AC machines

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AC machines

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 60

2

Outline

1. Introduction

1. Basic concept of DC machines and limits

2. Rotating magnetic field

2. Synchronous machines

1. Geometry

2. Mechanical behaviour

3. Electrical modelling

4. Performances

3. Induction motors

1. Geometry and basic principles

2. Electrical modelling

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich

3

Outline

1. Introduction

1. Basic concept of DC machines and limits

2. Rotating magnetic field

2. Synchronous machines

3. Induction motors

4

1.1 Recap of DC machines

Electrical machines:

Electrical -> Mechanical Motor

5

1.1 Recap of DC machines

All electrical machines convert energy. They can be

considerated as a electro-mechanical 2-port

I

Electric

V T

Machine

=

=

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich

6

1.1 Recap of DC machines

DC machines:

armature circuit

excitation circuit

a magnetic field that is constant.

The Faradays law says that:

=

To have a voltage with a static magnetic field the coil must

rotate

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich

7

1.1 Recap of DC machines

DC machines limit:

Presence of brushes:

Lightening

Fragile

Need of DC current

Difficult energy transportation

Problems with DC switch

8

Outline

1. Introduction

1. Basic concept of DC machines and limits

2. Rotating magnetic field

2. Synchronous machines

3. Induction motors

9

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

Using AC polyphase current it is possible to create a

rotating magnetic field.

between uniformity of performances and costs.

coils distributed in the space with three phase current

10

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

The three currents are:

1 = cos( )

2 = cos( + )

3 = cos( )

Where

2

=

3

11

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

Taking three coils:

space with an angle of 120

b x x c

Each coil passes a current.

flux proportional to the current x

itself. a

12

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

The fluxes produced are:

1 = cos( ) a

2 = cos( + ) b x x c

3 = cos( )

c b

All these fluxes are vectors oriented x

in the space. a

It is possible to represent them as

phasors.

13

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

The fluxes produced are:

1 = 1 0 a

2 = 2 b x x c

3 = 3

c b

x

Given these definitions, it is possible

to evaluate the total flux: a

= 1 + 2 + 3

14

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

It is possible to express the modules

of the three fluxes with the Euler

notation: a

+

1 =

2 b x c

( +)

+ ( +)

x

2 =

2

( ) + ( )

3 = c b

2

x

a

With this notation it is possible to

calculate the total flux with respect

to the others.

15

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

The total flux is:

= 1 + 2 + 3 =

= 1 0 + 2 + 3 =

+ 0 ( +) + ( +)

= +

2 2

() + ()

+ =

2

= + 0 + +

2

+ + +

16

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

+ 0 + +

2

+ + + =

0

= + +

2

+ 0 + +

Finally

3

=

2

That represent a magnetic flux with constant module

rotating in the space with angular speed

17

1.2 Rotating magnetic field

We have demonstrated that using three phase current

passing in three coils distributed in the space it is

possible to obtain a magnetic flux rotating in the space.

3

=

2

direction of the rotation just changing the sign of two

currents.

18

Outline

1. Introduction

2. Synchronous machines

1. Geometry

2. Mechanical behaviour

3. Electrical modelling

4. Performances

3. Induction motors

19

2.1 Synchronous machines

The AC machines can be divided into two groups

depending on the geometry and of the feeding of the

rotor.

It is possible to substitute the ferromagnetic material and

its coil with a permanent magnet

20

2.1 Synchronous machines

Synchronous machines have the rotor fed by DC current.

It is possible to have two different configurations of the

rotor:

salient poles

cylindrical rotor

21

Outline

1. Introduction

2. Synchronous machines

1. Geometry

2. Mechanical behaviour

3. Electrical modelling

4. Performances

3. Induction motors

22

2.2 Mechanical behavior

It is possible to model both the rotor and the stator as two

rotating magnetic fields.

Stator:

=

Rotor:

=

23

2.2 Mechanical behavior

Given the two magnetic fields, it is possible to define the

torque:

a

=

b x x c

The product can be rewritten as:

= sin b

c

x

the two magnetic fields and

= ()

24

2.2 Mechanical behavior

It is possible to write as function of the two rotating

speeds:

a

= +

So the expression of the torque b x c

x

becomes:

= sin +

c b

x

At this point it is possible to a

evaluate the average torque:

T

< > =

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich

25

2.2 Mechanical behavior

T

< > =

b x x c

So:

c b

= 0, x

<> a

0, =

rotate at the same speed: this is the synchronous

speed called

26

2.2 Mechanical behavior

It is possible to change the synchronous speed from the

electrical frequency with a net torque changing the

numbers of poles of the machine.

south poles of the rotor or of the stator.

the rotor.

27

2.2 Mechanical behavior

The number of poles of the stator depends on how many

times appears the coil of all the phases.

geometry of the rotor.

28

2.2 Mechanical behavior

In a machine with poles, it is possible to write that:

=

2

=

2 2

turbine) have a huge number of poles to keep the

electrical frequency constant.

29

2.2 Mechanical behavior

We had written that:

=

a

That means:

b x x c

= sin +

x

= sin a

30

2.2 Mechanical behavior

We had written that:

=

a

It is possible to define the total

magnetic field:

b x x c

= +

c b

From this expression:

x

a

=

31

2.2 Mechanical behavior

The torque is defined as:

=

a

From the expression of the total

magnetic field, it is possible to

write: b x x c

=

formulation: x

a

=

32

2.2 Mechanical behavior

Given:

=

Doing some math:

= =

So:

=

Defining the angle between the rotor and the net a

magnetic field:

= sin b x x

c

c b

x

a

Prof. Riccardo Enrico Zich

33

2.2 Mechanical behavior

=

The angle between the rotor and the net magnetic field

() is called torque angle or power angle.

a

b x x c

c b

x

a

The power angle is the shift angle given from the

machine in the phasor electric diagram.

34

Outline

1. Introduction

2. Synchronous machines

1. Geometry

2. Mechanical behaviour

3. Electrical modelling

4. Performances

3. Induction motors

35

2.3 Electrical modeling

It is possible to give an electrical model:

for all the phases

analyse the behaviour of the machine.

36

2.3 Electrical modeling

The model of each phase is:

Stator:

Rotor:

37

2.3 Electrical modeling

= + +

Neglecting ( _):

= +

38

2.3 Electrical modeling

= +

sin = cos

39

2.3 Electrical modeling

= +

sin = cos

of the machine:

= cos

Finally:

= cos

This is the power of each phase.

40

2.3 Electrical modeling

The electrical model of all the three phases combined is:

41

Outline

2. Synchronous machines

1. Geometry

2. Mechanical behaviour

3. Electrical modelling

4. Performances

3. Induction motors

42

2.4 Performances

It is possible to do some considerations on the power of

the synchronous machine.

= = sin

= 3 cos = 3 cos

43

2.4 Performances

= = sin

= 3 cos = 3 cos

44

Outline

1. Introduction

2. Synchronous machines

3. Induction motors

1. Geometry and basic principles

2. Electrical modelling

3. Performances

45

3.1 Induction motors

Induction machines are used almost always as motors

due to the fact that the quality of the generated power

is not good enough.

by the induction motors are:

Need of DC current

46

3.1 Induction motors

Stator geometry is the same of synchronous machines: it

generate the same rotating magnetic field.

47

3.1 Induction motors

The stator generates a magnetic flux.

field. So:

rotor and this voltage generates a current that

generates a magnetic field.

48

3.1 Induction motors

If the rotor and the rotating field of the stator have

different rotating speed, so a potential is induced:

the rotor, the magnetic flux concatenated does not vary

on time, so no potential is induced and the magnetic

field of the rotor is null.

asynchronous machines.

49

3.1 Induction motors

It is important to remember that:

have different speed to have a induced magnetic

field.

of the rotor must have the same speed to have a net

torque (the proof is the same seen for synchronous

machines).

50

3.1 Induction motors

Due to the fact that The rotor and the magnetic field of

the stator must have different speed, it is possible to

define a slip speed:

model the machine using this parameter and so to

have the performance as function of the slip speed.

51

Outline

1. Introduction

2. Synchronous machines

3. Induction motors

1. Geometry and basic principles

2. Electrical modelling

3. Performances

52

3.2 Electrical modeling

The model of these motors is a mix between the model of

a synchronous machine and of a real transformer.

53

3.2 Electrical modeling

The model of one phase is:

=

The rotor inductance is:

= 2 = 2 = 0

54

3.2 Electrical modeling

The model of one phase is:

=

The rotor inductance is:

= 2 = 2 = 0

So the current induced in the rotor is:

= = =

+ + +

55

3.2 Electrical modeling

The model of one phase is:

to the primary:

=

2 = 2 0

2 = 2

=

56

3.2 Electrical modeling

Having reflected all the quantities to the primary the

electrical model becomes:

evaluate the equivalent impedance

57

3.2 Electrical modeling

Knowing , it is possible to calculate:

=

So:

= cos

is the nominal tension of the motor and P is the per

phase power.

58

Outline

1. Introduction

2. Synchronous machines

3. Induction motors

1. Geometry and basic principles

2. Electrical modelling

3. Performances

59

3.3 Performances

We have calculated:

= cos

So:

2

3 3

= = 2

+ + + 2

performances changing the design.

60

3.3 Performances

The torque is:

2

3 3

= = 2

2

+ + +

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