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Group No: 24

ME16B074

ME16B075

ME16B076

AIM

The objective of this experiment is to find the spring constants for some sample springs and

to compare the estimated spring constant with those obtained from theoretical

calculations.

APPARATUS

Conical spring

Tensional spring

Compression spring

Suspension system

Platform for placing loads

Loads

THEORY

In classical physics, a spring can be seen as a device that stores potential energy, specifically elastic

potential energy, by straining the bonds between the atoms of an elastic material. Linear springs are

helical coil springs that exert a constant rate of force per inch (or millimeter) or degree of distance

traveled. This means that the load applied to the spring will be proportional to the amount of

distance it travels based on the spring rate of your linear spring.

=

Where,

F is the force,

is the deformation, and

kL is the constant or proportionality and is termed as the linear spring stiffness.

The linear spring stiffness can be determined by calculating the force and displacement

measured.

The spring stiffness can also be theoretically measured using the physical properties of the

spring.

Assume a helical spring whose wire diameter is negligible compared to the diameter of the

spring itself. Now a axial load is applied on it. Refer to the following derivation:

As the angle of the helix is small, the action on any cross section is approximately a pure torque and

the effects of bending and shear can be neglected. The value of the torque is given by:

= (/2)

he wire can therefore be considered to being twisted like a shaft. If is the total angle of twist along

the wire, and x is the deflection of W along the axis of the coil, then

and

Applying the formula for torsion of shafts and making the above substitution

2

2

4

=

32

PROCEDURE

1. Three different spring samples are given. Measure the dimensions of R & r using a

vernier calipers.

2. Place a sample spring in the suspension system and lock it in place using tightening

screws.

3. Note the reading in the milimeter scale.

4. Load the springs using the weights provided. Increment by 0.5kg from 0kg to 2.5kg.

Note down the deviation of the springs.

5. Now, unload the spring with decrement of 0.5kg. Note down the deviation readings.

6. Calculate the value of the spring stiffness using the data and plotting graphs.

OBSERVATION TABLES

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Load Load loading loading Unloading Unloading Mean

Sr No:

Vernier Deflection Vernier Deflection

kg N Deflection

Reading (mm) Reading (mm)

1 0.5 4.9 416 1 416.5 1.5 1.25

2 1 9.8 423 8 423 8 8

3 1.5 14.7 432.5 17.5 432 17 17.25

4 2 19.6 441 26 441 26 26

5 2.4 23.52 450 35 450 35 35

Tensile Spring

25

20

FORCE (NEWTON)

15

10

5

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

DEFLECTION (cm)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Sr Load Load loading loading Unloading Unloading Mean

Vernier Vernier

No: kg N

Reading

Deflection

Reading

Deflection Deflection

2 1 9.8 11.8 0.2 11.8 0.2 0.2

3 1.5 14.7 11.6 0.35 11.55 0.4 0.375

4 2 19.6 11.4 0.55 11.3 0.65 0.6

5 2.5 24.5 11.2 0.75 11.2 0.75 0.75

Conical Spring

30

25

20

FORCE (NEWTON)

15

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

DEFLECTION (cm)

SPRING SAMPLE 3(Compressive)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

Sr Load Load loading loading Unloading Unloading Mean

No: kg N

Vernier

Reading

Deflection

Vernier

Reading

Deflection Deflection

2 1 9.8 12.4 0.6 12.4 0.6 0.6

3 1.5 14.7 12.1 0.9 12 1 0.95

4 2 19.6 11.7 1.3 11.7 1.3 1.3

5 2.5 24.5 11.4 1.6 11.4 1.6 1.6

Compressive Spring

30

25

20

FORCE (NEWTON)

15

10

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

DEFLECTION (cm)

mean

Spring reading

R 20.82

Sample1

r 1.55

(Tensile)

kL 439.7

R 26.26 4

=

Sample2 4 3

r 1.56

(Conical)

kL 190.78

R 38.24

Sample3

r 2.8

(compressive)

kL 1864.48

CONCLUSION

For helical linear spring the spring stiffness is the slope of the force vs. displacement graph.

The value for the conical spring has too much error because its not a linear spring.

MEASUREMENT OF BENDING STRESS USING A STRAIN GAUGE

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of the experiment is to measure the tensile bending stress at the root of a

cantilever beam subjected to tip transverse loading using a strain gauge.

APPARATUS:

Strain gauge, strain gauge indicator (model P 3500), an aluminum specimen bar, a bar

holder

THEORY:

A strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain in any component. The most common

strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern.

It is fixed on by a suitable adhesive.

As we know, resistance is a function of length and area. When a strain gauge is stretched or

compressed, its length and cross sectional area change together. This causes a change in its

electrical resistance. This can be verified by connecting it to a circuit and measuring the

resistance.

EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATE:

Once the strain measured through experiments, the stress can be measured using the

youngs modulus relations.

FLEXURE RELATIONS:

LOAD DEFLECTION RELATION:

PROCEDURE:

1. Fix the beam like a cantilever beam and measure the dimensions Lo, L1, breadth b

and thickness t.

2. Measure resistance with the multimeter.

3. Construct a quarter bridge with the strain gauge (as shown in figure)

4. Set the initial gauge factor to 2.05 or 2.06. This value is given by the manufacturer.

Use the small four position range selector knob first and then the bigger

potentiometer. Lock the potentiometer now.

5. Depress the AMP ZERO button (amplifier) the display should be +/- 0000.

Alternatively, use the fingertip control knob to bring to +/- 0000.

6. Balance circuit. Press the run button (with everything else off) and set the display.

The strain gauge actual output will be shown. Use the balance knob, set the display

to a convenient value. If the initial value is non zero then subtract that number from

all readings.

7. With no load on cantilever, take first set of readings. Note the indicated strain.

8. For the next step, make a 0.5 mm deflection with micrometer handle. Add 0.5mm

deflection till 5 mm. Repeat the measurements.

OBSERVATION TABLE

STRAIN TABLE

Strain Stress

Deflection Display Strain Stress

Sr.No (Based on (Beam %Difference

(mm) value (experimental) (Experimental)

beam theory) Theory)

1 0.5 26 26x10-6 0.00002928 2002000 2254560 12.61538462

2 1 53 45x10-6 0.00005856 4081000 4509120 10.49056604

-6

3 1.5 81 81x10 0.00008784 6237000 6763680 8.444444444

-6

4 2 111 111x10 0.00011712 8547000 9018240 5.513513514

-6

5 2.5 137 137x10 0.0001464 10549000 11272800 6.861313869

-6

6 3 166 166x10 0.00017568 12782000 13527360 5.831325301

-6

7 3.5 194 194x10 0.00020496 14938000 15781920 5.649484536

-6

8 4 222 222x10 0.00023424 17094000 18036480 5.513513514

-6

9 4.5 250 250x10 0.00026352 19250000 20291040 5.408

10 5 281 281x10-6 0.0002928 21637000 22545600 4.199288256

CONCLUSION

The bending stress has been experimentally and theoretically found. They were compared

and error has been recorded in the above table which is within the acceptable limits.

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