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SPRING STIFFNESS TEST

Group No: 24

ME16B074
ME16B075
ME16B076

AIM

The objective of this experiment is to find the spring constants for some sample springs and
to compare the estimated spring constant with those obtained from theoretical
calculations.

APPARATUS

Conical spring
Tensional spring
Compression spring
Suspension system
Platform for placing loads
Loads

THEORY

In classical physics, a spring can be seen as a device that stores potential energy, specifically elastic
potential energy, by straining the bonds between the atoms of an elastic material. Linear springs are
helical coil springs that exert a constant rate of force per inch (or millimeter) or degree of distance
traveled. This means that the load applied to the spring will be proportional to the amount of
distance it travels based on the spring rate of your linear spring.
=
Where,
F is the force,
is the deformation, and
kL is the constant or proportionality and is termed as the linear spring stiffness.
The linear spring stiffness can be determined by calculating the force and displacement
measured.

The spring stiffness can also be theoretically measured using the physical properties of the
spring.
Assume a helical spring whose wire diameter is negligible compared to the diameter of the
spring itself. Now a axial load is applied on it. Refer to the following derivation:
As the angle of the helix is small, the action on any cross section is approximately a pure torque and
the effects of bending and shear can be neglected. The value of the torque is given by:

= (/2)

he wire can therefore be considered to being twisted like a shaft. If is the total angle of twist along
the wire, and x is the deflection of W along the axis of the coil, then

and

Applying the formula for torsion of shafts and making the above substitution
2

2
4
=

32

Where C = shear modulus of spring material,

The spring stiffness

PROCEDURE

1. Three different spring samples are given. Measure the dimensions of R & r using a
vernier calipers.
2. Place a sample spring in the suspension system and lock it in place using tightening
screws.
3. Note the reading in the milimeter scale.
4. Load the springs using the weights provided. Increment by 0.5kg from 0kg to 2.5kg.
Note down the deviation of the springs.
5. Now, unload the spring with decrement of 0.5kg. Note down the deviation readings.
6. Calculate the value of the spring stiffness using the data and plotting graphs.

OBSERVATION TABLES

SPRING SAMPLE 1(Tensile)


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Load Load loading loading Unloading Unloading Mean
Sr No:
Vernier Deflection Vernier Deflection
kg N Deflection
Reading (mm) Reading (mm)
1 0.5 4.9 416 1 416.5 1.5 1.25
2 1 9.8 423 8 423 8 8
3 1.5 14.7 432.5 17.5 432 17 17.25
4 2 19.6 441 26 441 26 26
5 2.4 23.52 450 35 450 35 35
Tensile Spring
25

20
FORCE (NEWTON)

15

10

K=spring constant= 544.44


5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

DEFLECTION (cm)

SPRING SAMPLE 2(Conical)


(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Sr Load Load loading loading Unloading Unloading Mean
Vernier Vernier
No: kg N
Reading
Deflection
Reading
Deflection Deflection

1 0.5 4.9 11.9 0.1 11.9 0.1 0.1


2 1 9.8 11.8 0.2 11.8 0.2 0.2
3 1.5 14.7 11.6 0.35 11.55 0.4 0.375
4 2 19.6 11.4 0.55 11.3 0.65 0.6
5 2.5 24.5 11.2 0.75 11.2 0.75 0.75

Conical Spring
30

25

20
FORCE (NEWTON)

15

10 K=spring constant = 1500

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

DEFLECTION (cm)
SPRING SAMPLE 3(Compressive)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
Sr Load Load loading loading Unloading Unloading Mean

No: kg N
Vernier
Reading
Deflection
Vernier
Reading
Deflection Deflection

1 0.5 4.9 12.8 0.2 12.7 0.3 0.25


2 1 9.8 12.4 0.6 12.4 0.6 0.6
3 1.5 14.7 12.1 0.9 12 1 0.95
4 2 19.6 11.7 1.3 11.7 1.3 1.3
5 2.5 24.5 11.4 1.6 11.4 1.6 1.6

Compressive Spring
30

25

20
FORCE (NEWTON)

15

10

5 K=spring constant = 1633.33

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
DEFLECTION (cm)

CALCULATION OF SPRING STIFFNESS (THEORETICAL METHOD)

mean
Spring reading
R 20.82
Sample1
r 1.55
(Tensile)
kL 439.7
R 26.26 4
=
Sample2 4 3
r 1.56
(Conical)
kL 190.78
R 38.24
Sample3
r 2.8
(compressive)
kL 1864.48
CONCLUSION

For helical linear spring the spring stiffness is the slope of the force vs. displacement graph.

% error for compressive spring = 12.4%

% error for tensional spring = 24%

The value for the conical spring has too much error because its not a linear spring.
MEASUREMENT OF BENDING STRESS USING A STRAIN GAUGE
OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the experiment is to measure the tensile bending stress at the root of a
cantilever beam subjected to tip transverse loading using a strain gauge.

APPARATUS:

Strain gauge, strain gauge indicator (model P 3500), an aluminum specimen bar, a bar
holder

THEORY:

A strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain in any component. The most common
strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern.
It is fixed on by a suitable adhesive.

As we know, resistance is a function of length and area. When a strain gauge is stretched or
compressed, its length and cross sectional area change together. This causes a change in its
electrical resistance. This can be verified by connecting it to a circuit and measuring the
resistance.

EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATE:

The strain gauge (Sg) is mathematically expressed:

Once the strain measured through experiments, the stress can be measured using the
youngs modulus relations.

I.e. stress/strain = youngs modulus

FLEXURE RELATIONS:
LOAD DEFLECTION RELATION:

The diagram shows the schematic:

PROCEDURE:

1. Fix the beam like a cantilever beam and measure the dimensions Lo, L1, breadth b
and thickness t.
2. Measure resistance with the multimeter.
3. Construct a quarter bridge with the strain gauge (as shown in figure)
4. Set the initial gauge factor to 2.05 or 2.06. This value is given by the manufacturer.
Use the small four position range selector knob first and then the bigger
potentiometer. Lock the potentiometer now.
5. Depress the AMP ZERO button (amplifier) the display should be +/- 0000.
Alternatively, use the fingertip control knob to bring to +/- 0000.
6. Balance circuit. Press the run button (with everything else off) and set the display.
The strain gauge actual output will be shown. Use the balance knob, set the display
to a convenient value. If the initial value is non zero then subtract that number from
all readings.
7. With no load on cantilever, take first set of readings. Note the indicated strain.
8. For the next step, make a 0.5 mm deflection with micrometer handle. Add 0.5mm
deflection till 5 mm. Repeat the measurements.
OBSERVATION TABLE

STRAIN TABLE

Strain Stress
Deflection Display Strain Stress
Sr.No (Based on (Beam %Difference
(mm) value (experimental) (Experimental)
beam theory) Theory)
1 0.5 26 26x10-6 0.00002928 2002000 2254560 12.61538462
2 1 53 45x10-6 0.00005856 4081000 4509120 10.49056604
-6
3 1.5 81 81x10 0.00008784 6237000 6763680 8.444444444
-6
4 2 111 111x10 0.00011712 8547000 9018240 5.513513514
-6
5 2.5 137 137x10 0.0001464 10549000 11272800 6.861313869
-6
6 3 166 166x10 0.00017568 12782000 13527360 5.831325301
-6
7 3.5 194 194x10 0.00020496 14938000 15781920 5.649484536
-6
8 4 222 222x10 0.00023424 17094000 18036480 5.513513514
-6
9 4.5 250 250x10 0.00026352 19250000 20291040 5.408
10 5 281 281x10-6 0.0002928 21637000 22545600 4.199288256

CONCLUSION

The bending stress has been experimentally and theoretically found. They were compared
and error has been recorded in the above table which is within the acceptable limits.