You are on page 1of 3


Ummadi Naga Manohar Reddy (SC15B053)
Manufacturing Processes Lab
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
(Dated: August 24, 2017)


Surface Grinding is used for acheiving finishing flat surfaces on many manufactured components, Here,
in this experiment, a mild steel work piece is surface finished with diffrent depths of cut and the average
roughness values are compared. It is then concluded that a better surface finish is obtained for lower grinding
depth of cut.


1. Studying and understanding the mechanism

of grinding process and the effect of process
parameters on Surface Finish.

2. Understanding the principle underling the

working of the hydraulic surface grinding

3. To study how the average surface roughness

vary with the depth of cut of grinding. Figure 1. Workpiece Drawing

3. Specifications of Grinding wheel

Material : Aluminium oxide
SPECIFICATIONS Diameter : 200 mm
Bore : 50.8 mm
Thickness : 20 mm
1. Workpiece Material and dimensions
Material : Mild Steel Machine Tools and Instruments
Length : 50mm
Breadth : 50mm Hydraulic Surface grinding machine with
Height : 5mm Electro magnetic Bed is used for finishing
the surface of the work piece

2. Dimensions of the Workpiece The work A skidded based profilometer device is used
piece dimensions are 50mm X 50mm X 5mm and for measuring the avearge roughness of the
is showed in fig.1 finished surface.

Machine Specifications Material used is ferromagnetic in nature
Make-Alex so no extra support is required other than
Model: NH500 electromagnet to hold the workpiece.

Machining Range PROCEDURE

Max. distance between : 400 mm
table and spindle center Work piece is placed on the electro-magnetic
Max. grinding length, width : 500 x 250 mm bed and the electromagnet is switched on.
Working surface : 500 x 250 mm
Max weight capacity of table : 200 kg
The transverse swing of the bed is set such
that the entire surface of work piece is
Max. longitudinal movement : 550 mm
Max. cross movement : 280 mm
T-slot (number x width) : 1 x 14 mm The spindle is switched on and the reference
Max Table Speed : 15 m/min is set on the work piece by moving the spindle
until it touches.
Cross Movement
Least count of hand wheel : 0.01mm
Manual feed rate per turn : 0.2 mm Switching on the coolant, a depth of 50m is
given and a constant cross feed is given for
Motor the tool after every pass till the entire work
Grinding spindle : 2hp (1.5kW) piece is covered.
Vertical up-down : 0.25 hp (0.18kW)
Cross feed : 0.25 hp (0.18kW) Coolant, spindle rotation, cross feed and the
Coolant pump : 0.12hp (0.1kW) electro magnet of bed are all switched off.

Hydraulic system
Working pressure : 10kg/cm2 The average roughness of the finished surface
Tank capacity : 35 litres is measured using the roughness measuring
Grinding wheel
Diameter x Thickness x Bore : 200 x 20 x 50.8 mm The same procedure is repeated for the depth
Speed : 3000 rpm of cut of 10and the average roughness of the
finished surfaces in both cases are compared.
Grinding wheel should be selectively chosen
depending on the work piece used and the
expected finish.

Work piece being used here is mild steel which

has carbon content and hence a SiC grinding
wheel is not use. Instead the pne made by
Aluminum oxide is used as a grinding wheel.

Also a soft Aluminium Oxide grinding wheel

is used for the sake of self sharpening since
the mild steel work piece is hard Figure 2. Surface Grinder with horizontal spindle
and reciprocating worktable.

Average surface roughness values measured
Here, in the experiment, troughness values for
for the two different depths of grinding tabulated
different depts of cut is measured. It is observed
below in Table 1.
that with the increase in the depth of ct the average
surface roughness value increases. So, a better
Grinding Depth (m) 50 10
surface finish can be expected if the depth of cut
Ra1 (m) 0.111 0.051 value is less.
Ra2 (m) 0.130 0.052
Ra3 (m) 0.110 0.049
Average Roughness (m) 0.117 0.0507 Surface finishing of machined components
is of utmost importance in the fields of
Table 1: Roughness measurement table aerospace and medicine.

High pressurehydraulic systems and fuel

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS injection systems in particular require high
The avearge surface roghness obtained for quality surfaces and precisely defined features
50m depth of cut is found to be 0.117m. to maintain the system integrity.

For 10m depth of cut, it is 0.0507m. Turbine blades,some components of landing

gears require precise finish to overcome
corrosion and prevention of wear caused by
In genneral, there are many variables that affect
large forces acting on them.
the procees of grinding such as:
Grinding Depth In medical field, equipment manufacturers
and pharmaceutical producers demand
Cross Feed Rate
stringent specifications with respect to
Grinding wheel speed surface finish. Literally, lives can be on the
lines if these systems fail, so it is critical that
Translation speed of workpiece
the quality of the machined componenets is
All such variables represented in form of a fishbone maintained2 .
or Ishikawa diagram is as shown in fig.3


Lab Manual, Department of Mechanical
Engineering, IIT Kanpur.

The importance of surface finish in
components for the aerospace and medical
industries, article by Nuclead Inc.