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Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica Applicata

Electrical machines AC machines

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
1. Basic concept of DC machines and limits
2. Rotating magnetic field
2. Synchronous machines
1. Geometry
2. Mechanical behaviour
3. Electrical modelling
4. Performances
3. Induction motors
1. Geometry and basic principles
2. Electrical modelling
Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich
3
Outline

1. Introduction
1. Basic concept of DC machines and limits
2. Rotating magnetic field
2. Synchronous machines
3. Induction motors

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.1 Recap of DC machines
Electrical machines:

System to make electro-mechanical energy conversion

Mechanical -> Electrical Generator


Electrical -> Mechanical Motor

Electrical machines are reversible

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.1 Recap of DC machines
All electrical machines convert energy. They can be
considerated as a electro-mechanical 2-port

I
Electric
V T
Machine

The equations that drive the coupling are:

=
=
Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich
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1.1 Recap of DC machines
DC machines:

They have two circuits:


armature circuit
excitation circuit

The excitation circuit is placed on the stator and it generates


a magnetic field that is constant.
The Faradays law says that:

=

To have a voltage with a static magnetic field the coil must
rotate
Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich
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1.1 Recap of DC machines
DC machines limit:

Presence of brushes:
Lightening
Fragile

Need of DC current
Difficult energy transportation
Problems with DC switch

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
1. Basic concept of DC machines and limits
2. Rotating magnetic field
2. Synchronous machines
3. Induction motors

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
Using AC polyphase current it is possible to create a
rotating magnetic field.

The use of three phase current is an optimal compromise


between uniformity of performances and costs.

It is possible to generate a rotating magnetic field with three


coils distributed in the space with three phase current

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
The three currents are:

1 = cos( )
2 = cos( + )
3 = cos( )

Where
2
=
3

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
Taking three coils:

The three coils are disposed in the a


space with an angle of 120
b x x c
Each coil passes a current.

All the currents generate a magnetic c b


flux proportional to the current x

itself. a

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
The fluxes produced are:

1 = cos( ) a

2 = cos( + ) b x x c

3 = cos( )
c b
All these fluxes are vectors oriented x

in the space. a
It is possible to represent them as
phasors.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
The fluxes produced are:

1 = 1 0 a

2 = 2 b x x c

3 = 3
c b
x
Given these definitions, it is possible
to evaluate the total flux: a

= 1 + 2 + 3

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
It is possible to express the modules
of the three fluxes with the Euler
notation: a
+
1 =
2 b x c
( +)
+ ( +)
x

2 =
2
( ) + ( )
3 = c b
2
x

a
With this notation it is possible to
calculate the total flux with respect
to the others.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
The total flux is:
= 1 + 2 + 3 =

= 1 0 + 2 + 3 =

+ 0 ( +) + ( +)
= +
2 2
() + ()
+ =
2


= + 0 + +
2
+ + +

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field

+ 0 + +
2
+ + + =

0
= + +
2
+ 0 + +
Finally
3
=
2
That represent a magnetic flux with constant module
rotating in the space with angular speed

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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1.2 Rotating magnetic field
We have demonstrated that using three phase current
passing in three coils distributed in the space it is
possible to obtain a magnetic flux rotating in the space.

3
=
2

It is easy to demonstrate that it is possible to change the


direction of the rotation just changing the sign of two
currents.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
1. Geometry
2. Mechanical behaviour
3. Electrical modelling
4. Performances
3. Induction motors

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.1 Synchronous machines
The AC machines can be divided into two groups
depending on the geometry and of the feeding of the
rotor.

Synchronous machines have the rotor fed by DC current.


It is possible to substitute the ferromagnetic material and
its coil with a permanent magnet

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.1 Synchronous machines
Synchronous machines have the rotor fed by DC current.
It is possible to have two different configurations of the
rotor:
salient poles
cylindrical rotor

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
1. Geometry
2. Mechanical behaviour
3. Electrical modelling
4. Performances
3. Induction motors

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
It is possible to model both the rotor and the stator as two
rotating magnetic fields.

Stator:
=
Rotor:
=

Where is the rotating speed of the rotor

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
Given the two magnetic fields, it is possible to define the
torque:
a
=
b x x c
The product can be rewritten as:

= sin b
c
x

Where is the angle between a


the two magnetic fields and
= ()

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
It is possible to write as function of the two rotating
speeds:
a
= +
So the expression of the torque b x c
x
becomes:

= sin +
c b
x
At this point it is possible to a
evaluate the average torque:
T

< > =

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich
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2.2 Mechanical behavior

The average torque is: a


T

< > =
b x x c


So:
c b
= 0, x
<> a
0, =

To have a net torque the two magnetic fields should


rotate at the same speed: this is the synchronous
speed called

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
It is possible to change the synchronous speed from the
electrical frequency with a net torque changing the
numbers of poles of the machine.

The poles of the machines are the number of north and


south poles of the rotor or of the stator.

The poles of the stator are always equal to the poles of


the rotor.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
The number of poles of the stator depends on how many
times appears the coil of all the phases.

The number of poles of the rotor depends on the


geometry of the rotor.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
In a machine with poles, it is possible to write that:


=
2


=
2 2

In power production slow rotating machines (as wind


turbine) have a huge number of poles to keep the
electrical frequency constant.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
We had written that:
=
a
That means:
b x x c
= sin +

For a synchronous machine: c b


x

= sin a

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
We had written that:
=
a
It is possible to define the total
magnetic field:
b x x c
= +

c b
From this expression:
x

a
=

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
The torque is defined as:
=
a
From the expression of the total
magnetic field, it is possible to
write: b x x c
=

Using this expression in the torque c b


formulation: x

a
=

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.2 Mechanical behavior
Given:
=
Doing some math:
= =
So:
=
Defining the angle between the rotor and the net a
magnetic field:
= sin b x x
c

c b
x
a
Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich
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2.2 Mechanical behavior
=
The angle between the rotor and the net magnetic field
() is called torque angle or power angle.
a

b x x c

c b
x

a
The power angle is the shift angle given from the
machine in the phasor electric diagram.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
1. Geometry
2. Mechanical behaviour
3. Electrical modelling
4. Performances
3. Induction motors

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.3 Electrical modeling
It is possible to give an electrical model:

for each phase


for all the phases

Usually the model of each phase is the one used to


analyse the behaviour of the machine.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.3 Electrical modeling
The model of each phase is:

Stator:

Rotor:

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.3 Electrical modeling

It is possible to use the KVL:


= + +
Neglecting ( _):

= +

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.3 Electrical modeling
= +

It is possible to draw this equation in the phasor diagram:

From the phasor diagram, it is possible to say that:

sin = cos

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.3 Electrical modeling
= +

sin = cos

At this point it is possible to calculate the electrical power


of the machine:

= cos
Finally:

= cos

This is the power of each phase.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.3 Electrical modeling
The electrical model of all the three phases combined is:

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
1. Geometry
2. Mechanical behaviour
3. Electrical modelling
4. Performances
3. Induction motors

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.4 Performances
It is possible to do some considerations on the power of
the synchronous machine.

The mechanical power is:

= = sin

The electrical power is:



= 3 cos = 3 cos

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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2.4 Performances
= = sin

= 3 cos = 3 cos

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
3. Induction motors
1. Geometry and basic principles
2. Electrical modelling
3. Performances

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.1 Induction motors
Induction machines are used almost always as motors
due to the fact that the quality of the generated power
is not good enough.

The limits of the synchronous machines that are solved


by the induction motors are:

Need of two feeding systems;


Need of DC current

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.1 Induction motors
Stator geometry is the same of synchronous machines: it
generate the same rotating magnetic field.

The rotor is made by a set of coils not fed.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.1 Induction motors
The stator generates a magnetic flux.

The coils of the rotors can see a time varying magnetic


field. So:

This means that a voltage potential is induced in the


rotor and this voltage generates a current that
generates a magnetic field.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.1 Induction motors
If the rotor and the rotating field of the stator have
different rotating speed, so a potential is induced:

If the magnetic field of the stator has the same speed of


the rotor, the magnetic flux concatenated does not vary
on time, so no potential is induced and the magnetic
field of the rotor is null.

This is why these machines are also called


asynchronous machines.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.1 Induction motors
It is important to remember that:

The rotor and the magnetic field of the stator must


have different speed to have a induced magnetic
field.

The magnetic field of the stator and the magnetic field


of the rotor must have the same speed to have a net
torque (the proof is the same seen for synchronous
machines).

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.1 Induction motors
Due to the fact that The rotor and the magnetic field of
the stator must have different speed, it is possible to
define a slip speed:

This slip speed is important because it is possible to


model the machine using this parameter and so to
have the performance as function of the slip speed.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
3. Induction motors
1. Geometry and basic principles
2. Electrical modelling
3. Performances

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.2 Electrical modeling
The model of these motors is a mix between the model of
a synchronous machine and of a real transformer.

The model of one phase is:

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.2 Electrical modeling
The model of one phase is:

The voltage on the rotor is:


=
The rotor inductance is:
= 2 = 2 = 0

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.2 Electrical modeling
The model of one phase is:

The voltage on the rotor is:


=
The rotor inductance is:
= 2 = 2 = 0
So the current induced in the rotor is:

= = =
+ + +

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.2 Electrical modeling
The model of one phase is:

It is possible to reflect all the quantities of the secondary


to the primary:
=
2 = 2 0
2 = 2

=

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.2 Electrical modeling
Having reflected all the quantities to the primary the
electrical model becomes:

This is an impedance circuit in which it is possible to


evaluate the equivalent impedance

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.2 Electrical modeling
Knowing , it is possible to calculate:

=

So:
= cos
is the nominal tension of the motor and P is the per
phase power.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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Outline

1. Introduction
2. Synchronous machines
3. Induction motors
1. Geometry and basic principles
2. Electrical modelling
3. Performances

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.3 Performances
We have calculated:
= cos

So:
2
3 3
= = 2

+ + + 2

With this kind of motors it is possible to get different


performances changing the design.

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich


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3.3 Performances
The torque is:
2
3 3
= = 2
2
+ + +

The torque curve is:

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich