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Module ME5007 Module Mechatronics

Code Title
Credits 4.0 Total Lectures 55hrs Pre-
GPA/NGPA GPA Hours Lab/Assignt 20 hrs Requisites
Aim: The overall objective of this course module is to form foundation knowledge in Mechatronics among
Mechanical Engineering students who will understand how electro-mechanical systems work and to design and
develop Mechatronics products. Most modern mechanical engineering systems are Mechatronic systems, and
Mechatronics is the discipline that results from the synergetic application of electrical, electronic, computer,
and control engineering in mechanical engineering systems. Therefore, it is essential for the mechanical
engineer to have an understanding of the composition and design of Mechatronic systems, which is the aim of
this course.

Learning Outcomes:

Upon successful completion of this course module, the student will be able to:

Define the discipline of Mechatronics, and Identify examples of Mechatronic systems that are
encountered in real life and components of a typical Mechatronic system.
Analyze and solve problems in simple electrical and electronic circuits.
Discuss the importance of feedback in controlling physical systems with the use of examples.
Identify and describe the different types of actuators used and different types of speed- and position-
feedback devices in Mechatronic systems.
Explain the principle of operation of the four types of motors: ac induction motor, the dc motor, the
servomotor, and the stepper motor.
Size the motor for an application and select the suitable type of motor for an application.
Identify the signal processing that has to be applied to signals in Mechatronic systems.
Identify and describe the types of controllers used and select the suitable type of controller for an
application in Mechatronic systems.
Explain and follow the steps in designing a Mechatronic system, and design a Mechatronic system.

Syllabus:
Introduction to and appreciation of Mechatronics [02 hours]
Appreciate what mechatronics is about.
Comprehend the various forms and elements of control systems: open-loop, closed-loop and sequential.
Recognize the need for models of systems in order to predict their behavior.

Sensors and transducers [02 hours]


Describe the performance of commonly used sensors.
Evaluate sensors used in the measurement of: displacement, position and proximity; velocity and motion;
force; fluid pressure; liquid flow; liquid level; temperature; light.
Explain the problem of bouncing when mechanical switches are used for inputting data.

Signal Conditioning- [04 hours]


1
Explain the requirements for signal conditioning.
Explain how operational amplifiers can be used, the requirements for protection and filtering, the principle of
the Wheatstone bridge and, in particular, how it is used with strain gauges, the principles and main methods of
analogue-to digital and digital-to-analogue converters, multiplexers and data acquisition using DAQ boards.
Explain the principle of digital signal processing.
Explain the principle of pulse-modulation.

Data Presentation systems- [03 hours]


Explain the problem of loading.
Describe the basic principles of use of commonly used data presentation elements: meters, analogue chart
recorders, oscilloscopes, visual display units, printers.
Explain the principles of magnetic recording on floppy and hard discs.
Explain the principles of displays and, in particular, the use of LED seven-segment and dot matrix displays and
the use of driver circuits.

Explain how data presentation can occur with the use of DAQ boards.
Design measurement systems.

Pneumatic and hydraulic, Mechanical and Electric c actuation systems [06 hours]
Interpret system drawings, and design simple systems, for sequential control systems involving valves and
cylinders. Explain the principle of process control valves, their characteristics and sizing.

Evaluate mechanical systems involving linkages, cams, gears, ratchet and pawl, belt and chain drives, and
bearings.

Evaluate the operational characteristics of electrical actuation systems: relays, solid-state switches (thyristors,
bipolar transistors and MOSFETs, solenoid actuated systems, d.c. motors, a.c. motors and steppers).

System models [03 hours]


Devise models from basic building blocks for mechanical, electrical, fluid and thermal systems. Devise models
for rotational-translational, electro-mechanical and hydraulic-mechanical systems.

Dynamic responses of systems and transfer functions [02 hours]


Model dynamic systems by means of differential equations. Determine the response of first and second order
systems to simple inputs.
Define the transfer function and determine the responses of systems to simple inputs by its means, using
Laplace transforms.
Identify the effect of pole location on transient response.
Use MATLAB and SIMULINK to model systems.

Frequency response [02 hours]


Analyse the frequency response of systems subject to sinusoidal inputs.
Plot and interpret Bode plots using such plots for system identification.

Closed-loop controllers [02 hours]


Predict the behavior of systems with proportional, intergral, derivative, proportional plus integral, proportional
plus derivative and PID control.

Explain how such modes of control can be realized with operational amplifiers and digital controllers and
controller settings determined.
Explain what is meant by velocity feedback and adaptive control.

2
Digital logic [04 hours]
Use the binary, octal, hexadecimal and binary coded decimal number systems; explain how numbers can be
signed and the twos complement method of handling negative numbers.
Explain the advantages of the Gray code.
Describe parity methods of error detection.
Recognise the symbols and Boolean representation of, write truth tables for and use in applications, the logic
gates of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR.
Use Boolean algebra to simplify Boolean expressions and present them in the form of sums of products or
product of sums.
Use Karnaugh maps do determine the Boolean expressions to represent truth tables.
Explain the operation of decoders.
Explain how SR, JK and D flip-flops can be used in control systems.

Microprocessors and programming languages - [06 hours]


Describe the basic structure of a microprocessor system.
Describe the architecture of common microprocessors and how they can be incorporated in microprocessors
systems.
Describe the basic structure of microcontrollers and the architecture of commonly encountered
microcontrollers and how their registers are used to carry out tasks.
Explain how programs can be developed using flow charts or pseudocode.
Assembly language and C language to write programs

Input/output systems [02 hours]


Identify interface requirements and how they can be realized; in particular buffers, handshaking, polling and
serial interfacing.
Explain how interrupts are used with microcontrollers.
Explain the function of peripheral interface adapters and program them for particular situations.
Explain the function of asynchronous communications interface adapters.

Programmable logic controllers [04 hours]


Describe the basic structure of PLCs.
Program a PLC, recognizing how the logic functions, latching and sequencing can be realized.
Develop programs involving timers, internal relays, counters, shift registers, master relays, jumps and data
handling.

Communication systems [04 hours]


Describe centralized, hierarchical and distributed control systems, network configurations and methods of
transmitting data, describing protocols used in the transmission of data.
Describe the Open Systems Interconnection Communication model.
Describe commonly used communication interfaces : RS-232, Centronics, IEEE-488, personal computer buses,
VXIbus, and I2C bus.

Fault finding [02 hours]


Recognise the techniques used to identify faults in microprocessor-based systems, including both hardware
and software.
Explain the use of emulation and simulation.
Explain how fault finding can be developed with PLC systems.

3
Mechatronics systems [04 hours]
Compare and contrast possible solutions to design problems when considered from the traditional and the
mechatronic points of view, recognizing the widespread use of embedded systems.
Analyse case studies of mechatronics solutions.
Design mechatronics solutions to problems.

Assessment:

Laboratory exercises (compulsory), assignments, case studies, field visits, , etc. 20%
Mini Project in Product Design: An integrated design of a product with areas learnt sufficiently covered , and
with two students sharing the same title but individual reports submitted A compulsory assignment 20%

Final examination: three hour question paper 60%

Laboratory Exercises

Experiment 01: Linear circuits (Signal conditioning)

Objective

To learn about signal conditioning algorithms; amplification, adding/subtracting and basic filtering.

Experiment 02: Digital electronics

Objective

To familiariase with mathematics used to design digital electronic circuits and fundamental circuit
elements of digital electronics. (Boolean algebra, K-map, LOGIC GATES, 555 TIMER as a source of
logic signals, and memory elements (RS, JK,T and D flip flops)

Experiment 03: Stepper Motor Control

Objective

To learn about stepper motor basics and how to control a stepper motor using the digital output of a
microcontroller in full/half step modes drive in clockwise/counterclockwise direction, while controlling the
speed of rotation and displaying the current position.

Experiment 04: Pneumatic Control of a Double-acting Cylinder

Part A

Direct control of a double-acting cylinder with push-button.


Objective
Design and implement direct control of double-acting cylinders with manually operated 5/2 directional control
valves. Observe the effect of adjustable spring cushioning in double acting cylinders.

4
Part B
Speed regulation of a double-acting cylinder
Objective

Observe various types of speed regulation of the piston rod movements of double-acting cylinders with one-
way flow control valves.

Experiment 05: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Part A
Introduction to Programmable Logic Controller

Objectives

To familiar with following laboratory equipments


PLC
Power sources(AC/DC)
Input output module(analog and Digital)

Part B

Start and Stop DC motor

Objectives

Design and implement ladder logic control for a DC motor. (The system has one start and one stop switch. Both
of the switches are momentary contact switch. Start switch is normally opened and stop switch is normally
closed. Output relay controls the supply to the motor. The motor has a stop and a run indicator lights.)
References:

1. Mechatronics Electrical Control Systems in Mechanical Engineering; by W. Bolton


2. Mechatronics An Integrated Approach by Clarence W. de Silva

IESL College of Engineering


Syllabus of Mechatronics Course Module