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Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Galindo Katherine. Air Quality.

Air quality in the food court of the Military

Galindo, Katherine.
Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

Abstract In the terms of damage caused to the
environment, air pollution can be easily II. LITERATURE SURVEY
characterized as the main culprit. In to the
Universidad Militar the main sources of air
A. About MQ135 Sensor
pollution is food court. Therefore, this paper aims at
using semi-conductor sensor for detecting the
MQ135 Semiconductor Sensor for Air Quality
pollutant smoke at the emission outlets which Control
detects the level of pollutants in the food court.
Specifically in this paper, smoke sensor MQ135 is Sensitive material of MQ135 gas sensor is SnO2,
used. This sensor MQ135 is connected to an which with lower conductivity in clean air. When
Arduino that converts the information supplied by the target combustible gas exist, The sensors
the sensor and determines that degree of conductivity is more higher along with the gas
contamination has the air of the place. concentration rising. Please use simple electro
circuit, Convert change of conductivity to
Keywords Smoke sensor MQI35, Arduino, CO2, Air correspond output signal of gas concentration.
Quality. MQ135 gas sensor has high sensitity to Ammonia,
Sulfide and Benze steam, also sensitive to smoke
I. INTRODUCTION and other harmful gases. It is with low cost and
suitable for different application.
The study was conducted at the premises of the
Universidad Militar Nueva Granada specifically in Character Configuration
the food court, was performed in order to determine * Good sensitivity to Harmful gases in wide range
how much smoke is recorded during the day and if * High sensitivity to Ammonia, Sulfide and Benze.
they can be harmful to people transiting the place. * Long life and low cost
To conduct the study, a MQ135 sensor that * Simple drive circuit
measures air quality from place was implemented.
Section 1 is defined and the Arduino program that * Domestic air pollution detector
was used, the characteristics of the sensor are * Industrial air pollution detector
described conceptualized. * Portable air pollution detector
Section 2 presents the proposed system.
Section 3 the results obtained in the course of two
weeks are shown, data and graphs generated by the
sensor are evident.
Section 4 the conclutions are evident and made a

Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Galindo Katherine. Air Quality. 2


Influence of Temperature/Humidity

Figure - 1

Sensitivity Characteristics Graph - 2

Shows the typical temperature and humidity

characteristics. Ordinate means resistance ratio of
the sensor (Rs/Ro), Rs means resistance of sensor in
100ppm Ammonia under different tem and
humidity. Ro means resistance of the sensor in
environment of 100ppm Ammonia, 20/65%RH.

Following conditions must be avoided

1. Water Condensation Indoor conditions, slight

water condensation will effect sensors performance
lightly. However, if water condensation on sensors
Graph -1 surface and keep a certain period, sensor sensitivity
will be decreased.
Shows the typical sensitivity characteristics the 2. Used in high gas concentration No matter the
MQ135, ordinate means resistance ratio of the sensor is electrified or not, if long time placed in
sensor (Rs/Ro), abscissa is concentration of gases. high gas concentration, if will affect sensors
Rs means resistance in different gases, Ro means characteristic.
resistance of sensor in 100ppm Ammonia. All test 3. Long time storage The sensors resistance produce
are under standard test conditions. reversible drift if its stored for long time without
electrify, this drift is related with storage conditions.
Sensors should be stored in airproof without silicon
gel bag with clean air. For the sensors with long
time storage but no electrify, they need long aging
time for stbility before using.
4. Long time exposed to adverse environment No
matter the sensors electrified or not, if exposed to
adverse environment for long time, such as high

Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Galindo Katherine. Air Quality. 3

humidity, high temperature, or high pollution etc, it programming. As soon as it reached a wider
will effect the sensors performance badly. community, the Arduino board started changing to
5. Vibration Continual vibration will result in adapt to new needs and challenges, differentiating
sensors down-lead response then repture. In its offer from simple 8-bit boards to products
transportation or assembling line, pneumatic for applications, wearable, 3D printing, and
screwdriver/ultrasonic welding machine can lead embedded environments. All Arduino boards are
this vibration. completely open-source, empowering users to build
6. Concussion if sensors meet strong concussion, it them independently and eventually adapt them to
may lead its lead wire disconnected. their particular needs. The software, too, is open-
7. Usage For sensor, handmade welding is optimal source, and it is growing through the contributions
way. If use wave crest welding should meet the of users worldwide.
following conditions:
7.1 Soldering flux: Rosin soldering flux contains
least chlorine III. PROPOSED SYSTEM
7.2 Speed: 1-2 Meter/ Minute
7.3 Warm-up temperature10020
7.4 Welding temperature25010 2.7.5 1 time
pass wave crest welding machine If disobey the
above using terms, sensors sensitivity will be

B. About Arduino

Arduino is an open-source electronics platform

based on easy-to-use hardware and
software. Arduino boards are able to read inputs -
light on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter
message - and turn it into an output - activating a A. Sensor
motor, turning on an LED, publishing something
online. You can tell your board what to do by
sending a set of instructions to the microcontroller
on the board. To do so you use the Arduino
programming language (based on Wiring), and the
Arduino Software (IDE), based on Processing.

Over the years Arduino has been the brain of

thousands of projects, from everyday objects to
complex scientific instruments. A worldwide The sensor senses the amount of emission from the
community of makers - students, hobbyists, artists, kitchen and feeds the data to the microcontroller at
programmers, and professionals - has gathered regular intervals of time. The analog electrical
around this open-source platform, their signal is then converted into a digital signal using
contributions have added up to an incredible an in-built ADC, so that, it can be compared with
amount of accessible knowledge that can be of great
the predefined values, in the microcontroller
help to novices and experts alike.
MQ135 sensors are used in air quality control
equipments and are suitable for detecting of CO,
Arduino was born at the Ivrea Interaction Design NH3, NOx, alcohol, Benzene, smoke, etc. The
Institute as an easy tool for fast prototyping, aimed reason why MQ135 is used in a factory
at students without a background in electronics and

Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Galindo Katherine. Air Quality. 4

environment is because of its wide detecting scope,

fast response, high sensitivity, stable and long life.

B. Microcontroller
The sensor provided the next results:

Hora Sensor
1:20 p. m. 480
1:30 p. m. 460
1:40 p. m. 468
1:50 p. m. 461
2:00 p. m. 405
In this paper, Arduino Micro is used,
2:10 p. m. 353
Microcontroller: ATmega32u4
Operating voltage: 5 V 2:20 p. m. 333
Pines digital I / O: 20 2:30 p. m. 324
PWM channels 7 2:40 p. m. 296
Analog input pins 12 2:50 p. m. 287
DC current for every pin I / O: 40 mA 3:00 p. m. 275
DC current at 3.3 V pin: 50mA 3:10 p. m. 254
Flash Memory: 32KB (ATmega32u4) of which 4 3:20 p. m. 269
KB are used by the bootloader 3:30 p. m. 269
SRAM: 2.5 KB (ATmega32u4) 3:40 p. m. 233
EEPROM: 1KB (ATmega32u4) 3:50 p. m. 237
Clock Speed: 16 MHz 4:00 p. m. 250
4:10 p. m. 256
C. GSM module Table 1- Measuring.
A GSM module assembles a GSM modem with
standard communication interfaces like RS-232
(Serial Port), USB etc., so that it can be easily
interfaced with a computer or a microprocessor/
microcontroller based system. The GSM Module is
initiated by the microcontroller to inform the
factory control room that the process/machinery
have been shut down and corrective action has to be

Graph - 3

The proposed design was performed to measure air

quality in the food court of the university, which
measures the amount of smoke on site.

Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Galindo Katherine. Air Quality. 5

[3] Green, M. 1966. An air pollution index based on

The results show that large concentration smoke sulphur dioxide and smoke shade. J. Air Pollut.
occur between 11:40 am and 1:50 pm. It is evident Control Assoc.11
that in the morning and evening air quality is [4] GVAQI.2013. Greater Vancouver Regional District air
breathable and is not harmful to the people quality and source control department, Burnaby, B.C.,


This whole paper mainly focuses on two major

aspects. Firstly, the concept of detecting the level of
smoke and indicating it to the food court. There is
an increase in the level of Pollution over the lunch
hour, leading to several ventilation problems. There
will be a number of restaurants that may not take
smoke from their food court for example the fruit
So, this system will be highly beneficial is
curbing this problem. Secondly, this system will be
one of the greatest improvements. It will be one of
the improvements that the university will have to
implement in search of quality. Since it can often be
uncomfortable for people.

This study sought to analyze the amounts of

contaminated air for days, and it was determined
that smoke occurs when more is at lunch time
sensor measurements had great during those hours.
What is recommended is the example's
implementation of adequate ventilation for the


[1] Peter Osei Boamah,Jacqueline Onumah, Air

pollution control techniques, Global journal on
bio-science and biotechnology, Volume1 (2)
[2] George F. Fine, Leon M. Cavanagh, Ayo Afonja
and Russell Binions, Metal Oxide Semi-
Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental
Monitoring, State-of-the-Art Sensors
Technology in the UK, June 2010.