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How does Nelson Chemistry 11 help teachers assess and evaluate student achievement?

Assessment Standards for Nelson Resources

1. Curriculum Congruency
Assessment strategies and tools are matched to the Ontario curriculum with respect to
performance standards (such as Achievement Levels) and content standards (such as
Curriculum Expectations).

2. Manageability
Each resource provides teachers with an efficient and manageable approach to assessment
that includes diagnostic, formative, and summative components.

3. Variety of Tools
Teachers receive a variety of assessment tools, including: rubrics, checklists, tracking sheets,
and answer keys.

4. Clear Criteria
Assessment criteria are clearly indicated so that teachers and students know what is
expected in each assessment task.

5. Opportunities for Self-Assessment

Clear directions are provided to involve students and, where appropriate, parents in the
assessment process.

Sections 8.38.4 Questions

Understanding Concepts
1. Distinguish between a strong and weak acid using the concept of
reaction with water.
2. What class of substances are strong bases? Explain their proper-
Questions Reflect the 3. What are the properties of a weak base? Explain these properties.
4. Write appropriate chemical equations to explain the acidic or basic
Achievement Chart Categories properties of each of the following substances added to water.
(a) hydrogen bromide (acidic)
(b) potassium hydroxide (basic)
(c) benzoic acid, HC7H5O2(aq) (acidic)
(d) sodium sulfide (basic)
5. Theories in science develop over a period of time. Illustrate this
development by writing theoretical definitions of an acid, using
the following concepts. Begin your answer with, According to
[name of concept], acids are substances that
A balance of (a) the Arrhenius concept
(b) the revised Arrhenius concept
Understanding Concepts, (c) the Brnsted-Lowry concept
6. Repeat question 5, defining bases. Refer to both strong and weak
Applying Inquiry Skills, bases in your answer.
7. According to the Brnsted-Lowry concept, what happens in an
and Making Connections acidbase reaction?
8. Use the Brnsted-Lowry definitions to identify each of the reac-
questions appear tants in the following equations as acids or bases.
(a) HCO3 (aq) + S (aq)
2 HS 2
(aq) + CO3 (aq)
throughout the text. (b) H2CO3(aq) + OH 
(aq) HCO3 (aq) + H2O(l)
9. Complete the following chemical equations to predict the
acidbase reaction products.
(a) HSO4(aq) + PO43

(b) H3O+(aq) + HPO42
10. Some ions can form more than one conjugate acidbase pair. List
the two conjugate acidbase pairs involving a hydrogen car-
bonate ion.
11. Identify the two acidbase conjugate pairs in each of the fol-
lowing reactions.
(a) H3O+(aq) + HSO3(aq) H2O(l) + H2SO3(aq)
(b) OH 
(aq) + HSO3(aq) H2O(l) + SO3(aq)

Applying Inquiry Skills

12. Baking soda is a common chemical but its chemical properties
are difficult for chemists to explain and predict. Baking soda is
amphiprotic and forms a basic solution. List some of the chem-
ical properties of baking soda and indicate why some of these
properties are difficult to explain and predict.
Follow the links for Nelson Chemistry 11, 8.4.

Making Connections
13. Common kitchen-variety baking soda has so many uses that it has
entire books written about it. Use references to gather a list of uses
for baking soda. Identify the uses that involve acidbase reactions.

Experimental Design
Section Questions
A known mass of zinc is placed in a beaker with an excess of lead(II) nitrate solu-
tion. The lead produced in the reaction is separated by filtration and dried. The mass
Section Questions are presented when it is convenient to assess a
of the lead is determined. Assume that the reagents used are pure and that the tech-
nical skills used in carrying out the experiment are adequate for the experiment. An
excess of one reactant is used to ensure the complete reaction of the limiting reagent.
cluster of expectations that are finished in their development.
In the beaker, crystals of a shiny black solid were produced and all of the zinc
They are intended to be used largely for formative or summative
mass of filter paper = 0.92 g
mass of dried filter paper plus lead = 7.60 g
assessment and are categorized to reflect the Achievement Chart.
(c) Use the evidence to calculate the actual mass of lead produced.
(d) Calculate a percentage difference between the experimental value and the
predicted (theoretical) value of the mass of lead. The percentage difference
is calculated by dividing the difference in mass by the predicted mass.
NOTE: Answers to Section Questions are not presented anywhere
(e) Why was an excess of lead(II) nitrate in solution used in this experiment?
(f) How can we tell when the lead(II) nitrate is in excess?
in the Student Text. Solutions and sample written answers are
(g) Based on the evidence and your evaluation of the experimental design, is
the gravimetric stoichiometric method valid? presented in the Solutions Manual.
Understanding Concepts
Answers 7. How are scientific concepts tested?
9. (a) 2:16 8. Explain why it is necessary to convert mass of reactant or product to The natural environment can tolerate a certain amount of pollution. For
70.4 g
80.0 g
amount in moles before applying the coefficients in balanced chemical
9. When octane, C8H18, in gasoline burns, it combines with oxygen to
Practice Questions example, the combination of sunlight with a healthy community of organisms
living in large bodies of fresh water is able to break down some of the pollutants
from domestic sewage, agricultural fertilizers, and industrial waste. Small quan-

Practice Questions are

10. 599 g produce carbon dioxide and water according to the following equation:
tities of these chemicalsnitrates, phosphates, and organic compoundscan be
2 C8H18(g) + 25 O2(g) 16 CO2(g) + 18 H2O(g)

broken down by chemical reactions or by natural bacteria into simple, non-pol-
(a) What is the mole ratio of octane:carbon dioxide? luting substances such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
(b) What mass of carbon dioxide is produced if 22.8 g of octane is
completely combusted in oxygen?
(c) What is the mole ratio of octane:oxygen?
presented in the middle of Practice
(d) What mass of oxygen is required to completely combust 22.8 g
of octane?
(e) From your knowledge of the properties of different stoichiometric
a section, offering students Understanding Concepts
1. Outline the problems that are likely to result from releasing untreated

the opportunity to practise

combinations of carbon and oxygen to produce oxides of carbon, sewage into the environment.
explain why oxygen should not be the limiting reagent when
2. Briefly outline the causes and effects of a high BOD.
burning octane.
3. Create a diagram indicating the stages of waste water treatment.

working with the terms,

10. Titanium is a metal that is used in a variety of products, including
jewellery, cookware, and golf clubs. Titanium is purified from the 4. Explain why rural homeowners should be especially careful about
mineral titanium dioxide, TiO2(s), in a two-step process: what they flush down their drains.
TiO2(s) + 2 Cl2(g) + 2 C(s) TiCl4(g) + 2 CO(g)

TiCl4(g) + 2 Mg(s) Ti (s) + 2 MgCl2(s)

mathematical or problem- Reflecting
5. Will the information in this section will affect your attitude toward the
materials that you pour down the sink at home? at school?
How many grams of titanium can be obtained from 1.00 kg of tita-
nium dioxide? solving techniques, skills,
28 Chapter 5 Section 7.4 Questions
or concepts presented in Understanding Concepts
1. Create a flow chart diagram indicating the ways in which water is
the text. These questions treated during its cycle from raw, untreated water to drinkable
water in our homes, and then returned to the environment as
treated waste water.

NOTE: Answers to Practice Questions, often follow a Sample Applying Inquiry Skills
2. A team of environmental scientists discovers many dead fish in a

when they are numerical, are presented in Problem and are intended river downstream from an industrial town. Further tests show
that the level of dissolved oxygen is very low in the water. The
scientists need to find the reason for this observation.

the margin beside the questions. Solutions to be used largely for (a) Write two possible hypotheses that they might test.
(b) Write a prediction and experimental design for each of the

and sample written answers are presented formative assessment. Making Connections
3. To reduce the quantity of garbage going to landfill sites, some
people have suggested that food waste be disposed of in a gar-

in the Solutions Manual. burator. These household devices grind up the waste and flush it,
with lots of water, into the sewer. What are some advantages and
disadvantages of this suggestion? What would be the effect of
this material on the sewage treatment system?
4. How is sewage treated after it leaves your home? Research to
find out, and draw your own conclusions (with further research if
necessary) about whether this treatment is adequate. Outline
your position (supporting it with evidence) in a communication to
the person or organization responsible for your water treatment.
Follow the links for Nelson Chemistry 11, 7.4.

Chapter 5 Review
30 Chapter 7

222Rn 218Po + ?
Understanding Concepts (c) 86 84
Calculate the mass of nitric acid that is produced if 4.00 mol Applying Inquiry Skills
(d) 252Cf + 10B ? + 3 1n of ammonia is completely reacted through the Ostwald
1. Explain the relationships between each of the following 98 5 0
process. 17. Describe a sequence of steps that you would carry out to
94Pu + ? 96Cm + 0n
(e) 239
pairs of terms: 242 1 determine whether a reagent in a precipitation reaction is
(a) limiting reagent and excess reagent 12. Nitroglycerin, C3H5(NO3)3(s), an explosive that is used in present in excess.
6. The 237
93Np nucleus naturally decays through a series of dynamite, can be made from the reaction of glycerol,
(b) chemical reaction and nuclear reaction steps and ends with the formation of the stable 209
83 Bi. C3H5(OH)3(l), and nitric acid. Water is the only other 18. The purpose of this lab exercise is to design an experiment
(c) alpha decay and beta decay The decays proceed through a series of alpha and beta that will determine the purity of a sample of sodium sul-
(d) actual yield and theoretical yield product formed. In one experiment, a chemist reacted
particle emissions. How many of each type of particle is 10.4 g of glycerol and 19.2 g of nitric acid, to produce fate by precipitation with barium chloride. Sodium sulfate
(e) empirical formula and molecular formula emitted in this series of radioactive decay? is dissolved in water and reacted with aqueous barium
22.6 g of nitroglycerin.
2. Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the fol- 7. Complete the following nuclear equations: (a) Write a balanced equation for the above reaction. chloride to form sodium chloride and insoluble barium
lowing reactions. Assume that substances are pure. 190Re 190Os + ? (b) What is the limiting reagent in the reaction? sulfate. Present your work in a report, using appropriate

Chapter and Unit Review (a) Research indicates that sulfur dioxide gas reacts
with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce sulfur
trioxide gas.

9Li 8Li + ?
214Bi ? + 4He
(c) What is the theoretical yield of nitroglycerin?
(d) What is the percentage yield of nitroglycerin?
13. List three reasons why the actual yield in a reaction may be
scientific vocabulary and SI units.
(a) Use gravimetric stoichiometry to predict the yield.
(b) Sulfur trioxide gas travelling across international

162Tm ? + 0 e
boundaries causes disagreements between govern- 69 1 less than the theoretical yield. Experimental Design
120In ? + 0 e
ments. 49 1 14. Silica is a name for silicon dioxide, SiO2(s), a chief compo- (b) Describe an experimental design, selecting appro-
8. Isooctane, C8H18(l), is one of the main constituents of nent of glass. Silica can react with hydrofluoric acid, priate materials, techniques, and steps to determine
sulfur trioxide + water sulfuric acid
Chapter and Unit (c) The means exist for industry to reduce sulfur
dioxide emissions;
(a) What for mass
example, by treatment
of carbon is formed withfrom 20.09.g of
gasoline. Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide gas pro-
duced by the complete combustion of 692 g of isooctane.
HF(aq), to produce silicon tetrafluoride, SiF4(g), which is a
gas at room temperature:
acid. What precautions are necessary when handling the massExploring
the amount of excess reagent to use.
(c) Write a procedure, including the steps to determine
The metal tungsten is used to make the filament in of precipitate formed. Identify any safety
SiO2(s) + 4 HF(aq) SiF4(g) + 2 H2O(l)
Review Questions can lime.
calcium oxide
sucrose, according to this equation?
(b)+ sulfur
What dioxide
mass of+water oxygenis formed

incandescent light
in the same process?
heating tungsten(VI)
Calculate the theoretical
oxide with Design
can be obtained
yield ofbybarium sulfate. concentrated sulfuric acid?
(a) What mass of silicon tetrafluoride can be produced
concerns and include control measures necessary to
34. Analytical chemists work in many varied fields where
reduce the risk.
analysis of unknown substances is important. For
25. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants produce from 6.80 Exploring
g of silica?
be used for more (d) Restoring acid lakes totonormal
is expensive;
the following
glucose, C6H12O6(aq), from carbon dioxide and water,
(b) Describe the experiment, including the mass of
WO3(s) + 3 H2(g) W(s) + 3 H2O(g)
excess reagent to be used.
(c) Write a procedure and choose materials. Include
(b) What mass 33. of hydrofluoric
pletely react Earths
with 53.2
is the
g of found
is required
abundant to com-
silica? mostly as aluminum compoundsthe
Analysis example, chemical detectives in food science have devel-
metallic element(d)in Include an explanation of how
oped sensitive
in purity ofjuice
the sample
of sodium
would calculate
to identify
beet or corn sugars that
fraudulently used in fruit juices.
example, by adding lime to lakes from the air. (a) What mass of tungsten(VI) oxide is needed to pro-
formative assessment, 6 CO
calcium oxide + sulfurous
2(g) + 6 H O
2acid C H
(g) 6 12 6(aq)O
water + calcium sulfite
+ 6 O 2(g)
duce 5.00
(b) What mass of
g of
any safety precautions that are necessary.
water vapour is produced?
(c) What mass of
completely reacts
15. Gasohol is a fuel Al
clay. Theis most
in this reaction?
ore bauxite,
2O3(s). Canada
when 10.6
extractable g ofof
source silica
aluminum is the
which consists mainly of aluminum oxide,
has several
at gas stations for usealuminum
in cars in smelters, located
Toxicologists have traced an outbreak of food poisoning to
a toxin found in mussels from Prince Edward Island. At
(e) Evaluate the experimental design. Where might errors
pharmaceutical companies, analytical chemists study the
(a) What mass of carbon dioxide is needed for 10.the A white precipitate formedflavour
when the in barium hydroxide arise that would change the actual yield?
and questions are (e) Fish in acidic lakes
due to the leaching
(b) What
may to die
of mass
from 100.0
produce mineral
from lake
of oxygen
g ofpoisoning
glucose? the same
is produced
The compound used
foods is an ester solution
The reaction for the mass
as artificial
called ethylbutanoate,
of filter
was mixed with C3H theCOOC
is shown
= 0.96
sulfuric Hacid.
g 2 5(l)
place of gasoline.inThe
(a) Write a balanced
in gasohol4) and in British Columbia, pro-
is ethanol,
cessing bauxite shipped from South America and West
Africa. Using the
equation Internet,the
to represent research
Making Connections
the chemical reac-
purity of new medications and how well they are absorbed
by the body.
process? mass of dried filter paper plus precipitate = 5.25 g Using the Internet, identify and research one of these or
categorized to reflect solid aluminum silicate
26. hydrogen
aqueous If a beaker
+ sulfuric acid
of ammonium
silicate hydroxide and a beakerCH
+ aqueous aluminum 5OH(l) C3H8COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)
of4H8O2(l) + C2HAnalysis
combustion tions
gaseous carbon
used in
of ethanol
the dioxide
in oxygen
the extraction
for water
the locations
vapour as
of aluminum from
gas to produce
of the
smelters, the waste
ore,Haber process facilitated
fertilizers such astoammonium
the production
work contexts of chemical
that interest
describe nitrate and has had a dra-
you, and prepare a report

Unit 2
hydrochloric acid are placed side sulfate Review
by side, a white solid
butanoic acid (d) Answer the
ethanol Question.
ethylbutanoate products. products of the industrial process, and environmental matic impact on (a) cropayields.
company Sinceorthe 19th century,
an industry that does this type of work;
the Achievement Chart. forms on the beakers (Figure 3). The white solid is
3. Write a nuclear equation
of reactions in awhen
for chloride,
each of the NHfollowing
4 (s) , steps
reactor:gas readily combines with hydrogen
is produced
If 30.0 g of butanoic
(e) Based
acid ison the evidence
mixed with 18.0and g ofyour evaluation of the
(b) What is the mass
450.0 g of
ethanol is
in the
of these
whenwaste products.
of a report.
average crop yields
fold for corn and
type ofhave
eight-fold for wheat.
almost five-
(c) the level of education and qualifications needed;
experimental design, evaluate the stoichiometric (c) What is the massFollow of the
water produced
links 450.0 g of 11, Unit 2.from fertilized fields
for Nelson (d) iswhy
a source
this is of water pollution.
a career that you may Also,
be interested in.
(a) Thorium-233 undergoes
chloride gas. beta decay
Write to form
a balanced protac-
equation ethanol, find
for this reac-
Understanding Concepts method. ethanolGOis TO
completely combusted?decomposing molten magnesium
the high using
cost of 21. A solution
chemical fertilizers has driven containing
some 18.6 g of chromium(III) chloride is
(a) the limiting reagent for the reaction;
tinium-233.tion, and calculate the mass of ammonium chloride (d) What is the mass of oxygen required electricity.
to completely farmers into debt.Follow the links
In a brief forevaluate
report, withChemistry
a 15.0-g
the 11, Chapter
costs and 5. produce chromium
of zinc to
(b) Protactinium-233
that will 1.
be formed Calculate
beta the
when 2.00mass
togform of each of the
of ammonia gas reactsfollowing:
(b) the mass of ethylbutanoate formed.
28. For the experiment in question 27, describe a test you GO TO
combust 450.0 g of ethanol?(c) An inexpensive application ofbenefits single replacement
of technology metal. from several per-
in this situation
uranium-233. (a) 34.2 mol
with 2.00 g of hydrogen of baking
chloride gas. soda, NaHCO 3(s)acid can becould
11. Nitric use to determine
manufactured whetherinthe
from ammonia reagent used in
a series (e) Do your answers in (b), (c), and reactions (d) agree withuses the
scrap iron to produce
spectives.copper metal (a) Which reactant is in excess?
(b) 2.17 mol of hydrogen peroxide, of used in solution
reactions called as Ostwald
the was indeed in
process, excess.
developed in 1902 from waste copper(II) sulfate solutions. (b) Determine the excess mass.
4. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the beta decay of law of conservation of mass?
NOTE: Answers to Chapter iodine-131.
5. Complete and balance the followingantacid
a bleach
(c) 6.13 102 mol of magnesium
nuclear equations
by German chemist
below:in an
Discuss some Ostwald.
reasons The
would are
showing that the actual yield in an experiment is
evidence (d) The
16. After copper(II) hydroxide carbonate (malachite) is
emission of sulfur dioxide into the
creates problems across international borders. Sulfur
decomposed, the next step in the production of copper
atmosphere (c) If 5.10 g of chromium
percentage yield?
metal is formed, what is the

(a) less than the theoretical yield dioxide is produced when zinc sulfide is roasted in a 22. Iron(III) phosphate is a hydrated salt. When a sample of
(d) 4.10 103 mol of carbon monoxide
and Unit Review Questions,
by supplying the missing particle: 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) in4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(l)
produced metal is the reaction of copper(II) oxide and carbon to
(b) greater than the theoretical yield produce copper metal and carbon
dioxide. Determine
reaction in a zinc smelter.
the this salt was heated to drive off the water of crystalliza-
(a) 122
53 I 122Xe + ?
54 the combustion of methane 2 NO(g) + O2(g) 2 NO2(g) (e) Burning leaded gasoline added toxic lead com-
(e) 1.19 103 mol of iron mass of carbon required to react with 50.0 kg of tion, the following evidence was obtained:
26Fe ? + 1e
(b) 59 2O(l) 2 HNO
0 3 NO2(g) + HMaking Connections
3(aq) + NO(g) pounds to the environment, which damaged both mass of crucible and lid = 24.80 g
when they are numerical, are (f) 5.99 mol of vitamin D, C56H88O2(s)
2. Calculate the amount in moles of each of the following: 30. Research the training and requirements involved in
becoming an analytical chemist. Include a list of work-
copper(II) oxide.
plants and animals. Leaded gasoline contained
tetraethyl lead, Pb(C2H5)4(l), which undergoes a
mass of crucible, lid, and hydrated salt = 29.93 g
mass of crucible, lid, and anhydrous salt = 28.27 g
(a) 10.5 g of silver in a bracelet complete combustion reaction in a car engine.
presented in Appendix D at 52 Chapter 5 (b) 8.55 g of ethanol, C2H5OH(l)
(c) 6.74 103 g of ammonium nitrate, used in fertil-
places where analytical chemists are employed. If pos-
sible, interview
someone to learn more about this 12. Balance each of the following nuclear
(a) the radioactive decay of thorium-230 with the
equations: 23.
What is the formula of the hydrate of iron(III) phosphate?
Quantities in Chemical Equations 53
When silver jewellery or cutlery is exposed to the air, the
small amount of hydrogen sulfide, H2S(g), in the air reacts
the back of the student text. (d) 50.0 g of hydrogen acetate (acetic acid), HC2H3O2(aq)
(e) 38.9 g of cholesterol, C27H46O(s)
31. Smog is a major
what chemicals(a)
Figure 1
problem in
2 NiS(s)to
+ this
3 O2(g)
large cities.
2 and
(s) + 2 SO2(g)
emission of an alpha particle
(b) lead-214 undergoes decay to produce bismuth-214
and a beta particle
with the silver to produce a layer of silver sulfide, resulting
in a tarnish on the silver. The equation for the reaction is
(f) 1.25 102 g of sodium fluoride, NaF(s), an ingre- chemical reaction (b)equations
2 Al(s) + 3for CuClthe2(aq) 2 AlCl
production and + 3 Cu(s)
Figure 3
3(aq) (c) nitrogen-14 is bombarded by an alpha particle to 4 Ag(s) + 2 H2S(g) + O2(g) 2 Ag2S(s) + 2 H2O(g)
dient in toothpaste to reduce tooth decay ther reactions of (c)two2Hof2O the 2 H2OWhat
2(l)chemicals. (l) + Oare
2(g)the give off a proton and a desired isotope
3. Which of the following samples contains the greatest ecological implications
8. For eachofofthe thepresence
smog? What classify the reaction Figure 4 (a) What mass of silver sulfide is formed from the reac-
might be done and to help solvethethisequation:
problem? In your 13. Determine the molecular formula for nicotine from the
Applying Inquiry number Skills
of atoms? Show your calculations. balance tion of 0.120 g of silver?
answer, consider following evidence:
27. The purpose of(a) this5.00 g of is
exercise goldto test the method of (a)a variety
Na(s) + Cl2(g) (b) What mass of hydrogen sulfide is needed in the
molar mass = 162.24 g/mol
(s) + O2(g) Na2O(s)
(b) 5.0 10 2 mol of gold 32. Chemical industries (b) Na provide many useful and essential same process?
stoichiometry. Complete the Prediction, Experimental percent by mass of carbon = 74.0%
Design, Analysis, (c) and
g of oxygen gas of an investi-
products and (c) Na(s) + H2O(l) H2(g) + NaOH(aq)
processes. The manufacture of sulfuric
percent by mass of hydrogen = 8.7% 24. When concentrated sulfuric acid is added to sucrose,
2 mol of oxygen gas acid in the contact process yields an annual worldwide C
gation report. (d) 5.0 10 (d) AlCl 3(aq) + NaOH (aq) Al(OH) 3(s) + NaCl (aq) percent by mass of nitrogen = 17.3% 12 22O11(s), a dehydration reaction occurs where
(s) + H2SO4(aq) H2(g) + Al2(SO4)3(aq)
4. Rolaids tablets contain a base, sodium dihydroxyalu- production of about (e) Alone trillion tonnes, making it the water and carbon are formed (Figure 2). The equation
Question 14. Consider a quantitative analysis in which a sample
minum carbonate, Na(OH)2AlCO3(s), which is used most
to commonly (f)used
C8H acid in+the
18(l) O 2(g)
world.CO Research
2(g) + H the
2 (g)
for the reaction is
What is the mass of precipitate formed when 3.43 g of reacts with another chemical to produce a precipitate.
neutralize excess acid in the stomach. Calculate themain chemical reactions involved in the contact process
9. For each pair of reactants, classify the reaction type,
barium hydroxide in solution reacts with an excess of (a) Which substance is the limiting reagent? C12H22O11(s) + H2SO4(l) 12 C(s) + 11 H2O(l) + H2SO4(aq)
amount of this ingredient in moles in a tablet of and list some byproducts of processes involving sulfuric
complete the chemical equation, and balance the equa- (b) What is the purpose of using an excess quantity of
sulfuric acid?
Rolaids containing 335 mg of this compound. tion. Also, state the mole ratio for each equation. the second reactant?
5. A car battery contains lead electrodes in sulfuric acid. A (a) Ni(s) + S8(s)
15. (a) How is a graph used in a quantitative analysis?
58 Unit 2 compound formed on the lead plates was analyzed and (b) C6H6(l) + O2(g) Quantities in Chemical Reactions 59
(b) What are some advantages of using a graph?
was found to consist of 68.3% lead, 10.6% sulfur, and (c) K(s) + H2O(l)
21.1% oxygen by mass. What is the empirical formula 16. In all stoichiometry, why is it necessary to always con-
10. Chlorine gas is bubbled into a potassium iodide solu- vert to or convert from amounts in moles?
of this compound? tion and a colour change is observed. Write the bal-
6. Find the percentage composition of each of the fol- anced chemical equation for this reaction and describe 17. What is a percentage yield?
lowing chemicals that are used to produce colours in a diagnostic test for one of the products. (a) List some reasons why the percentage yield of product
ceramic glazes (Figure 1): in a chemical reaction is generally less than 100%.
11. For each of the following reactions, translate the infor-
(a) barium chromate, BaCrO4(s), which produces mation into a balanced chemical equation. Then classify 18. How is chemical science different from chemical tech-
yellow to green colours the main perspectivescientific, technological, ecolog- nology in terms of emphasis and scope?
(b) cobalt(II) carbonate, CoCO3(s), which produces ical, economic, or politicalsuggested by the introduc- 19. In a chemical analysis, 3.00 g of silver nitrate in solution
blue colours tory statement. was reacted with excess sodium chromate to produce
(c) iron(III) chloride hexahydrate, FeCl36H2O(g), (a) Oxyacetylene torches are used to produce high tem- 2.81 g of precipitate. What is the percentage yield?
which produces gold colours peratures for cutting and welding metals such as 20. A solution containing 9.80 g of barium chloride is mixed
7. Write a sentence to describe each of the following bal- steel. This involves burning acetylene, C2H2(g), in with a solution containing 5.10 g of sodium sulfate.
anced chemical equations, including coefficients (in pure oxygen. (a) Which reactant is in excess?
moles) and states of matter. State the mole ratio for the (b) In chemical research conducted in 1808, Sir (b) Determine the excess mass.
complete reaction equation. Humphry Davy produced magnesium metal by (c) Predict the mass of the precipitate. Figure 2

56 Unit 2 Quantities in Chemical Equations 57

The Nelson Chemistry 11 Computerized Assessment Bank includes 1500 questions, each
correlated to a specific expectation(s) in the curriculum and categorized to reflect the
Computerized Achievement Chart categories.
Assessment Bank

Are You Ready? and Unit Performance Task
The Are You Ready? section is a diagnostic pre-test presented at the beginning of each unit. It can be used
by students and teachers to help identify areas where students may have misconceptions about concepts or
skills or have forgotten key learnings from earlier grades. In this feature, students are asked questions,
usually in a visual format, about prerequisite concepts or skills (including math and lab safety) for each unit.

(b) lead(II) nitrate + potassium iodide lead(II) iodide + potassium nitrate
Are You Ready?
(c) calcium + water calcium hydroxide + hydrogen gas
(d) hydrogen sulfide hydrogen + sulfur

Knowledge/Understanding Inquiry and Communication

1. Figure 1 shows the model of an atom. Identify the element represented by 6. Complete the information in Figure 2.
the model.
(a) When a glowing (b) When this gas is bubbled
splint is placed in into limewater, the lime-
this gas, the splint water solutution turns milky.
Quantities in bursts into flame.
What is this gas?
When a flaming splint is
held in this gas, the flame
is extinguished. What is
Chemical neutron
this gas?

Reactions proton

(c) When a flaming splint is (d) When cobalt chloride

held at the mouth of a test paper is placed
test tube of this gas, a in this gas, the test
Figure 1
pop, or small explo- paper changes from cobalt
The Bohr-Rutherford model of an atom (not to scale)
sion, is produced. What blue to pink. This chloride
is this gas ? gas is? paper
2. Complete Table 1 with the correct number of protons, neutrons, or the iso-
tope indicated.
cold plate

Table 1
Isotope Number of Number of
protons neutrons Figure 2
13C ? ?
? 92 146 Mathematical Skills
3H ? 2 8. Complete the following calculations using the correct number of signifi-
cant figures and units:
(a) Given x/y = 3/2, find y when x = 5.12.
3. Give an example of each of the (b) There are 460 girls and 523 boys at a school; calculate the percentage
following entities: of girls at the school.
Table 2
an atom 5.12 1015 g
(c)  = ?
an ion IUPAC name Chemical formula 8.336 mL
a molecule barium chloride ? 1.000 m
(d)  =?
an ionic compound sodium hydroxide ? 2.43 1017 s
Table 3
4. In Table 2 fill in the correct diphosphorus pentoxide ? 9. (a) Graph the data in Table 3, plotting the volume values on the x-axis and
International Union of Pure and copper(II) sulfate ? the mass values on the y-axis, and draw a line of best fit. Include a title mass (g) volume (mL)
Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) ? SiCl4 for the graph and labelled axes. 1.0 2.9
name or formula, as required. ? Fe2O3 (b) The measurements were made to determine the identity of an 2.3 6.9
5. For each of the following, write ? PbBr2 unknown element. Based on this evidence, which element could it be? 3.5 10.6
the correct skeleton equation and ? CO 5.2 15.4
then balance it to form a chemical 7.4 22.4
(a) copper(II) oxide + hydrogen copper + water

4 Unit 2 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 5

Unit 2 Performance Task Assessment

Your completed task will be
assessed according to the fol-

Is That Your Final Answer? (d) When you are satisfied with your design, write a complete Procedure.
Describe any safety precautions needed and include a step to appropriately
lowing criteria:

Unit Performance Task
dispose of materials.
The active ingredient in baking soda is sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3(s).
Upon heating, this ingredient releases bubbles of a gas that give baked goods a
Your design and procedure must be approved by your teacher.
Develop predictions.
Develop an appropriate experi-
Each unit ends with
light, spongy consistency (Figure 1). Your task is to use your knowledge and skills mental design.
of quantitative analysis to identify the decomposition reaction of sodium
hydrogen carbonate from five possibilities. In each of the possible reactions listed
sodium hydrogen carbonate, 3.0 g
Choose and safely use appro-
priate equipment and materials.
a performance task
(e) Complete the Materials list. The equipment you select should be com-
below, one or more gases are produced and a solid remains:
1. sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium (solid), water vapour, carbon
monly available. You are required to measure mass to 0.01 g
Carry out the approved investi-
Record observations with
that can be used
monoxide gas, oxygen gas Procedure
2. sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium carbonate (solid), water vapour,
carbon dioxide gas
1. Carry out your Procedure, taking care to record your observations in cor-
appropriate precision.
Analyze the results.
for evaluating a
rect SI units. Evaluate the experimental

Figure 1
3. sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium hydroxide (solid), carbon dioxide
gas Analysis
design and experimental error. significant chunk
4. sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4(s), water vapour,
Tiny bubbles are formed in the process of
baking, making the dough rise. oxygen gas
(f) Analyze the evidence you obtained and compare it with your mass predic-
tions. Identify the correct decomposition reaction. Include your reasoning.
Prepare a suitable lab report,
including appropriate tables for
of the achievement
5. sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium oxide (solid), water vapour, carbon
dioxide gas Evaluation
(g) Using the reaction you identified, calculate the percentage yield of the solid
Demonstrate an understanding
of the relevant concepts, princi-
product, and suggest reasons why the actual yield may be different from
the theoretical yield in this experiment.
ples, laws, and theories.
Use terms, symbols, equations, addressed in the
and SI metric units correctly.
Quantitative Analysis of a Chemical Reaction Synthesis
(h) From your knowledge of the properties of the two oxides of carbon, which
unit. It can be a
You will quantitatively analyze the decomposition of sodium hydrogen car-
bonate and then identify the chemical reaction that has taken place from the five
reactions given above. In order to do so, you will design and perform an experi-
of the five possible reactions is not likely a chemical reaction designed for
use in the home? Explain.
(i) Describe other evidence or diagnostic tests that may be performed on the
ment to determine the mass of solid product formed when a known mass of
sodium hydrogen carbonate is completely decomposed by heating.
Write a detailed report to communicate the Prediction, Experimental Design,
products of the reaction to rule out one or more of the reactions under
consideration. investigation; a
(j) It is often recommended that we keep a box of baking soda on hand in the
Materials, Procedure, Evidence, Analysis, and Evaluation of your investigation. kitchen for extinguishing small grease fires. Relate this application to the
properties of the products formed in the reaction you identified.
Which of the five reactions is correct?
(k) Sodium hydrogen carbonate is a weak base that reacts with acids to pro-
duce carbon dioxide gas, water, and a salt. It is used in cooking recipes
where an acidic ingredient is present, and in common household products
activity; or a case
(a) Balance each of the five reaction equations.
such as toothpaste, antacid tablets, and cleaners. Evaluate the importance
of accurate chemical quantities and calculations in each of these applica- study presenting a
(b) Use stoichiometric calculations to predict the mass of solid product tions.
formed in each of the five reactions from the known mass of sodium
hydrogen carbonate used.
real-world process
Experimental Design or system with STSE
(c) Design an experiment that will allow you to answer the Question. Outline
the variables you will measure and any controls you will need. Include
sample observation tables.

54 Unit 2 Quantities in Chemical Reactions 55

Clear Criteria
Assessment criteria are clearly indicated so that teachers and
students know what is expected in each assessment task.

Assessment Tools and Manageable Strategies
Assessment Planner for Science

2000 Nelson Thomson Learning

Teacher: Grade: Term:
Assessment Tasks* Selected from Unit Map Summary of Achievement Evidence

The Assessment Planner is a manageable tool Knowledge/Understanding D/F/S IND/GRP Evaluation Components Weighting
Low High
1 2 3 4 5

for teachers to use for planning the unit to

ensure students have an opportunity to
give evidence of learning for each category Strand:
Inquiry D/F/S IND/GRP

of the Achievement Levels Chart. The Topic:

Overall Expectations:

teacher can identify which learning

experiences are to be used for diagnostic,

Communication D/F/S IND/GRP

formative, and summative assessment

purposes, which assists in identifying the

tasks that will be used for reporting.

Making Connections D/F/S IND/GRP

Assessment Tools AT-3

*some tasks may appear in more than
one box

7.5 Quantitative Analysis

Each Teachers Resource lesson begins with a chart that lists the
specific expectations being developed in the lesson. The evidence
of student learning and assessment tools used are referenced here.

The Nelson Chemistry 11

Teachers Resource
includes a variety of
assessment tools for
diagnostic, formative, and
summative evaluation
including rubrics, tracking
sheets, and self-
assessment checklists.