Differential Geometry

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Differential Geometry

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Pavel Tumarkin

3.1. Let denote the catenary from Exercise 2.1. Show that

(a) the involute of starting from (0, 1) is the tractrix from Exercise 1.6 (with x- and y-axes

exchanged and different parametrization);

(b) the evolute of is the curve given by

(u) = (u sinh u cosh u, 2 cosh u)

(c) Find the singular points of and give a sketch of its trace.

Solution:

(a) The involute of has parametrization

(u) = a(u) `(u)t(u)

Since

a0 (u) = (1, sinh u),

we have Z u Z u

1

`(u) = k0 (v)k dv = cosh v dv = sinh u and t(u) = (1, sinh u),

0 0 cosh u

so

sinh2 u

sinh u 1

(u) = a(u) sinh ut(u) = u

, cosh u = (u cosh u sinh u, 1)

cosh u cosh u cosh u

Exchanging coordinate axes, we obtain a curve parametrized by

1

e (u) = (1, u cosh u sinh u)

cosh u

The tractrix from Exercise 1.6 is completely characterized by its property (d). Computing the corresponding

distance for the curve

e (u) we see that its trace is also a tractrix.

(b) As we have already computed in Exercise 2.1 and in (a),

1 1

t(u) = (1, sinh u), (u) =

cosh u cosh2 u

In particular, (u) is never zero, and

1

n(u) = ( sinh u, 1)

cosh u

Now we can compute the evolute:

1

e(u) = (u) + n(u) = (u sinh u cosh u, 2 cosh u)

(u)

as required.

(c) The singular points of e correspond to the vertices of . We have

0

0 1 2 sinh u

(u) = = ,

cosh2 u cosh3 u

so 0 (u) = 0 if and only if u = 0. The only singular point of e is (0, 2).

3.2. (?) Parallels. Let be a plane curve parametrized by arc length, and let d be a real number. The

curve (u) = (u) + dn(u) is called the parallel to at distance d.

(a) Show that is a regular curve except for values of u for which d = 1/(u), where is the

curvature of .

(b) Show that the set of singular points of all the parallels (i.e., for all d R) is the evolute of .

Solution:

(a) Assume (u) = 0 or d(u) 6= 1. The latter is automatically satisfied if (u) = 0. So we just assume that

d(u) 6= 1. We need to show that 0 (u) 6= 0. Since is unit speed, we have

= t(u) + d(u)A2 t(u) = t(u) d(u)t(u) = (1 d(u))t(u),

0 1

with A = and vectors t and n are understood as columns. Note that kt(u)k = 1, i.e., t(u) 6= 0.

1 0

The initial assumption implies that (1 d(u)) 6= 0 and, therefore 0 (u) 6= 0, i.e., (u) is regular.

In the case (u) 6= 0 and d(u) = 1, i.e., d = 1/(u), we obviously have 0 (u) = 0, i.e., (u) is singular.

(b) The evolute is only defined in the case that we have (u) 6= 0 for all u. So we assume this. We have

seen in (a) that the singular points of the parallels are precisely those (u) for which we have d(u) = 1, i.e.,

d = 1/(u). This means that the set fo singular points of all parallels is

1

{(u) + dn(u) | u I, d = 1/(u)} = {(u) + n(u) | u I}

(u)

3.3. Let (u) : I R2 be a smooth regular curve. Suppose there exists u0 I such that the distance

||(u)|| from the origin to the trace of is maximal at u0 . Show that the curvature (u0 ) of at

u0 satisfies

|(u0 )| 1/||(u0 )||

Solution:

Note first that the both sides of the inequality we want to prove do not depend on the parametrization, so

we may assume without loss of generality that is parametrized by arc length.

Consider the function f (u) = kk2 . Since f (u) has a maximum at u0 , the first derivative of f (u) at u0

vanishes (cf. Exercise 1.4(b)), and the second derivative is non-positive. Thus, we have

0 f 00 (u0 ) = ((u) (u))00 |u0 = (20 (u) (u))0 |u0 = 00 (u0 ) (u0 ) + 2k0 (u0 )k2 = 00 (u0 ) (u0 ) + 2

To satisfy the inequality above, we must have 00 (u0 ) (u0 ) 1, which implies |00 (u0 ) (u0 )| 1, and

therefore

|(u0 )| = k00 (u0 )k 1/k(u0 )k

3.4. Contact with circles. The points (x, y) R2 of a circle are given as solutions of the equation

C(x, y) = 0 where

C(x, y) = (x a)2 + (y b)2

Let = (x(u), y(u)) be a plane curve. Suppose that the point (u0 ) is also on some circle defined

by C(x, y). Then C vanishes at (x(u0 ), y(u0 )) and the equation g(u) = 0 with

has a solution at u0 . If u0 is a multiple solution of the equation, with g (i) (u0 ) = 0 for i = 1, . . . , k 1

but g (k) (u0 ) 6= 0, we say that the curve and the circle have k-point contact at (u0 ).

(a) Let a circle be tangent to at (u0 ). Show that and the circle have at least 2-point contact

at (u0 ).

(b) Suppose that (u0 ) 6= 0. Show that and the circle have at least 3-point contact at (u0 ) if

and only if the center of the circle is the center of curvature of at (u0 ).

(c) Show that and the circle have at least 4-point contact if and only if the center of the circle is

the center of curvature of at (u0 ) and (u0 ) is a vertex of .

Solution:

Denote by c = (a, b) the center of the circle C(x, y) = 0. Then the function g(u) = C(x(u), y(u)) =

(x(u) a)2 + (y(u) b)2 can be written as

g 0 (u) = 2((u) c) 0 (u)

which vanishes if and only if 0 (u) is orthogonal to (u) c. Note that (u) c is a radius of the circle,

and the vector 0 (u) is orthogonal to a radius if and only if it is tangent to the circle.

(b) Differentiating g 0 (u), we obtain

Since (u) c is orthogonal to 0 (u), it is collinear with 00 (u), namely, it is equal to k(u) ckn. Assume

(u) > 0 (if (u) < 0 the computations are similar), then 00 (u) = k(u) ckn. Thus, g 00 (u) = 0 if and

only if

2k(u) ckn 00 (u) + 2k0 (u)k2 = 0,

which is equivalent to

k0 (u)k2

k(u) ck =

n 00 (u)

The latter is equal to 1/(u) (see Exercise 2.2).

(c) Again, assume (u) > 0. According to (b), we can write

= 2k(u) ck(u)k0 (u)k2 + 2k0 (u)k2 = 2k0 (u)k2 (1 (u)k(u) ck)

g 000 (u) = 400 (u) 0 (u)(1 (u)k(u) ck) + 2k0 (u)k2 (k(u) ck0 (u) k(u) ck0 (u))

Since the center c of the circle coincides with the center of curvature of , the first summand iz equal to zero.

The derivative of k(u) ck is also zero since 0 (u) is orthogonal to (u) c (cf. (a) or Exercise 1.4(b)).

Thus, g 000 (u) = 0 if and only if 0 (u) = 0, or, equivalently, (u) is a vertex of .

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