other hand has been
strengthening its economic engagement through the East Asia Summit and has been
deepening its economic exchanges with Southeast Asia.

Secondly, the security of the Indo-Pacific commons is yet another factor of immense geo-
strategic significance. These commons span over the critical waterways including the Strait
of Malacca; the South China Sea; the Taiwan Strait; key aerial transit routes; undersea
passages; cyber networks and communications satellites. These lines of communication are
increasingly vulnerable to disruption by both traditional and non-traditional threats.Moreover
throughout the Indo-Pacifics commons, territorial disputes over isolatedislets and rocky
chains, differing interpretations ofterritorial waters and exclusive economic zones, andclashes
between national fishing fleets, among otherproblems, are endemic and keep tension and
distrustin the commons at high levels.Major disputes include that over Taiwans sovereignty;
the divided Korean peninsula; the numerous island rivalries, such as the Spratly and Paracel
Islands in the South China Sea between China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Malaysia; the Kurile
Island chain between Russia and Japan; the Takeshima/ Dokdo Islands in the Sea of Japan
between Japan and South Korea; the Senkaku/Diaoyutai Islands in the East China Sea
between China, Taiwan, and Japan. Other land disputes include parts of Arunachal Pradesh
between India and China.

STRATEGIC INTERESTS OF US, INDIA AND CHINA : The US emerged from World
War II as one of the most influential and powerfulnations in the world and has been the
global hegemon since the end of the ColdWar. However, US involvement in the two wars in
the region of the Middle East in the last decade has consumed valuable national reserves at a
time of global financial crisis and the US is in such difficult economic circumstances that it
has hadto raise its foreign debt ceiling to US$16.2 trillion to avoid defaulting. (McDaniel
Colonel Dan, 2012) In 2011, the US President Barack Obama declared a shift of US focus to
the Pacific through his pivotannouncement while addressing the Australian Parliament on 17
November of the same year.( McDaniel Colonel Dan) Since then US has increased its
economic, military and diplomatic efforts inthe Indo-Pacific, eager to retain its position as the
regional power. Nevertheless the US diplomatic strides face significant challenges from
China, which has emerged as one of thekey drivers of the shift in the balance of power andthe
rise of regional uncertainty. As a result of Chinasmilitary build-up, the United States and its

18
allies canno longer claim to be maintaining regional superiorityof forces either numerically
orqualitatively.(Auslin Michael, 2010) Chinas most conspicuous militaryadvanceshave taken
place in the PLA Navy(PLAN). The PLAN boasts the Indo-Pacifics largest navalforce, and
one that is becoming more adept atpatrolling and joint operations, especially within thefirst
island chain, which runs south from Japanssouthern home island of Kyushu, past Taiwan,
anddown into Southeast Asia demarcating claimed waters in theSouth China Sea. (Auslin
Michael, 2010) PLAN ships now regularly travelin the East and South China seas, in addition
tothose of the China MSA, thereby giving China a regularpresence in the East Asian
commons. (Auslin Michael, 2010) Of equalsignificance to the U.S. and other navies, as
recentconfrontations between Chinese and foreign vesselshave demonstrated, the PLAN is
acquiring oractively developing advanced weapons able to targetenemy vessels at increasing
ranges. (Auslin Michael, 2010) The PLA Air Force (PLAAF)has been modernizing its fleet
of fighters andbombers concurrently with the PLA build-up. (Auslin Michael, 2010)
ThePLAAF is also acquiring unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) and unmanned combat aerial
vehicles; though their numbers and quality are far lower than foreign counterparts, and
developing advancedcombat and reconnaissance versions. (Auslin Michael, 2010) Among
these, programs especially worrisome to U.S. military planners are the DF-21 anti-ship
ballistic missile, which is designed to track U.S. large ships at sea; the J-20 stealth fighter,
which could reduce the edge of stealthy U.S. F-22s and future F-35s; the growing submarine
fleet, which now numbers over 70; and ongoing anti-cyber programs, designed to attack the
networked structure of Americas defence machine. (Auslin Michael, 2011) United Statesand
other Western nations strongly suspect thatChina is actively seeking to wage cyber warfare as
aseparate war fighting discipline that can support othermilitary operations and act as an
offensive means inits own right by using computer network operations,electronic warfare,
and kinetic strikes to attack anenemys networked information systems. (Auslin Michael,
2010) Targets would include intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance(ISR) systems,
databases, satellites, and networkarchitecture, with the goal of blinding an enemyor
disrupting its ability to achieve battlefield awarenessand coordinate operations, thereby
underminingthe connectivity that fundamentally underpins theU.S. way of war.

India has been looking towards the East since the 1990s. Now, there is a renewed emphasis
on this in India owing to recent developments in Southeast Asia along with growing
international interest in the Asia Pacific. From an Indian perspective, it will be imperative to
expand the focus from Looking East to Indo-Pacific for the following reasons. First, in terms
of US military-economic concerns, this region is likely to become strategically significant.
The Indo-Pacific is becoming the next international theatre and is likely to witness a
substantial attention, investment and development. Second, in economic terms, given the
presence of organizations and structures such as ASEAN, the ARF and the EAS, this region
will become the global economic power-house. Third, the maritime expanse of this region
along with the oceanic trading routes cutting across the Indian Ocean and the Pacific has
already made the Indo-Pacific perhaps even more important than the European Union. In the
next decade, the sheer volume of trade and movement of goods across these two oceans will
also increase the vulnerability of this region. The imperative to protect the sea-lanes across
the two oceans and the need to secure maritime traffic will make not only the Malacca Straits
but also the entire Indo-Pacific the most important area.Fourth, the rise of China peaceful or
otherwise will be felt more acutely in this region, starting from East Asia to South Asia.
Moreover the oft-talked String of Pearls strategy of China in the region is of special concern
for India. According to Christopher Pehrson in the USDepartment of Defence Report--- The
StringofPearls(SOP) [the term coined by Booz Allen Hamilton] describes the manifestation of
China's rising geopolitical influence through efforts to increase access to ports and airfields,

19
develop special diplomatic relationships, and modernize military forces that extend from the
South China Sea through the Strait of Malacca, across the Indian Ocean, and on to the Persian
Gulf. There are at least 12 pearls on this string. Each pearl in the String of Pearls is a nexus
of Chinese geopolitical influence or military presence. Simply put, a pearl is a sphere of
influence seeded, secured and maintained through the use of economic, geopolitical,
diplomatic or military means. These pearls are interwoven and sinewed into a strong chain
or string by virtue of their strategic positioning and placement to each other. (Shee Poon
Kim) These include a deep sea port at Sittwe and water harbour at Kyaukphyu,Hainggyik and
Great Coco Islands in Myanmar;Gwadar port in Pakistan; Chittagong deep sea port at
Bangladesh; Hainan Island and Paracel archipelago in the South China Sea;Hambantota port
at Srilanka;deep sea ports at Maldives, Seychelles and Mauritius.India perceives Chinese
actions as power maximization, which could lead to a reordering of the balance of power in
the Indian Ocean. The potential for China to project maritime power into the Indian Ocean
has arguably become Indias principal long term source of concern. Chinas engagement of
nations around India could alter the balance of power, affect Indias strategic posture and
impinge on its standing as a regional stable power leading to competition and a possible
conflict. This unfolding maritime competition with China is an important factor that will
drive Indias maritime strategy in the Indian Ocean.India fears that Chinas political
influence, military modernization and forward basing strategy will be used to contain India as
China ascends as the pre-eminent Asian power.They fear that Chinese intentions are
combative, power seeking and against peaceful co-existence.Indian leaders further speculate
that China is trying to rapidly achieve hegemony in the Indian Ocean while it enjoys a
position of strength. They comprehend Chinas strategies as opportunistic, arising from weak
and ineffective Indian attempts at deterrence and balancing. Chinas strings of pearls
gambit is part of a well co-ordinated, multifarious play at neutralizing Indias efforts to gain
any traction in business, military and political influence in various energy- rich host states.
State sponsored Chinese companies routinely outbid various Indian companies for oil and gas
concessions by paying artificially high prices for resources. Such generous bids are
deliberately designed to erode Indias ability to develop meaningful business relationships
with the host state on any significant scale. India simply cannot seem to match Chinas
generous dispensation of economic rewards.

The Indo-Pacific region is important not only for the supply of resources to but China
alsoregards it as within its rightful sphere of influence. As already mentioned the String of
Pearls strategy describes the imminent geopolitical interests of China in and around the
region. Chinas current actions in the Indian Ocean are rational and consistent with
employing realpolitik in its energy security policies. Most of Beijings oil imports come from
the Middle East, Sudan and Angola, which mean they must transit the Indian Ocean en route
to China. This arrangement has left China extremely vulnerable to disruptions. Starting in
2003, China began talking of its Malaccadilemma, whereby the oil that lubricates its
economy must pass through the Strait of Malacca, a narrow waterway that could be shut
down by a terrorist attack, natural disaster, or at the behest of a foreign power. Although the
Malacca dilemma continues to be a worry, the rest of Chinas SLOCs in the Indian Ocean
and South China Sea are equally vulnerable to disruption. Ships being the favourite medium
of transport for oil, ports for refuelling, repairs and shelter are extremely important.
Developing and upgrading ports would lead to shortening of shipping routes and to reduction
in ship docking times. Maintaining control of ports also means that shipping lanes stay open
and free. In like manner, not only do ports have to be developed, operated and secured from
other neighbouring states, each port has to be interlinked to one another to form a conduit that
can ultimately lead back to China. A key feature of the strategy, therefore, is, to upgrade and

20
construct ports in several countries around the Indian Ocean. Beijing has also established
diplomatic ties with these host countries via trade offers or visits by senior officials or
representatives from State-run enterprises. This is generally followed up by a generous dose
of dollar diplomacy achieved by giving grants, economic aid, loans and even technical
expertise and materials to the host. Chinas SOP strategy should be seen not only as a mere
military or naval or regional strategy; a rational approach to a serious national security
dilemma. It is a manifestation of Chinas ambition to attain great power status and secure a
self-determined, peaceful, and prosperous future. China realizes that its maritime strength
will give it the strategic leverage it needs to emerge as the regional hegemon and a potential
superpower. Chinas growing dependence on maritime space and resources is reflected in the
Chinese aspiration to expand its influence and to ultimately dominate the strategic
environment of the Indian Ocean region. Further, Chinas ongoing presence via its pearls also
means opening doors to new untapped markets eager for Chinese goods, which no doubt aids
in keeping Chinas growth rates purring along comfortably. In Myanmar, for instance, the
revamping of roads saw the creation of 40,000 jobs for Chinese labourers, half of whom
would remain in the country to continue with repair and maintenance work. (Shee Poon
Kim)Chinas quest for pearls reflects its enlightening pragmatism, instrumentality and
flexibility in its foreign policy. It also attests to Beijings determination to do anything and
everything to ensure secure access to energy resources. Records are showing that China has
successfully increased net crude-oil imports to a record 22.27 million metric tons, or 5.44
million barrels a day as of June 2010.(Shee Poon Kim) Further the SOP strategy can be
conceived of as apossible response to the emerging Indo-US partnership in the Indo-Pacific
region.

EXISTING POWER RELATIONS: The above studyidentifies two possiblemodels of


power relation: (I) Indo-US-China Mutual Perceptions; (II) the Indo-US defensive alliance.
The concept of mutual perception engages a demanding space in the academic literature of
International Relations. To be more specific mutual perception and security perception are
oft-interchangeable terminologies. Security is a most complex and ambiguous term subjected
to several interpretations; like: as a psychological feature or a feeling, security is freedom
from anxiety and fear; as a condition or a status security is the state of being free from danger
or injury; as a measure or an act security is protection or defence against threats.(Li Li, 2009)
Security perception is a state actors strategic culture or ideas of security.(Li Li,
2009)According to Alexander Wendt(one of the proponents of the theory of constructivism)
mutual perception refers to role-identification between two nations. (Li Li, 2009) One nation
might regard the other nation as an enemy, a rival or as a friend. Wendt further explains how
Self(one side) defines the role of the Other(the other side) will not only affect its own policy
towards the Other, but also have a constitutive effect on the Others perceptions of it, which
will in turn influence the Others policy towards the Self.When the Self acts like an enemy
toward the Other, this enmity will confirm whatever hostile intentions the Other has
attributed to the Self, forcing the Other to actually enact its role as an enemy, which will in
turn reinforce the Selfs perception of the Other.(Li Li, 2009) In an environment where
China fears Indian rise and US containment, India fears Chinese containment and the US
fears Chinese dominance, the entire region of the Indo-Pacific is likely to be miredinto
conflict born of misperceptions and misunderstandings among the nations of the Indo-Pacific
strategic triangle.Indo-US defensive partnership affirms that both Washington and New Delhi
is keen to maintain this alliance not only to deter and balance the rising Chinese presence in
the region, but also to realize their long term objectives in the region. US is supporting India
in order to deepen its network in the region and benefit economically from Indias young
domestic market. India is accepting the assistance in order to benefit from US support for its

21
objectives in global fora, to develop its military capability and to draw on US support for
continued economic growth. As a part of its rebalancing, the US is likely to work with
partners such as Japan, South Korea, Australia and ASEAN providing an opportunity for
New Delhi to work with these countries. (Chandran D. Suba, 2013)Moreover the increased
American attention towards Naypidaw provides a substantial space for New Delhi in
Myanmar. This availability of space in Myanmar is essentialfor New Delhi if it has to create
a land bridge to South East Asia spanning over the Northeast India, Myanmar and
Bangladesh. The success of this integration project will be determining the future of Indias
Look East policy and its long term objectives in the Indo-Pacific. The current scenario
suggests that the potential for clash in the Indo-Pacific in the next decade and beyond is high.
If the region has to develop into a prolific geo- economic zone, then each of these three
nations has to mitigate the risk of the escalating conflict and initiate a fine balance by
maintaining clarity, transparency, mutual trust and unambiguous communication free of
misperceptions.

NOTES

1. Within the sphere of East Asian relations, hub-and-spokes refers to the network of
bilateral alliances between United States and other individual East Asian countries. United
States acts as a "hub" and Asian countries such as South Korea, Taiwan and Japan fall under
the category "spokes." Whereas there is a strong alliance between the hub and the spoke,
there are no firmly established connections between the spokes themselves. This system was
famously inspired by John Foster Dulles, who served as US Secretary of State under
the Eisenhower administration from 1953 to 1959. He addressed this term twice in Tokyo and
once at the San Francisco Peace Treaty of September 1951. This led to talks for bilateral
peace treaty between US and Japan. Security Treaty between the United States and Japan of
1951, U.S.-South Korea Status of Forces Agreement of 1953 or U.S.-Republic of China
Mutual Defence Treaty of 1954 (replaced by the Taiwan Relations Act) are some of the
examples that manifests these bilateral relations. In April 2014, all ten ASEAN defence
chiefs and United States Secretary of Defence Chuck Hagel attended the U.S.-ASEAN
Defense Forum in Hawaii. This marked the first time the U.S. had hosted the forum. This was
part of an American attempt to get the countries to strengthen military ties between
themselves.

2. The vision of an extended neighborhood involves power projection by India; be it


hard power- military and economic projection or be it soft power cultural and ideational
strands. The extended neighborhood has become the conceptual umbrella for India;
eastwards, southwards, northwards and westwards; amidst what some have called an omni-
directional 360-degree vision of the opportunities available to India outside South Asia.
This was well expressed in 2006 by the Minister for External Affairs, Pranab Mukherjee;
Indias foreign policy today looks at Indias environment in expanding circles . . . starting
with the immediate neighbourhood . . . moving on to . . . the extended neighbourhood. The
concept was pushed with some vigor under Atal Bihari Vajpayees BJP administration of
19982004, which quickly announced our concerns and interactions go well beyond South
Asia. They include other neighbours, and countries immediately adjoining this region our
extended neighbourhood. Whereas the term extended neighbourhood was absent in the
Ministry of External Affairs Annual Report of 19992000, it appeared in the Annual Report
for 200001 as something to be distinguished from Indias immediate neighbourhood.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

22
Auslin Michael, Security in the Indo-Pacific Commons: Towards a Regional Strategy, p.11, Retrieved October 8, 2014 from A Report of the
American Enterprise Institute, December 2010, http://www.aei.org/files/2010/12/15/AuslinReportWedDec152010.pdf

Auslin Michael, The Struggle for Power in the Indo-Pacific, 2011, p.148, Retrieved October 8, 2014 from Turkish Policy Quarterly,
http://www.turkishpolicy.com/dosyalar/files/Michael%20Auslin (1).pdf

Chandran D. Suba, From Look East to Indo-Pacific, Retrieved October 8, 2014 from The Daily Star, 23 March
2013,http://archive.thedailyshttps://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/RadicalCentrism/ulGSsCT3MDEtar.net/beta2/news/from-look-east-to-
indo-pacific/

Li Li, Security Perception and China-India Relations, KW Publishers Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 2009, p.9

McDaniel Colonel Dan, Australian Army, India, China and the United States in the Indo-Pacific region: Coalition, Co-existence or Clash?,
October 2012 p.16 Retrieved October 8, 2014 from DEFENCE.GOV

http://www.defence.gov.au/adc/docs/Publications2012/09_US_China_India_in_the_Indo-Pacific_Region_Coalition_Co-
existence_or_Clash_McDaniel%20_2_.pdf, india china us in indopacific

Shee Poon Kim, An Anatomy of Chinas String of Pearls Strategy, p.33, Retrieved October 8, 2014 from
BIWAKO.SHIGAhttp://www.biwako.shiga-u.ac.jp/eml/Ronso/B87/Kim.pdf

http://society.ezinemark.com/chinas-string-of-pearls-strategy-in-the-indian-ocean-and-the-gradual-encirclement-of-india (accessed on
05.11.12)

23
Framing the Meaning of Life

M.P. Terence Samuel


Assistant Professor
Dept of Philosophy and Comparative Religion
Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan
West Bengal 731235
Email: mptsamuel@gmail.com

Abstract : The question regarding the meaning-of-life is a perennial question,


attempted intellectually and lived practically. Still, the question seems to be unresolved
in the context of changing times and historical epochs. The meaning of life has been
consistently transposed on various aspects of life by individuals. In this article, the
question is discussed in the context of Terry Eagletons philosophical attempt to
understand the problem. The problem is attempted to be resolved here, as to how to go
for the meaning of life as social-individuals, rather than merely as individuals.

Key Words: Meaning of life, Terry Eagleton, Existentialism, Marxism

Introduction : The question of the meaning of life is a daunting question for all
humanity from time immemorial. The meaning of life has been searched and lived
variously, and there can be no singular answer to the question. But still, a philosophical
understanding of such variants of meaning of life has been attempted by philosophers
in general. Here in this article, I would like to explore this question in the context of
Terry Eagletons Meaning of Life.

Towards the end of the book, The Meaning of Life - A Very Short Introduction,
Eagleton gives an analogy of a jazz music group, where every memberworks in tandem
on improvisation, to show how the life is itself a reconciliation of individuation and
sociability at the same time, unlike the symphony which relies on collective score. Each
individual performer of a jazz group has the freedom to improvise but having the
sensitivity to the self-expressive performances of others within the group. Having a
heavy dosage of the concept of freedom offered by liberal individualism in the modern
context, the freedom of the jazz performers on improvisation may be construed as a
limited freedom. However, Eagleton says As each player grows more musically
eloquent, the others draw inspiration from this and are spurred to greater heights. There
is no conflict here between freedom and the good of the whole, yet the image is the
reverse of the totalitarian There is self-realization, but only through a loss of self in
the music as a whole. There is achievement, but it is not a question of self-aggrandizing
success because this flourishing is reciprocal, we can speak, remotely and
analogically, of a kind of love. According to him, when the meaning of life is situated
in the life itself, and not in any means of it or outside of it (like god), the contenders for
the meaning-of-life, like love, happiness, morality, individuation, etc, the means

24
become interrelated to form a wholeness of life. And, just as the jazz performance is a
pointless individual-cum-collective improvisation, the form of life becomes completely
pointless and flourishes as a delight in itself, rather than serving any utilitarian or
metaphysical ends. In this sense, the meaning of life is interestingly close to
meaninglessness, though it is not vacuous. This looks completely as a utopian
aspiration, as he himself acknowledges. However the point is, still basing our critique
on the analogy of jazz performance, the performers need to be skilled artists in
receptivity and instrumental acumen and agility, as the jazz performance thrives on the
reconciliation of individuation and receptive sensitivity towards the others.

Similarly, on the stage of life too, we need to have such performers, which is possible
with the structural foundations of socio-economic conditions.But the problem is, as he
himself has mentioned earlier in the book, it is an age of harmless distractions; the
capitalism has the accumulation of more capital and profit as its end, instead of
minimizing the exigencies of labour to be free humans. In such circumstances, his
avowal to construct a meaning of life in life itself would remain as a utopia, as the
social conditions are not still ripe for it for all but only a select few who too spend their
leisure in indulgence and amassing wealth. It does not mean that people are unskilled to
exercise such a meaning of life; rather, the social conditions are still not yielding to the
possibility of realizing it. So, this utopian idea about the meaning of life can be realized
only through the emergence out of this social conditions/conditioning.

While situating the meaning of life in life itself, the meaning-of-life question has been
relieved of its esoteric contents and it becomes an exoteric practice, as Terry Eagleton
himself suggests. This is an attempt to usurp the meaning-of life question away from
the elites and the philosophical speculators, of its metaphysical and mystical
significances/significations, and locating it in within the ontological context of the
more wider cultural-geographical space, that is, the beings on earth themselves. Now,
the question becomes a little more complicated, in the sense that the cultural variations
come into play in such an exercise of locating the meaning of life, as the humans are
also cultural animals too. For example, a Brahmin in India can get his/her meaning of
life only if (s)he observes the Brahminic traits, one may say, unless and until one
relieves the meaning of life question from its identity-oriented significations, while
locating it in life itself, and tries to realize the utopian humanist form of life.

Another significant attempt which Terry Eagleton makes in this little but fully-loaded
book is that life has been relieved from its mono-linear significations. When life is
understood as a flow of events, often unconnected with the other moments in their
singularity of meaning, of impermanence towards death, the meaning of life can not
realized devoid of its multivalent potential. It cannot be understood as having a singular
meaning. Though being a thorough-going critic of postmodernism, it seems that
Eagleton himself falls into the loop of postmodernism, while relieving life of its
coherent potentiality. Though, at the end of the book, he may suggest that the life itself
gets an absolutist status while situating the meaning of life in life itself, still the life is

25
perceived through postmodern-liberalist-anarchist attitudes by him, it seems. As Sartre
would suggest somewhere in his works, death gives its entirety to life, in the sense that
death relieves ones life from his/her hands and gives it to others disposal; that the
death does not allow a person the possibility to reinterpret his life in the eyes of others.
For Heidegger, death is Daseinsownmost possibility where being-as-a-whole
becomes a possibility - that a totality of life becomes possible through ones death as
ones life is given to the disposal of others and not to the being anymore. Death creates
the possibility for the appropriation of public meanings of an individual in a coherent
manner, in spiteof the fact that the life of an individual is not mono-linear while
existing.

Further, Eagleton states, There could not logically be a final meaning, one which
brought interpretation to a halt, since it would need to be interpreted. And since signs
have meaning only in relation to other signs, there could no more be one big final sign
than there could be one number, or one person. It is true that the closure of further
interpretation seals the meaning; and as long as there is no such closure, there will be
endless referrals of meaning. Still, proposing that there could not be a final meaning
logically smacks of postmodern overture.

This little brilliant book analyses the task in hand linguistically. Most of the discussions
about the meaning-of-life question in this book are centred on the capability of
grammar and language in revealing the answers to the question. For this task, he takes
into consideration the thoughts of Wittgenstein, and quotes extensively from
Shakespeare and the works of other modern literary giants of English language.

Meaning is a matter of language, not of objects, says Eagleton, quoting some


thinkers. Following Wittgenstein, he says that it is the grammar which deceives us,
when one says, I have a pain akin to I have a hat. By constructing pain as similar to
a thing grammatically/syntactically, we are deceived into an understanding that the
meaning can be grasped in our hands like a thing; but pain is an experience, unlike a
hat, which cannot be given away or taken over by anyone. Confronting such problems
of understanding in language, he says, Posing the right kind of question can open up a
whole new continent of knowledge, bringing other vital queries tumbling in its wake
If we have the conceptual apparatus to pose the question, then we already have in
principle the means to determine an answer to it It is true that they (the questions) do
not have their answers tied conveniently to their tails; but they intimate the kind of
response that would at least count as an answer. Further as the word life suggests a
singular biological entity, the multiple ontological/existential moments of life are also
understood singularly and mono-linearly. In such a sense also, the meaning-of-life is
confused due to the overlap of the bio-linguistic and ontological undercurrents. In this
overlapping of the biological and ontological variations of meaning, the ontological
discontinuities between different moments of life are given linearity and understood as
a continuous whole also.

26
One of the most powerful answers to the meaning-of-life question is proposed as
tragedy. Eagleton reviews this position also in his book. Starting from Greek art, and
even up to the modern period, the question of the meaning of life has been searched
passionately in the context of tragedies, as tragedy was understood as revealing the
courageous reflection on the fundamental nature of human existence. Nietzsche, an
admirer of the Greek tragedy, who revived the idea in modern period with certain
philosophical and existential significations, somewhere writes in his Thus Spake
Zarathustra that Life is a perpetual struggle; and for Nietzsche, life is a work of art
too. Though tragedy brings into existence the cherished values of passionate human
aspirations, it prepares the ground for looking into a particular human life through the
prism of tragedy.

Another very interesting discussion, in this book, is abouthow the meaning-of-life


question became so dear during the twentieth century. Though it does not mean that the
question was not alive during pre-twentieth century, the question was agonistically
searched over during the last century. Terry Eagleton says that the human life became
appallingly cheap in the twentieth century than the previous epochs, with millions of
unnecessary deaths. More than this, he argues that the symbolic dimensions of human
life, such as religion, culture and sexuality, were increasingly pushed to the peripheries
of life during the modern period. During pre-modern times, these symbolic dimensions
were cherished as belonging to public sphere as well as the private sphere. In pre-
modern societies, Religion was not just a question of personal conscience and
individual salvation; it was also a matter of state power, public rituals and national
ideologies Artists were rather less inclined to mull over the meaning of life when
they had just received a lucrative commission to compose a Requiem Mass
Sexuality, then and now, was a matter of erotic love and personal fulfillment. But it
was also locked more deeply into the institutions of kinship, inheritance, class,
property, power and status than it is for most of us today, says Eagleton.

He has no intention to idealize the symbolic dimensions of the pre-modern societies;


nor does he want us to revert back to such conditions. But he comments that People
turned to these values all the more eagerly as the public domain itself became
increasingly drained of meaning. Then what happened during modern epoch? In
capitalist modernity, culture was now largely a matter of how to keep people
harmlessly distracted when they were not working Sexuality grew into an exotic
obsession Sexual shock and outrage stood in for a missing political militancy The
more religion loomed up as an alternative to the steady haemorrhaging of public
meaning, the more it was driven into various ugly forms of fundamentalism, he
opines. With the commercial colonization of all these spheres of life in the modern
period, but towards which the pre-modern societies turned to take a recourse to the
meaning-of-life, the meaning-of-life has been begun to searched within an individual

27
and has become a lucrative industry too. As postmodernism prescribes, the meaning-of-
life becomes a bewildering question with the possibility of diversity of answers too.

In such a discussion of meaning of life, the meaning of life is one that an individual
fashions in relation with his/her collective reality. Then, how are we going to
understand the identity/cultural markers of reality, which act as second nature? Are
we going to leave them as purely imaginations and mere constructions, as they are built
up over and above the real? Caste, race, colour and other such markers are ascribed
onto a person when he is born, even before inheriting them in the course of life; they
are superimposed on the real, which the person loves/hates to inherit them within him,
depending upon the hierarchical status of these markers or with a
regressive/progressive outlook. In that case, should a subaltern or a Dalit or a Black
need to carry on his/her identity, still working in common with others - as in the case of
the Jazz group - to fashion his or her own meaning of life? A Dalit may fashion his life
in a far superior way than a Brahmin in Eagletons utopian sense, but still he/she may
be treated only as a Dalit. Hence, if we look at the existing reality from below, the
utopian idea comes to a naught where meaning is not only fashioned in the course of
life but it is an ascribed entity also. This utopian idea may serve even to end the
emancipatory practices of the subaltern, if the co-actors and co-authors of ones life are
not enlightened ones and if the socio-cultural conditionings are not transformed.
Without such transformations in social reality, the equalitarian ideals will exist only as
the life of the mind. In the absence of treating the differences equally, though it exists
mentally, such a utopian ideal of the meaning of life is difficult to be realized in
actuality. Here, I am afraid that Eagleton falls into the same abyss of philosophical
construction/speculation of meaning to life which he tries to escape and to locate it in
its non-philosophical aspects, following Wittgenstein; since such a discussion of the
meaning of life is so abstract that it is not concretely built on the foundations of social
reality, where geographical space, human memories, socio-historical conditions, etc,
are relegated to the margins.

In all these discussions, Terry Eagleton fails to understand the meaning of life as a
class/identity question also. (Though the identityof a person is ascribed at the time of
birth, the individual still has the chance to give a different meaning to his/her life
through accomplishments.) In the analyses of the book, the subject matter is discussed
from the individual-collective; but if we ask which individual-collective he talks
about, then the book offers no answer. As he himself said, towards the end of the book
that his attempted solution is a utopian aspiration; but we need to add one more tag to
his attempted solution, that is, it talks about an abstract individual-collective, who
is/are perceivable only through the life of the mind, not through the concrete actuality.

The seeds of understanding the meaning of life as class question could be seen in the
works of Max Weber; but he understands the question in hand, as his task was to
understand the sociology of religion, as a question of religious behaviour/orientations
too. Though Eagleton tries to situate meaning-of-life in individual-collective practice,

28
in life, still the practice is mired in abstraction. Since the living conditions are
encapsulated within modern capitalist conditions still, the practice of the exploited
cannot be the same as the exploiter. Even if we are to adhere to the individual-
collective practice in such an oppressive atmosphere, then the oppressed is supposed to
work as the wheel-within-the wheel of capitalism in order to gain meaning for his/her
life. Hence, under capitalist conditions, his understanding of meaning of life seems to
be a utopian aspiration, having no social-economic foundations of reality. This utopian
aspiration may become real in the course of history when capitalism gives way for
socialistic/communistic way of life.

But under present conditions, the meaning-of-life question which does not take into
account the class/identity question is found to be lacking in its vigour.For example, let
us try to understand the meaning of life of Ambedkar, who was born as a Dalit but went
on to become the head of the Constituent Assembly in India, within the imagined-
collectivity of the Indian context; though he is revered as the icon of the emancipation
of Dalits by Dalits in India today, he is still a marginalized personality in mainstream
academia and the upper castes in India. Hence, it becomes an important point that the
meaning of life is not given by an individual-collective to himself; rather it depends on
many other factors like identity and the class-based receptivity too. Though Eagleton
avers that Marxism has been mostly silent on the question of the meaning of life, and
still accepts that class struggle is the most fundamental to human history, it is natural
that the discussion of the meaning-of-life as a question of class struggle or as a class
question was expected of him. Though his answer to the meaning-of-life is interspersed
with collectivity, it still looks like an answer of/for an alienated (postmodern?)
individualwho finds meaninglessness written all over collectivity and grand narratives,
as said earlier, where meaning of life is interestingly close to meaninglessness.

Though this book seems to be in want of the nature of meaning-of-life in a class


society, or a society polarized on the levels of identity, Eagleton further elaborates
about the meaning-of-life as a being-towards a classless society in his book, Why Marx
was Right. There he states very clearly that the meaning-of-life in a communist society
is all about the free development of the self-realising individual in and through the self-
realisation of others. This Marxist ideal is a signpost towards which the beings (need
to) progress, a flourishing in common. In a future communistic society, like the
working of the jazz group, I do not have to have tender thought about my fellow
workers, or whip myself into an altruistic frenzy every two hours. My own self-
realisation helps to enhance theirs simply because of the cooperative, profit-sharing,
egalitarian, commonly governed nature of the unit. It is a structural affair, not a
question of personal virtue. This makes it clear that the meaning-of-life that Eagleton
proposes, though utopian and abstract, is an aspiration of being-towards-
socialist/communist. However, the solution which Eagleton offers comes closer to that
of the analytical Marxism or the methodological individualism of this school of
Marxist thought.

29
Bibliography and References:

1. Cooper, David E. (1990) Existentialism: A Reconstruction. Oxford: Basil


Blackwell.
2. Eagleton, Terry, (2008) The Meaning of Life: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
3. Eagleton, Terry (2012) Why Marx was Right. Calcutta: Seagull Books.
4. Hughes, Jonathan (2000)Ecology and Historical Materialism. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
5. Weber, Max and Fischoff, Ephraim (Tr.) (1965) The Sociology of Religion.
London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.

30
The Speeches of Swami Vivekananda:A Study
In Literary Perspective
Krishna Pratap Singh1, Dr Vinay Shankar Shukla2
1
Research Scholar, CSJM University, Kanpur (UP) Mo. No. 9919558141,
Email ID: krish_yadein@yahoo.com
2
Associate Professor, Department of English, D.A.V. College, Kanpur.

Abstract : Swami Vivekananda is one of the greatest religious leaders and thinkers of the
modern India. The present paper is a pioneering study of the speeches of Swami
Vivekananda in a literary perspective. By literary perspective I mean, a perspective in
which the literary worth and value i.e. literary elements and qualities of the speeches of
Swami Vivekananda will be traced and analysed. The study will cover not only
Vivekanandas vision of life, his views on diverse subjects like philosophy, Religion, and
topics, which are of wider human interest and appeal, but also his superb use of the
language and technique and emotive power.Literature is a mirror to life and
Vivekanandas speeches deal with various aspects of life which go beyond the barriers of
caste and creed, colour and community, time and clime having a universal appeal, which is
a touchstone of a great literature. These are the perspectives which I have in my mind
while pursuing this work.

Key words: Speeches, Literary perspective, Oratory, Religion, Philosophy etc.

Introduction: Speeches have a long tradition right from the ancient period down to the
present one. The skill in speaking was an important aspect of the syllabus in the ancient
period. Rhetoric, classically the theoretical basis for the art of oratory, is the art of using
words effectively. Classical rhetoricians divided oratory, or formal speech making, into three
distinct kinds: (1) Deliberative oratory, generally calculated to persuade the audience of the
wisdom of a particular course of action point of view etc. (2) Forensic, judicial, or legal
oratory, concerned with the legal and quasi-legal accusation and defense;(3)And panegyric or
epideictic oratory, concerned respectively with praise or blame. The effect of a work of
literature or oratory will depend very largely upon the words an author uses to suggest his
themes, describe his characters, and make a world for the reader, some sense of the
possibilities of diction word choice- is essential. (Let. Lemon, 67).The elements of
oratory-also applicable in part of writing persuasive prose are the invention, disposition of
materials, style, memory, and delivery. (Let. Lemon, 67). Austin says that in speaking or
writing wePerform simultaneously three and sometimes four speech acts: (1)We utter a
sentence, (2) We refer to an object, (3) We perform an illocutionary act, (4) Often we also
perform a perlocutionary act. (Abrams, 292)Speech-act theory has also been used in a more
radical way, however, as model on which to recast the theory of literature in general, and
especially the theory of prose narratives.(Abrams, 292).C.D. Narasimhaiah, in his book The
Swan and The Eagle, remarks in its introduction: Almost always, the linguists
formulations arise out of a body of written literature and spoken word yet to be rendered in
writing.(ix) As regards the speeches of Swami Vivekananda, one of the big three of the
Indian English novel opined Quite a few of those who complain of the artificiality of
Indian English writing , have not cared to read the felt prose of Vivekananda.(Naik ed.

38
41).S.M Banerjee writes in an article captioned Vivekananda: Orator, Writer and Art Critic
published in the book Vivekananda-The Great Spiritual Teacher: His sayings and
utterances are mines of literary gems, apart from their depth of philosophic
content.(543).How do we define literature and identify literary qualities? What is a literary
perspective?What do we in fact try to find-out when we undertake a study of something in its
literary perspective? What transforms/ makes a verbal message into a work of art a thing of
beauty a text with its own literary texture? Although a clear out distinction between
ordinary day to day communication/ language and literary communication/ language is not
possible, yet it is an established fact that even an ordinary statement can assume literary
qualities from the content where its relevance changes dramatically. The famous example of
J.L. Austin (1962) will make this point clear:I hereby pronounce you man and wife, can be
said by a priest performing a wedding where it assumes a religious value with no
literariness, but the same statement can be grafted and made part of various situations, like
in a play, to give it a literary or fictional value. (Krishnaswamy,2). George Steiner has
defined literature in negative terms he says,the language of literature is not cryptic like the
language of science, it is delphic i.e. obscure, ambiguous, vague an oracular,in other words its
emotive or special. (Krishnaswamy,1).According to Ezra Pound,Great literature is simply
language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree. (Krishnaswamy,2).Jonathan
Culler in his book Literary Theory: A Very Short Introduction says, works that today
today are studied as literature in English or Latin Classes in schools and universities were
once treated not as a special kind of writing but as fine examples of the use of language and
rhetoric . They were instances of a larger category of exemplary practices of writing and
thinking, which included speeches, sermons, history, and philosophy. (21)
In the light of above comments and opinions it can be safely asserted that speeches have to
come established as a literary form.
Vivekanandas Speeches in Literary Perspective:Vivekanandas lectures reveal not the dry
intellect of a thinker, but the outpourings of a heart, the spontaneous outburst of a heart
deeply stirred. The system of thought expressed here is more practical and human.
Underlying this is his profound sense of gratitude to his master along with his fervent
devotion to his earthly mother and the divine mother. Above all, there is the magnificent
artist at work handling the language with superb skill:
Never forget the glory of human nature! We are the
Greatest GodChrists and Buddhas are but waves
on the boundless ocean which I Am. (Rolland frontispiece)
Thus articulated Vivekananda in America in 1895 which Romain Rolland himself an
enchanted soul of fine artistic intuition and sensibility, quoted with approbation as a
representative thought of the Vivekananda whom he was describing in his remarkable book,
The Life of Vivekananda and theUniversal Gospel. Vivekananda was a literary artist of
abiding merit. Although people normally group him with the writers associated with the
Indian Renaissance of the late 19th century. Vivekananda was one of them no doubt but he
was much more besides and that much more is definitely the special literary propensity of
his mind, which is testified by every word he uttered as mentioned by sister Christina, who
said: his was no case of abstract and prepared dissertation. Every thought was passion,
every word was faith. Every lecture was a torrential improvisation.(Narasimhaiah,
43).Although, Swami Vivekananda claimed that he was first and foremost a poet, his name
and fame rested mainly on his unmatched ability as an orator. He has been variously describe
as storm, cyclone, thunder, lightning. and hurricane bythose who marvel at the man

39
and his work, Noted Scholar C.D Narasimhaiah in a brilliant article Capital A Tongue of
Flame published in his work The Swan And the Eagle Says, Vivekanandas eloquence
issued forth from a tongueof flame, but it was not the vicious rhetoric of a politicalagitator-
he treated politics as trash or- a social reformer, but arhetoric which was alive with truth,
reason and imagination.(42, 43).When we estimate Vivekananda as an orator, the first thing
that would strike any audience would be the personality and beauty of his thought and
sincerity of the speaker, apart from the richness and beautyof his thought and his fiery
eloquence. All these combined would give an effect would be electric. Ancient rhetoric
constitutes of five parts: Invention, Disposition, Elocution, Memory and Delivery, in one
form or another these present in his oratory. He was ingenious in inventing arguments,
Skilled in arranging his ideas in order leading them to a logical conclusion and his memory
was unique as he spoke without any note or preparation. For the delivery and elocution he
was widely praised. In order to appreciate Swami Vivekananda as a orator, it has to be
understood that his published writing and speeches cover more than four thousand pages and
deal with subject as varied and as they could be from Vedantic height to a nationalistic creed,
from Raja-Yoga to cradle tales. They are mainly in English but there are some in Bengali and
a few in Sanskrit also. Moreover besides his original Bengali writing, noted for the vigour,
sincerity and literary skill, most of his English writing have been translated without the loss
of the essential fire and faith of the Originals. They may be subdivided into- (a)
Lectures; (b) Discourse and interviews; (c) Questions and answers;(d) Inspired talks
and conversations; (e) Miscellaneous writing and articles,including mythological stories and
biographies; (f) Letters and Poems As regards speeches of swami Vivekananda. One of the
big three among Indian English novels, Mulkraj Anand opined:Quite a few of those who
complain of the artificiality ofIndian English writing, have not cared to read the felt proseof
Vivekananda.(Naik, ed. 41).
It is said that there are certain difficulties to study Vivekananda from a purely artistic or
literary point of view. Most of his prose writing are with a purpose and they are mainly
vehicles as a littrateur, will be incomplete if we do not drew attention to the fact that in
addition to being a lecturer and essayist on highly draw philosophical and moral topics, he
was also a story-teller, a parablewriter and a poet of no mean order. They opened up vistas of
literary promise, which, if persisted, might have given the world a literary giant.
Vivekanandas speeches get permanent literary value because of their intrinsic Quality,
lucidity of thought, nobility of diction and for the inspiration and the aspiration they create.
When we take up his speeches and judge them in the light of the guiding principles laid down
by classical master, we must take a brief look at what makes Vivekananda sway the
intelligentsia of America and the Europe. He was one of the youngest delegates in the
parliament of Religion attended by eminent scholars of the world much older and
experienced than he was. Yet he accomplished the first task of a good orator assigned by
Cicero not only to make the audience understand but render them impossible not to
understand in the very first attempt. One may ask what makes this alien do so in foreign
land. It is the gesture and posture of the preacher that creates the first impression on the
audience. To describe his gesture at the time when he, for the first time, arose to address the
parliament, it is better to quote St. Louis observer of September 21, 1893, With his black,
curly locks thrown back from his broad brow, his keen clear eye fixed upon the audience, his
long brow finger emphasizing the utterances of his vibrant voice, he looked the very image of
a propagandist, and one trembled to Known that such a finger stood at the head of the
movementto consolidate all the disciples of Buddha and to spread the light of Asia (Burke,
81).

40
As an orator he is par excellence, truly a prince of oratory in Indian as he was in his real
life. In the response to welcome on 11th Sept. 1893, those five Words Sisters and Brothers
of America of Swami Vivekananda, rang out over the great audience in the Parliament, and
at once, as though some Sympathetic chord deep in the heart of the people had been touched,
everyone rose and applauded widely. Through these intimate and unconventional words a
message of fraternity, equality, love, and above all of humanity was poured to them at the
moment. His appeal lies to emotion and sentiment that is regarded by Cicero as the highest
power of an orator. As for his words, they are emotionally charged, well picked up and
sensational. To quote a few emotive lines from his addresses at the Parliament: It fills my
heart with joy unspeakable to rise in response to the warm and cordial welcome which you
have given us. I thank you in the name of the most ancient order of the monks in the World, I
thank you in the name of the mother ofreligions, and I thank you in the name of millions
andmillions of Hindu people of all classes and sects.(Works, I: 3).The magnificence of the
address lies in two things- first the negative capability of the speaker and second the emotive
language. By using us instead of me he turns the welcome given to him to all. Again, he
thanks but in the name of somebody else. The emphasis is on millions and millions of
Hindus. The message implied in it is that the Hindu religion is stretching its arms to
embrace all. Whatever applause is given to him, being an emulator of the Gita, he cannot
attach himself to it. It was not he but the religious consciousness of India that spoke through
him. Secondly, the structural parallelism strengthened by the repetition of the principal
clause I thank you creates a sonorous rhythmic effect on the mind of the audience. C.D.
Narasimhaiah Says:Vivekanandas speeches as well as writing, even when it was religious
and philosophical, was almost always that of an artist because they both fell in to the category
the literature of power as against the mere literature of knowledge.(43).He continues to
whip up emotion and ease out the feelings of hatred and discrimination for the Hindu from
the mind of American People:
Allow me to call you, Brethren, by that sweet name heirs of immortal
bliss,
Ye, the Hindu refuses to call you sinners.
Ye are the children of god, the shares of immortal bliss
Ye divinities on earth sinners! It is a sin to call man so.
Come up O lions, and shake off the delusion that you
Are sheep, you are souls immortal, spirits free blest and eternal. (Works,
I:II)
Swamijis emphatic rap in the speech ye divinities on earth sinners Shook the
fundamental notion of Christian that men are in a state of original sin after the fall. The
speaker displays his mastery of rhetorical style by giving pause, by repeating the image of
immortal bliss and using other images like ye divinities, soul, lion, sprit, to reinforce
the same idea and by the artistic arrangement of words, fully charged with evocative spirit,
by invocations and exclamations.
Arnold believe that poetry or literature has its test in its ability to form , to sustain and
move- to form the basic core of human goodness, to sustain that core and move men towards
the formation about the perennial issues of vital human interest. He sings in praise of love,
pity, compassion, duty and steadfast faith. What else can be the touch stone of a great
literature? In his speeches, Sanskrit and Hindu words phrases followed by their English
translation common. The wide ranging references, allusions and the choice of connotative
words like Maya, Atma, Soul, Nihilism, Utilitarianism, Materialism, Atheism, Pran, Cosmic
41
mind Satchitananda, Purus, Jiva and such numerous words, variation in tone and style
according to the need of the subject and occasion, the universality of the Subject, systematic
arrangement of thought and its artistic presentation all these and more make his oratory a
classic work of literature. Vivekananda has serenely wedded the west and the East. Iyengar
writes, Vivekananda was among the makers of modern Indian whathe said and wrote must
therefore be cherished as our National literature. (15).
Conclusion: He had a genius for arresting words and burning phrases hammered out white
hot in the forge of his soul so that they transpierced thousands. It may justly be said that
Indians destiny was changed by him, and that this teaching re-echoed throughout humanity.
And at last this perusal comes to the conclusion that Vivekananda was a master and one of
the pioneers of Indian English prose style who developed Indian English non-fictional prose
and gave a wider perspective and a universal dimension to it.
Bibliography:
The complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. (1990). Calcutta: AdvaitaAshrma.8 Vol.
Abrams, M.H. (1999).A Glossary of Literary Terms. Bangalore: Prism Books.
Burk, MarieLouise. (1983).Swami Vivekananda in the west: New Discoveries.Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.
Culler, Jonathan. (2000).Literary Theory: A very Short Introduction. New York: O.U.P.
Iyengar, K.R. Sriivasa. (2004).Indian writing in English. New Delhi: Sterling Publisher.
Lemon, Lee T. (1978).A Glossary for the Study of English. New Delhi: O.U.P.
Naik, M.K. ed.(1999). Aspects of Indian writing in English. Delhi: Macmillan.
Narasimhaiah, C.D. (1969). The Swan and the Eagle. Simla: Indian instituteOf Advanced Study.
Rolland, Romain. (2004).The life of Vivekanandaand the universal Gospel.Kollkata: Advaita Ashrama.
Vivekananda: The Great Spiritual Teacher. (2000). Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.

42
The social Function of English Language and
Literature in India
Prof. Nitin Gohad
nitin_gohad@rediffmail.com
+91-97330922023

Abstract : Language study leads to two aspects primarily. The first is a stable structural
system and the second is the relation to social features. In this research paper the
varied social functions of English language and its literature are taken for the
findings and their relevance in the present social situation are aimed at.

Key Words: National Integration, Lingua Franca, Indo-Anglian Literature

The language English in India has some social purpose for which it is used.
Individuals who choose English for expressions or communication have social purpose.
People in India choose English because this language enables them to perform their
social functions. It is found that English has become a language of national
integration. Almost all states in India has English as a second or third language in
schools and colleges. The survey shows that there is noteworthy contribution from
theIndian Writers writing in English before and after independence.
In states where the second language has a major function, those who
have to develop an education policy and perpetually torn between the
general desirability of educating children in their mother tongue and
the need to produce very high levels of proficiency in the second
language so that learning at the higher stages is made more
effective.1
English language thus become the cementing language for all states in India. Today
it has been an accepted reality that English has helped the sense of National
Integration of India. No other language in place of English claims to have National
Integration better than English.
English Language also has the status of lingua franca. It has become the language of
library. In government offices, private companies and factories, restaurants, clubs, aero
drums and the public places like railways and buses for transport, communication
through English has become very common and at the same time a matter of national
integration. On the one hand English has the educational purpose and on the other it
has non-educational purpose. English has been the medium of instruction in many
colleges, that is in the university education and mainly in the technical and medical
faculties. It is before independence and after independence that English has been the
medium of instruction.
Now the best age to learn the second language psychologically and physiologically
has to be determined very thoughtfully. In India English is introduced at the primary
level along with the mother tongue. In southern India, English is the second
language. It has served the purpose of lingua franca better than Hindi. It is overall a
social role that is played in the southern states in case of English as a second
language. Hindi in India is supposed to be the National Language. There are
43
Southern States in India which do not have the social turn to the language. Social
turn comes from the cultural and civilizational aspects. Southern states of India have
their own culture and also to say that they have different civilizational traits. The
cosmopolitan cities in India like Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Nagpur have
the language English for communication; for writing and reading purposes. Large
population in India speak through English, particularly in almost all major cities in
India. Even in villages, to a certain extent, educated people do communicate through
English. This study leads to the political and psychological issues in Indian situation.
The English language has got perfectly well background of politicians in India.
Parliaments and Assemblies in India have English as a language of communication,
speeches and records. It is observed that the metropolitan standard is maintained
through English.
Before independence, India has been the host community for English, Britishers, the
Rulers, being the foreigners after all, had social impact on the Indian mind and
Indian living, that is, Indian psychology and Indian Culture. Not because it is the
rulers language but it is the language for looking into all five continents for social
advancement. So to say that European and American influence is much more
discerned in the Indian Society. It is the social function by all means of the
language- English in the context of Indian continent.In India native speakers are not
present in notable quantity. Learners of English do not come in contact with them.
English is acquired primarily to facilitate communication between people who do not
share their mother tongue and for whom English is second language. It is very
interesting to note that in many commonwealth countries----
People do not learn English because they expect to visit an English
speaking county. It might be unreasonable therefore to argue that
they should learn the form of the language used in Britain or in the
United States. This is especially to since in many cases a distinct
local variety of English has arisen where standard British English
spoken with a Received (standard Southern English) pronunciation is
socially decidedly unacceptable. In this case it can be argued that to
set up the local variety of English as the target of School language
teaching is only realistic. In Nigeria the English used would be
Nigerian, in India it is Indian and so on.2
In a way Indo-Anglian Literature has the reflection of Indian Culture and civilization
through it. The writings of Pandit Jawaharlal Neharus Discovery of India reflects not
only the Indian Society but also Indian Writers taste of English structure.
Rabindranath Tagores Gitanjali, Short Stories and Dramas depicted Indian Society
so realistically. R. K. Narayans Guide, Malgaonkars The Princess, Anands The
Untouchables and the vast poetry that is produced in the modern age reveal the
Indian society. The world has come to know about the Indian Traditions, Indian way
of leaving, their spiritual and philosophical advancements through Indian Writing in
English or Indo-Anglian Literature as it was said before.
Exchange of knowledge and information through texts on Technology, Medical
Science, Engineering and Science in general including texts in Humanities has been
made possible through writing in English. This knowledge and information is made
available through Operational Vocabulary. This Operational Vocabulary for
example, the language of computer brings one scholar in the contact with other

44
scholar with ease. The English language has the reputation of international acceptance.
Attendance at international congress or visits to foreign universities or laboratories are
possible only by learning English.
Scientific Society, Literary Society, Medical, Engineering and Technical Societies
provide us with varieties. Agricultural and Industrial Societies have again to add to
the lore of English language. The fact remains that with the development of above
all societies of any country the language develops and same is true about English
used in India. In India even when we are not producing language we often hear it
through radio, television or film.
English medium has emerged as an important social dimension with uncountable
English medium schools and colleges throughout India. The question comes whether
the intricate interaction is possible through the second language? For Indians even in
the case of the first language everything has to be communicated through the
grammatical and lexical context. There is limitations to the spoken forms and written
forms in foreign language. But the undeniable reality is that English has tremendous
social impact. It is to the extent that Indians and many other countries where English
is the first language, second or third language have adopted English living style of
life. It is unavoidable that the Indian social atmosphere will not be influenced by
English social atmosphere which is read through the writings of Chaucer, Shakespeare,
Shaw, Eliot, Whitman, Hemingway and many others. Our social relationships are
influenced by the language we speak. English has influenced the social attitudes of
Indians quite consciously or unconsciously English is used by the educated society in
India as a status symbol and also as an appropriate medium of communication. Social
inferiority in the context of Indian society is gone by using the language i.e. English.
Poetry, dramas, stories, novels or epics all; embody an inside diversity of perspectives
and bring to life a variety of social experiences. These social experiences are mostly
universal experiences apart from being profoundly particular social experiences. For
example, they are produced by different gender, race or social class. So to say that
the wide variety of literary works reveal different social experiences, very useful for
the universal reader to share the point of views. All forms of literature illuminate the
ways society shapes an individuals experiences and identity as a women or as a
man. They, with their themes like love, marriage, war, peace, death and corruption
provide a broad and accessible account to the ways literature can enrich ones
understanding of self and society.
George Bernard Shaw, Matthew Arnold envisage their own society of their own time.
Arnolds poetry provides the moral instruction to the readers through Thyrsis and
Scholar Gypsy. For him poetry is Social Criticism. Martin Luther King Jr., in his
famous speech, I have a dream urge for the equality. This is a social function of
literature. Literature is a Social Force and it has to keep in mind the social
function.A corpus such as English Literature has objective and describable social,
cultural, economic and institutional positioning and links.3
The literature in English language produced in India has socially ideological function.
The ideology of the British coming through their social institutions, the beliefs, and
their values of society are read in English literature. Thus, English in India and
literature produced in it reflect a condition of modern society with a cultural and
moral force. There are ties between the art, the writer and the social milieu.

45
To rightly sum up, The relations between literature and society and reciprocal
literature is not only the effect of social causes; it is also the cause of social
effect.4 The literature impacts society and also Society casts an impact on the literature that
is produced.
Bibliography:
Wilkinson, D. A., Linguistics in Language Teaching, Edward Arnold Publisher Ltd, London,1972, p.6
Ibid, p.136
Coyle Martin, Garside Peter, Kelsall Malcolm and Peck John (Ed), Encyclopedia of Literature and Criticism, Gale Research Inc.,
New York, 1995, p.6
Levin, Harry, literature as an Institution, Accent, spring, 1964. P.149

46
Bologna Process to mitigate Bologna Expression while
Learning English
Professor Dr. Neelam Tikkha
MMV , RTM Nagpur University
English Department , Nagpur, India
Neelam.tikkha@gmail.com
Cell: +91- 9422145467

Abstract Globalization and internet has dissolved the boundaries. People have
started occupying space in the cloud along with geographical spaces. They have
become more netizens of Soft world rather than of any geographical country. People
have become virtual professionals, businessmen, virtual tourists and virtual shoppers.
Internet gives unchecked mystical access to the world outside. In this backdrop the
paper highlights methodology to teach English Language to make learning fit for
employability.

The teaching of English Language should be need based and taught in a way that has
applicability in real life to motivate a learner to acquire the skill.

Key words Bologna Process, Employability, English Language Skills Globalization

Introduction: Globalization and internet has dissolved the boundaries. People have
started occupying space in the cloud along with geographical space. They have become
more netizens of Soft world rather than of any geographical country. A common man
has become virtual tourist and virtual shopper. Internet gives unparalleled access to the
world outside . People buy online products. Shopping centers and Mall's are now
things of the past. Online shopping gives people an interesting experience. There is
flexibility in buying . The refund policies are easier than in real shopping from stores.
One can return the product if one does not like which is not so in India in real shopping
from stores. There are number of e- businesses that are being run . A number of social
sites provide with information. Google is going to come out with a medical portfolio
where patients can get expert advice and assistance from doctors from all over the
world. Currency is in the form of plastic cards. Banking is online. All these activities
require knowledge of English language.

In such situations it has become mandatory to have one common language and that is
English since it is the language spoken all over the world. This paper attempts to
present teaching techniques that can improve Employability skills of small town people
and contribute to the Bologna process in LSP course.

If teaching of English Language is need based and is taught in a way that has
applicability in real life would motivate a learner to acquire the skill.

Aspiring mind in November 2014 presented a survey report which revealed the
shocking state of affairs as far as state of English language competency was concerned
in India.

47
'' 47% graduates not employable in any sector of the knowledge
economy
nearly 47%, were found not employable in any sector given their
English language and cognitive skills. (Aspiring Minds, 2014)

Figure 1: Employability across Tier I, Tier II and Tier III College Cities(Aspiring Minds, 2013)

English and Computer Skills dampening smaller town


employability prospects significantly

For students in smaller towns and cities the maximum gap is


observed in English and Computer skills.these skills are rated as
enablers and useful skills in knowledge sector jobs, they demand
early intervention.

Education system promoting rote learning in place of actual


application of concepts

Not more than 25% of the graduating students could apply concepts
to solve a real-world problem in the domain of Finance and
Accounting. On the other hand, on average, 50% graduates are able
to answer definition-based/theoretical questions based on the same
concept. This shows that even though students have got exposure to
the concepts, they really do not understand them or know how to
apply them. (Aspiring Minds, 2013)

In this backdrop if we were to go to the root of the problem we would identify it to be


the teaching methodology which is being used as far as teaching of English language is
concerned.
The methodology promotes only rote learning, that too a few days before the
examination to clear it. A number of students fail in English subject after that many
students leave their studies. It is a matter of grave concern for teachers to teach learners
in an interesting way so that they are able to relate learning with livelihood skills. Some
of the ways the target can be achieved is as follows:

Social Sites: Social sites like Linked in , Cambridge ,Twitter and Facebook can be
very effective in teaching English Language in an interesting and efficient way.

48
The platform that net provides can easily
easil be taken as a source material.. Students should
be made to learn thingss online. One of the colleges in Chennai India has started using
Facebook and twitter to teach students English Language. Students should be asked a to
go to the tweets by the famous leaders from all over the world. They should be able to
interpret and asked to give their opinion on the comment.
Second activity that students would find interesting is they should be asked to shop
online and speak to the customer care with speaker phone on.. Teacher should be just a
facilitator and guide from time to time how the information is sought.

Flipped Class: Another, activity that can be taken is teaching through flipping the
class. A flipped class flip-flops
flops the typical cycle of acquiring the content and applying
it in a way that :

students
students gain necessary knowledge before class, and
instructors guide students to actively and interactively clarify and apply that
knowledge during class.
class. (Gosling, 2015)

Like the best classes have always done, this approach supports instructors playing their
most important role of guiding their students to deeper thinking and higher levels of
application. A flipped class keeps student learning at the center of teaching.

(Gosling, 2015)Figure 2 : Flipped Classroom.

Flipped classroom provides a challenge before the participants and there is a sense of
involvement in language learning. Flipping helps increased comprehensibility and
meaningful interaction with frequent feedback to the instructor. This helps students to
learn more in depth. Flipped classroom provides ample opportunity for application of
knowledge and hence display their ability to use their learning. It bridges the gapg
between the knowledge acquired by the learner and his comprehension level. Even the
instructor gets a clearer picture of the achievement of the learner.
Glib liar and Mr Q: A group is formed and a learner is asked to narrate an incident
and others are titled question words.Questioners
words. help in furthering the communication.
The exercise is hilarious and exciting . Even the dullest and reticent learner participates
actively.

49
Folklore Remix: Learners should be asked to tell some folklore in their mother tongue
and sing it out on the tune of some English song . Again the activity will make the
adrenaline flow since it would be very funny exercise.
Solution for a problem- Role play: Participants should be asked to perform plays on
current issues. For example a person can perform the role of Rahul Gandhi and the
other Narendra Modi or Arvind Kejariwal and some learners can become farmers and
organize a meeting . The activity will help in also enhancing general knowledge of
current issues which would be helpful in Group Discussion activities.
Role play- Profession: Students can be asked to take up a profession and describe what
they do. For example potter will say I am a potter . I make pots from mud. I start my
day very early. I make small lamps and pots from mud . After making them I dry them
and then bake it . Or I am a Human resource person. I recruit people for various jobs. I
design the jobs for my organization. I maintains and enhance the organization's human
resources by planning, implementing, and evaluating employee relations and human
resources policies, programs, and practices.
Or I am a Marketing Management andI accomplish business development activities by
researching and developing marketing opportunities and plans; implementing sales
plans and managing staff.

Figure 3: Marketing Manager Job description (Monster.com)

Mobile Apps- Whatsapp : Participants should be asked to communicate through


whatsapp or viber . Participants do not feel shy since they are talking to the cell and
not face to face. Learners till the time they gain confidence this activity will help open
up.

Figure 4: (Google )

50
IIN: Idea network has started a sort of university to teach participant at home.
There are more websites like Grammaly and Grammar on the go which provide
interesting challenge to the learners.

(Bologna
Process)

Figure 5 : Bologna Process

Translation Method: Participants should be made to sit in a group and play musical
chair, wherein they have to translate some material which is in their own language.

In fine, it is essential to make learning of English language useful so that learning is


useful and can apply the knowledge in real life efficiently. It is high time that teachers
and students think that English language is an essential Employability skill.

Bibliography:
Aspiring Minds. (2013). Highlights of Aspiring Minds Employability Report on Indian Graduates 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2015,
from Aspiring Minds :
http://www.aspiringminds.in/researchcell/articles/highlights_of_aspiring_minds_employability_report_on_indian_gradu
ates_2013.html
Aspiring Minds. (2014). National Employability Report Graduates 2013. Gurgaon: Aspiring Minds .
Bologna Process. (n.d.). Retrieved April 30, 2015, from Yahoo: https://in.images.search.yahoo.com
Google . (n.d.). Google Search. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from https://www.google.co.in/search?
Gosling, S. D. (2015). Flipping A Class. Retrieved April 29, 2015, from Centere of Teaching and Learning :
http://ctl.utexas.edu/teaching/flipping-a-class
Imagine Easy Solutions. (n.d.). Flipped Classroom. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from http://info.easybib.com/flipped-classroom-
infographic
Monster.com. (n.d.). Recruiting and Hiring Advice. Retrieved April 30, 2015, from Monster.com: http://hiring.monster.com/

51
Realistic Portrayal in V.S. Naipauls Half a Life
: An Exploration
Dr K.P. Singh1, Dr Vinay Shankar Shukla2
1
Assistant Professor- Sr. Grade, Department of Humanities, O.P. Jindal University, Raigarh,
Mo. No. 9919558141, Email ID: krish_yadein@yahoo.com
2
Associate Professor, Department of English, D.A.V. College, Kanpur.

Abstract : Much of what Naipaul writes about is based on real people and actual
events; they are changed and re- imagined as they become part of fiction. He
may also make use of films he has seen, literary texts, even his reading of
history as sources of his fiction, but his life and the world he has experienced is
at the core of his writing and vision of the world. There is often an
autobiographical side to the fiction although it is a mistake to equate the
narrator with Naipaul. It is especially his West Indian fiction that is close to
real people and events. Social reality keeps man in step with his times. Naipaul
is accomplished to advocate a social reality beyond the echelon, which is the
ground for human concurrence. He understands the relationship between the
human being and society, the particular and the universal, past and present, at
different levels of consciousness because of their individual understanding of
mans relationship to his environment. His novels bring about the tradition-
ridden, corrupt society built insecurely upon the humiliating and frightening
details of colonialism. Present paper focuses on Naipauls realistic portrayal in
Half a Life. In Half a Life Naipaul portrays and appraises the lives of the people
of mixed descent in three countries- India, England and Portuguese Africa and
their struggle to ascertain their identities.
Key words: Autobiographical, Social Reality, colonialism
Introduction : The novels of V.S. Naipaul are profoundly autobiographical. Naipaul, in an
interview with Ronald Bryden, says,All my work is really one. I am really writing one big
book. I come to the conclusion that, consideringthe nature of the society I came from,
considering the nature of the world I have stepped into and theworld I have to look at I could
not be professional novelist in the old sense. V S Naipaul spits himselfinto his characters
through whom his subtle shades of his emotions and minute aspects of his charactersare
manifested.
Society everywhere have been fractured by all kinds of change: technological, social,
politicaland it was no longer possible to regard the action of a novel as covering a little crisis,
a little curve on thegraph which will then revert to the nice, flat, straight, ordered life Mohit
k. Ray in V S NaipaulCritical Essays. As V S Naipaul decided to take up writing as his
vocation he had to look for an authenticvoice, so he preferred to draw on his personal
experience of an uprootness adrift in the two worlds toneither of them he could belong.
Rootlessness is the predominant theme of the novel Half a Life, amasterpiece of V S
Naipaul.Asha chouby says, In a room full of strange faces even a mirror comes as a relief
because therein one can see a familiar face. Half a Life is the story of race in search of

52
familiar face in the mirror; the irony however lies in the fact that even the mirror reflects a
face which is not recognizable. (Mohitk. Ray, (ed.) V S Naipaul Critical Essays). Naipaul
presents the ironical existence of Diaspora through them main character William Somerset
Chandran. Generally Naipauls protagonists grow away from their native culture and their
growing up depends on their growing away. Half a Life is a record of William Chandrans
quest for identity and the feeling of rootlessness.
Realistic Portrayal in V.S. Naipaul: Naipaul presents the ironical existence of Diaspora
through the main character William Somerset Chandran. Generally Naipauls protagonists
grow away from their native culture and their growing up depends on their growing away.
Half a Life is a record of William Chandrans quest for identity and the feeling of
rootlessness.Willie Chandran asked his father one day, Why is my middle name Somerset?
The boys at school have just found out, and they are mocking me. (Half a Life p.1).These
are the opening lines of the novel. Right at the very beginning there is an implication of
perspective which reflects the search for identity and roots as his middle name sounds alien.
Willie Chandran feels rootless as the students make fun of him at school. The name Somerset
is borrowed one. It indicates half of his name is not his own. It implies that people are half-
lived and half realized. Willes story is set in post-independent India and it goes to London
from there to Africa. As Willie questions his father why his name was after a famous English
writer, his father tells him a story and it takes first thirty five pages and remaining pages area
bout his struggle for life in London and Africa.
The novel Half a Life is set firstly in post-independence India, at the politically protected
court of the Maharaja, later in London, then in the pre-independence Africa. Jha Parmanand
says, The novel delineates the traumas of a tainted and troubled past, of attempting to find
some meaning and purpose of life. (47). Although Naipaul is a realist such a description
does not do justice to him or to his work. As a writer he has always been conscious of literary
models and conventions which he uses, parodies and revises. The British literary tradition
seemed foreign to him; his knowledge of the world outside Trinidad first came from
American movies rather than books. He had to discover his own literary voice in such models
as his fathers writing and in the anonymous sixteenth-century Spanish picaresque novel
Lazarillo de Tormes. His early fiction with its con men, surprising turns of fortune, and ironic
twists of plot, is influenced by Lazarillo de Tormes. Often his models are a subtext providing
contrasts to his own subject matter and the societies he portrays. There is a continuous and
evolving struggle to find the right shape for his material and vision. This ranges from learning
how to write about the East Indian community in Trinidad as its traditions decayed and it
entered the national community, to learning how to write about his own attempts to
understand himself. His fiction became more psychological, complex, distanced in tone,
drier, less amusing, as he attempted to understand the world and his characters. As he became
conscious of the private sources of his vision, including his reading, and became willing to
reveal them, his writing mixed autobiography with the fictional and the observed world. As
literary kinds blur together the writing becomes more self-referential. There are more gaps
permitted, less causality visible in the narrative. Naipauls attempt to demystify India and his
direct attack on the corruption going on in India may be best appreciated if his literary work
viewed is as the conscience of human kind. Edward Said says, The man who finds his
homeland is still a tender beginner, he to whom every soil is as his native one is already
strong, but he is perfect to whom the entire world is as a foreign land. (7).All through his
literary career Naipaul made a search for reality, or rather a real history of mankind in
different lands. In the first section A Visit from Somerset Maugham Naipaul attacks the
corruption among the tax-collectors and surveyors. He reveals the trend of exploiting the poor
among the rich: Officer would take the land tax from poor people who couldnt Read and

53
not give receipts and the poor peasant with his three or four acres would have to pay a bribe
to get his receipt. It was endless, the petty cheating that went on among the poor.
(22).Willie Somerset Chandran, the protagonist belongs to temple priesthood community. His
father says, We of the temple priesthood and our families made a community. At one time I
suppose we would have been a very rich and prosperous community, served in various ways
by the people whom we served. But when the Muslims conquered the land we all became
poor. (5). The story of Willies father is told by him in his reply to Willies question
regarding his middle name. Willie is moved with contempt for his father who has given him
a half status in society. It is his fathers mistake which lies like a curse on him. Being a half-
Brahmin he cannot relate fully to the low caste and being a low caste mothers son he is not
completely and whole heartedly accepted in the Brahmin community. (Asha Choubey
80).His unacceptability or half-acceptability leads him to rejection of far his parental
authority is concerned. A classification based on descent and occupation, the caste system has
beenIndias own variety of racism.
Naipauls assessment of the lower class people in India were excluded from the mainstream.
They did not know about the religion of the people of the case or the Muslims or the
Christians. They didnt know what was happening in the country or the world. They had
lived in ignorance, cut off from the world for centuries. (39). Suman Bala points out: The
description of his mothers experiences as a child in her school is a direct attack on Indian
caste system. (80). In her school, Willies mother found that a ragged and half-starved
school servant gave out water from a barrel using along handled bamboo dipper and when a
student appeared before him he poured water into a brass vessel or an aluminium one.
Willies mother wondered in a childish way whether she would get brass or aluminium.
When she came to the servant no choice was offered to her. The servant became angry and
made the kind of noise he would have made before he heat a stray dog. (38). Some of the
children objected and then the; man found a rusty and dirty tin into which he poured water for
the girl. That was how the girl learned that in the world outside, aluminium was for Muslims
and Christians, brass was for people of case and a rusty old tin was for her. She spat on the tin
and to avoid the beating of the servant, ran out of the school.
Willies father marries a low caste woman. After the marriage he laments, Simple people
who had come from far to pay their respects to the temple deity would now also stop off to
pay their respects to me. (28). Naipaul rightly portrays the meanness of the priest, When
the people like that went to the temple they would have been kept out of the sanctum, the
inner cell with the image of the deity. The offering priest would never have wanted to touch
those people. He would have thrown the sacred ash at them, the way food is thrown to a
dog. (12).Disillusioned with school and his parents, and uncertain of his future, Willie
obtains with the help from one of his fathers contacts a scholarship to a college education for
mature students in London. He joins the immigrant bohemian society of Notting Hill, gets an
opportunity to write radio pieces for the BBC; he badly attempts sexual affairs with his
friends girl friends June and Perdita, though both find his performance culturally inhibited.
He spends 18 years of his life in a half-and-half world, during the last days of colonialism,
with half and half friends, people of second rank. (160).
Willies London chapter is full of frightening incidents. He becomes desperate to satisfy his
carnal desires. Ana guides him to satisfaction. Naipaul has also exposed the pretensions in
London life through Willies eyes. He found that the college was a full of various pieces of
tradition, that the teachers and students were pound of but could not explain. In London, he
came in contact with a lot of people belonging to different races, who had come to London
totry their luck. He learnt that people in London wanted West Indian chaps to drive the buses,
but nobody in London liked to rent rooms for the accommodation of the black people. So

54
some black people like Percy were encouraged to buy properties and rent to West Indian
drivers.
In the eighteen century, there were about half a million black people in England: Theyve all
vanished. They disappeared in the local population. They were bred out. The Negro gene is
recessive one. If this were more widely known there would be a good deal less racial feeling
than there is. (94-95). Naipaul describes the race-riots in Notting Hill, The silent streets-
with exposed rubbish bins daubed with house and flat numbers and with windows heavily
curtained and screened and black-became full of exited people. The houses that had seem
tenanted only by the very old passive now let out any number of young men in mock-
Edwardian clothes who named the streets locking for blocks. (109).
The third section, A Second Translation is about Willies life with Ana in Africa. The first
day at Anas estate house meant different to him. He felt as a stranger. He hardly knew about
a colonial country in Africa. Willie suffered from the oppression of kinship. He was not free
from the nausea of disconnectedness, alienation and lack of social standards in a group of
persons. He often thought back to the first day. Things were different sixty or seventy years
before, When Anas grandfather had arrived to take over the immense tract of land he had
been granted by a government that felt its own weakness and was anxious in the face of the
restless power and greater populations of Britain and Germany to occupy the African
country it claimed. (149).
The third section also acquaints us with coexistence of the people belonging to different
races. There were the Portuguese, the African- Portuguese, the Arabs of Muscat and Oman,
commonly known as Mohammedan in the government offices and the social organizations,
and the basic moral degradation of man have not escaped his eyes, when Willie lost his
passport and Ana advised him to write to his home for another passport, Willie remembers
the government offices in India and Naipaul gets a chance to criticize the way the Indian
bureaucracy works. Willie remembers a typical Indian office. The pea-green walls shiny
with grime at the levels of head and shoulders and bottoms, the floor black with dirt, the
punching clerks in their trousers or lungis, each man correctly marked on the forehead with a
fresh caste- mark (his principal duty of the day, on every desk the ragged stacks of old quality
paper crumbling away- and I knew that I would wait a long time in far-off Africa, and
nothing would come. (15).
About the African Government, Willie says that the Government was authorization but the
people had no idea about it. They felt it to be far away something in the capital. the village
people had contact with the government only during the Sisal cutting session when the estate
holders made their requisitions from the prisons and the convicts, properly guarded, were sent
for the dangerous work of Sisal cutting it was doubly dangerous; the long black point at the
end of the Sisal blade is needle sharp and poisonous and the area remains full of venomous
snakes only the convicts could be compelled to do such a work. This description day bare the
inhuman ways supported by the Government and the callousness of the affluent. The
authorization way of the government is further criticized. There had been no challenge to
our authorization but easy going government for many years, and it had grown strangely lazy.
In his great security the ruler had grown to feel that the details of governing were a burden, or
so it appeared; and he had framed out or leased out important governmental activities to eager
energetic and loyal people. Those people became very rich; and the richer they became the
more loyal they were. So there was a kind of rough logic and effectiveness in this principle of
government. (169)
Conclusion : Thus, the novel is really an invention about the countries, periods or situations
if it does not exactly appear to describe them. In the novel Willie constantly reminds himself

55
that all his life he has not managed to pursue his own goals, he has never tried to live up to
his own standards of being in control of his life. The life Willie Chandran leads and the
reality he observes is told in painful and bleak detail. Naipauls language is concrete and
carefully confined. This language offers a claustrophobic image of existence. Whereas many
postcolonial writers appear mostly concerned with ideas and groups, Naipaul focuses on
individuals in societies; like the great nineteenth-century novelists he is interested in how
people create themselves and advance in life. His books warn of the need to plan ahead. He
has defended snobbery and spoken of his admiration for those who appeared to rise without
effort above disheartening situations. Early in life, he learned that to protect himself against
the cruelties of others it was best to act superior and incapable of being hurt. In the process he
had picked up affectations and a malicious tongue. Many assumed Naipaul was himself an
imitation colonialist whereas he is a critic of colonialism as well as of those who replaced
imperial order without seeing the dangerous currents into which they were taking their
societies. Willies experience and realisation of divided-self in life are reflected in his trans-
continental migration and multi-dimensional socio-cultural environment. Naipaul has also
exposed the much abused case oppression in colonial India. His intolerance of the corruption
in different sectors in India is also manifest in Half a Life.
Bibliography

1) Bala, Suman. ed. (2003. Print).V.S.Naipaul: A Literacy Response to the Nobel Laureate. New
Delhi: Khosla Publishing House.
2) Mohit, K. Ray. ed. (2002). V S Naipaul Critical Essays, volume-I.New Delhi: Atlantic.
3) Jha, Parmanand. (1999-2000. Print). Exile, Alienation and Cultural Tradition: A Study of Half a
Life. The Commonwealth Review 11.2.
4) Naipaul, V.S. (2001).Half a Life. London: Picador.
5) Mohit K. Ray. ed. (2002. Print)Naipaul V.S: Critical Essays Vol II. New Delhi:
Atlantic.
6) Said, Edward. Reflections on Exile. UK: Granta Books, 2001. Print.
7) The novelist V S Naipaul Talks about His Works to Ronald Bryden in The Listener,vol. 89,1973.
(Interview).

56
Emerging Demands of Small States -
Challenges and Difficulties
Mr. Raju P. Lipte
rjlipte@gmail.com
+91-9860382838

Abstract : Before independence there was no such united empire in India before British
Raj. But now it has become a national state. There are many cultures, customs and tradition
as well as lot of languages, castes ad religions.Regional Political Parties play a major role in
Indian politics. Demand and formation of new states has a regular phenomenon for
democratic Polity.

Key Words: caste, religions, Indian Politics

Before the British colonial period, India was a distributed in a Small Provinces. There
were small kingdoms. In the Context of historical background, there was no such a
United Empire. The People were recognised by theirking or caste. People believe on
Kingdoms, Religions and castes. They felt, I will fight for my king or my God. Today
Situation has changed. India got unique identity. It becomes a Nation-State. People
emotions attached with the Nation. After the Arrival of British People in India, India
leaders had lighten the flame of nationalism in Indian people and gather them under
one sky, feeling of Nation. Thereafter, the Real process started of the formation of
new India.History of Indian Land was very old. Arians gave the name of Sinduland
Hindustan. They were developed a unique Cultures and Customs. These norms
build strong due to the long relation with the land.Aryans formed a Chatur system in
Indian society. This is the basic reason to form a caste System in India. As well as,
India is geographically, culturally, religiously, socially diversified country. Thats
why,Every region has a unique identity. These factors are creating the impact on the
people life style and build the attachment of people with that region. Cultures, Norms
and Caste System transferred from generation to next generation. That is the basic
foundation to the birth of castes and religions, Every Caste and Religion has a special
cultures so today we see the unity in a castes and religions the feelings of the people
are very deeply attached with each other.1

We heard many of time India is an Incredible Country. There are many cultures,
customs and tradition as well as lot of languages,castes ad religions. With that, there
also are geographical differences and every region of India has culture, social and
linguistic diversities and this makes every region a different from each other.
Although it ethnicity, norms and values are different. This is a reason to tie the Indian
with their regions. While they are literally and financially different but there strong
feeling attached with their region.Thus they worship our state like our Mother.

After the Independence, from first Election 1951-52, there in only one major party in
Power, name is Congress. Congress has ruled many years on Centre. But they birth a
57
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4) {d.^m. XoenmS>o amR>r ZmQ>H$ Am{U aJ^yr, 1843-1943

- 81 -
bias vote-politics due to the frighten loss of Power. But Presently, It bad affect on
Indian Politics. Regional Political Parties has comes up. Its plays a major role in
Indian politics. Many of regions demands new smallstates. Congress gave more
supports only those states that was a party favourable state government. They allotted
lot of financially, administrative and many other help for development of congress
majority states. On controversy, they opposed other states government and made
obstacles intentionally.

On the other hand, In Indian politics that there is most value to Party Politics and
Leadership ground than a Nation development Policies. This is one of major reason
emerged a problem and demand of New small states.Regional Pressure Groups makes
pressure on states and central government. Due to this Emerged many of regional
political parties and regional leadership come up. That is a great insistence of
regionalism as became a major problem for an unstable and bilateral government
system in Central and States.

India is an union of States. The Constitution of India, Article 3 provides inter alias of
the formation of new small states. As consequences, demand and formation of new
states has a regular phenomenon for democratic Polity. We adopted a Federal
democratic system.In Federal system, there is more power to the Central Government
than state Governments. So as per the Basic foundation of Constitution of India, the
Central Government can alter the boundary the States or make a New State with
simple majority in Parliament.2

In India, Today many of regions demands a new states like Telangana in


Andrapradesh, demand of Vidharabha in Maharashtra, kamtapu in west Bengal,
Bundelkhand in Uttarpradesh, Gorkhaland in Assam and many more. India divided
states on the basis of language, indirectly on the basis of caste system. That time in the
year 1953 Fazal Ali commission, the States Reorganization Commission was formed
by Prime Minister. The Commission created a report in 1995 recommending the
reorganization of Indian state but the strong Congress lobby in Andhra lobbied with
Central congress leadership for the merger. So, the central government decided to
ignore the SRC recommendations and established unified Andhra Pradesh on
November 1, 1956. That was the first case the diversion of the states on the basis of
language, recently it turns a major problem in front of Indian Federalism and Indian
Integrity. Telangana is also a same problem Telangana means a Telaguland. It also
indicate a linguistic, cultural and caste factors.3

The question of new states is bilateral problem. There is a two side of a Coin. Some
of Prominent Economist says, making of the small or new states is beneficial but the
Opinion to Some of the Political Experts says, the making of small states is harmful
for Indian unity and Integrity follow are given few reasons why people oppose the
Creation of Small States and support to the Small States.

The Reasons are:-


1) Creation of small state will divide India.
58
2) Creation of small state will take the India to repeat the British Policy.
3) Danger from China, China wants to divide India.
5) Small States mostly depend on Central Government.
6) Politicians want to become the chief Minister, political power.
Support to the small states:-
In following lines you will get the answer.
1) Big money, Big Project, Big Corruption.
2) Easy to manage, Easy to pay more attention.
3) In small states can easy to stop corruption.
4) Less money, small Budget, Easy to prepare and understand the Budget which
results to reduce corruption.
5) Will generate more competition among states to prosper more.
6) Will create well administration.
7) Develop the region financially, educationally and socially etc.

On above controversial view, it cleared that a demand of small states are


beneficial than oppose to the creation small states. There is a major problem which is
the integrity and unity of India but we look following Current Gross Development
Percentage (GDP) Statistical Information about the development of States, it is cleared
that if Indian could support the new states or small states, India may be help to
become a super power.4

Sr. States Name Gross Deveopment %


(GDP)
1 Uttarpradesh 4.6
2 Madhapradesh 4.3
3 Chattisgadh 9.2
4 Himachalpradesh 7.9
5 Uttaranchal 8.8
6 Bihar 4.7
7 Jharkhand 11.2

Few Facts about our Indian states


1. Uttar Pradesh with population of more than 167 million is bigger than Germany
+ France or Russia, even a Pakistan.
2. China, America, Brazil and Indonesia are the only few nations who are bigger
than Uttar Pradesh.
3. Tamilnadu (62.2 million) is bigger than Britain and Italy.
4. Andhra Pradesh (76.4 million) is little bigger than Germany and Vietnam.
5. Bihar is bigger than Mexico.

59
6. Maharashtra with 92.1 million is bigger state than Germany. Maharashtra has
ten million more than Germany.
7. Bengal is bigger than the Philippines
That Statistical information cleared a fact about the problem of Population,
Geographical area and many more.5
Small States and Good Governance
History professor at Delhi University and Political Analyst Mahesh
RangarajansaysMany of the campaigns for separate states are born in poor and
neglected areas. In many cases the regions that are backward or underdeveloped,
there is a feeling among people that statehood within the Indian union will give
them a better chance of living a life of material dignity,
C.V. Madhukar is the director of the Delhi-based independent PRS
Legislative Research. He says the model of linguistic states is being questioned as
issues of identity come to the fore in the diverse country of more than a billion
people. But beyond language, there are cultural, ethnic differences. However size is
only a strong factor towards a good governance.6
federalisms as one of the basic structure of the Constitution of India. In
federalism, there is Union of States, it under a Central Power influence. Today, Many
of states raised demand of new small states which is the problem of undevelopment,
cultural and social diversity. It comes one of the major Problem for our federalism,
integrity and unity. But we are survived in the Global age. This Globalization,
indicates value of competition. And the competition depends upon a development .
Small state can develop our country . It helps to solve a problem of small state is one
of the answers to reduce corruption or at least corruption amount. It make to help an
accountable administration . So today it is a need a modern era to make a small and
new state.

BILIOGRAPHY:-
1. Gavaj, j.v, Sheikh, hasham, India government and Politics, Pimplapure publication 1996, page no 13.
2. Basu, D D., Introduction to constitution of India, Agra publication,1992,page no.34
3. http//realituviews.blogspot.com/2009/12/india-creation-of-small states-need-of himl
4. http://realityviews.blogspot.com/2009/12/india-telangana-towards-becomes-reality.html.
5. The Hindu Is the new states can develop India, Jan 13th,2010,page no.9
6. Indian Express, India agreeto create a new state, December 10,2009,page no.10

60
A Comparative Study on Performance Related Fitness Status of
State Level Athlete and Handball Players
Dr. Deba Prasad Sahu
Assistant Professor & Head
Department of Physical Education
Mahishadal Girls College
Mahishadal, Purba Medinipur
West Bengal, India
Abstract

The purpose of the study was to compare on performance related fitness status of
state level athlete and Handball players. To achieve the purpose of the study 30 male
Athlete and 30 handball players selected from Siliguri SAI Training Center, Seliguri and
Swarupnagar, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal respectively, their age ranges between 16 to
19 years. Two groups namely Athlete group and Handball group, their data collected on the
following performances related physical fitness variables namely 50 yard dash, Standing
Broad Jump, Reaction Time, Shuttle Run and Coordination. The collected data were analysis
with Independent t test. The result of the study shows that there was a significant
difference on the selected performance related physical fitness components. This study was
needful in the field of Athletics as well as Handball for the quondam of knowledge.
Key words: Performance Related Physical Fitness of Athlete and Handball players. ,

Introduction

We are in modern era where health related physical fitness plays an important role
in the field of Athletics and Handball respectively. Fitness means different things for
different people. There may be specific kind of physical fitness such as fitness for certain
occupation (defense, security, engineering, marine adventures, circus activities etc), and
behavior (sports, exercise, play etc), resulting situations. Performance related fitness or
specific task oriented fitness is a persons ability to perform in a specific activity with a
reasonable efficiency. Thus in sports and game health related physical fitness is one of the
most important factors in athletics as well as Handball too. Performance related physical
fitness has been identified as that part of motor fitness which helps an individual to achieve
high levels of performance depending on the components mostly hereditary in nature.
Performance related physical fitness is required for proficient execution of sports skill. The
components of performance related physical fitness are speed, strength, power, balance,
agility, reaction time, co-ordination etc.
Significance of the Study
The research was helpful to compare performance related fitness status of state
level athlete and Handball players. The physical education teachers and athletics and
handball coaches are benefited and can formulate the training schedule for the athlete as
well as handball players. The present research will add the to the quantum of knowledge in
the area of athletics and handball.

61
Methodology
Subjects
To achieve the purpose of the study 30 male Athlete and 30 handball players were
selected from Siliguri SAI Training Center, Seliguri and Swarupnagar, North 24 Pargana, West
Bengal respectively, their age ranges between 16 to 19 years.
Independent Variables I. Athlete and Handball Player
Dependent Variables- I. Health Related Physical Fitness
1. 50 Yard Dash
2. Standing Brought Jump
3. Reaction Time
4. Shuttle Run
5. Co-ordination
Criterion measured
The selected performance related physical fitness of both group of subjects such as
speed, leg explosive strength, reaction ability, agility and co-ordination were measured
through 50 yard dash in seconds, Standing broad jump , Nelson hand reaction test, Shuttle
run, Jonson and Nelson speed pass coordination test .
Analytical procedure
Mean and SD were used as descriptive statistics and in order to understand
significance of statistical difference between groups independent t test were used.

Results and Interpretation


Table I
Mean, SD and t Value of 50 Yard Dash, Standing Broad Jump, Reaction Time, Shuttle Run
and Coordination of Athlete and Handball Players.

Variables Group Name N Mean Std. Deviation t Value


50 Yard Dash(Sec) Athlete 30 5.83 0.22
5.74*
Hand Ball Player 30 6.20 0.26
SBJ(Meters) Athlete 30 2.76 0.15
7.16*
Hand Ball Player 30 2.53 0.08
Reaction Time(Sec) Athlete 30 17.40 1.99
5.76*
Hand Ball Player 30 20.40 2.03
Shuttle Run(Sec) Athlete 30 7.99 0.18
16.56*
Hand Ball Player 30 6.96 0.28
Coordination Athlete 30 29.70 2.07
6.96*
Hand Ball Player 30 34.10 2.77
*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence for 1 and 58(df) = 2.00
Figure I

62
MeanValue of 50 Yard Dash, Standing Broad Jump, Reaction Time, Shuttle Run and
Coordination of Athlete and Handball Players.

The above table shows that the mean value of 50 yard dash, Standing broad jump,
Reaction Time, Shuttle Run and co-ordination was for athlete group 5.83, 2.76, 17.40, 7.99,
29.70 respectively and handball group were 6.20, 2.53, 20.40, 6.96 and 34.10. The SD value
of health related physical fitness was in case of athlete group 0.22, 0.15, 1.99, 0.18, 2.07
where as for hand ball group it was 0.26, 0.08, 2.03, 0.28 and 2.77 The obtained t value
was 5.74, 7.16, 5.76, 16.56 and 6.96 which was grater then the table t value of 2.02 hence
it was accepted as significant.
Conclusion
So it was concluded that the Health related Physical Fitness as Speed, Standing
Brought Jump, Reaction Time, Shuttle Run, Co-ordination were significant where Athlete
group was better than the Hand Ball Group in 50 mts dash, Standing Brought Jump,
Reaction time and Shuttle Run too. It was also concluded that in case of Co-ordination Hand
Ball Group was better than the Athlete group.
References
Books

Bucher, Charles A (1987) Foundation of Physical Education and sports .St. Louis : Times Mirror/ Mosby College Publishing.
th
Best, John W (1982), Research in Education. 4 Ed. New Delhi : Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Ball, H(2003), A Study on Health Related Physical Fitness of Rural and Urban Children of West
Bengal, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis Paper, University of Kalyani, West Bengal.
GARRETT, Henry (2005), Statistics in Psychology and Education. New Delhi: Paragon International Publishers
International Education Journal (2013)ISSN 22777-2456 Volume-!! Issue-!!(July-Aug-Sept)
Web Site
http://en. Wikipedia. Org/ wiki/history of handball
http://en. Wikipedia. Org/ wiki/athletics (sport).

63
POLITENESS AND INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION IN ORGANISATIONS: A
PHENOMENOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Mr. T. Sunand Emmanuel,
Assistant Professor in English
Vasavi College of Engineering, Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad-500031
Email: sunandt@yahoo.com
Mobile: 9849027278

ABSTRACT:
Organizational life plays a critical role in the lives of human beings. Since a tangible amount
of time is spent in organizations, our interpersonal relationships with colleagues,
subordinates, and superiors affect our personal and professional lives.In turn, we too affect
others lives. The nature of organizational communication significantly determines our
successes and failures in our professional careers. Resolving misunderstandings, preventing
a total breakdown in communication, managing misunderstandings, empathizing with one
anothers limitations help employees in bonding. This interpersonal bonding marked by
tolerance of each others divergent views, and an altruistic desire to collectively strengthen
an organizations goals, vision, and mission is pivotal to the individual and the institution. In
this paper, an attempt is made to understand how politeness, mutual tolerance, and empathy
substantially are critical to effective interpersonal communication among employees.

Key Words: Organization, competence, efficiency, effectiveness, ethics, reciprocity.

Introduction: Organizational life is a curious blend of people, work, and goals. While the
management of any organization has its own avowed objectives of meeting its goals and
targets despite any number of bottlenecks, it is interesting to see how its employees
understand, assimilate, and work towards achieving its objectives. An organization works like
a machine in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. But it is not a machine. It is not something
where the 'parts' can be dispensed with.
What is meant by efficiencyis that things have to be done in the quickest time possible with
minimum energy, time, and resources ( Morreale, Spitzberg, Barge). What then is
effectiveness? Effectiveness, according to Brian Spitzberg, is achieving one's intended goals.
Organisations have goals. People have goals. However, for people to achieve their goals, a lot
of factors are binding upon the interactants. The interactants could be two peers, a
subordinate and a superior, the head of the institution talking to his departmental faculty, or
the management of the organization persuading its employees to work harder in today's
intensely competitive world. In this paper, the focus is on communication among faculty of
an engineering college. In spite of one's religious upbringing, values and principles taught at
home and school, by the time people join a workplace, they are baffled by the constraints and
paradoxes that are so palpable, threatening, and scary at the workplace.New recruits are
shocked to see the ' we-versus-they' groups already existing at the workplace. Complaints,
accusations, perceived victimization, and bullying are pervasive in the organization. This
author believes that employees in an organization have no other alternative but to work for
64
the organization and strive to meet its goals and objectives.This should be the collective
concern of all the employees in the organization. An organizations goals cannot be met by
just a few brilliant individuals. The collective efforts of individuals in a department
culminating in organizing conferences, in-house workshops, seminars, et al is of utmost
importance and is one of the hallmarks of how well departments, employees, and the
organization are functioning. When collective efforts of faculty so critically impinge the
successes of the department's functioning, every faculty has to work with just one goal: How
do I contribute to the organizations growth? The irony is that even if a few individuals are
averse to constructive ideas, the entire system gets affected. It simply means that every
employee should have a strong, positive intention to contribute constructively! Conflicts are
inevitable, but resolving them should be the cardinal concern of each and everyone. Some
conflicts, however, have to be managed.
According to Stella Ting-Toomey, one of the core assumptions of intercultural
communication assumptions is that intercultural communication always takes place in
embedded systems. She states that ' a system is an interdependent set of ingredients that
constitute a whole and simultaneously influence each other.'(Stella Ting-Toomey 1999). The
same axiom holds good even in organizations where interpersonal relationships among
colleagues matter. It is a web of intricate, inextricably woven relationships where people have
to contribute to meet the daily requirements of the organization like submitting marks,
grades, taking classes, substituting for other faculty, taking extra classes, taking part in extra-
curricular and co-curricular activities. All these activities require an enormous amount of
delicate balancing of professional relationships and dependent on interpersonal rapport,
understanding, and reciprocity(e.g. Ravi helped me with my class work when I was not well;
so, I shall reciprocate today by helping him with his class work since he is not well). Here is
where appropriateness and ethics are hugely relevant.
Politeness means graciousness, courtesy, respect, and civility. If only employees exhibit these
simple qualities at the workplace, workplace environment should be calm, relaxed, and
peaceful.
However, this does not seem so. This author strongly believes that a rude tone,
impulsiveness, and a judgmental attitude can spell doom at the workplace. Not just that. It
causes untold misery to people around. According to Erving Goffman, there are two kinds of
politeness-- positive politeness and negative politeness. Goffman states that all human beings
have a positive face and a negative face. Positive face means the desire to be liked,
appreciated, admired, and recognised. Negative face indicates a desire to be independent, to
exercise the right to have freedom and autonomy. So, practically speaking,politeness in
interpersonal communication " involves behaviour that allows others to maintain both
positive and negative face." (De Vito, 2009). If employees are cognizant of the need to
respect their colleagues' 'face needs', a lot of problems should be resolved. However, rash
judgments, sweeping conclusions, gossiping, attributing cynical motives to others'
unintentional actions ruin the work environment and push the workplace into an abyss of
confusion, grievances, we-versus-they-groups, et al.
A classic example in this case is mentioned below. The context is a staff meeting in a certain
department chaired by the head of the department. A couple of days ago, John, a faculty of
the department, was asked by the HoD to suggest some good software for the language labs.
Alex is a colleague of John in the department.
John : It would be nice to have some interactive grammar software in the language labs.

65
Alex: Excuse me, HoD sir, what is happening? Interactive grammar software in labs? Our
teaching methodology is being questioned. How can grammar be taught using CDs and
DVDs? It is against the principles of today's English language teaching. This is humiliating
and questioning our credentials as teachers. I am against it.
Head of the department: Yes, John, what is your view?
Alex: Sir, I am not talking about grammar taught in a deductive method. The grammar
software I am talking about is highly interactive and learner-centered one with lots of
quizzes, multiple choice questions, and word search puzzles. It is highly inductive in nature.
More so, I have not said we should implement grammar software in our labs immediately.
Since you asked me about it a couple of days back, I did some homework, and am just
suggesting. This is just a suggestion.
(Alex is still unrelenting and furious.He strongly feels that grammar software in language
labs is ridiculous. His close friends did not wish to hurt him, and maintained neutrality. When
John was asked later about grammar software for the labs, he said he would never come up
with any ideas of improving the language labs since there was so much opposition which was
uncalled for and vicious!)
On analysis, one can easily see the rashness and downright contempt displayed by Alex. Was
it necessary? Was it ethical?Alex, perhaps, maybe right in his belief that grammar software
may not be useful. However, to make sweeping statements that introducing grammar was
tantamount to a breach of his teaching credentials is highly unethical, and disrespectful. Even
if Alex feels introducing some interactive software in language labs in unnecessary, there are
more appropriate and ethical ways marked by politeness and respect to disagree with another
person. Spitzberg has rightly asserted that interpersonal competence should be marked by
ethics as one of the top criteria. He declares ethics in interpersonal communication imply that
there should be 'anexchange of rational arguments, joint action, equal access, and
confirmation of others'. It is about 'providing respect and voice to each person regardless of
station and stereotype.' (Spitzberg and Cupach, 2011)
This scenario reminds us of how incredibly relevant Prof. Mark L. Knapp and Prof. Anita L.
Vangelisti have rightly said:
1. An effective communicator avoids ambiguity and abstract words. He or she addresses
issues clearly. (Knapp and Vangelisti 2005)
2. An effective communicator would not throw a childish temper tantrum and deliberately
yell abuses at another person. (Knapp and Vangelisti 2005)
3. An effective communicator knows that the best way to get people to do something is to
praise them, make them feel important, and tell them what they want to hear. (Knapp
and Vangelisti 2005).
In organisational life, such incidents of domination, outright condemnation of another's views
motivated by jealousy, hatred, and egocentrism are common. Such flagrant and brazen
display of anger, hostility, and hysterical temper tantrums are uncalled for, especially in
organisational life. However as Prof. Brian Spitzberg states that effectiveness, as one of the
criteria of communication competence, can be achieved by either keeping mutual interests in
view or bull dozing one's way.One can be effective by being ethical and appropriate. On the
other hand, one can also achieve what one wants by deceit and threatening. (Spitzberg 2000).
Effectiveness, according to Spitzberg, is achieving one's intended outcomes. And an
individual can achieve his/her outcomes by Machiavellian means too. The Machiavellian way
could be ' winning by any means' or getting what one wants by any means.To such people,
66
ends are more important than means. Hence, effectiveness could also be achieved by guile,
manipulation, deceit, and threatening.(Morreale, Spitzberg, Barge 2007).The question then is
whether one is justified by being manipulative, deceitful and verbally abusive! The answer,
according to Spitzberg is ' NO'. He rightly asserts that one cannot be effective in achieving
his/her goals at other's cost. We have every right to achieve our goals, but not at other's
expense.
In organizations, the issue is not whose interests are served. The core concern of employees
in an organization should be if the organizational goals are being fulfilled. Every employee
has bright ideas to contribute to the well-being of the organization. However, jealousy and
intolerance wreak havoc among colleagues. When such a climate prevails, it vitiates
interpersonal relationships among colleagues in the department or across departments. The
author of this article strongly believes that there are colleagues whose attitude is 'My way or
the highway'.As Owen Hargie, David Dickson and Dennis Tourishrightly state "The old line
management pyramidical hierarchy is being replaced by a flattened structure based upon
project-based initiatives."Workplace environment requires people to collaborate and be
respectful to each other. Under such circumstances, respectful interpersonal communication
exchanges among colleagues is the deciding factor.
Is there a Panacea?
Is there a panacea to the ills and ill-will that is so ruthlessly pervasive covertly and overtly in
organizations? One has to understand that some individuals in organizations have
Machiavellian goals. Things just cannot happen without their approval. Everything has to be
done, executed subject to their approval. These employees form the 'in-group' in
organizations. They are influential, manipulative, and determined to have only their 'way'.
Even a democratic opposition to them and their ideas is ruthlessly stifled since they are
influential in the organization. Others, sadly, have to tone down or align with their goalsor
stop being innovative in the organization.
Employees need to understand that reciprocity is one of the most effective means by which
people can fulfill their goals as well as help others actualize their potential. Colleagues should
have the magnanimity to see others succeed like them. As stated by Brian Spitzberg,
Communication constitutes relationships. It applies even to organisational communication.
It is only through polite exchange of information that anything mutually beneficial can take
place in organisations.
Prof. Brian Spitzbergs axioms are as follows:
1. Communication constitutes relationships
2. Relationships are vital to quality (and quantity) of life
3. Therefore, communication is vital to quality/quantity of life.
The axioms outlined by Prof. Spitzbergare a crystal clear indication of how much
communication is useful and inevitable in our lives, both personally and professionally. It is
indispensable, therefore, to have amiable interpersonal relationships with one and all at the
workplace.
Conclusions and recommendations:
Ethical interpersonal communication among employees is the deciding factor in the
organisations. For tasks to be accomplished in the organisation, rapport, empathy,
forgiveness, understanding, and adaptability are the key ingredients. When employees are
caught in a vortex of misunderstandings and ego issues, nothing fruitful and productive can
67
take place either at the departmental level or at the organisational level. One should
understand that politeness goes a long way in toning down the intensity of confusion and
misunderstanding that is so viciously pervasive in organisations. It is not the complexity of
tasks that is difficult to overcome or deal with in organisations; it is understanding, tolerance,
and flexibility in ones views towards others that is the deciding factor. Organisations are
systems. One persons behaviour affects the entire system. People mutually influence one
another. Hence, a lot of confusion and ill-will can be reduced to a considerable extent when
employees are supportive of one another, tolerant of each others mistakes, and amiable in
interactions with others. Employees invariably have to be cognisant that interdependence and
harmonious relationships characterised by politeness and reciprocity will significantly
impinge on the workplace environment. Bereft of harmony, ethics, interdependence, and
politeness, there can only be a hostile workplace whose repercussions make organisational
lives miserable both for self and others!

Bibliography:
1. Human Communication: Motivation, Knowledge, and Skills. SherwynP.Morreale, Brian H. Spitzberg, J. Kevin Barge. Cengage
Learning, 2007.
2 Interpersonal Communication Book, 12th edition, Joseph De Vito, Pearson, 2009
3. Spitzberg, B. H. (2000).What is good communication? Journal of the Association for Communication Administration, 29, 103-119.
4. The SAGE Handbook of Interpersonal Communication, Mark L. Knapp, John A. Daly, 2011, SAGE Publications.
5. Communicating Across Cultures, Stella Ting-Toomey, Guilford Press, 1999.
6. Interpersonal Communication and Human Relationships, 5/E: Mark L.Knapp, Anita L. Vangelisti, Pearson, 5th edition, 2005.
7. Communication Skillsfor Effective Management, Owen Hargie, David Dickson and Dennis Tourish, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004,
New York

68
Use of Multimedia Software in English Language Laboratories

RUKHIYA BEGUM
M.A, PGCTE (EFLU)
Asst. Prof of English, MLRITM, DUNDIGAL, Hyderabad.

Mail ID: tabbu91@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: As technology developed, new programmes came into use to create more
interactive and interesting environment for language learners. As a result, multimedia
Software plays an important role in English teaching. However, some teachers rely so
much on the technology that the disadvantage emerges in the teaching process. In order to
make more efficient use of the Software and the practical value in English teaching, the
paper put forward positive suggestion and strategy by analyzing the problems in the use of
multimedia Software.
Key wordsMultimedia Software, English teaching, problem and strategy
Introduction: With the use of Multimedia Software, the teaching and learning process
became easy, more interactive and interesting environment. However some teachers depend
too much on the Multimedia software in English language laboratories which create problems
in teaching and learning process. To make more efficient in using the technology and
teaching effectively, the paper put forward positive suggestions to enhance the learners
speaking skills by analyzing the problems in the use of software technology in the English
language lab.
I. Analysis on necessity of application of Multimedia Software to English
teaching:
A. To Cultivate Students Interest in Study.
Using the Multimedia Software in English language teaching becomes easier in teaching and
learning process which greatly cultivates students interest and motivate in study. Besides,
with such characteristics as abundant information, crossing time and space, Multimedia
software offers a sense of reality and function very well which greatly cultivates students
interest ( Jun Xu).
B. Classroom activities enhance the speaking skills among the learners.

Most of the student simply listen, read and write the information loaded in the Multimedia
Software. This leads to lack of interaction between the teacher and among the learners. The
application of activities like Group Discussion, Subject Discussion and Debate can offer
more opportunities for communication among students and teachers. So Multimedia
technology has uniquely inspired students positive thinking and communication skills in
social practice.

C. To improve teaching effect.

Indian classrooms are generally crowded classrooms. In such situations, it is difficult to have
interaction with each student. The use of Multimedia lab materializes the individualized

69
cooperative teaching. On the other hand, it gives time, creates more vivid, visual and good
learning environment for English language teaching.

II. Analysis on problems arising from Multimedia Software to English


teaching.

A. Inefficient teachers to handle the multimedia technology.


Most of the teachers lack knowledge to handle the Multimedia Software technology
especially with the master and student console. They become handicap without the
technicians or lab programmers to function the language lab. 21st century is the age of
globalization and the use of Multimedia and its application to teaching comes in to full play
in English language class teaching. Without the technical knowledge it is difficult to access
the software.
B. Loss of speaking skills.
The teachers rely completely on software in teaching which leads less interaction and
uninteresting in learning process. The learners spend most of the time in front of the
computer which lacks speaking skills. To avoid this, teacher can conduct different speaking
tasks like situational dialogues, Debate and Group Discussions to enhance language skills.
C. Lab design.
Improper lab design affects the learners health. Lab designing should be done properly
according to the learners comfort. As the learners spend more time in labs, they need
comfortable computer tables and chairs. For listening and practice exercises, the lab should
be designed in different cabin system with sound proof glasses which may not disturb others
while producing the sounds.

Design of language laboratory (Master and Student console system)

III. Suggestion and Strategies to the existing problems

A. Teachers cannot be replaced by computers

A computer can give information but a teacher can lend a hand or an ear and discern what is
necessary for a student to succeed and to want to succeed. The Multimedia technology is a

70
tool in teaching process, but most of the teachers fail to play their role in interacting with the
students in language labs. This should not be happen.

B. Faculty development programmes (FDP) to enhance technical knowledge.

Lack of technical knowledge leads to failure in teaching process to overcome with this
problem, FDP plays an important role to develop technical knowledge to run the Multimedia
labs effectively.

C. Multimedia Software should not be over use

Multimedia Software is just a tool in English language teaching and the teacher should not
completely rely on it. Classroom activities are also equally important to improve students
inter personal communicational skills.

Bibliography:

Madhavi.I. (Jun 18, 2009). Use of Language Lab in English Language learning/teaching.
Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.articlesbase.com/languages.../use-of-language-
lab-in-English-language teaching.

Jun Xu. (2010). On The Problems and Strategies of Multimedia Technology. Retrieved June
3 , 2015, from http://www.academypublisher.com/ojs/index.php/jltr/article/download/.../1800

Zhanghongling. (2000). The development tendency of the modern foreign language teaching
and the computer assisted instruction. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Education, 3.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Language ...

en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-CGGL200404058.htm by D Zhong-xia - 2004

71
ICT Based Teaching: Empowering Teachers to Excel in
Language Teaching

Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh


Associate Professor (Sr. Grade) & Head, Department of Humanities
OP Jindal Institute of Technology, Raigarh (Chhattisgarh)-496001

Abstract: Due to the influence of information technology on society and education,


Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is becoming the trend in foreign language
teaching. Interactive computer network allows students to test the result of learning
without the risk of being punished for any mistake. Learning does not have to be a
pressure. Computer-Assisted Language learning can reduce the anxiety of students and
turns out to be a positive side of learning. (Gates, 1997)
Key words: CALL, Foreign Language , pedagogical
The21st century has witnessed emergence of new technologies in various forms. The new
technologies have helped us in all walks of life and made our life easier and better. The field
of education is also witnessing the pedagogical change in teaching-learning. It is making the
teaching-learning process better and effective. Better teaching-learning process is leading to a
better and smart products in the form of a workforce. Language teaching is also benefitted
with this change and language teaching-learning is now equipped with many computer
assisted tools and language learning softwares etc. As a global language and lingua franca,
the demand of English language learning is growing day by day and new technologies are
offering new opportunities for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of language teaching.
In the present borderless world, English is the only language for easy and effective
communication between people of different countries and cultures. Although Teaching
English is one of the educational paradoxes in India, yet to create global workforce India is
striving hard. English has become a tool to navigate the vast frontiers of all sections of life. In
all walks of life such as-success in studies, efficiency in job, personality development and
enjoyment in personal relationship- English is the only efficient escalator and all depend
greatly on ones ability to communicate with others in English. The quality of any
educational institution stands elite only when their students and employers communicate
freely and effectively in English. In this contemporary scenario, the role of English language
Teachers has gained much importance.
ICT (Information and Communication Technology):
According to Van Brakel- Information technology is the gathering , organizing, storage and
distribution of information in various formats by means of computer and telecommunication
techniques based on microelectronics.
The growing use of ICT in blended language learning environments has changed the face of
language teaching in a beneficial way and will continue to do so along with future
technological innovations. They are offering new opportunities for enhancing the quality and
effectiveness of teaching. ICT based language learning uses multiple teaching and guiding
methods with online activities and utilizing a mix of technology-based materials. The use of
several media-audio, video, authentic contexts and real world experiences help language
teachers and learners with different teaching-learning styles to assimilate the content
according to their needs.

72
The Objectives of technology based teaching:
Language teaching is not only influenced by technology but also by concepts and practices
from the corporate world today effective teaching is seen as both pedagogical problem and
an organizational one. On pedagogical side teachers are no longer viewed merely as skilled
implementers of teaching method but as creators of their own individual teaching methods, as
classroom researchers, and as curriculum and materials developers. (Richards, pg.7) As
teacher is to be considered and called as knowledge facilitator, the prime duty of a teacher
should be to facilitate learners with knowledge and in this work; technology can help a lot.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has significant potential for improving
students learning. As language teachers know that language teaching is an act of creativity,
imagination, exploration, expression, construction, and profound social and cultural
collaboration, they can use ICT tools to fully humanize and enhance this act, rather than to try
to automate it. The teachers can help bring out the best from the students that human and
machine has to offer. The key to successful use of technology in language teaching lies not in
hardware or software but in teachers capacity as teachers have to plan, design, and
implement effective educational activity.
Information and communication technology refers to all technology, in particulars computers,
used in the field of education. Contemporary teaching trends call language teachers to be
competent enough in ICT use. Introduction of ICT- based tools and constantly growing
number of available educational resources are empowering language teachers to teach with
modern facilities in effective manner. Paradigm shift is evident and is focused on learners
need. The use of several medias- internet, audio- video resources, authentic contexts,
advanced electronic gadgets, new language learning softwares and real world experiences
helping language teachers to teach in different styles and to assimilate the content according
to learners needs. Many facilities like blogs on internet, Whatsup on mobile and online
discussion forums etc. are easy to use and connect with learners. The teacher can create a web
page where students can post their queries and can get the solutions online. Attending a class
and posting an online query both do have different feel. But the second one does have a
techno-feel which makes work easier and more interesting. This factor of interest is a
motivating factor for the learners and is the base of any kind of learning. The ICT based
learning not only motivates learners but also make them feel better in learning.
The potentiality of Information and Communication Technology in teaching is enormous and
its use facilitate to present teaching materials more colourful and attractive way, to preserve
the materials for future uses, to update them with little effort, to exchange the materials with
many users, and there by improve the learning efficiency. The ICT teaching empowers the
teachers to make the learning enjoyable; it motivates the learners in learning; demands active
participation; keeps the learners vigilant; saves the learners time; and provides humiliation
free and a better teaching- learning environment.
The main objectives for introducing technology-assisted language teaching system are the
following:
(i) To enhance quality of teaching and learning by using computer as a tool.
(ii) To promote self-determined learning equipment that can be used collectively for many
learners.
(iii) To motivate and create interest among the learners.

73
(iv) To make the teachers and learners more curious and comfortable while sending and
receiving the information or knowledge.
(v) To provide unique resources to make learners on a par with native speakers.
Main Features of ICT Based Teaching:
The main features of ICT based teaching are described as follows by the researchers:
i- Promotes teaching with purpose:
The appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze the paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy
in teaching-learning. As far as English Language Teaching is concerned, ICT can be used for
two main purposes: to search for information or to get produced a piece of writing. Students
and teachers have access to vast amount of data and texts either through softwares, CD-
ROMs or on the Internet. Where softwares and CD-ROMs give access to information under a
specific head, the Internet allows one to access a huge body of information, texts and ideas
about teaching with discussion.
The second use of ICT in English teaching is to get produced a piece of writing. As students
are found quite reluctant in editing their writings, a computer is of great help here, because
the draft can be revised with regard to organization of complete piece of writing.
ii- 24 X 7 Availability: One defining feature of ICT is its ability to transcend
time and space. ICT tools make possible a synchronous learning, or learning characterized by
a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. Online course
materials, for example, may be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
iii- Easy access to remote learning resources: Teachers and Learners no longer have to
rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media kept in libraries for their
educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of teaching materials
and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at anytime of the day and by
an unlimited number of people. ICTs also facilitate access to resource persons mentors,
experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and peersall over the world for
advance queries.
iv- ICTs help transform the teaching environment into learner-centered:
ICT-supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will
empower for lifelong learning. These new ways of teaching shift from a teacher-centered
pedagogymemorization and rote learningto one that is learner-centered.
v- Promotes active learning :
In ICT-enhanced teaching, Learners can learn as they want and making learning less abstract
and more relevant to the learners life situation. In this way, and in contrast to memorization-
based or rote learning, ICT based teaching promotes increased learner engagement.
vi- Promotes collaborative learning:
ICT-supported teaching encourages cooperation among learners and experts regardless of
where they are. It provides learners the opportunities to work with people from different
cultures, thereby helping to enhance learners teaming and communicative skills as well as
their global awareness.
vii- Promotes self- access Learning

74
Language teaching-learning can never be confined to a classroom. The process takes place
outside the classroom also. ICT based teaching has self access facility which allows learners
to go ahead according to their own interest and pace. Learners get motivated to study on a
regular basis.

Major ICT Based Tools for English Language Teaching- learning:


As the world is changing rapidly, life in general and education in particular has become more
and more complex. Educators have prepared a technology-rich future to keep-up the change
by adapting effective strategies and appropriate technologies. Major ICT based tools for
English Language teaching-learning are : Television, Video Conferencing, CD-ROMs,
Computer games, Internet & Social Networking Sites, Webinars, Language Learning
Softwares (language lab), Mobiles, pod-cast and On-line courses or e-materials etc. Mute
experiment, Realia, Game software, Video analysis, Shoot a scene, PPTs and Online Tasks
methods can be used to teach language effectively.
Television:
A very powerful medium today is the television and it supports the concept of SMART
classes. It can put across ideas and concepts clearly, attractively and effectively. News
sections, Debates, Discussions, live commentary and Active English courses can help better
in enhancing language teaching process- especially effective speaking. DDs Gyandarshan
Channel and IGNOUs study programmes are the best examples.
CD-ROMs:
In this mode, the courses are available on CDs. Teachers can access the CD-ROMs on
individual computers or on the Local Area Network. They can upload the material on Intranet
to provide better facility to the students.
Language Softwares (language lab)
A language laboratory is a classroom or other area containing electronic and mechanical
equipments designed and arranged to make English language learning easier. ENGLISH LAB
is a multimedia package which aims at to develop four English language skills-LSRW
(Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing). Major components are :
1) elementary Phonetics and Paralinguistic features;
2) a story and exercises for listening comprehension;
3) exercises for reading comprehension, model reading, fast reading and punctuation;
4) grammar with tutorials and exercises;
5) vocabulary development through games;
6) Online / offline Dictionaries;
7) audios / videos and video-based courses;
8) Career Development materials etc.
In multimedia packages various features like user friendly navigation, instructions for
operation, interfaces, use of buttons timely cues for answering a question, special sounds for
appreciation / mistake, etc. are valuable interaction. Different company softwares provide
different modules. Some famous s/ws are CLARITY, ORELL and GLOBARENA etc.

75
Mobile Teaching
Recent developments in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in
general and global wireless technologies in particular that includes 3G networks, GPS, GSM,
GPRS and satellite Systems And other communication technologies including Wi-Fi, WiMax
and Bluetooth have created a wide array of new possibilities for the teachers. When these
technologies are used in the teaching paradigm, mobile learning emerges. Mobile learning, or
mLearning, has been defined as learning that takes place via such wireless devices as mobile
phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or laptop computers.
Mobile-Assisted Language Teaching
The second dimension in CALL is mobile assisted language teaching and learning, which
offers the opportunity for ubiquitous connection with language teaching & learning materials
and applications. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) can be termed as a subset of
both Mobile Learning and Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). With MALL,
learners are able to access language learning materials in their handheld mobile devices. It
also improves connectivity of the learners who can now communicate with their teachers and
peers anywhere anytime using sms and whatsup etc..
INTERNET:
Internet can be used for English language learning in many ways. Using On-line courses,
online available learning materials, Virtual reality Learning, Blogs, Podcast, video sharing,
social networking sites etc are prominent ways to promote and enhance English Language
Teaching-learning.
Virtual Reality :
Virtual Reality is another dimension in CALL, where teachers can take different avatars to
explore, create, and interact through chat and increasingly voice with one another. Second
Life is one such virtual world, which is accessible via the Internet. As 3D virtual worlds
become more complex in the future, they offer different opportunities for language education.
Some communities for language educators in Second Life include the following:
English Village is a community of language teachers in Asia.
Second Life English Community is an open community for language learners and teachers.
SL Experiments is a community of language teachers using Second Life.
Blog:
A blog is a kind of a website maintained by an individual with commentary on the topic of
one's choice (social, political, personal, etc.) Blogs are primarily textual. Audio/Voice
blogging and Video blogging are also available. Voice blogging is posting recorded audio
files in the blog site. Teachers may have a blog with updated entries about different topics
related to language learning.
Pod cast:
Pod casting is another tool that can be used for language teaching. Broadcasting of audio or
video content in the Internet is termed as pod casting. Pod casts can be either live or recorded
and can be used by teachers during classroom teaching.
Video Sharing:

76
Video publication through sites like You Tube, Daily motion, Flickr, Google Video,
Metacafe, etc. has created a revolutionary change in the way Internet is perceived. Using
videos for language teaching has been one of the most effective ways to achieve success.
Social Networking Sites:
According to a British Council research, 69% of learners around the world learnt most
effectively when socializing informally. Facebook, a popular social networking site has more
than 60 million active users. This site had an average of 250,000 new registrations per day
since January 2007. Another social networking site MySpace has 85% of its users below 18
years of age. In addition to Facebook and MySpace, sites like Reunion, Bebo and Twitter
have attracted millions of Internet users worldwide. With the help of social networking sites
Language teaching can be promoted.
Advantages of ICT Based Language Teaching Tools:
For the English language teaching, teachers should look beyond traditional forms in order to
prepare learners for careers that require active participation in the digital age. A modern
classroom is a Smart Classroom, which would have video and data projectors, sound systems,
video conferencing facilities, Wi-Fi connectivity, television, DVD players, video document
cameras, etc. Teaching through ICT will be more attractive to the learner and effective in
learning. The cost of production of a ICT Based tool is, no doubt, much higher than that of
the materials on other media. But the advantage of this media is that the whole material is in
electronic medium. It gives way to revise or reproduce the material with no or less cost and
which is not, always the case in other media. Through ICT based teaching, learners can focus
on the area they are interested or weak and can learn at their own pace. They can take as
much time as they like, they can repeat the same module number of times they prefer.
Advantages of ICT tools in teaching are as follows:
- Technology can enable the teachers to plan and redesign the style of teaching by a
collection of resources which the learner can be guided through.
- Network-based instruction can help students strengthen their communication skills by
affecting their learning attitude.
- Mixed ability classes can be handled effectively as shy or inhibited learners can be greatly
benefited by individualized, learner-centered collaborative learning and High fliers can also
realize their full potential without preventing their peers from working at their own pace.
- Online dictionary can help students fast reading and enriching the vocabulary.
- Provides interactive and communicative activities.
- Appropriate input can be provided easily.
- Enable teachers in developing cognitive abilities of students.
- Provides task-based and problem-solving activities
- Promoting Learner-centered teaching methodology.
- Enables teachers to facilitate focused development of English language skills
- Meets affective needs of learners
- Assessing and getting feedback is easy.
- Listening activities and games enhance effective learning process.

77
Conclusion:
English language teaching can no longer take place in an effective manner within a traditional
method of teaching. The impact and influence of Information Technology on society and
education have made ICT based language teaching a necessity. With the help of ICT- based
tools and constantly growing number of available educational resources, language teachers
can be able to teach individually and in personalized way also. The use of several medias and
real world experiences can help language teachers with different teaching styles to assimilate
the content according to the need of the students. Teachers must use technology deliberately
for the betterment of learners in their learning process.

Bibliography:
Chapelle, carol A, Computer Applications In Second language Acquisition, Cambridge: CUP, 2001
Damodar, G., Shailaja P & Rajeshwar M, IT Revolution, Globalization and Teaching of English, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers &
Distributors, 2001
Mishra, Binod & Chauhan Gajendra S., Communication in a Globalized World , Delhi: Authors Press, 2009
Nagaraj, Geetha, English language Teaching, Hyderabad: Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd., 2008
P. Eliah, A Handbook of English for Professionals, Hyderabad: BS Publications, 2009
Raman, Meenakshi, Choudhary, S K, Sharma Sangeeta & Lata, Pushp (Eds.), Soft Skills: Cornerstone of Professional Success, New Delhi:
Jain Brothers, 2009
Raman, Meenakshi, English language Teaching, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2004
Ray, K Mohit, Studies in ELT, Linguistics and applied Linguistics, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2004
Sharma, Sangeeta& Mishra, Binod,Communication Skills for Engineers and Scientists, New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt.Ltd.,2009
Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Aspects of Functional English, Mandsaur: MIT Mandsaur, 2009
Venkateshwaran, S., Principles of Teaching English, New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House PVt. Ltd., 2007

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