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- About optics project

- Troubleshooting example with Optics

- What affects fiber optics and how to handle
- How EDFA and Raman amplifier works and what is the difference
- Example that your recommendation improved DWDM network
- Why applied to this
- About optical planning tool (EPT). How you used/how this work?
- About Huawei OSN 7500/6800/3500 (how you feel about 3 different optical vendors)
- How Raman amplifier work? How splicing impact Raman amplifier?
- working with optic fiber cable specifications (both external and internal fiber cabling).
- Biggest achievements
- Review Linux Commands
- TL1 commands

SNMP, TL1 or XML-based management protocols

TL1 (Transaction Language 1):

- TL1 is a widely-used management protocol in telecommunications. It is a cross-vendor,

cross-technology man-machine language.
- Copy some of the TL1 command from Shaw Fuji notes
DFA (Distributed Fiber Amplifier)/RAMAN Amplifier and Importance of Fiber

- With Raman amplification, pump energy propagates along the fiber and causes signal
amplification with stimulated Raman scattering. Since amplification occurs along the
transmission line/fiber, the signal power is prevented from reaching very low levels, thus
improving the Optical Signal to Noise Ratio (OSNR).

- As Raman amplification occurs on the transmission line, the quality of fiber has significant
effect on the Raman amplifier gain:

Performance of first 20 km of fiber from the Raman amplifier are very critical for Raman
amplification. Loss (due to connector/splices/fiber bend) should be minimum within 20-30
km of fiber close to the Raman amplifier. A loss of 0.5dB in the fiber can reduce the gain of
Raman amplifier by 1.5 dB or more. Thumb rule: the total loss between the Raman amplifier
and the outside cable plant should not exceed 0.5 dB.

Back reflection along the transmission line should be taken into count: high back-reflection
is often associated with loss. If there is high back-reflection, then part of the pump energy
propagating along the line will be back-reflected. A high level of back reflection can degrade
the performance of the laser diode and decrease the available pump power. As a thumb rule,
the total back-reflection from the line should not exceed a level of -25 dB, and should
preferably be in the region of -30dB.

To reduce loss on Raman transmission line:

number of connectors/splices close to the Raman amplifier should be minimized
while possible splices should be used instead of connector (loss due to splice is lower
than connector)
all splices and connectors along the path should be ensured with minimum loss
care should be taken to reduce bend loss and stress on the cable plant.

OTDR is useful to identify the unexpected loss on fiber and scope of correction.

Ways to Improve OSNR/Q-Factor:

- Decreasing span loss
- Increasing per-channel power
- Decreasing NF (Noise Factor)

NF (Noise Factor):
Co-relation between BER and OSNR: With formula, we can calculate the accepted BER for a
given OSNR:
Log (BER) = 10.7 (1.45*OSNR)

Example: OSNR = 14.5 dB then BER ?

Log10 (BER) = 10.7 - (1.45*14.5) = -10.30

Therefore, BER = 10^(-10.30)


- Optical amplifier amplify signal within optical domain (without O-E-O conversion).

- Amplifier can compensate attenuation but cant compensate dispersion (CD/PMD).

- Amplifier introduce noise and each amplifier reduce the OSNR with certain amount. So,
there is a limit on the use of maximum number of amplifiers along a path.

- Why OSNR is reduced by Amplifier: while amplifier amplifying optical signal, amplifier
introduce noise and thus OSNR is reduced.

- Raman amplifier can be used as a standalone amplifier or as a distributed fiber amplifier

in conjunction with an EDFA.

- OSNR: define the quality of optical signal at the receiver end. ONSR value will be different
at different points of the network (as OSNR will decrease as signal is amplified by the
amplifier along the optical span).

Thumb Rule: OSNR value should be at least +15dB to +18 dB at the receiver ends for a
reliable link performance.