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13.6 Summary

This chapter reviews interference and pulse tests, also known as multiple-

well testing. These types of tests can be used to obtain an adequate reservoir

description for homogeneous (both isotropic and anisotropic) and hetero-

geneous systems. Numerical solutions must be used to analyze pressure

transient data from heterogeneous reservoir systems. At the same time, it

is one of the most important and useful tests to understand the well behavior

in a water flood and EOR projects.

References

1. Kamal, M., and Brigham, W. E., "Pulse Testing Response for Unequal

Pulse and Shut-In Periods," Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (Oct. 1975), 399-410;

Trans. AIME 259.

2. Johnson, C. R., Greenhorn, R. A., and Woods, E. G., "Pulse Testing: A

New Method for Describing Reservoir Flow Properties Between Wells,"

/. Pet. Technol. (Dec. 1966), 1599-1604, Trans. AIME 237.

3. Earlougher, R. C, Jr., Advances in Well Test Analysis, Society of

Petroleum Engineers, Dallas, TX, 1977.

4. Falade, G. K., and Brigham, W. E., "The Dynamics of Vertical Pulse

Testing in a Slab reservoir," paper SPE 5055A presented at the SPE-

AIME 49th Annual Fall Meeting, Houston, Oct. 6-9, 1974.

5. Falade, G. K., and Brigham, W. E., "The Analysis of Single-Well Pulse

Tests in a Finite-Acting Slab Reservoir," paper SPE 5055B presented at

the SPE-AIME 49th Annual Fall Meeting, Houston, Oct. 6-9, 1974.

Additional Reading

1. Mueller, T. D., and Witherspoon, P. A., "Pressure Interference Effects

Within Reservoirs and Aquifers," /. Pet. Technol. (April 1965), AlX-Al A\

Trans. AIME 234.

2. Wattenbarger, R. A., and Ramey, H. J., "Well Test Interpretation of

Vertical Fractured Gas Wells," /. Pet. Technol. (May 1969), 625-632.

Chapter 14

Injection Well

Transient Testing

and Analysis

14.1 Introduction

This chapter presents pressure analysis techniques in injection wells. The

injectivity test and the fall-off tests are used to estimate the reservoir proper-

ties of injection wells in waterflood and tertiary recovery projects. The

knowledge of reservoir properties and near wellbore conditions in injection

wells is as important as in the producing wells. Injection well transient

testing and analysis are simple as long as the mobility ratio between the

injected and in-situ fluids is about unity and the radius of investigation is not

beyond the water (injected fluid) bank. Figure 14-1 shows types of tests,

limitations, and their uses.

Figure 14-2 shows rate schedule and pressure response for injectivity

testing.

Reservoirs with injection wells can reach true steady-state condition when

total injection rate is equal to total production rate. Hall1 has provided a

method to analyze injection wells that assumes a series of steady-state

injection conditions (Figure 14-3). Figure 14-6 shows that a plot of integral

Types of Tests, Their Uses, and Methods of Analysis

Injectivity Test Pressure fall-off Tests Two Rate Test Step Rate Injectivity Test

Also known as

draw down pressure buildup eliminates changing

multiple rate

testing, for both testing and can be wellbore storage

analysis. Simple,

constant and used for both infinite during a fall-off test.

inexpensive and

variable rates and developed Fracture pressure in an

fast pressure data

Uses reservoirs. injection well can be

can be analyzed

Conventional Uses determined and is

using multiple-rate

method Log-log plot useful in waterflood

transient techniques

Semilog plot Horner plot and tertiary floods

Shut-in

Rate, q

Injecting

Injection time, t

Pressure, pw,

psig

Injection time, t

straight-line with slope:

(14-1)

If PD and ^i are known, then k\\i can be estimated.

If PD and kjji are known, we can estimate s\.

Changes in slope of the Hall1

plot can be caused by

changes in k//j,, s or <j>

Figure 14-3. Water Injection well showing stimulation effects under steady-state

condition-Hall 1 .

determine pn

(14-2)

(14-3)

to one is given below.

M.R =1.0)

Table 141 shows the pressure fall-off test data; other well/water-flood reser-

voir data are: pressure prior to test, pwf (At=O) = 175 psi, injection rate at time of

test -lOOstb/day, injection time = 1 . 5 years; area within 5-spot pattern,

A = 40 acres and sw, a time of test = 0.4 fraction; well depth = 5002 ft;

/2= 16ft; 0 = 0.15; / ^ = LOcP; f3w = l.Orb/stb; ct = 6.17 x 10"5PSi"1;

rw = 0.25 ft; re = 744.6ft; pw = 66.45 lbm/ft3; water saturation at beginning of

test jv = 0.42 fraction.

Table 14-1

Injectivity Test Dataa

Time, response, rate Ap = (pwf-Pi) drainage,

*(hr) Pw/ (psig) qw (stb/day) (psig) U (ft)

0.050 249.0 -100 55.0 21.2

0.175 284.0 -100 90.0 39.7

0.250 324.0 -100 130.0 47.4

0.350 360.0 -100 166.0 56.1

0.375 368.0 -100 174.0 58.1

0.400 372.0 -100 178.0 60.0

0.420 374.0 -100 180.0 61.5

0.500 384.0 -100 190.0 67.1

0.570 424.0 -100 230.0 71.6

0.700 454.0 -100 260.0 79.3

0.820 594.0 -100 400.0 85.9

1.000 709.0 -100 515.0 94.8

1.200 774.0 -100 580.0 103.9

1.250 784.0 -100 590.0 106.0

1.500 789.0 -100 595.0 116.1

1.750 792.0 -100 598.0 125.4

2.000 793.0 -100 599.0 134.1

3.000 798.0 -100 604.0 164.2

4.000 799.0 -100 605.0 189.7

5.000 800.0 -100 606.0 212.0

6.000 803.0 -100 609.0 232.3

7.000 804.0 -100 610.0 250.9

a

Drainage radius = 744.6 ft; time required to reach the boundaries of a tested

reservoir = 61.7 ft.

Estimate the permeability, k, and skin factor, s;

Check to justify using the unit mobility ratio analysis.

= 100 x 1.00 x 1.5 x 365 = 54,750 bbls

Method of Analysis

Plot column 2 versus column 2 (Figure 14-5);

Plot column 5 versus column 1 (Figure 14-6).

Approximate

Pressure difference

end of

wellbore

storage effects

Unit slope

Time required=61.65 hr

Near producing well

Radius of investigation

Justify using Unit Mobility

Ratio Analysis

End of

wellbore

storage

effects

From these graphs, find the following using log-log type curve matching

techniques.

1. Injection time t where wellbore storage effects end. (Time at the

beginning of middle transient region MTRl.) Lower limits of usable

straight line should be checked by plotting log (pw/ pt) versus log

Bottom-hole pressure, p^, psig

Slope m=95

psig/cycle

Approximate end of

wellbore storage effects

time. The beginning of the straight line can be estimated by one of the

two methods:

(i) By the one and one half log cycle rule;

(ii) By the type curve overlay.

2. Injection time t where boundary effects appear. (Time at the end of

middle transient region, MTR2, where data begin to deviate from the

semilog straight line.)

Time Radius of

(hr) investigation rd (ft) Equation used Remarks

2.25 142.2 (Eq. 14-12) Wellbore storage effects end

6.00 232.3 (Eq. 14-12) Boundary effects appear

61.65 744.6 (Eq. 14-12) Near producing well

drainage radius

Interpreted data

Pressure response at 1 hr = 709 psig

Tubing pressure before injection = 175 psig

Slope, m, from Figure 14-6 = 95psig/cycle

Calculated parameters

Figures 14-4 and 14-6 are log-log and semilog plots for the test data

shown in Table 14-1. Figure 14-5 is a semilog data plot to justify using unit

mobility ratio concept. Total producing time, tp, is 7.0 hr. Using

A/? = lOOpsi and At = 0.2 hr (from the unit slope line), estimate wellbore

storage coefficient, C:

C = 0.0083 bbl/psi.

At the depth of 5002 ft, a casing radius is 0.95 ft, which is too large for a hole

of radius 0.25 ft. This clearly indicates the need for a check of the well

completion equipment and surface connecting lines. The current straight

lines in Figures 14-4 and 14-5 indicate m = 95psi/cycle and p\ hr 709 psi.

Estimate the following parameters.

Radius of investigation

Radius of drainage, rd = 250.9 ft (Table 14-1)

Distance to water bank, rwt 311.51 ft (Eq. 14-11)

Since r</ is less than rwt, it is justified to use unit-mobility ratio analysis.

Liquid Filled Unit Mobility Ratio Reservoirs

Method of Analysis

pressure at an injection well will increase during injection. That difference is

accounted for in the analysis method by using q < 0 for injection and q > 0

for production. The bottom-hole injection pressure for the constant rate

injectivity test is given by:

(1+-4)

versus the logarithm of injection time should have a straight line section, the

slope of which is given by:

(14-5)

(14-6)

To estimate the duration of wellbore storage effects, a plot of log (pw/ -pt)

versus log t may be used. The beginning of the semilog straight line can be

estimated by the following equation:

(14-7)

where

The values of At and Ap can be found from the unit-slope portion of log-log

plot. Once the semilog straight line is determined, reservoir permeability, k,

and skin factor are estimated using Eqs. 14-9 and 14-10:

(14-9)

(14-10)

Distance to water bank is calculated from the following equation: 5

(14-H)

where

rwb = drainage radius (distance to water bank), ft

Wi volume injected, res bbl

= Qinj x Av x injection time

/3W = water formation volume factor, rb/stk

The estimated permeability is used to determine a radius of drainage

from:2

/0.00084\kt , A. . . .c

r r

d ~ \ A ' d < ^(condition to justify

V Yl1OCt

unit mobility ratio analysis) (14-12)

The calculated value of r</ should be less than rwb to justify using the unit-

mobility ratio analysis. Pressure drop across the skin may be estimated from:

(14-13)

(14-14)

infinite-acting reservoir. Example 142 illustrates how to analyze this type

of test.

Ratio Reservoir

Pressure response data for an injectivity test in a water-flooded reservoir

are given in Table 14-2. Before the test, all the wells in the reservoir had been

shut-in for several weeks and pressure had stabilized. Other known reser-

voir data are: depth = 1250 ft; rw = 0.25 ft; h = 20 ft; qw = -120stb/day;

/?/ = 225psig;c, = 6.5 x l O ^ p s r 1 ; ^ = 16%;/x w = 1.0cP;pw = 62.51bm/cuft;

f3w = 1.027 rb/stb; and tubing size = 2 in.

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