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BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

1.1 LATAR BELAKANG

Structural geology is a part of geology that studies the shape (architecture) of rocks as a
result of the deformation process. The deformation of rocks is a change in shape and size in
rocks as a result of forces acting within the earth. In general, the definition of structural geology
is the study of the shape of rock architecture as part of the earth's crust and explain the process of
its formation. Some argue that structural geology is more emphasized in the study of elements of
geological structure, such as fold, fracture, fault, etc., which are part of a tectonic unit, while
tectonic and geotectonic Is considered a larger-scale study, which studies geological objects such
as sedimentary basins, mountain ranges, ocean floors, and so on.
As it is known that rocks exposed to the earth as well as recorded through geophysical
measurement results show the shape of architectural forms that vary from one place to another.
The architectural formation of rocks in a region in general are rocks that have been deformed as
a result of forces acting on the rock. Deformation of rocks may be folded or broken / cesarean. In
the geology of structures known various forms of rocks, such as sinklin and anticline. Type of
folding can be a fold of symmetry, asymmetry, and recumbent / overtune, while the types of
fractures are normal fault, strike slip fault, and trustfault.
The process that causes the rocks to be deformed is the force acting on the rock. As we know that
in the theory of "Plate Tectonics" stated that the bark of the earth is composed of plates that
move with each other. The movement of the plates can be a movement that is closer to each
other (convergent), diverging, and / or passing each other (transform). The movement of these
plates is the source of origin of the forces acting on the rocks of the earth's crust. Speaking of
forces that work on rocks, it will inevitably be related to the science of rock mechanics, a science
that studies the physical properties of rocks exposed by a force.

RUMUSAN MASALAH
1.How does the normal cesarean section move?
2. What are the factors that affect normal cesarean section?
3. How is the spread of normal faults in Indonesia?
TUJUAN PENULISAN
1. To know the movement of Normal Fault that occurred
2. To know what factors affect the normal cesarean section
3. To know the spread of normal faults in Indonesia
BAB II
PEMBAHASAN
A fault or a fault (or the geologic term "fault") is a form of fracture in the earth's rock
layer that allows a block of rock to move relative to another block. The movement can be
relatively down, relatively up, or move relatively flat against other blocks. The sudden
movement of a fault or caesare can result in an earthquake. Resin systems working on a material
can cause changes or deformations. If the ruling causes the rock to break and the fraction is
relatively mutually moving then the fault field is named as a fault structure or a "brittle failure"
structure. At the ends or edges of the fault path, generally deformed rocks are folds that reflect
semi-brittle / ductile. A rock caused by the excision process occurs along the fault plane, while
the direction of motion can be known from traces of the shift in the form of a line scratch
(Slicken line), or indication Others like drag fault etc. Some structural geologists generally
interpret the cesarean structure as a fracture field accompanied by a shift. Fault is defined as a
fracture of the earth's constituent rock that has been or is experiencing movement. 2.2 Normal
Fault

Normal Fault is formed by the existence of extensional firm, so that in certain part gravity
force more dominant. This condition results in some parts of the rock body will move down
which then commonly known as the process of formation of a normal cesarean. Normal fault
occurs when the Hanging wall moves downward relative to the foot wall. This normal cesarean
motion can be purely upright or accompanied by lateral motion. The normal casing-forming
casing system is extensional, where the primarily vertical position is whereas the position of the
middle and minimum firm is lateral.

Normal fault is generally formed more than one plane whose position is relatively
parallel to each other. If the fault area is more than one piece, the high part is called the horst and
the lower part is named as graben. Furthermore, if the level of normal fault area is only
developed on one side only then the cesarean group is commonly referred to as half graben and if
the level of cesarean field normally paired then named as graben. Based on the shape of the fault
field, this normal fault can be divided into 2 kinds, namely planar extensional fault and listric
extensional fault. Further Planar extensional fault based on the presence or absence of rotation,
divided into Non-rotational planar fault and Rotational planar fault. Locally, normal cesarean
formation can occur due to a compressional firm system.

The formation of "Pull apart basin", is one example in this case. The ideal example of
"pulling up the basin" formation is the formation of some lows or hollows. In some locations
along the Semangko Fault Line, there are several lakes where the formation is controlled by this
fault. The formation of the Semangko fault is influenced by a compressional firm system,
whereas the formation of the lake itself is influenced by extensional firmness. In this case the
formation of pull apart occurs in the en-echelon fault section. In oil and gas exploration, the
extensional fault system is very important to learn, because this fault system controls the
formation of the height and the basin. The basin geometry model is strongly influenced by the
pattern of cesarean structure which further affects the geometry of the hollow itself. Graben and
half graben are two models of the basin form entirely controlled by the pattern of fault.
Furthermore from the control of this structure will also be studied whether the shape of this basin
is symmetry or asymmetry. In the half graben asymetry basin geometry, normal faults that
develop on the basin boundaries may be simple border fault systems or distributary border fault
systems. Next on the other side of a basin can be a flexure shoulder and / or fault shoulder.

The extensional fault planar is a normal fault with a flat fault or pseudo flat plane. The
caesarean motion may or may not be accompanied by rotation. There are various types of faults,
including planar non-rotational faulting, planar rotational faulting, sigmoidal rotational faulting,
planar detachment faulting, kinked planar detachment faulting. The listric extensional fault is
characterized by a curved fault plane, the more upward, the cesarean section is more erect while
the downward direction becomes even slicker and can be horizontal. Another feature of this fault
is that the encounter of roll-over anticline with the top is generally accompanied by amblasan.
This fault can stand alone for example in "basal detachment" or can also be paired as in
imbricated system. Inside this fault zone, the hanging wall section is generally accompanied by a
number of other smaller faults. These secondary faults can be dap
(Normal Fault Image) Deformation of the earth's crust is classified into two,
ie slow movement accompanied by gradual movements including ductile
deformation, and sudden movement involving fractures of brittle rocks. Once a
fracture begins, friction will follow which is followed by a shift, then slowly
collected or stifled during friction between the two sides of the cesare, as long as it
can handle it. Then suddenly there was another shift. If stress persists, recurrence
of stress buildup that ends with a sudden shift occurs repeatedly. If this shift occurs
in the upper part of the earth's crust where the temperature is low and then given
the extensional force, the rock will be brittle deformed into a normal fault. At a
lower level than the crust where the temperature is higher than the crust
temperature, will result in ductile deformation resulting in thinning and stretching
of rock layers. This indicates that on a deformation there is a gradual transition
from the brittle zone at the top of the Earth's crust to the ductile zone, where the
temperature intensity increases with depth.

1. Horsts & Gabens - In relation to normal faults occurring as a result of tensional strictures, it is
common to find normal fault faults coupled to the opposite fracture plane. In such cases, the
part of the descending blocks will form "graben" while the pair of blocks is lifted as "horst". A
case example of the effect of the tensional force acting on the earth's crust at the moment is the
East African Rift Valley of an area where continental divisions produce a "Rift". Another example
that currently occurs is the expansion of the Earth's crust is the area in the western United
States, namely in Nevada, Utah, and Idaho.
2. Half-Grabens - is a normal fracture whose plane is arch-shaped with a decreasing slope
toward the bottom so that it can cause the descending block to rotate.

2.3 Cara Pendeteksian Sesar di Lapangan


2.4 Studi Kasus Sesar Normal

Can be examined, the normal case study of cesarean in Indonesia refers to opac
caesare, because opac fault is a fault decrease result of reactivation of the previously
existing shear fault, Fault Opak with fault line located just below the flow of Opak River
flowing west of escarpment. The fault is still interpretative. Opak fault is estimated as a
falling fault (Van Bemmelen, 1949; Untung et al., 1973; Rahardjo et al., 1995, in Husein
and Srijono, 2009). Sudarno (1997), in his research on the reactivation of the Opak
Fault, concludes that the Opak Fault is a falling fault resulting from the reactivation of a
previously established shear fault. After the Yogyakarta Yogyakarta earthquake
occurred, the conclusions about the movement of elephant-forming fault become
questionable again. The results of the analysis of earthquake data show that the
cesareous cause of the earthquake is a rising fault with the component of shear
(Harvard-CMT, NEIC-FMT, and NIED, 2006, in Tsuji, 2009; Meilano, 2007, in Abidin,
2009; Abidin et al. 2009; Tsuji et al , 2009).