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Notes for School Exams

Physics XI
Fluid Mechanics
Mechanical Properties of Matter
Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur)

H. O. D. Physics, Concept Bokaro Centre

Mb: 7488044834

2007 P. K. Bharti

Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Prerequisite: Laws of motion (F. B.D.) Introduction

A fluid is any substance which flows because its particles
Content are not rigidly attached to one another.
This includes liquids, gases and even some materials
Introduction which are normally considered solids, such as glass.
Fluids Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids either in motion
Density & specific volume (fluid dynamics) or at rest (fluid statics) and the
Specific weight & specific gravity subsequent effects of the fluid upon the boundaries, which
Compressibility & viscosity may be either solid surfaces or interfaces with other
Ideal fluid fluids.
Hydrostatics Fluids
Gauge pressure & vacuum pressure
From the point of view of fluid mechanics, all matter
Mercury barometer
consists of only two states, fluid and solid. Both liquids
and gases are fluids.
Pascals Law
Hydraulic lift Thus all The technical distinction lies with the reaction of
Buoyant force the two to an applied shear or tangential stress. A solid
Archimedes Principle can resist a shear stress by a static deformation; a fluid
Fluids in motion cannot. Any shear stress applied to a fluid, no matter how
Reynolds number small, will result in motion of that fluid. The fluid moves
Equation of continuity and deforms continuously as long as the shear stress is
Bernoullis Principle applied.
Torricellis theorem (speed of efflux) Hence, we can define fluid as substance which cannot
Venturimeter resist any shear stress applied to it.
Coefficient of viscosity
Stokes law Density & Specific Volume
Terminal velocity
Terminal velocity of a small sphere Density: The mass per unit volume of material is called
Surface tension the density, which is generally expressed by the symbol .
Reason for surface tension
Definition of surface tension =
Surface energy V
Excess pressure inside a soap bubble The SI unit of density is kg/m .
Capillary rise The density of water at 4C and 1 atm (101325 Pa,
3 3
standard atmospheric pressure) is1000 kg/m or 1g/cm .
NOTE: I have followed NCERT Physics book to prepare this The density of mercury is taken as 13600 kg/m .
notes. Even IIT-JEE (now JEE Advanced) follows NCERT.
Specific volume: The reciprocal of density, i.e. the
Please refer NCERT whenever two books disagree on a
volume per unit mass, is called the specific volume.
particular topic. All the best for Boards, JEE Main & JEE
Advanced. 1 V
specific volume =
Pranjal K. Bharti
SI Unit : m /kg
H. O. D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre
B. Tech., I.I.T. Kharagpur Specific Weight & Specific Gravity
Mb: 7488044834
Specific weight: The specific weight of a fluid, denoted
by , is its weight per unit volume.
Website: Therefore,
= g

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Specific gravity or relative density (Important): Pressure

Specific gravity, denoted by SG or RD, is the ratio of a
1. Pressure (P) is the force per unit area applied on a
fluid density to a standard reference fluid, water (for
surface in a direction perpendicular to that surface.
liquids), and air (for gases):
2. We can classify pressure in two categories: Average
density of liquid pressure and pressure at a point.
Relative density of a liquid =
density of water at 4o C 3. Average Pressure: Suppose a force F is applied to a
liquid surface of area A. Then, average pressure is defined as
SG liquid = F
water P= F
Similarly, SG gas =
air A
For example, the specific gravity of mercury (Hg) is where F is the component of force F perpendicular to
SG = 13,600/1000 13.6. the surface.

4. Pressure at a point: Suppose a infinitesimally small

Exercise 1 surface area dA centred at a point. Suppose a force d F
1. Find the dimensions of a) density and b) specific gravity. acts perpendicular to this force at that surface dA. Then,
2. Find the specific density of a liquid whose density is pressure at that point is given by
3 3 dF
a) 8300 kg/m and b) 2 g/cm . dF
3. If the relative density of a fluid is 11.1 find its density in dA
S.I. and CGS units. dA

Answers 5. Pressure in a fluid at a particular point acts equally in

1. a) ML T 3 0
b) M L T 0 0 0 all direction.
2. a) 8.3 b) 2 P3
3 3
3. 11100 kg/m , 11.1 g/cm P2
Compressibility & viscosity
Here P1 = P2 = P3 = P4= P5
Compressibility: Compressibility is the measure of the
change in volume a substance undergoes when a pressure
is exerted on the substance. Important point about pressure
Liquids are generally considered to be incompressible,
meaning density of the liquid is independent of the 2
variation in pressure and always remains constant. S.I unit of pressure is N/m called Pascal (Pa).
1 Pa = 1 N/m .
Viscosity: Viscosity is a fluid property that measures the Pressure is a scalar quantity (at school level).
resistance of the fluid to deforming due to a shear force. 6. Pressure in a fluid at a particular point acts equally in all
Viscosity is the internal friction of a fluid which makes it direction.
resist flowing past a solid surface or other layers of the The atmosphere (atm) exerts certain pressure at a point
fluid. Viscosity can also be considered to be a measure of depending on the column or height of atmosphere lying
the resistance of a fluid to flowing. A thick oil has a high above that point. The average pressure of the atmosphere
viscosity; water has a low viscosity. at sea level is known as atmospheric pressure (atm).
The atmospheric pressure is about 1.013 105 Pa and is
Ideal Fluid denoted by Po. Thus, Po = 1.013 105 Pa
This gives us another unit for pressure, the atmosphere
An ideal fluid is one that is incompressible and has no 5
viscosity. (atm), where 1 atm = 1.013 10 Pa
Ideal fluids do not actually exist. We are going to assume There is one more unit prevalent in laboratory, known as
given fluid to be ideal, meaning incompressible and non- Bar. 1 Bar = 10 Pa
viscous fluid unless or otherwise stated.

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Hydrostatics 3. The pressure is the same at all points on a given

horizontal plane in the fluid.
Hydrostatics is about the pressures exerted by a fluid at
An illustration of this is shown in the given Fig. The free
rest. Any fluid is meant, not just water.
surface of the container is atmospheric and forms a
horizontal plane. Points A, B, C, and D are at equal depth
Pressure variation with depth in Hydrostatic
in a horizontal plane and are interconnected by the same
Let us consider an incompressible fluid of uniform fluid; therefore all points have the same pressure. The
density at rest. same is true of points P, Q, and R which all have the same
Consider an imaginary fluid volume (a cube, each face lower pressure than at A, B, C, and D. However, point S,
having area A) at rest. The sum of all the forces on this although at the same depth as A, B, and C, has a different
volume must be zero as it is in equilibrium. pressure because it lies beneath a different fluid. Please
There are three vertical forces: note that points T and U have same pressure.
The weight: mg = V g = h A g
The upward force from the pressure P on the bottom P Q R S
surface: F = P A T U
2 2
The downward force from the pressure P on the top
surface: F = P A 4. Forces acting on a fluid in equilibrium have to
1 1 perpendicular to its surface, because it cannot sustain the
i. Therefore, at equilibrium, we have, shear stress.
F F mg = 0 F1
2 1
5. Free body diagram of a liquid: Forces on a fluids in
P A P A mg = 0 P1
2 1 equilibrium are (neglecting viscous forces) are:
(P P ) A h A g = 0 Weight mg in downward direction
2 1 P2 Force P0A1 from atmospheric pressure in downward
(P P ) h g = 0
2 1 direction
P P = g h F2 mg Normal force (P0+gh)A2 from bottom surface in
2 1
upward direction (how?)
P P = gh All of these forces are in vertical direction. By calculation
2 1
it is found that net force is not zero. It means there must
Therefore, pressure P at depth h is gh greater than
2 be some force in the vertical direction to maintain the
pressure P . equilibrium. Where does this force comes from? Yes!
Hence, pressure increases with depth. This force is due to walls of the container. Hence there is
a fourth force:
Force Fwall from walls of the container in the vertical
Important Points in Hydrostatics (say upward) direction.
P0 A1
1. Pressure in a continuously distributed uniform, P0 A1
incompressible static fluid varies only with vertical
distance and is independent of the shape of the container. Fwall
The pressure increases with depth in the fluid. Pressure h mg
P2 at depth h is gh greater than pressure P1. Thus,
P2 P1 = gh A2
(P0+ gh)A2
Taking variation in acceleration due to gravity with depth
dp 6. Pressure difference in an accelerating fluids:
or height into account we have, = g Consider a liquid kept at rest in a beaker as shown in
2. Pressure in a fluid at a particular point acts equally in all figure. In this case we know that pressure do not change
direction. in horizontal direction (x-direction), it decreases upward
P1 along y-direction. So, we can write the equations,
P3 dp dp
= 0 and = g y
P2 dx dy
Here P1 = P2 = P3 = P4= P5 P4
P5 x

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

But, suppose the beaker is accelerated and it has The Mercury Barometer
components of acceleration ax and ay in x and y directions Figure shows a very basic mercury barometer,
respectively, then the pressure decreases along both x and a device used to measure the pressure of the
y direction. The above equation in that case reduces to, atmosphere. The long glass tube is filled with
mercury and inverted with its open end in a dish
( g + ay )
dp dp
= ax and = of mercury, as the figure shows. The space above
dx dy the mercury column contains only mercury vapor,
y whose pressure is so small at ordinary
temperature that it can be neglected.
Thus P1 = 0
P2 P1 = gh
Po = gh P2 = Po
7. Free surface of a liquid accelerated in horizontal where = density of the mercury.
Consider a liquid placed in a beaker which is accelerating The atmospheric pressure is often given as the
a length of mercury column in a barometer. Thus,
horizontally with an acceleration a . Then, tan = a pressure of 76cm of mercury means, 1 atmospheric
g pressure.
Proof: Consider a fluid particle of mass m at point P on
the surface of liquid. From the accelerating frame of Manometer
reference, two forces are acting on it, Manometer is a simple device to measure the pressure in
a closed vessel containing a gas. It consists of a U-shape
(i) pseudo force (ma) ma tube having some liquid. One end of the tube is open to
(ii) weight (mg) the atmosphere and the other end is connected to the
vessel as shown in figure. The pressure of the gas is equal
Fnet mg to P1 . From hydrostatic,
P2 P1 = gh
Net force in equilibrium should be perpendicular to P1 = Po
Pgas Po = gh
the surface.
ma Pgas = Po + gh h
tan =
mg P2 = Pgas
a where Pgas = pressure of the gas
or tan =
g Po = the atmospheric pressure
h = difference in levels of the liquid in the two arms
Gauge Pressure and Vacuum Pressure
= the density of the liquid.
Absolute pressure (P): The pressure at a point is known
as absolute pressure.
Pascals Law
Gauge Pressure (when P > Po): The excess pressure
above atmospheric pressure is called as gauge pressure. Pascals law states that if a pressure is applied to an
Therefore, enclosed fluid, it is transmitted undiminished to every
portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing
Gauge Pressure = P Po vessel.
Vacuum Pressure (when P < Po) Applications of Pascals law:
Vacuum Pressure Hydraulic lift
= Atmospheric Pressure Absolute Pressure Hydraulic brakes
Cycle pump
Vacuum Pressure = Po P

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Hydraulic Lift Proof:

A hydraulic lift uses Pascal's principle. Hydraulic lift is As shown in Fig., consider a body of height h lying inside
used to raise heavy loads such as car. It contains of two a liquid of density ,. Area of cross-section of the body is
vertical cylinders A and B of different cross sectional A. The forces on the sides of the body cancel out.
areas A and A . Pistons are fitted in both the cylinders as There are two vertical forces due to pressures:
1 2
shown in fig. The upward force from the
A small force is applied F to a small piston of area A pressure P on the bottom surface:
1 1 2 F1
and cause a pressure increase on the fluid. F =PA P1
According to Pascals Law this increase in pressure P is 2 2

transmitted to the larger piston of area A and the fluid The downward force from the
2 P2
exerts a force F on this piston. pressure P on the top surface:
2 1
Thus, from Pascals Law F1 F2 mg
A2 F =PA
A1 1 1
P = F /A = F / A The resultant force (F2 F1) is acting on the body in the
1 1 2 2 F2
upward direction and is called upthrust or buoyant force
F = F (A / A )
2 1 2 1 (B).
Thus if A >>A , even a small force F is able to generate B = F2 F1 = P A P A = (P P )A = hgA
2 1 1 2 1 2 1
a large force F which can raise the load.
2 ( P2 P1 = gh)
But Ah = V, the volume of the body = volume of liquid
Buoyant Force
B = Vg = Mg
When an object is fully or partially submersed in a fluid, ( M = V = mass of liquid displaced)
the surrounding fluid exerts a net upward force which is i.e., upthrust or buoyant force= Weight of liquid displaced
known as the buoyant force or upthrust.
This proves the Archimedes principle.
It is easier to lift a bucket immersed in water because of
buoyant force.
Law of floatation
1. The buoyant force comes from the pressure exerted on
the object by the surrounding fluid. Consider an object of volume V and density floating
2. When showing F.B.D., we need to show either buoyant in a liquid of density . Let V be the volume of
force in the upward direction or forces due to pressure. liquid im

We never show both buoyant force and forces due to object immersed in the liquid. For equilibrium of the
pressure in the same F.B.D. object,
Weight = upthrust
V g=V g
solid im liquid
Archimedes Principle
(Buoyant Forces ) Vim solid
= (fraction of volume immersed in liquid)
Archimedes' Principle states that a body which is V liquid
completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences a
net upward force called the buoyant force, B , which is This is the fraction of volume immersed in liquid.
equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by Three possibilities may arise:
the object. Thus,
Buoyant force = weight of the displaced liquid i. < : Body is partially submerged in liquid.
solid liquid
The fraction submerged is given by the relation
B=V g (Buoyant force)
Vim solid
im liquid
V liquid
B = magnitude of Buoyant force ii. = : Body is completely submerged in
solid liquid

V = volume of displaced liquid = immersed volume of liquid. Body remains floating in liquid.
solid iii. > : Body will sink in liquid.
solid liquid
= density of liquid

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Apparent Weight Fluids in Motion

All fluid flow is classified into one of two broad
If an object is placed inside a fluid then,
categories or regimes. These two flow regimes are
Apparent weight = (Actual weight) (Buoyant force)
laminar flow and turbulent flow.
Laminar Flow: Laminar flow is also referred to as
Buoyant Force in Accelerating Fluids streamline or viscous flow or steady flow. When a liquid
flows such that each particle of the passing a given point
Suppose a body is dipped inside a liquid of density
liquid moves along the same path and has the same velocity as
placed in an elevator moving with an acceleration a. The its predecessor, the flow is called streamline flow or
buoyant force F in this case becomes, steady flow.
Streamline: A streamline may be defined as the path, the
im liquid g eff
F =V tangent to which at any point gives the direction of the
flow of liquid at that point.
Here, g eff= g a Tube of flow. A bundle of streamline forming a tubular
region is called a tube of flow.
Concept of g eff is explained in chapter Simple Harmonic
Tube of flow
For example, if the lift is moving upwards with an
acceleration a, the value of g eff is g + a and if it is moving streamlines
downwards with acceleration a, the g eff is g a. In a Turbulent Flow: Turbulent flow is characterized by the
freely falling lift g eff is zero (as a = g ) and hence, net irregular movement of particles of the fluid. The particles
travel in irregular paths with no observable pattern and no
buoyant force is zero. This is why, in a freely falling
definite layers.
vessel filled with some liquid, the air bubbles do not rise
up ( which otherwise move up due to buoyant force ). Critical velocity. The critical velocity of a liquid is that
limiting (maximum) value of its velocity of flow upto
which the flow is streamlined and above which the flow
becomes turbulent.
Space for notes:
Reynolds Number
The Reynolds number is a dimensionless number
comprised of the physical characteristics of the flow. The
flow regime (either laminar or turbulent) is determined by
evaluating the Reynolds number of the flow .
The Reynolds number for fluid flow is given by
Re = (Reynolds number)

Re = Reynolds number (dimensionless; have not any unit)
v = average velocity
D = diameter of pipe
= viscosity of fluid (to be studied later)
= fluid density
Important point to note about Reynolds number:
i. For practical purposes (as per NCERT), if the
Reynolds number is less than 1000, the flow is
laminar. If it is greater than 2000, the flow is
ii. Flows with Reynolds numbers between 1000 and
2000 are sometimes referred to as unsteady flows.
iii. Re represents the ratio of inertial force (force due to
inertia i.e. mass of moving fluid or due to inertia of
obstacle in its path) to viscous force.

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Equation of Continuity Proof of Bernoullis Principle

Equation of continuity states that total mass of fluids One end of the pipe is horizontal at a height h1 above
going into the tube through any cross-section should be some reference level and has uniform cross-sectional area
equal to the total mass coming out of the same tube from A up to some length. The other end is at a height h2 from
any other cross section in the same time. The continuity 1

equation results from conservation of mass. the reference level and has uniform cross-sectional area
Let us consider mass is entering with speed v at left end 2
and flowing out with speed v . Now consider the portion of fluid shown by shaded
2 volume as the system. Suppose the system of fluid gets
v1 v2 displaced from the position1 shown in figure to that in
A2 position 2 in a small time interval.
A1 Now, we shall find out the work done by different forces
to use Work-Kinetic Energy theorem.
Clearly, in a time interval t, mass entering
= (mass per unit time) time = A v t. Here four forces are acting on the system. Normal force
1 1 from wall, force P A on left portion, force P A on right
(Hint: mass = V = A l 1 1 2 2
portion and force of gravity mg.
Hence, mass per unit time = m/t = A l/t = Av) x1
And, in same time interval t, mass leaving
= (mass per unit time) time P1 v1
P1 A1 x2
= A v t A1
2 2

Hence, from conservation of mass we have, v2 P2

A v t = A v t h1
1 1 2 2
A2 P1 A1
Av =Av (Equation of Continuity) h2
1 1 2 2 Reference level
The product of the area of cross section and the speed
remains the same at all points of a tube of flow. This is Work done W by normal force from the walls:
called the equation of continuity and expresses the law W =0 (i)
of conservation of mass in fluid dynamics.
(because normal force is perpendicular to motion of fluid)
Work done W1 by force P1A1 at the left end:
Bernoullis Principle W = force displacement = P A x (ii)
1 1 1 1
Bernoullis Principle relates the speed of a fluid at a point
the pressure at that point and the height of that point Work done W2 by force P2A2 at the right end:
above a reference level. It is just the application of work- W = force displacement = - P A x (iii)
2 2 2 2
energy theorem in the case of fluid flow. (negative sign because force P2A2 & displacement x2 are
We here consider the case of irrotational and steady flow
in opposite directions)
of an incompressible and non viscous liquid.
Bernoullis Principle states that the sum of pressure The work done on the system W3, by the gravitational
energy per unit volume, kinetic energy per unit force mg:
volume and potential energy per unit volume of an W = force displacement = mg (h - h ) (iv)
g 1 2
incompressible, non-viscous fluid in a streamlined
irrotational flow remains constant along a streamline. the total work done on the system, by using Work- KE
Mathematically, theorem, we have:
1 W = KE
p + v 2 + gh =
constant T
2 2
2 W + W + W + W = mv mv
N 1 2 g 2 1
1 1 2 2
p1 + v12 + gh1 =p2 + v22 + gh2 P A x P A x + mg(h h ) = mv mv
2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

As the liquid is incompressible (means density is Torricellis Theorem

uniform), the mass flow rate at both the ends must be the
(Speed of Efflux)
A x = A x = m Consider liquid of density in a tank of large cross
1 1 2 2 sectional area A1. There is a very small hole of cross-
(because, mass = density x volume sectional area A2 at the bottom with liquid flowing out as
= density x area x length) shown in figure. Such a hole is called an orifice.
A x = A x = m/ ( vi ) Let v1 and v2 be the speed and P1 and P2 be the speed of
1 1 2 2
From equations (v) and ( vi ), we have the liquid at position 1 and 2 respectively.
2 2
The idea here is that both the tank and the narrow
P m/ P m/ + mg(h h ) = mv mv
1 2 1 2 2 1 opening (orifice) are open to the atmosphere. The
2 2
P P + g(h h ) = v v pressure will be the same at 1 and 2 because they are open
1 2 1 2 2 1
to the atmosphere. Therefore, P = P = Po = atmospheric
(multiplying both sides by /m) 1 2

1 1 pressure.
p1 + v12 + gh1 = p2 + v22 + gh2 From the equation of continuity, we get
2 2
(rearranging) = A1v1 A= 2 v2 or v1 v2
1 A1
p + v 2 + gh =constant As A1 >> A2, so the liquid may be taken at rest at the top,
i.e., v1 = 0. Applying Bernoullis equation at points 1 and
Memory Map for proof of Bernoullis theorem 2, we get

Step 1: Find out the work done by normal force, forces

due to pressures at left and right ends and force due to P1= Po
Step 2: Use Work Kinetic Energy theorem:
W = KE h
2 2
W + W + W + W = mv mv v2
N 1 2 g 2 1
2 2
P A x P A x + mg(h h ) = mv mv P2= Po
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
Step 3: Mass flow rate at both the ends must be the
same. Now, applying Bernoullis equation at positions 1 and 2,
A x = A x = m we have
1 1 2 2
A x = A x = m/ 1 1 2
P1 + v12 + gh1 =+ v2 + gh2
1 1 2 2
Use these two equations and rearrange to get Bernoullis P2
2 2
1 1 2
P0 + (0) 2 + g (h) =+
P0 v2 + g (0)
2 2
Another form of Bernoullis Equation
Bernoullis Equation, 1 2
gh = v2
1 2
p + v 2 + gh = constant
If we divide both sides by g we get v = (2gh) (speed of efflux)
p 1V2
+ +h = constant
g 2 g
Each term in the above equation has the dimension of The speed of liquid coming out though a small hole
length and hence every term is known as head. (orifice) at a depth h below the free surface is same as
p that of a particle fallen freely through the height h under
The first term is called pressure head. gravity. This is known as Torricellis theorem.
1V2 The speed of the liquid coming out is called the speed of
The second term is called velocity head.
2 g efflux.
The third term h is known as the elevation head.

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Venturimeter Viscosity
Venturimeter: It is a device used to measure the rate of Informally, viscosity is the quantity that describes a
flow of a liquid through a pipe. It is an application of fluid's resistance to flow.
Bernoullis principle. It is also called flow meter or Fluids resist the relative motion of immersed objects
venture tube. through them as well as to the motion of layers with
Construction. It consists of a horizontal tube having differing velocities within them.
wider opening of cross-section A1 and a narrow neck of In a laminar flow, the relative velocity
cross-section A2. These two regions of the horizontal tube between the consecutive layers of fluid
are connected to a manometer, containing a liquid of results in tangential force at the surfaces
density m. of the layers known as viscous force and
the property of the fluid causing it is
A2, v2,P2 known as viscosity.
A1, v1,P1
Surface layer v = Maximum

Working. Let the liquid velocities be v1 and v2 at the

wider and the narrow portions. Let P1 and P2 be the liquid
pressures at these regions. By the equation of continuity, v=0 Fixed surface
A v
A1v1 = A2 v2 1 = 2 The layer of the liquid in contact with the surface remain
A2 v1
stuck to it due to adhesive force and has zero velocity. The
If the liquid has density and is flowing horizontally,
velocity of layer gradually increases on moving upwards
then from Bernoullis equation,
from the surface and is the largest at the top.
1 1 2
P1 + v12 + gh1 =+ P2 v2 + gh2 If a liquid flow easily, it means it has less viscosity; e.g.,
2 2 kerosene is less viscous than diesel. Similarly, honey is
1 1 2 more viscous than water.
or P1 + v12 =+ P2 v2 ( h1 = h2 )
Hard materials such as rock can be considered as liquids,
2 2
because they can flow - although extremely slowly. Glass
( v22 v12 )
or P1 =P2 windows in very old buildings are often thicker at the
2 bottom than the top because over hundreds of years the
1 2 v22 glass has flowed downwards.
= v1 2 1
2 v1
1 2 A12 A1 v2
= v1 2 1 =
Coefficient of viscosity
2 A2 A2 v1 Consider the steady flow of liquid on some horizontal
1 A2 A2 stationary surface as shown in the figure.
= v12 1 2 2
2 A2 Area = A
If h is the height difference in the two arms of the
manometer tube, then v + dv
P1 P2 = m hg F
1 2 A12 A22
m hg = v1 2 F v
2 A2 x + dx
2h m g A 2 x
v1 2

A A22

Volume flow rate of the liquid,

2h m g According to Newton, the viscous force F between two
Q A= 1v1 A1 A2 .
( A12 A22 ) adjacent layers of a laminar flow at a given
temperature is

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

i. directly proportional to the area (A) of the layers in This equation is called Stokes Law which can be verified
contact using dimensional analysis. This relationship is valid only
FA (i) for laminar flow.
This viscous force F acts opposite to velocity v of the
dv object.
ii. directly proportional to the velocity gradient
dx Proof:
Viscous force depends on R, v and .
F (ii) Let F = kR a v b c
[F ] =
k [ R ] [ v ] [ ]
a b c
Combining (i) & (ii)
k [ L ] LT 1 ML1T 1
b c
MLT 2 =
dx Comparing coefficients of M, L and T
dv c=1
F = A (viscous force) a+bc=1
dx bc=2
where is the constant of proportionality known as the Solving we get,
coefficient of viscosity of the fluid. Its magnitude depends a = b = c = 1.
on the type of the fluid and its temperature. Thus,
Negative sign states that the direction of viscous force is = F kR = v kRv
1 1 1

opposite to that of relative velocity of the layer wrt Value of k is 6 . Therefore,

another layer.
F = 6 Rv
S.I. Unit of : Ns/m which is same as Pa-s
CGS Unit of : dyne-s/cm which is also known as
poise. Terminal velocity
1 Pa-s = 10 poise In fluid dynamics, terminal velocity or settling velocity
Its dimensional formula is M L1 T1. is the velocity at which the net force acting on an
object moving through fluid becomes zero.
Terminal velocity varies directly with the ratio of
Definition of viscosity to weight. More viscosity means a lower
terminal velocity, while increased weight means a higher
Taking A = 1 square unit and = 1 unit in the equation terminal velocity.
F =A , we get = F.
dy Terminal velocity of a small sphere

Thus, the coefficient of viscosity can be defined as the Suppose a small, smooth, solid sphere of radius r of
viscous force acting per unit surface area of contact and material having density falls freely in a laminar fluid of
per unit velocity gradient between two adjacent layers in density ( < ) and co-efficient of viscosity as shown
a laminar flow of a fluid. in the figure.
Note that the co-efficient of viscosity of liquids decrease Let its terminal velocity be v in the downward direction.
with increase in temperature, while that of gases increase The FBD in this figure lists three forces acting on the
with the increase in temperature. sphere:
Weight mg downward:
Therefore, weight
Stokes Law Fv
mg = r 3 g (i)
When an object moves through a fluid, it experiences a 3 B
viscous force which acts in opposite direction of its Buoyant force B upward:
The resistive force ( viscous force ) on a small, smooth, B=V g
im liquid
solid spherical body of radius R, moving with velocity v mg
through a laminar viscous medium of large dimensions, B = r 3 g (ii)
having co-efficient of viscosity is given by 3
F= 6 R v (Stokes law)

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Viscous force F upward: Surface Potential Energy


From Stokes Law : Surface energy. The free surface of a liquid possesses
minimum area due to surface tension. To increase the
F =6rv (iii) surface area, molecules have to be brought from interior
At terminal velocity there is no acceleration, therefore to the surface. Work has to be done against the forces of
nd attraction. This work is stored as the potential energy of
from Newtons 2 law, we have: the molecules on the surface. So the molecules at the
mg B F = 0 surface have extra energy compared to the molecules in
4 4 3 the interior.
r g r g 6 rv =
0 The extra energy possessed by the molecules of surface
3 3
film of unit area compared to the molecules in the interior
2 is called surface energy. It is equal to the work done in
v = r2g (terminal velocity) increasing the area of the surface film by unit amount.
work done
Surface energy =
increase in surface area

Surface Tension Surface tension can also be defined as the potential

energy (U) stored in the surface of the liquid per unit
Liquids sometimes form drops, and sometimes spread area .
over a surface and wet it. Why does this happen, and why U
are raindrops never a metre wide? S=
The reason is that a fluids try to occupy minimum A
surface area. This is because of a fluid property known
as surface tension. U = AS (surface potential energy)

By this definition, its SI unit is Jm-2 which is the same as

Definition of surface tension Nm-1.

Let us consider an imaginary line AB drawn in any

direction in a liquid surface. The surface on either side of Drops and bubbles
the liquid exerts a pulling force F on the other side. Let us assume that the pressures inside and outside are Pi
This force F is perpendicular to the line AB and and P0 ( Pi > P0 ) respectively.
tangential to surface of the fluid. The pressure on the concave surface is always more
than that on the convex surface.
F Let the surface tension of the liquid forming the wall of
the bubble be T.
F Suppose, on blowing the bubble, its radius increases from
A R to R+dR. The work done in this process can be
calculated in two ways.
We give the definition of surface tension as: Po R
The force exerted by the molecules lying on one side Pi
of an imaginary line of unit length, on the molecules 1 way: R+dR
lying on the other side of the line, which is W = (force) (displacement)
perpendicular to the line and parallel to the surface is W = pressure difference area displacement
defined as the surface tension ( S ) of the liquid. 2
W = ( P P ) 4 R dR (i)
In simple words, surface tension is perpendicular force i o

(from either side of line AB) per unit length. 2nd way:
Thus, if F be the force acting on either side of the line AB The surface area of the bubble of radius R is, S = 4 R2
of length L, then the surface tension S is given by: the increase in the surface area is,
dS = 4 (R + dR)2 4 R2
S= (Surface tension) dS = 4 (R2 + dR2 + 2R. dR R2 )
L dS = 4 ( dR2 + 2R. dR)
. dS = 8 R. dR
Clearly, the SI unit of surface tension is N/m 2
(because dR is very small, we can ignore it )

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

W = surface tension total increase in area Capillary Action and Contact angle
W = 8 S R dR ( ii ) Capillarity: Liquids display a behavior called capillarity
Equating equations ( i ) and ( ii ), we get: or capillary action (capillary is a kind of narrow glass
(P - P ) 4 R2 dR = 8 S R dR tube) because their molecules are more or less attracted to
i o the surface they contact than they are to themselves.
p i po =
The phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid in a
R (Excess pressure inside a liquid drop)
capillary, held vertical in a liquid, due to its property
of surface tension is called capillarity.
For a soap bubble which has tow surface areas, Capillary action is the result of surface tension and
4S adhesive forces.
p i po = (Excess pressure inside a soap bubble)

Try to prove it yourself. Hint: Equation (ii) will be

W = 16 S R dR as soap bubble has two surfaces.

Drops and bubbles (Quick recap)

The pressure on the concave surface is always more than
that on the convex surface. P > P
i o
For the case of air bubble inside water, only one surface
is formed. Therefore, for air bubble (or for any bubble or
2S Contact Angle: The tangent drawn at a point , where the
drop where single surface is formed) p i po = R surface of meniscus is in contact with wall of the
capillary, makes an angle with the wall. is known as
For the case of soap bubble where two surfaces are
the contact angle of the liquid with the matter of the
formed: pi p0 = capillary.

Shape of Liquid Surface

You must have seen water wets a glass container whereas
mercury does not. Why?
Before that let us familiarize with two new kind of
intermolecular forces.:
Cohesive force : Inter-molecular attractive force between
molecules of the same matter.
Adhesive force : Attractive force between molecules of
Case 1: The adhesive forces (liquid-glass) are greater
different matters.
than the cohesive forces (liquid-liquid)
Water molecules, for instance, are more attracted to glass
The liquid clings to the walls of the container the liquid
than they are to one another. It means in case of water
wets the surface, e.g., water. The meniscus of water in
cohesive forces are stronger than adhesive forces. Water
the capillary is concave.
will therefore climb up a narrow glass tube that is dipped
In this case contact angle, < 90 .
into a beaker of water, because the water would rather be
Case 2: The adhesive forces (liquid-glass) are lesser
in contact with the glass than with itself.
than the cohesive forces (liquid-liquid)
Mercury molecules, on the other hand, are more attracted
The liquid curves downward the liquid does not wet
to each other than they are to glass. It means in case of
the surface, e.g., mercury. The meniscus of mercury in
mercury cohesive forces are lesser than adhesive forces.
the capillary is convex.
Mercury will avoid contact with a narrow glass tube that
In this case contact angle, > 90 .
is dipped into a beaker of mercury.

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

CAPILLARY RISE Mechanical Properties of Matter

We are going to derive capillary rise h (the height or Elasticity
depth) above which liquid rises or falls in a capillary tube
when it is inserted in fluid). Elasticity: If a body regains its original size and shape
Suppose liquid rises to height h in a capillary of radius r after the removal of deforming force, it is said to be
held vertical in the liquid as shown in the figure. elastic body and this property is called elasticity.
The radius of concave meniscus of liquid in the capillary Perfectly elastic body: If a body regains its original size
is R. and shape completely and immediately after the removal
P of deforming force, it is said to be a perfectly elastic
r body. The nearest approach to a perfectly elastic body is
h quartz fibre.
P A B Plasticity: If a body does not regain its original size and
shape even after the removal of deforming force, it is said
to be a plastic body and this property is called plasticity.
Perfectly plastic body: If a body does not show any
tendency to regain its original size and shape even after
the removal of deforming force, it is said to be a perfectly
From second figure, it is clear that
plastic body. Putty and paraffin wax are nearly perfectly
cos = plastic bodies.
Note: No body is perfectly elastic or perfectly plastic. All
R= (i) the bodies found in nature lie between these two limits.
When the elastic behavior of a body decreases, its plastic
The pressure on the concave surface of the meniscus (P )
o behavior increases.
is greater than the pressure on the convex surface (P ).

2S Stress
Po pi = ( ii )
R Stress: The internal restoring force set up per unit area of
( because, the liquid has one free surface.) cross-section of the deformed body is called stress. As the
Also, for equilibrium, the pressure at point B is the same restoring force is equal and opposite to the external
as at point A which is P as both are at the same deforming force F under equilibrium, therefore
horizontal level. F
Stress = (stress)
Po Pi = h g (iii ) A
The SI unit of stress is Nm2 and the CGS unit is dyne
where = density of the liquid and g = acceleration due to cm2. The dimensional formula of stress is [ML1T2].
Comparing equations ( 2 ) and ( 3 ), Types of stress:
2S (a) Tensile stress: It is the restoring force set up per unit
= h g cross-sectional area of a body when the length of the body
2 RS 2 S cos increases in the direction of the deforming, force. It is also
=h = known as longitudinal stress.
g r g
(b) Compressive stress: It is the restoring force set up per
( putting the value of R from equation (i) )
unit cross-sectional area of a body when its length
Hence, capillary rise is given by decreases under a deforming force.
2 S cos (c) Hydrostatic stress: If a body is subjected to a uniform
h= (Capillary rise)
r g force from all sides, then the corresponding stress is
called hydrostatic stress or volume stress.
For mercury and glass, > 90. Hence, cos is negative. (d) Tangential or Shearing stress: When a deforming force
Therefore, mercury falls in a glass capillary and its acts tangentially to the surface of a body, it produces a
meniscus is convex.
change in the shape of the body. The tangential force
applied per unit area is equal to the tangential stress.

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre
Strain Units and dimensions of moduli of elasticity: The SI
unit of moduli of elasticity is Nm-2 and its CGS unit is
Strain: The ratio of the change in any dimension
dyne cm-2. Its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2]. Its value
produced in the body to the original dimension is called depends on the nature of the material of the body and the
strain. manner in which it is deformed.
Change in dimension
Strain = Different types of moduli of elasticity.: Corresponding
Original dimension
to the three types of strain, we have three important
Strain has no units and dimensions. moduli of elasticity:
Types of strain (a) Youngs modulus (Y): Within the elastic limit, the ratio
(a) Longitudinal strain: It is defined as the increase in of longitudinal stress to the longitudinal strain is called
length per unit original length, when the body is deformed Youngs modulus. Thus,
by external forces.
Longitudinal Stress
Change in length l Y= (Youngs modulus)
Longitudinal strain = Longitudinal Strain
Original length l
(b) Volumetric strain: It is defined as the change in volume
Y =
per unit original volume, when the body is deformed by l / l
external forces. F l
Y =.
Change in volume V A l
=Volumetric strain = (b) Modulus of rigidity or shear modulus or torsional
Original volume V
modulus (): Within the elastic limit, the ratio of shear
(c) Shear strain: It is defined as the angle (in radian),
stress to shear strain is called modulus of rigidity. Thus
through which a face originally perpendicular to the fixed
face gets turned on applying tangential deforming force. Shear stress
Shear strain = = tan Shear strain

Relative displacement between 2 parallel planes l
Distance between parallel planes
Elastic limit: The maximum stress within which the body
regains its original size and shape after the removal of l
deforming force is called elastic limit. If the deforming
force exceeds the elastic limit, the body acquires a B C
permanent set or deformation and is said to be Shear stress =
AA ' l
tan = =
Shear strain =

Hookes law: It states that within the elastic limit, the The modulus of rigidity is given by
stress is directly proportional to strain. Thus within the Shear stress F / A F F l
elastic limit,
= = = = .
Shear strain A A l
Stress Strain
Stress (c) Bulk modulus (B): Within the elastic limit, the ratio of
Strain volume stress to the volumetric strain is called bulk
modulus of elasticity.
Modulus of elasticity: The modulus of elasticity or
Consider a body of volume V and surface area A. Suppose
coefficient of elasticity of a body is defined as the ratio of
a force F acts uniformly over the whole surface of the
stress to the corresponding strain, within the elastic limit. body and it decreases the volume by V, then bulk
Stress modulus of elasticity is given by
Volumetric stress
The SI unit of modulus of elasticity is Nm2 and its B= (Bulk modulus)
dimensions are [ML1T2]. Volumetric strain

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre
F/A F V Stress-strain curve
B = = .
V / V A V Figure shows a stress-strain curve for a metal wire which
pV is gradually being loaded.
B= (a) The initial part OA of the graph is a straight line
indicating that stress is proportional to strain. Upto the
where p (= F/A) is the normal pressure. Negative sign point A Hookes law is obeyed. The point A is called the
shows that the volume decreases with the increase in proportional limit. In this region, the wire is perfectly
Compressibility (K): The reciprocal of the bulk modulus (b) After the point A, the stress is not proportional to strain
of a material is called its compressibility. Thus, and a curved portion AB is obtained. However, if the load
1 V is removed at any point between O and B, the curve is
K= = (Compressibility)
B pV retraced along BAO and the wire attains its original
length. The portion OB of the graph is called elastic
region and the point B is called elastic limit or yield
Poissons ratio point. The stress corresponding to the yield point is called
When a wire is loaded, its length increases but its yield strength (Sy).
diameter decreases. The strain produced in the direction
of applied force is called longitudinal strain and that stress
produced in the perpendicular direction is called lateral
strain. C
Definition: Within the elastic limit, the ratio of lateral A
strain to the longitudinal strain is called Poissons ratio.
Suppose the length of the loaded wire increases from l to
l+l and its diameter decreases from D to DD.
Longitudinal strain =
D strain
Lateral strain = O E
D l
Poissons ratio is
(c) Beyond the point B, the strain increases more rapidly than
Lateral strain
= stress. If the load is removed at any point C, the wire does
Longitudinal strain
not come back to its original length but traces dashed line
D / D
= CE. Even on reducing the stress to zero, a residual strain
l / l l equal to OE is left in the wire. The material is said to have
acquired a permanent set. The fact that the stress-strain
curve is not retraced on reversing the strain is called
The negative sign indicates that longitudinal and lateral elastic hysteresis.
strains are in opposite sense. (d) If the load is increases beyond the point C, there is large
As the Poissons ratio is the ratio of two strains, it has no increase in the strain or the length of the wire. In this
units and dimensions. region, the constrictions (called necks and waists) develop
at few points along the length of the wire and the wire
ultimately breaks at the point D, called the fracture
SPACE FOR NOTES point. In the region between B and D, the length of wire
goes on increasing even without any addition of load.
This region is called plastic region and the material is
said to undergo plastic flow or plastic deformation. The
stress corresponding to the breaking point is called
ultimate strength or tensile strength of the material.

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Fluid Mechanics Author: P. K. Bharti (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur), H.O.D. Physics at Concept Bokaro Centre

Elastic potential energy of a stretched wire

To prove:
Elastic potential energy = Stress strain volume
Suppose a force F applied on a wire of length l increases
its length by l. Initially, the internal restoring force in
the wire is zero. When the length is increased by l, the
internal force increases from zero to F (= applied force).
Average internal force for an increase in length l of
0+ F F
wire =
2 2
Work done on the wire is
W = Average force increase in length= l
This work done is stored as elastic potential energy U in
the wire.
1 1
=U F l = Stretching force increase in length
2 2
Let A be the area of cross-section of the wire. Then
1 F l
U= Al
2 A l
U= Stress strain volume
Elastic potential energy per unit volume of the wire or
elastic energy density is
= or u stress strain
But stress = Youngs modulus strain
u = Youngs modulus strain2


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About P. K. Bharti Sir (Pranjal Sir)

Physics Classes by Pranjal Sir B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur (2009 Batch)
H.O.D. Physics, Concept Bokaro Centre
(Admission Notice for XI & XII - 2014-15) Visiting faculty at D. P. S. Bokaro
Produced AIR 113, AIR 475, AIR 1013 in JEE -
Batches for Std XIIth Advanced
Produced AIR 07 in AIEEE (JEE Main)
Batch 1 (Board + JEE Main + Advanced): (Rs. 16000)
Batch 2 (Board + JEE Main): (Rs. 13000)
Address: Concept, JB 20, Near Jitendra Cinema, Sec 4,
Batch 3 (Board): (Rs. 10000)
Bokaro Steel City
Batch 4 (Doubt Clearing batch): Rs. 8000
Ph: 9798007577, 7488044834

Physics Class Schedule for Std XIIth (Session 2014-15) by Pranjal Sir
Sl. No. Main Chapter Topics Board level JEE Main Level JEE Adv Level
Vectors, FBD, Work, Energy, Rotation, rd th
Basics from XIth 3 Mar to 4 Apr 14

1. Electric Charges and Coulombs Law 5th & 6th Apr 5th & 6th Apr 5th & 6th Apr
Fields Electric Field
10th & 12th Apr 10th & 12th Apr 10th & 12th Apr
Gausss Law 13th & 15th Apr 13th & 15th Apr 13th & 15th Apr
Competition Level NA 17th & 19th Apr 17th & 19th Apr
2. Electrostatic Potential Electric Potential 20th & 22nd Apr 20th & 22nd Apr 20th & 22nd Apr
and Capacitance Capacitors 24th & 26th Apr 24th & 26th Apr 24th & 26th Apr
Competition Level NA 27th & 29th Apr 27th & 29th Apr, 1st,
3rd & 4th May
PART TEST 1 Unit 1 & 2 4th May NA NA
NA 11th May 11th May
3. Current Electricity Basic Concepts, Drift speed, Ohms 6th, 8th, 10th, 13th 6th, 8th, 10th, 13th 6th, 8th, 10th, 13th May
Law, Cells, Kirchhoffs Laws,
May May
Wheatstone bridge, Ammeter,
Voltmeter, Meter Bridge,
Potentiometer etc.
Competition Level NA 15th & 16th May 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th &
19th May
PART TEST 2 Unit 3 18th May NA NA
NA 20th May 20th May
SUMMER BREAK 21st May 2013 to 30th May 2013
4. Moving charges and Force on a charged particle (Lorentz 31st May, 1st & 31st May, 1st & 31st May, 1st & 3rd Jun
force), Force on a current carrying
Magnetism 3rd Jun 3rd Jun
wire, Cyclotron, Torque on a current
carrying loop in magnetic field,
magnetic moment
Biot Savart Law, Magnetic field due 5th, 7th & 8th Jun 5th, 7th & 8th Jun 5th, 7th & 8th Jun
to a circular wire, Ampere circuital
law, Solenoid, Toroid
Competition Level NA 10th & 12th Jun 10th, 12th, 14th & 15th
PART TEST 3 Unit 4 15th Jun NA NA

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NA 22nd Jun 22nd Jun
5. th th st th th st
Magnetism and 17 , 19 & 21 17 , 19 & 21 Not in JEE Advanced
Matter Jun Jun Syllabus
6. Electromagnetic Faradays Laws, Lenzs Laws, A.C. 24th, 26th & 28th 24th, 26th & 28th 24th, 26th & 28th Jun
Generator, Motional Emf, Induced
Induction Jun Jun
Emf, Eddy Currents, Self Induction,
Mutual Induction
Competition Level NA 29th Jun & 1st 29th Jun, 1st, 3rd & 5th
Jul Jul
PART TEST 4 Unit 5 & 6 6th Jul NA NA
NA 13th Jul 13th Jul
7. Alternating current AC, AC circuit, Phasor, transformer, 8th, 10th & 12th 8th, 10th & 12th 8th, 10th & 12th Jul
Jul Jul
Competition Level NA 15th July 15th & 17th July
8. Electromagnetic 19th & 20th July 19th & 20th July Not in JEE Advanced
Waves Syllabus
PART TEST 5 Unit 7 & 8 27th Jul 27th Jul 27th Jul
Revision Week Upto unit 8 31st Jul & 2nd 31st Jul & 2nd 31st Jul & 2nd Aug
Aug Aug
Grand Test 1 Upto Unit 8 3rd Aug 3rd Aug3rd Aug
9. Reflection 5th & 7th Aug 5th & 7th Aug
5th & 7th Aug
Refraction 9th & 12th Aug 9th & 12th Aug
9th & 12th Aug
Ray Optics Prism 14th Aug 14th Aug
14th Aug
Optical Instruments 16th Aug 16th Aug
Not in JEE Adv
Competition Level NA 19th & 21st Aug 19th, 21st, 23rd, 24th
10. Huygens Principle 26th Aug 26th Aug 26th Aug
Interference 28 & 30 Aug 28 & 30 Aug 28th & 30th Aug
th th th th

Wave Optics Diffraction 31st Aug 31st Aug 31st Aug

nd nd
Polarization 2 Sep 2 Sep 2nd Sep
th th
Competition Level NA 4 & 6 Sep 4th, 6th, 7th, 9th, 11th
PART TEST 6 Unit 9 & 10 14th Sep 14th Sep 14th Sep
th th
REVISION ROUND 1 (For JEE Main & JEE Advanced Level): 13 Sep to 27 Sep
Grand Test 2 Upto Unit 10 28th Sep 28th Sep 28th Sep
DUSSEHRA & d-ul-Zuha Holidays: 29th Sep to 8th Oct
11. Dual Nature of Photoelectric effect etc 9th & 11th Oct 9th & 11th Oct 9th & 11th Oct
Radiation and Matter
Grand Test 3 Upto Unit 10 12th Oct 12th Oct 12th Oct
12. Atoms 14th & 16th Oct 14th & 16th Oct 14th & 16th Oct
13. Nuclei 18th & 19th Oct 18th & 19th Oct 18th & 19th Oct
X-Rays NA 21st Oct 21st & 25th Oct
PART TEST 7 Unit 11, 12 & 13 26th Oct NA NA
14. Semiconductors Basic Concepts and Diodes, 26th, 28th, 30th 26th, 28th, 30th Not in JEE Adv
transistors, logic gates
Oct & 1st Nov Oct & 1st Nov Syllabus
15. Communication 2nd & 4th Nov 2nd & 4th Nov Not in JEE Adv
System Syllabus
PART TEST 8 Unit 14 & 15 9th Nov 9th Nov NA
Unit 11, 12 & 13 Competition Level NA 8th, 9th & 11th 8th, 9th, 11th, 13th &
Nov 15th Nov
PART TEST 9 Unit 11, 12, 13, X-Rays NA 16th Nov 16th Nov
Revision Round 2 Mind Maps & Back up classes for late 18th Nov to 18th Nov to 18th Nov to Board
registered students
(Board Level) Board Exams Board Exams Exams
Revision Round 3 18th Nov to JEE 18th Nov to JEE 18th Nov to JEE
(XIth portion for JEE)
30 Full Test Series Complete Syllabus Date will be published after Oct 2014

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