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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Problem I
Reflection and refraction of light
A. An interesting prism
The main section of a glass prism, situated in air n' 1.00 , has the form of a rhomb with
. A thin yellow beam of monochromatic light, propagating towards the
prism, parallel with the diagonal AC of the rhomb, is incident on the face AB (Fig. 1). The
beam is totally reflected on the faces AD and DC, then emerges through its face BC. For the
yellow radiation, the refraction index of the glass is n 1.60 .

Fig. 1

Derive the mathematical expression for the angle as a function of the


refraction index n of the prism, such that the total deviation of the beam that
A1 2.25 p
exits the prism to be zero. Under the above condition, calculate the
numerical value of in degrees and minutes, if n 1.60 .
Solution:
The total deviation is zero only if IR || SI. This means that i' i and r ' r (symmetrical path
inside of the rhombic prism). Therefore JJ ' || AC || SI || IR..........................................(0.25 p)

From the figure below, and .


In the : / 2 r / 2 , so that r / 2 3 / 2 ...........(0.25 p)

On the other hand, i / 2 / 2 (0,25 p)

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

The refraction law (Snell-Descartes) is sin( / 2 / 2) n sin( / 2 3 / 2) , or


cos( / 2) n cos(3 / 2). .......(0,50 p)
Since
cos(3 / 2) cos( / 2) cos cos( / 2) sin sin( / 2)
[2 cos2 ( / 2) 1] cos( / 2) 2 sin 2 ( / 2) cos( / 2) ... 4 cos3 ( / 2) 3 cos( / 2).
the refraction law becomes cos( / 2)1 n[4 cos2 ( / 2) 3] 0 . The solution = (i.e. 180)
cannot be accepted as unphysical, so, the physical solution is
3n 1
cos( / 2) 0.952 , ...(0.75p)
4n
i.e., = 3540..(0.25 p)
The prism with determined above and the direction of the incident beam remain fixed, but
the nature of the light radiation changes, being formed now of the yellow doublet of the
mercury. The two wavelengths have the values 579.1 nm, respectively 577 nm. The refraction
indices of the glass for these wavelengths are n 1.60 , respectively n n , where
n 1.3 10 4 . The light rays that exit the prism enter longitudinally into an astronomical
telescope adjusted for infinite distance.
Derive the mathematical expression for the angular distance between
A2 the two images seen through the telescope (first as a function of and n , 2.00 p
then as a function of n and n ) and calculate its numerical value.
Solution:
We have a fixed angle of incidence (i = constant) and two angles of refraction r and r - dr,
corresponding to n and n + dn. From sin i= n sin r we can write 0 = dn sinr + n cosr dr.
On the other hand, from sin i = n sin r, we can write cos idi = dn sin r + n cos rdr.
Because dn (or n , as in the text of the question) is a very small (infinitesimal) quantity, we
can approximate i= i and r= r, but with di' di (= 0) and dr' dr ( 0 ). (0.50 p)
We will demonstrate later (see Note below) that dr= - dr.
Now, let us determine the angle between the two emergent rays of light, namely di' ,
obtaining
sin r cos r dn
dn n (dr ) with dr tgr .
cos i cos i n
The final result is

cos 3 2
dn 2 dn. .....(0,50 p)
sin r
2
cosi sin
2
We know the mathematical expression of cos (/2) and, after a little algebra, can be
expressed in another form, namely
dn 3n 1
2 .....(0,50 p)
n n 1

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Numerically: 5.1 104 rad (or 1.7).(0.25 p)


Note: In the triangle JDJ we write that the sum of inner angles is (radians), namely (/2-)
+ (-) + (/2-) = , i.e. +=- = constant (for a given rhombic prism, with fixed ).
Therefore d = -d, where = + r (see the triangle AIJ) and = + r (see the triangle
CIJ). Since is fixed (our situation) d = dr and d = dr so that dr =-dr..................(0.25 p)
If the focal distance of the telescopes objective is f ob 0.40 m , derive the
A3 linear distance y between the two images, seen in the focal plane of the 0.50 p
objective and calculate its numerical value.
Solution:
dn 3n 1
y f obtg f ob 2( ) f ob . Numerically: y = 0.20 mm......(0.50 p)
n n 1
B. Refraction, butmostly reflection
B1. Total reflection in geometrical optics
Total reflection occurs when light travels from a medium with refractive index n1 to another
one, with the refractive index n2 n1 , at an incidence angle 1 l , where l is the critical
value of the incidence angle, called limit angle, beyond which there will be no refracted light.
At total reflection, the entire energy of the incident light beam goes to the reflected beam.
B1 Derive the mathematical expression for the limit angle 0.25 p
Solution:
When the incidence angle 1 reaches the limit angle l , the refraction angle will be 2 90 .
In this case, the second Snells refraction law gives
n1 sin l n2 ,
so
n2
l arcsin .
n1

B2. Total reflection in electromagnetic optics


Electromagnetic optics proves that, besides being totally reflected, the incident light beam
also penetrates the less refringent medium as an evanescent wave.
The characteristics of the reflected and the refracted light beams depend on the angle of
incidence, as well as on the orientation of the electric field of light wave (called polarization).
For simplicity, let us consider that the electric field intensity is perpendicular on the incidence
plane, as represented in Fig. 2. The indices i, r, and t refer to the incident, reflected and

transmitted properties of light wave, while k is the wave vector, giving the light propagation
orientation. Moreover, x , y and z are the unit vectors of the chosen Cartesian reference
frame.

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Physical note: The perturbation produced by a plane, monochromatic wave in a point in





space at a certain moment of time can be written as E r , t E0 cos t k r , or, to simplify

calculations, in the complex form e r , t E0 e i t k r , where i 1 , and then taking only

the real part of the result.

Fig. 2
Mathematical note: For the complex number z a ib , a is the real part and b is the imaginary


2 2 a b i
part. It can be written as z a b i ze , where z is the
z a 2
b 2
a 2
b 2

cos sin
modulus of the complex number z and tan b / a .

B2.1. Evanescent wave


Knowing that the incident wave is a plane and monochromatic one,

characterized by the equation ei r , t E0 i e i t k r , prove that the
i


mathematical expression for the evanescent wave is et r , t E0t e z e i
B2.1 1.50 p
and derive the exact expression for the attenuation coefficient as a
function of the incidence angle 1, the limit angle l, and the wavelength of
the incident wave. Also, derive the exact expression for the phase of the
evanescent wave.
Solution:
For the transmitted wave
i t k r
et r , t E0t e t ,
where

kt r y kt sin 2 zk t cos 2 y y zz k t y sin 2 z cos 2 .
Since
n1 sin1 n2 sin 2 ,

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

then
n2 n2
cos 2 1 sin 2 2 1 1 sin 2 1 i 1 sin 2 1 1 ,
n22 n22
because 1 l .
Under these conditions the electric field of the transmitted wave can be written as
n12
kt z sin 2 1 1 i t k y n1 sin
n 22 t 1
et r , t E0t e e .
n2

The + sign in the first exponential has no physical significance because there is no wave at
appreciable distances from the interface. In conclusion, the electric field of the transmitted
(evanescent) wave has the form

et r , t E0t e z e i ,
where
n12
kt sin 2 1 1
n22
is the attenuation coefficient of the evanescent wave
and
n
t k t y 1 sin 1
n2
is the waves phase.
This result shows that the wave travels along the interface (along y direction) and that it is
attenuated in the z direction (perpendicular on the interface).
Because
c
v1 n n
kt ki 1 ki 2 ,
v2 v1 v2 c n1
n2
then
n22 2 n 2 2
ki sin 2 1 sin 2 1 2 sin 2 1 sin 2 l .
n12 n12

B2.2. Penetration depth


Derive the mathematical expression of the distance z from the interface at
which the amplitude of the evanescent wave is e times smaller than at the
B2.2 interface, as a function of the incident wavelength and calculate its 0.50 p
numerical value. The first medium is glass n1 1.6 , the second is air
n2 1.0 , and the incidence angle of light is 1 40 .

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Solution:
1
z 1.1 .

B2.3. The phase speed of the evanescent wave
v
Derive the mathematical expression for the ratio e , where v e is the phase
v1
B2.3 speed of the evanescent wave and v1 - the phase speed of the incident wave, 0.75 p
and compute its numerical value for the case of the incidence angle of light
of 1 40 .

Solution:
Considering the phase of the evanescent wave,

n1
t k t y sin 1
n2

its phase speed is

v1
ve ,
n ki sin1 sin1
kt 1 sin1
n2

so, the requested ratio is

ve 1
1.6 .
v1 sin 1

B2.4. The energy transferred from the incident wave to the totally reflected wave
For any value of the incidence angle, the relationship between the amplitude of field of the
reflected wave and that of the incident wave was derived by the French physicist Augustin
Fresnel (1788 1829):
n cos1 n2 cos 2
E0r 1 E0i .
n1 cos1 n2 cos 2
Physical note: If the perturbation produced by a wave in a point in space at a given moment
is expressed using complex numbers, then the wave intensity has the mathematical
1 1 2
expression I 0 cE 0* E 0 0 c E 0 , where E0* a ib is the complex conjugate of the
2 2
complex number E0 a ib . Here 0 is the vacuum permittivity and c is the speed of light
in vacuum.
Prove that the totally reflected wave has the same intensity as the incident
B2.4 0.50 p
wave.

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Solution:
Since

n12 n12 n
n2 cos 2 n2 1 sin 2 n2 1
2
sin 1 in2
2
sin 2 1 1 i 1 ,
n22 n22 ki

then

n
n1 cos1 i 1 cos1 i
ki ki
E0r E0i E .
n1 0i
n1 cos1 i cos1 i
ki ki

For any complex number of the same form we can write

a ib a 2 b 2 e i0
e 2i0 ,
a ib a b e
2 2 i 0

where

b
tan 0 .
a

In conclusion

E0r e 2i0 E0i ,

where

1
tan 0 sin 2 1 sin 2 l .
k i cos1 cos1

Under these conditions, the intensity of the totally reflected wave will be

1 2 1 2
Ir 0 c E 0 r 0 c E 0i I i .
2 2

B2.5. The Goos Hnchen effect


When an incident wave beam with a finite cross section undergoes total reflection at an
interface between two media, the totally reflected wave beam is laterally displaced, on a
distance D (see Fig. 3), that was measured for the first time by Goos and Hnchen in 1947. In
Fig. 3, the displacement along the surface is s, and the Goos Hnchen shift is the lateral shift
D indicated in the diagram. This is the Goos Hnchen effect. The explanation of this lateral
shift is based on the appearance of the evanescent wave at the interface and its propagation
parallel to the interface.

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Fig. 3
B2.5.1. The lateral shift
Derive the mathematical expression for the Goos Hnchen lateral shift D,
admitting that the phase difference between the totally reflected wave and
the incident one is zero at the interface. Consequently, compute the
B2.5.1 numerical value of the displacement s along the interface as a function of 1.00 p
the wavelength of the incident light, if the first medium is glass
n1 1.6, the second is air n2 1.0 , and the incidence angle of light is
1 40 .
Solution:
From Fig. 3, it follows that

D s cos1 .

If in the incidence point for the incident wave, on the interface, the phase of its electric field is
i , then, at the starting point, for the totally reflected wave its phase is

r i kiy s 20 .

With r i , and knowing that

k iy k i sin 1 .

we obtain

sin 2 sin 2 l
2 1
s tan 1 1
.
k i sin 1 sin 1 cos1

Finally,

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

sin 2 sin 2 l
1 1
tan
cos1
.
D
tan 1

The numerical value of s is s 5.5 .

B2.5.2. Time needed for the total reflection


An alternative explanation of the Goos Hnchen shift can be given in terms of the time
delay associated with the scattering of a radiation pulse at the interface. The incident radiation
pulse is not scattered instantaneously by the surface, but reemerges into medium 1 after a time
delay , during which the pulse propagates parallel to the surface and is displaced by the
distance s.
Derive the mathematical expression for the time delay and calculate its
value if the first medium is glass n1 1.6 , the second is air n2 1.0 ,
B2.5.2. the incidence angle of light is 1 40 , and the monochromatic radiation

0.75 p
has the wavelength 579.1 nm . The light speed in vacuum is
c 3.0 108 m/s .
Solution:
2
n 1 sin 1 sin l
2
s s sn1 1
1 tan 2.6 1014 s.
v1 y v1 sin1 c sin1 c sin 1
2 cos1

proposed by
Prof. Florea ULIU, PhD
Department of Physics, University of Craiova, ROMANIA
Assoc. Prof. Sebastian POPESCU, PhD
Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, ROMANIA

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