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DESIGN PROCEDURE BLOCK DIAGRAM

FIELD DATA
A,r

CONDUCTOR SIZE
ts,d,Io

TOUCH & STEP


CRITERIA
Etouch70, Estep70

INITIAL DESIGN
D,n,LT,h

GRID RESISTANCE
Rg,LT
MODIFY DESIGN
D,n,LT,LR

GRID CURRENT
IG

YES
GPR < Etouch

NO

MESH & STEP


VOLTAGES
Em,Es,Km,Ks,Ki,Kii

NO
Em<Etouch

YES

NO
Es<Estep

YES

DETAIL
DESIGN
EARTHING CALCULATION

A GENERAL DESIGN DATA

1 Soil Resistivity, : 100 Ohm-M

2 Gravel Resistivity, s : 2500 Ohm-M

3 Symmetrical Short Circuit Current, Iefs : 13450 A

4 Duration of Earth Fault Current, ts : 0.5 Sec

5 Maximum Allowable Conductor Temp. : 700 C

6 Design Ambient Temperature : 40 C

7 Thickness of Crushed Gravel, hs : 0.102 mtr.

8 Depth of Earth Grid, h : 0.5 mtr.

9 Reference depth of the Grid, ho 1 mtr.

STANDARDS USED

IEEE Gude for Safety in AC Substation


Grounding IEEE - 80 2000

B SIZE OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR :

I
Amm 2 =

( K +T Eqn.: 40 Page : 43
TCAP104
t c r r )(
ln 0 m
K 0+ T a ) IEEE Std. 80 - 2000

Where

Material Proposed Copper, commercial hard - drawn

r = Resistivity of Conductor Material 0.00381 Ohm - M

r = Thermal co-efficient of resistivity at reference temperature 1.78

Tm = Max. allowable temperature in C 1084 C

Ta = Ambient temperature in C 40 C

Ko = 1/a0 or 1/ar - Tr in C 242

Iefs = rms current in Ka 13.45 KA


EARTHING CALCULATION

tc = Duration of Current in s 0.5 Sec.

TCAP = thermal capacity per unit volume from Table 1 3.42 J/(cmC)

Amm = Conductor cross section in mm 34.04 mm

A kcmil = 67.19 kcmil

Amm = 34.04 mm

THE SIZE OF CONDUCTOR SELECTED = 6.6 mm

Diameter of the Grid Conductor ,d = 0.00658 mtr.


Rounded of = 0.01 mtr.

TOUCH & STEP CRITERIA

s Eqn. 21, Page 21, IEEE 80 2000


K=
+ s

C s=
(
0 . 09 1
s ) Eqn. 27, Page 23, IEEE 80 2000

2 hs+ 0. 09

K = Reflection factor between different material resistivities

= Resistivity of the earth beneath the surface material in W.m

s = Surface material resistivity in W.m

hs = Thickness of the surface material in m

Cs = Surface layer derating factor

K = -0.92

Cs = 0.71

0.157 Eqn. 30, Page 27, IEEE 80 2000


E step70 =(1000+6C s s )
t s
Where

E step70 = Step Voltage for body weight of 70 kg

E step70 = 2573.75 Volts


EARTHING CALCULATION

E step70

0. 157 Eqn. 33, Page 27, IEEE 80 2000


Etouch70 =(1000+1 . 5Cs s )
Where ts
Etouch70 = Touch Voltage for body weight of 70 kg

Etouch70 = 809.96 Volts

C INITIAL DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS

Length Breadth
Preliminary Layout of Grid = 70 70

n = Number of parallel conductors = 14

D = Conductor Spacing = 5 m

h = Depth of grid burial = 0.5 m

LT =2 Na L
Lp = Length of the conductor across perimete = 280 m

Nr = No. of Ground Rods = 10

Lr = Length of Ground Rods = 7.5 m

LR = Total length of Ground Rods = 75 m

LT1 = Total length of buried condcutor = 2100 m

LT = Total length of buried conductors & rods = 2175 m

Lx = Maximum length of conductor in X-Axis = 70

Ly = Maximum length of conductor in Y-Axis = 70

D GRID RESISTANCE

R g =
[ 1
+
1
LT 20 A
1+
( 1
1+h 20/ A )]
Where

A = Area of the Grid = 4900 m

Rg = Grid Resistance

Rg = 0.67 W
EARTHING CALCULATION

Rg

E MAXIMUM GRID CURRENT

IG = D f I g
Where

Ig = Maximum grid current in A 13450 A

Df = Decrement factor for the entire duration of fault, given in s 0.7

IG = 9415 A

F GROUND POTENTIAL RISE

GPR=I GR g
GPR = 6354.8 V

VERIFICATION FOR HUMAN SAFETY

The safety to personnel is specified by IEEE 80, which requires to limit the development of
electrical potential to dangerous value during earth fault current.

The regulation stipulates the following parameters to be within the permissible limit

a) Step Voltage (Foot to Foot Contact)

b) Touch Voltage(Hand to Foot Contact)

CALCULATION FOR ACTUAL DERIVED STEP & MESH VOLTAGE

A Mesh Voltage

I G K m K i
Emesh( Design )= Eqn. 80, Page 91,

Ki
[
LC + 1. 55+1 . 22

= Corrective factor for current irregu-


(
Lr
L2x +l 2Ly )]
LR
IEEE 80, 2000

larity

K i= 0. 644 +0 . 148 n

Where

n= na n b nc n d

2 LT
na =
LP
EARTHING CALCULATION

2 LT
na =
LP
na = 15.0

nb = 1 for square grids = 1

nc = 1 for square and rectangular grids = 1

nd = 1 for square, rectangular and L-shaped g = 1

n = 15.00

Ki = 2.86

Km = Spacing factor for Mesh Voltage Eqn. 68 Page 113 IEEE 80

Eqn. 81, Page 93

[ ]
2
D2
Km=
1
2
ln
16 hd
+
( D +2 h )
8 Dd

h
4d
+
Kii
Kh
ln
8
[
( 2 n1 ) ] IEEE 80, 2000

Where

Kii = Corrective wieghting factor that adjusts the effect of inner conductors on the corner mesh

1
K ii= 2
n
( 2n )

Kii = 0.62

Kii = 1.00 With Rods

Kh = Corrective weighting factor that empasising the grid depth

Where
=
ho )
( 1+
h

ho = Reference depth of grid = 1

h = Depth of the ground grid conductor = 0.5

Kh = 1.22

Km = 0.65

Emesh( Design ) = 786.11 Volts


EARTHING CALCULATION

Emesh( Design )

Calculated Mesh Voltage is Lower than the Tolerable Touch Voltage.HENCE SAFE

B Step Voltage

Voltage developed for step as per the earthing system proposed during full Earth fault current

[ ( Ks Ki I G ) ] Eqn. 92, Page 94


Estep ( Design)= IEEE 80, 2000
[ 0 . 75 LC +0 . 85 LR ]
Where

Ks = Spacing factor for Step voltage

Ks=
1
[ 1
+
1
2 h D +h
+
1 0 .5 n2
D ( )] Eqn. 94, Page 94, IEEE 80, 2000

Ks = 0.440

K i= 0. 644 +0 . 148 n

Ki = 2.864

Estep(Design) = 724.08 Volts

Estep(Design ) = Err:502 Volts

Err:502
EARTHING CALCULATION
SUMMARY

A EARTH GRID CONDUCTOR

Type of Conductor Copper, commercial hard - drawn

Size of Conductor 7 mm

Length of Conductor 2100 mtr

Depth of Conductor 0.5 m below GL

B GROUND RODS

Total Length of Ground Rods 75 mtr

Length of Individual Ground Rods 7.5 mtr

No. of Ground Rods 10 No.

C HUMAN SAFETY

UNIT Designed Value Permissible Value

Step Voltage
Volt 2574 Err:502

Mesh Voltage
Volt 809.96 786
TABLE 1 - MATERIAL CONSTANTS

Material Fusing
Description Conductivity a r factor K0 at Temperature
(%) at 20C (0C) Tm (C)

Copper annealed
1 soft - drawn 1 100 1 0.00393 1 234 1 1083 1

Copper, commercial
hard - drawn
2 2 97 2 0.00381 2 242 2 1084 2
Copper-clad steel
3 wire 3 40 3 0.00378 3 245 3 1084 3
Copper-clad steel
4 wire 4 30 4 0.00378 4 245 4 700 4
Copper-clad steel
5 rod 5 20 5 0.00378 5 245 5 1084 5
Aluminium EC
6 Grade 6 61 6 0.00403 6 228 6 657 6
Aluminium 5005
7 alloy 7 53.5 7 0.00353 7 263 7 652 7
Aluminium 6201
8 alloy 8 52.5 8 0.00347 8 268 8 654 8
Aluminium-clad steel
9 wire 9 20.3 9 0.0036 9 258 9 657 9

Steel, 1020
10 10 10.8 10 0.0016 10 605 10 1510 10
Stainless - clad steel
11 rod 11 9.8 11 0.0016 11 605 11 1400 11
Zinc-coated steel
12 rod 12 8.6 12 0.0032 12 293 12 419 12
13 Stanless steel, 304 13 2.4 13 0.0013 13 749 13 1400 13
TCAP
rr Thermal
20C(mW. Capacity [J/
cm) (cm.C]

1.72 1 3.42

1.78 2 3.42

4.4 3 3.85

5.86 4 3.85

8.62 5 3.85

2.86 6 2.56

3.22 7 2.6

3.28 8 2.6

8.48 9 3.58

15.9 10 3.28

17.5 11 4.44

20.1 12 3.93
72 13 4.03