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RMPh2017Q1ENGsolution

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Physics Solution

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Physics Solution

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Problem I

Reflection and refraction of light

A. An interesting prism

The main section of a glass prism, situated in air n' 1.00 , has the form of a rhomb with

. A thin yellow beam of monochromatic light, propagating towards the

prism, parallel with the diagonal AC of the rhomb, is incident on the face AB (Fig. 1). The

beam is totally reflected on the faces AD and DC, then emerges through its face BC. For the

yellow radiation, the refraction index of the glass is n 1.60 .

Fig. 1

refraction index n of the prism, such that the total deviation of the beam that

A1 2.25 p

exits the prism to be zero. Under the above condition, calculate the

numerical value of in degrees and minutes, if n 1.60 .

Solution:

The total deviation is zero only if IR || SI. This means that i' i and r ' r (symmetrical path

inside of the rhombic prism). Therefore JJ ' || AC || SI || IR..........................................(0.25 p)

In the : / 2 r / 2 , so that r / 2 3 / 2 ...........(0.25 p)

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

cos( / 2) n cos(3 / 2). .......(0,50 p)

Since

cos(3 / 2) cos( / 2) cos cos( / 2) sin sin( / 2)

[2 cos2 ( / 2) 1] cos( / 2) 2 sin 2 ( / 2) cos( / 2) ... 4 cos3 ( / 2) 3 cos( / 2).

the refraction law becomes cos( / 2)1 n[4 cos2 ( / 2) 3] 0 . The solution = (i.e. 180)

cannot be accepted as unphysical, so, the physical solution is

3n 1

cos( / 2) 0.952 , ...(0.75p)

4n

i.e., = 3540..(0.25 p)

The prism with determined above and the direction of the incident beam remain fixed, but

the nature of the light radiation changes, being formed now of the yellow doublet of the

mercury. The two wavelengths have the values 579.1 nm, respectively 577 nm. The refraction

indices of the glass for these wavelengths are n 1.60 , respectively n n , where

n 1.3 10 4 . The light rays that exit the prism enter longitudinally into an astronomical

telescope adjusted for infinite distance.

Derive the mathematical expression for the angular distance between

A2 the two images seen through the telescope (first as a function of and n , 2.00 p

then as a function of n and n ) and calculate its numerical value.

Solution:

We have a fixed angle of incidence (i = constant) and two angles of refraction r and r - dr,

corresponding to n and n + dn. From sin i= n sin r we can write 0 = dn sinr + n cosr dr.

On the other hand, from sin i = n sin r, we can write cos idi = dn sin r + n cos rdr.

Because dn (or n , as in the text of the question) is a very small (infinitesimal) quantity, we

can approximate i= i and r= r, but with di' di (= 0) and dr' dr ( 0 ). (0.50 p)

We will demonstrate later (see Note below) that dr= - dr.

Now, let us determine the angle between the two emergent rays of light, namely di' ,

obtaining

sin r cos r dn

dn n (dr ) with dr tgr .

cos i cos i n

The final result is

cos 3 2

dn 2 dn. .....(0,50 p)

sin r

2

cosi sin

2

We know the mathematical expression of cos (/2) and, after a little algebra, can be

expressed in another form, namely

dn 3n 1

2 .....(0,50 p)

n n 1

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Note: In the triangle JDJ we write that the sum of inner angles is (radians), namely (/2-)

+ (-) + (/2-) = , i.e. +=- = constant (for a given rhombic prism, with fixed ).

Therefore d = -d, where = + r (see the triangle AIJ) and = + r (see the triangle

CIJ). Since is fixed (our situation) d = dr and d = dr so that dr =-dr..................(0.25 p)

If the focal distance of the telescopes objective is f ob 0.40 m , derive the

A3 linear distance y between the two images, seen in the focal plane of the 0.50 p

objective and calculate its numerical value.

Solution:

dn 3n 1

y f obtg f ob 2( ) f ob . Numerically: y = 0.20 mm......(0.50 p)

n n 1

B. Refraction, butmostly reflection

B1. Total reflection in geometrical optics

Total reflection occurs when light travels from a medium with refractive index n1 to another

one, with the refractive index n2 n1 , at an incidence angle 1 l , where l is the critical

value of the incidence angle, called limit angle, beyond which there will be no refracted light.

At total reflection, the entire energy of the incident light beam goes to the reflected beam.

B1 Derive the mathematical expression for the limit angle 0.25 p

Solution:

When the incidence angle 1 reaches the limit angle l , the refraction angle will be 2 90 .

In this case, the second Snells refraction law gives

n1 sin l n2 ,

so

n2

l arcsin .

n1

Electromagnetic optics proves that, besides being totally reflected, the incident light beam

also penetrates the less refringent medium as an evanescent wave.

The characteristics of the reflected and the refracted light beams depend on the angle of

incidence, as well as on the orientation of the electric field of light wave (called polarization).

For simplicity, let us consider that the electric field intensity is perpendicular on the incidence

plane, as represented in Fig. 2. The indices i, r, and t refer to the incident, reflected and

transmitted properties of light wave, while k is the wave vector, giving the light propagation

orientation. Moreover, x , y and z are the unit vectors of the chosen Cartesian reference

frame.

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

space at a certain moment of time can be written as E r , t E0 cos t k r , or, to simplify

calculations, in the complex form e r , t E0 e i t k r , where i 1 , and then taking only

Fig. 2

Mathematical note: For the complex number z a ib , a is the real part and b is the imaginary

2 2 a b i

part. It can be written as z a b i ze , where z is the

z a 2

b 2

a 2

b 2

cos sin

modulus of the complex number z and tan b / a .

Knowing that the incident wave is a plane and monochromatic one,

characterized by the equation ei r , t E0 i e i t k r , prove that the

i

mathematical expression for the evanescent wave is et r , t E0t e z e i

B2.1 1.50 p

and derive the exact expression for the attenuation coefficient as a

function of the incidence angle 1, the limit angle l, and the wavelength of

the incident wave. Also, derive the exact expression for the phase of the

evanescent wave.

Solution:

For the transmitted wave

i t k r

et r , t E0t e t ,

where

kt r y kt sin 2 zk t cos 2 y y zz k t y sin 2 z cos 2 .

Since

n1 sin1 n2 sin 2 ,

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

then

n2 n2

cos 2 1 sin 2 2 1 1 sin 2 1 i 1 sin 2 1 1 ,

n22 n22

because 1 l .

Under these conditions the electric field of the transmitted wave can be written as

n12

kt z sin 2 1 1 i t k y n1 sin

n 22 t 1

et r , t E0t e e .

n2

The + sign in the first exponential has no physical significance because there is no wave at

appreciable distances from the interface. In conclusion, the electric field of the transmitted

(evanescent) wave has the form

et r , t E0t e z e i ,

where

n12

kt sin 2 1 1

n22

is the attenuation coefficient of the evanescent wave

and

n

t k t y 1 sin 1

n2

is the waves phase.

This result shows that the wave travels along the interface (along y direction) and that it is

attenuated in the z direction (perpendicular on the interface).

Because

c

v1 n n

kt ki 1 ki 2 ,

v2 v1 v2 c n1

n2

then

n22 2 n 2 2

ki sin 2 1 sin 2 1 2 sin 2 1 sin 2 l .

n12 n12

Derive the mathematical expression of the distance z from the interface at

which the amplitude of the evanescent wave is e times smaller than at the

B2.2 interface, as a function of the incident wavelength and calculate its 0.50 p

numerical value. The first medium is glass n1 1.6 , the second is air

n2 1.0 , and the incidence angle of light is 1 40 .

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Solution:

1

z 1.1 .

B2.3. The phase speed of the evanescent wave

v

Derive the mathematical expression for the ratio e , where v e is the phase

v1

B2.3 speed of the evanescent wave and v1 - the phase speed of the incident wave, 0.75 p

and compute its numerical value for the case of the incidence angle of light

of 1 40 .

Solution:

Considering the phase of the evanescent wave,

n1

t k t y sin 1

n2

v1

ve ,

n ki sin1 sin1

kt 1 sin1

n2

ve 1

1.6 .

v1 sin 1

B2.4. The energy transferred from the incident wave to the totally reflected wave

For any value of the incidence angle, the relationship between the amplitude of field of the

reflected wave and that of the incident wave was derived by the French physicist Augustin

Fresnel (1788 1829):

n cos1 n2 cos 2

E0r 1 E0i .

n1 cos1 n2 cos 2

Physical note: If the perturbation produced by a wave in a point in space at a given moment

is expressed using complex numbers, then the wave intensity has the mathematical

1 1 2

expression I 0 cE 0* E 0 0 c E 0 , where E0* a ib is the complex conjugate of the

2 2

complex number E0 a ib . Here 0 is the vacuum permittivity and c is the speed of light

in vacuum.

Prove that the totally reflected wave has the same intensity as the incident

B2.4 0.50 p

wave.

Page 6 of 9

Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Solution:

Since

n12 n12 n

n2 cos 2 n2 1 sin 2 n2 1

2

sin 1 in2

2

sin 2 1 1 i 1 ,

n22 n22 ki

then

n

n1 cos1 i 1 cos1 i

ki ki

E0r E0i E .

n1 0i

n1 cos1 i cos1 i

ki ki

a ib a 2 b 2 e i0

e 2i0 ,

a ib a b e

2 2 i 0

where

b

tan 0 .

a

In conclusion

where

1

tan 0 sin 2 1 sin 2 l .

k i cos1 cos1

Under these conditions, the intensity of the totally reflected wave will be

1 2 1 2

Ir 0 c E 0 r 0 c E 0i I i .

2 2

When an incident wave beam with a finite cross section undergoes total reflection at an

interface between two media, the totally reflected wave beam is laterally displaced, on a

distance D (see Fig. 3), that was measured for the first time by Goos and Hnchen in 1947. In

Fig. 3, the displacement along the surface is s, and the Goos Hnchen shift is the lateral shift

D indicated in the diagram. This is the Goos Hnchen effect. The explanation of this lateral

shift is based on the appearance of the evanescent wave at the interface and its propagation

parallel to the interface.

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

Fig. 3

B2.5.1. The lateral shift

Derive the mathematical expression for the Goos Hnchen lateral shift D,

admitting that the phase difference between the totally reflected wave and

the incident one is zero at the interface. Consequently, compute the

B2.5.1 numerical value of the displacement s along the interface as a function of 1.00 p

the wavelength of the incident light, if the first medium is glass

n1 1.6, the second is air n2 1.0 , and the incidence angle of light is

1 40 .

Solution:

From Fig. 3, it follows that

D s cos1 .

If in the incidence point for the incident wave, on the interface, the phase of its electric field is

i , then, at the starting point, for the totally reflected wave its phase is

r i kiy s 20 .

k iy k i sin 1 .

we obtain

sin 2 sin 2 l

2 1

s tan 1 1

.

k i sin 1 sin 1 cos1

Finally,

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Romanian Master of Physics 2017

sin 2 sin 2 l

1 1

tan

cos1

.

D

tan 1

An alternative explanation of the Goos Hnchen shift can be given in terms of the time

delay associated with the scattering of a radiation pulse at the interface. The incident radiation

pulse is not scattered instantaneously by the surface, but reemerges into medium 1 after a time

delay , during which the pulse propagates parallel to the surface and is displaced by the

distance s.

Derive the mathematical expression for the time delay and calculate its

value if the first medium is glass n1 1.6 , the second is air n2 1.0 ,

B2.5.2. the incidence angle of light is 1 40 , and the monochromatic radiation

0.75 p

has the wavelength 579.1 nm . The light speed in vacuum is

c 3.0 108 m/s .

Solution:

2

n 1 sin 1 sin l

2

s s sn1 1

1 tan 2.6 1014 s.

v1 y v1 sin1 c sin1 c sin 1

2 cos1

proposed by

Prof. Florea ULIU, PhD

Department of Physics, University of Craiova, ROMANIA

Assoc. Prof. Sebastian POPESCU, PhD

Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, ROMANIA

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