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CFD

Cameron McCartney

Introduction

define and describe genetic algorithms (GAs) and genetic

programming (GP)

propose possible applications of GA/GP to CFD

Genetic Algorithms (GAs)

a highly parallel mathematical algorithm that uses evolution

operations to transform a population of data objects, each

with individual fitness values, into a new population with

higher average fitness values [Koza]

an optimization method analogous to biological evolution

and similar to simulated annealing

GAs provide a tool in areas that do not yield readily to

standard approaches [Holland]

Genetic Algorithms (GAs)

generally applied to optimization problems where the

system dynamics are known but the optimal set of input

variables is not

Genetic Algorithms (GAs)

goal is to determine values for the set of input variables

which, when processed by the system dynamics, most

closely match the output data

GA automatically determines the optimal values of the input

variables with minimal initial direction from the user

Genetic Algorithms: Process

1.Generate a random initial population of potential solutions

as generation 0 (G0)

2. Evaulate the fitness of each member of G0 using the

known system dynamics and a fitness function

3.Apply genetic operations to members of G0, selecting based

on their fitness values, to produce a new set of potential

solutions (G1)

4.Continue to evaulate and apply genetic operations to each

generation until an optimization criteria has been satisifed

Genetic Algorithms: Process

F 0=

i

F0

F 1=

i

F1

F 2=

i

F2

N0 N1 N2

F 0F 1F 2

Population Members

population: a set of similar data objects, each describing a

complete combination of the input variables

each population member represents a potential solution to

the optimization problem

members typically express a combination of the input

variable values using a binary representaion

Fitness: Defintion

a quantitative measure of how well a specific member

satisfies the optimization problem

a fitness function usually compares the output data from a

potential solution to the desired set of output data (i.e. error,

residual)

examples of fitness functions:

least squares error for curve fitting, other optimization

applications

minimum path length for topographical applications

lowest residual energy for protein synthesis applications

Application of Genetic Algorithms to CFD 9

Fitness: Importance to GA

fitness is the key driving force behind GA/GP; population

members with higher fitness are more likely to be 'copied' to

the next generation.

any factors not explicited included in the fitness measure

will not be optimized

GA generally increases the average fitness of the

population; successive iterations will continue to improve

the fitness of the population.

Genetic Operations

two main genetic operations are performed on population

members in order to progressively improve their fitness

values:

crossover

mutation

analagous to biological evolutionary processes

Genetic Operations

Genetic Operations

crossover combines parts of two population members in

hopes of creating a new member with better fitness that

either contributing member

population members are selected for crossover based on

fitness values i.e. better members are copied into the next

generation more frequently

crossover is the main cause of improved average fitness

from generation to generation; mutation only serves to

restore diversity into populations which are too

homogeneous (i.e. local solution)

GA vs. Simulated Annealing

simulated annealing (SA) is a multi-dimenaionsl

optimization technique bsaed on following local gradients to

a minima/maximum

main difference: SA requires the user to choose some

optimization parameters (e.g. transition probability function,

transition step size); GA requires less explict input by the

user

proposed: GA may be less efficient than SA for well-

behaved optimization problems, but may be better suited to

complex parameter spaces

GA: General Optimization

GA has been shown to be a general optimization technique

with applications in engineering design

GA is well suited parallelization on computing clusters:

evaluation of each member's fitness is mutually

independant; only combined process is the application of the

genetic operations

the ability of GA to optimize multiple schemata (i.e.

combinations of input variables) at the same time leads to

inherent parallelism

Genetic Programming (GP)

a specific application of GA techniques used to evolve

structured algorithms or computer programs rather than

static combinations of input variables

GA vs. GP

GA determines the set of

input data which, when

transformed by a known

system dynamics

algorithm, most closely

matches a set of known

output data

GP determines the system

dynamics algorithm

which most closely

transforms a set of known

input data into a set of

known output data

Application of Genetic Algorithms to CFD 17

GP: Program Structure

GP algorithms are usually

represented as linked trees

tree elements are either program

flow control elements (IF, FOR,

etc.), input variable values (x1,

x2, etc.) or randomly generated

numerical constants.

GP: Genetic Operations

GP crossover exchange branches of two trees

Source: Koza

Application of Genetic Algorithms to CFD 19

GP: Genetic Operations

GP mutation changes a single tree element:

IF(x1 < x2) IF(x1 > x2)

(x1 + x2 x3) (x1 + 2.324 x3)

GP: Applications

GP is well-suited to problems involving unknown system

dynamics:

financial forecasting

electronic filter design

curve-fitting (symbolic regression)

GA/GP Research

GAs initially developed by Holland (1975)

GP developed by Koza (~1992)

GA/GP applied to problems in many different disciplines:

engineering design (e.g. airfoil optimization, control

system tuning, artificial vision systems)

financial forecasting

biological system modeling

GA/GP Application to CFD

GA/GP may be applied to CFD simulations in two different

ways:

act as an optimization technique driving CFD software

(external)

allow more efficient solution of CFD problems (internal)

modeling

GA/GPCFD: Optimization Driver

CFD is often used as an evaluation method for optimization

designs:

heat sinks

airfoils

etc.

current optimization methods driving the CFD software

include:

Markov chains

Bayesian inference

simulated annealing

Application of Genetic Algorithms to CFD 24

GA/GPCFD: Source Determination

one CFD application is the determination of particulate

source 2D locations and strengths based on limited

measurements

involves searching a large parameter space (x, y, S(t)) with

moderate nonlinearity

GA may represent a feasible alternative to Bayesian

inference

GA/GPCFD: Airfoil Design

Zhang, Chen and

Khalid at the

National Research

Council Canada

have successfully

used GA to optimize

airfoil geometries

GA/GPCFD: Zone Model Solution

zone models are simple two-zone CFD approximations used

for modeling heat and smoke transport through buildings

solving zone model simulations of a few compartments is

trivial; as the number of compartments reaches 50, 100,

1000, the underlying set of ODEs become difficult to solve

due to their stiffness

GA may be used to evolve a set of functions for each

compartment which satisfies the ODEs and constraints

GA/GPCFD: Matrix Solvers

can GA be used as a more efficient matrix solution

technique for CFD?

instead of backsolving a large set of linearized equations,

guess and interatively improve a solution field using GA.

if forward calculation of error requires substantially less

computational power than current matrix solution

techniques, improvements in computational efficiency may

result

GA/GPCFD: Turbulence Modeling

many current tuirbulence models have functional forms and

parameter values derived via correlation with experimental

or DNS data e.g. (k,) = (C,k,,C1,C2)

GA may be used to tune the parameter values to produce a

better correlation

GP may be used to derive new functional forms which are

of higher complexity i.e. highly non-linear

derivation of new functionl forms for tubulence models may

lead to new understanding of complex parameter

relationships

Research Directions

review literature for exisiting application of GA/GP to CFD

review literature for uses of GA/GP in related applications

(e.g. solution of sets of ODEs, symbolic regression)

determine suitability of various research topics using simple

benchmark problems (e.g. 1-D Fourier equation, Euler's

equation)

References

Holland, J. H. Adaptation in natural and artificial systems

(2nd ed.). Massachusettes Institute of Technology Press.

1992. ISBN 0-262-08213-6.

Koza, J. R. Genetic programming: on the programming of

computers by means of natural selection. Massachusettes

Institute of Technology Press. 1992. ISBN 0-262-11170-5.

Zhang, F., Chen, S., Khalid, M. Inverse problem study of

isolated wing by genetic algorithm. Proc. of the 12th Annual

Conference of the CFD Soc. of Canada. 2004.

Contact

cjmccart@engmail.uwaterloo.ca

Application of Genetic Algorithms to CFD 33

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