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of Hobbs, New Mexico, was produced at a constant 1. Conventional Techniques

rate of 360 STB/D. Skin effect

The initial pressure throughout the reservoir prior Using data given on Table 1.1, Pwf vs. time is

to the flow test was 4620 psia. graphed on Cartesian (Fig. 1.1) and semi log (Fig.

1.2). Cartesian plot shows clearly the pseudo stable

Part 1. Conventional Techniques state of flow characterized by a straight line.

Because the infinite active line is before PSS, the

A) Skin Effect straight line in semilog is plotted avoiding the PSS.

1. Calculate reservoir transmissibility and 4700

permeability. 4600

3. Calculate flow efficiency, damage ratio and 4500

stimulated? Why?

Pwf (Psia)

4. Calculate the radial distance of the skin, if 4300

Pint=4245

m*=1

4000

Time (hours)

80 90 100 110 120 130 140

B) Wellbore Storage 4700

7. Estimate the starting time of the semilog 4600

Pwf(Psia)

m=140

10. Determine the system geometry. 4200

during this drawdown test. 4000

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

Time(hours)

Table 1.1. Drawdown Test Data for Problem No. 1 From figure 1.2

t Pwf t Pwf

[hrs] [psia] [hrs]] [psia] 4160 4440

0 4,620 4.000 4,360 m 140 psia / cycle

2

0.020 4,588 7.000 4,325

0.030 4,576 10.000 4,300

Permeability is computed from

0.044 4,552 20.000 4,256

q

0.060 4,528 30.000 4,230 k 162.6 (1.1)

0.100 4,505 50.000 4,195 mh

0.200 4,486 70.000 4,172

0.400 4,478 80.000 4,160 360 *1.22 * 0.84

k 162.6 * 53.56 md

0.700 4,450 90.000 4,150 140 * 8

1.000 4,435 100.000 4,140

2.000 4,400 125.000 4,120

3.000 4,380

Transmissibility DF 1 FE (1.6)

510.10

0.84 cp

These values show that the area next to the wellbore

is stimulated because S < 0, FE > 1, DR < 1, and

Skin factor is computed from DF < 0. According to Tiab (2004) this value of s is

into the range for hydraulically fractured wells (-3

to -5)

p p1hr k

s 1.1513 i log 3.23

2

m ct rw Radial distance of the skin:

(1.2)

p1hr is read from Fig. 1.2 on the infinite acting line. k r

S 1 ln s (1.7)

P1h = 4440 psia. Then, ks rw

4620 4440 53.56

s 1.1513 log 3.23 In terms of rs:

140 5 2

0.10 * 0.84 * 42 *10 * 0.29

S

k

s 3.16 1

k

rs rw * e s

(1.8)

Eq. 1.3 allows find ps value:

ks = 4.10*k from laboratory measurement

q expectations. So, ks = 219.6 md

p s 141.2 s (1.3)

kh

Then,

360 * 0.84 *1.22

p s 141.2 * (3.16) 383.6 psi 3.16

53.56 * 8 53.56

1

rs 0.29 * e 219.6

18.8 ft

Flow efficiency, damage radio and damage factor

are estimated from:

Apparent radius:

p p wf p s

FE (1.4) r ' w rw e s (1.9)

p p wf

Pwf is the last value of pressure at the end of the r ' w 0.29 * e ( 3..16) 6.8 ft

test and average pressure will be considered equal

to pi, which implies the assumption that the well is

The flow rate without effect skin is calculated using

new or steady state.

the next set of equations:

4620 4120 (383.3)

FE 1.77 177% J actual

4620 4120 FE (1.9)

J ideal

1

DR (1.5) In terms of Jideal:

FE

J actual

DR

1

0.57 57% J ideal (1.10)

1.77 FE

and, q t

C (1.14)

24 p i

q

J ideal (1.11)

p p wf p skin

360 *1.22 0.043 bbl

C 0.01

Finding Jactual:

24 70 psia

q

J actual (1.12) line) from Fig. 1.3; tSSL = 4 hr. Using Eq 1.15 we

p p wf find for tSSL:

J actual 0.72 t SSL C (1.15)

4620 4120 kh /

t SSL 0.01 4.6 hr

53.56 * 8 / 0.84

0.72

J ideal 0.4

1.77

System geometry

Using Eq. 1.4 and leaving Eq. 1.11 in terms of q:

From Fig. 1.1, pressure at the intercept is 4245

q psia, and m* is calculated as the slope of the straight

q s 0 actual (1.13)

FE line:

360 p 2 p1

q s 0 203 STB / D m* (1.16)

1.77 t 2 t1

m* 1

80 90

Wellbore storage coefficient is estimate using Eq.

1.14 and taking (t/p)i data from Fig. 1.3 at any

But m* in terms of A is:

convenient point on the unit slope.

0.23395 q

1000 m* (1.17)

ct Ah

pr = 390 psia

Then,

0.23395 q

A

P, t*P'

(1.18)

100 (t*p')i =70 psia

( p ) i

ct (m * )h

trpi = 64 hr

A 5

295,941.36 ft 2

0.1042 *10 * (1.) * 8

ti = 0.042

hr

10

A 6.79 Acres

TSSL = 4 hr tr = 30 hr

0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

Time (hours)

V 0.10 * 295,941 .36 * 8 236,753 .09 ft 3

Shape factor 50.89 * 78.1

rd 0.029 308.1

2.303( p1 hr pint )

0.84 * 0.10 * 42 *10 5

m

C A 5.456 e m

( 1.20)

m*

140 140

C A 5.456 e

30.8

1

System geometry

*

t DA 0.1833 m t pss (1.21)

m

state flow, and is obtained from Fig. 1.1. tpss = 42

hours. Then,

(1)

t DA 0.1833 42 0.055

(140)

the next geometry with less than 1% error for tDA:

Appendix D, page 265 (Pressure

Transient Testing):

CA = 30.8828

tDA = 0.05

ct (43560 A)

t s 380 (1.22)

k

t s 380 78.1

53.56

kt s

rd 0.029 (1.23)

ct

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