F

94-S
CWT

COLD

TEST

MGRADED AT 3 YE KOASSIFIED DOD DW
. ­ -­ ­ i­ *m

US: o.
-T"

Winter 1947 4 j
TAC A2B-SP-1

HISTORY OF COLD rEATHIR TESTS Ladd F i e l d Winter

9^TH FIGHTER SCWBRON) (JP) 1ST" FIGHTER ^ s r c h Air Force R i v e r s i d e Californ?fP

ROY 0 . S?rITH, JR C a p t a i n , US/F H i s t o r i C E l Officer

DON/.LD E. HILD7N L t . Colonel, USAF ComiT)£.ndine:

Introduction Chronological Order of Events

V ."**.".....,...

1 - 2
3

CHAPTER I
Preparation for Overseas Movement Personnel and Administration Maintenance Supply Technical Supply. . „ Squadron Supply Summary, k - 13
U - 8
8 - 1 0
10
. . ,xi
12
12 - 13

f

f

,

CHAPTER II
Movement to Ladd Field Advance Party. . . . , . • ..,.......; Main Body '-. .,Flight & Air Maintenance Echelon , A. Movement Plan. B. Ogden * C. Great F a l l s D. Edmonton, Canada E. Fort Nelson. . '. F. VJhitehorse CIIAPTCR I T I Operations a t Ladd Field Description of Area & T'orkin^ F a c i l i t i e s A. 9Uth Fighter Squadron Housing Area B. Recreational F a c i l i t i e s C. Hangar Area Personnel and Administration A. Command Control B. Orderly Roon ; C. Reports D. Delinquencies E. Duty Section F. Mess. . . Operations and Training. A. Goals to bo Achieved « B. Hours Flovm C. Operations D. Temperature 25-87 25-30 25-27 27-28 28-30 31 - 37 .31 31-32 32-33 .33 - 3k 3k - 35 35-37 ..38 - 1|8 38-39 kO .UO Ul - U2 .ill - 2k
.li; - 15
• .15 - 16
. .16 17 - 19 19 20 21-22 22-23 23 - 2k

»

UNCLASSIFIE
OF CONTENTS (CONT'D)

" " • "

Page . .""IIS""- k3 . . "U3 - h6 . . ).;6 . . hi

E. F. G. H.

Accidents * . Operational D i f f i c u l t i e s . . ., « • . . Ground Training « 4 • . Nome - Arctic .Survival Course . , * « . CHAPTER I I I

Personal Equipment. . Maintenance and Supply A. Outstanding D i f f i c u l t i e s B. A i r c r a f t , General C. Instrument Section D. Fuel System E. Hydraulic Section F. Inspection Section G. E l e c t r i c a l Section H. APU Section I . Refueling Section J . Armament and Ordnance K. Photo Section L. Communications M. Squadron Supply N. Technical Supply Transportation A. General. B. Tests C. Summary Medical Section

. . . ,

hi - U8 h9 - 78 , . . h9 - 50 , 50 - 5U 5U - 5 5 „ . . . $$ - 60 60 - 61 • . . . . 61 - 63 63-65 .65-67 67 - 69 . . . . . . 69 - 70 e 70-71 . . . . . - * . 71 - 72 . 72 - 73 v . 73-78 « * * 79 — 83 79-81 o . . 82 - 83 * . . . . 83 . . . . . . . . 8U - 87

CHAFTER IV Return Movement A. Teletype Conference B. The Plan and Execution
APPENDIX

86 - 9U c * . . 86 - 93 . . 93 - 9h
o . . .• 1 - 99

Introduction

This report hes been ?jritten to insure a complete analytical
accounting of the 94th Fighter Squadron's participation in Cold Fea­ ther Tests at Ladd Field, Alaska, during the winter of 194.7-48. It
is the purpose of this narrative to describe all phases of the man­ euver: Planning period, movement to Alaska, the training period at

Ladd Field, and the squadron's return movement to March Air Force
Base. It is hoped that the relation of events and experiences within

this report will be of immediate value to the USAF in determining
future requirements in and for the Alaskan Department. This organ­ ization wishes to emphasize that any shortcomings described and diff­ iculties encountered were those experienced during this unit's stay
in the Alaskan Theater and may or may not have since been corrected.
The description of conditions experienced at Ladd Field: facilit
ies, location, weather, and supply problems, while not necessarily
typical of conditions at other Air Bases in Alaska, are believed to
be sufficiently representative for future planning purposes. The
references to conditions experienced at stopover points along the
"Alcan Air Route" are believed to be particularly important since
these bases are the best available stops for comparatively short
range aircraft.
As shown in the Table of Contents, this report is divided into
four chapters which discuss each phase of the mission.
In World War II small scale operations were carried out in the
Aleutians, Iceland, and Greenland, but complete knowledge is lacking
in the difficulties which would be encountered by Tactical Units in

the Arctic. The Air Forces realizing the possibility of future
intense operations in Arctic regions, has instituted a policy
that all Air Force units will undergo a period of Arctic training.
In conformance with this policy, the 94-th Fighter Squadron was dir­ 1/
ected to undergo winter trsining for a period of six months to

determine the feasibility of operating jet aircraft in the Arctic.
with the need for this type of mission established and the org­ anization selected to undergo the tests, there remained the prelim­ inary problems of: reorganizing and equipping the selected unit,
placing necessary supplies in the Alaskan Theater, putting the squad­ ron personnel through the Preparation for Overseas Movement (POM),
and moving the four echelons (Air-Ground-r'ater-Flight) of the squad­ ron to Alaska. Many of the problems encountered in the POM period
might be considered routine - those that inevitably crop up whan a
unit is alerted for an overseas movement, however, since the utilizat­ ion of T/O&E 1-17R (augmented) for Arctic Jet Operations established
a precedent, it is believed worthwhile to set forth in detail some
of the problems encountered which otherwise would not have been ment­ ioned.

1/ Plan, AAF. Arctic Maneuver, ""inter 194.7-4.8, 94th Ftr Sq (JP) (vid. s.d. n'l) 2/ ^D POM ?d Edition, Jan 45 - less exceptionsrstated in Movement Order

Chronological .G^der- of Events

15 April 1947
1 May 1947
12-15 May 1947
21-27 Fay 1947
1 July 1947
June,July,August

Commanding Officer, 94th Ftr Sq (JP)
volunteers for Arctic Training
Alaskan Conference - Anchorage, Alaska
T/O&E Conference, AAF, "ashington D C
2d Conference on T/O&E, Washington D C
Deadline date for logistical require­ ments .
Training, indoctrination, and preparat­ ion for movement and operations in the
Arctic.
Received Received Order
Received Received ADVANCE ECHELON

w

24 July 1947
2.6 July 1947
18 August 1947
23 September 1947

arning Order
Amendment No. 1 to T'rarning

Movement Directive
Amendment 1 to Movement Order

?2 August 1947
24 August 1947

3 Officers and 50 Enlisted Men depart
March Field and arrive Great Falls
AAFld, Great Falls, Montana.
Departed Gre.st Falls and arrived at
Ladd Field, Alaska
WATER SHIPMENT

6 October 1947
12 October 1947
15 October ^947
16 October 1947

and 2 Enlisted Men depart March
Field and arrive at Port of Embark­ ation, Seattle, Washington
Departed POE, Seattle
Arrived Fhittier, Alaska
Arrived, Ladd Field, Alaska
MAIN BODY

10 October 1947
13 October 1947

2 Officers and 262 Enlisted Men depart
March Field and arrive at Great Falls
Departed Greet Falls, Montana, and arr­ ive at Ladd Field, Alaska.
FLIGHT ECHELON

22 October 1947
25 October 26 October 27 October 1 November 1947
1947
1947
1947

Departed March Field and arrived Great
Falls via Ogden, Utah-
Departed Grett Falls - arrived Edmonton
Departed Edmonton - arrived Ft. Nelson
Departed Ft. Nelson - arrived ^hitehorse
Departed "Tnitehorse - arrived Ladd Field
RETURN MOVEMENT
DeparTecTLadd Field by C-82s (TAC)
Arrived March Air Force Ease

15 February 1948
16 Eeb - 1 March 1948

Chspter

I

PREPARATION FOR OVFRSE/.S MOVEMENT

Preparation For Oversees Movement

PQiT - Personnel and /dministrgtion
The reorganization of the 94-th Fighter Squadron was accomplish­ ed on paper r-t two T/C&E conferences in Washington D C, attended by
the Commanding Officer, 94th Ftr Sq., Commanding Officer, 1st Ftr
Groups end staff members of Twelfth M r Force Headquarters, during
the periods of 12-15 and 21-27 of May 1947. The results of these con­ ferences gave the squadron a strength of 38 officers and 34.7 enlisted

u

men with functionsl organization as shown in the accompanying charts.
Ir en attempt to augment the squedron over a period of time, Head­ quarters Twelfth /.ir Force authorized the squadron to increase from
its strength of 32 officers and 9? enlisted men to 33 officers and
162 enlisted men conforming to e T/O&E proposed by the 1st Fighter
Group which allowed men for 2d Fchelon Maintenance. The 94-th Squad­ ron Commander on 17 June 1947, requested 5 officers and 173 enlisted
men for further augmentation based on the Washington T/O&E Conferen­

u

ces.

However, it was not until the receipt of a directive

from

March Field Heedcuarters on 5 August thet further augmentation could
be accomplished. The accompanying chart graphically shows the influx
and outgo of personnel during this critical period before 14. /ugust
194.71 (The deadline dcte set by the ™ar Department for the reorgan­

ization of the 94/th Fighter Squadron (JP))
"- "Organization of the 9£th Fighter Scu&dron" (vid. s.d. #
4/ General Order..No. 16, Headquarters March Field, 5 Aug 1947
j>/ Chart - "/.ugmerrtftion of the' 94thFi|<Jjj^r|Soi^ dron" (vid. s.d. #3)

-4.­

During the time that the bulk of personnel were being transferred
to the 94-th, March Field was being reorganized to the
nw

ing Plan".

This base reorganization further delayed the transfer of personnel
causing most of them to arrive in two large groups. .
Key personnel to aid in the organization and classification of
there personnel, unfortunately, ^ere some of the last to arrive.
Therefore this work had to be done by the few original members qual­ ified in this work. This delayed the rejection of uncualified ind­ ividuals and the obtaining of replacements.
Criteria for determining overseas eligibility was initially lack­ ing but was clarified to allow enlisted men, whose wives were exrect­ ant within four (l) months from date of departure, to remain in the
6/
Zone of Interior. This in itself was not sufficient since other

hardship cases vere forthcoming - sick dependents being the outstand­ ing example. It is recommended that Squadron Headquarters with the

concurrence of Base Headquarters be the deciding factor in all hard­ ship cases.
Substitution in Military Occupational Specialities (MOS) result*
ed in an unusually large group of uncualified personnel, particularly

2/

in comirunicrtions and the engineering specialty groups.
Sufficient time ras not allowed by the Irte trsnsfers to allow
personnel to make arrangements for their dependents prior to the
oversees movement. / further hardship was caused by the fact that
. this was a Temporary Duty assignment and dependents were not author­ ized transportation to their permanent address.
6/ Ltp, *Hq 9Ath Ftr Sq (No file No.) "Disqualification for 0/S Duty
Under the Provisions of H) Cir 3 1 O A 5 , 2d Ind to CO 1st Ftr Group
dated 23 July 1947
7/ Par 2, Amendment No, 1, Movement Directive Shipment No. 6159
(vid.s.d. # )

iiftc-r i. rcrrcn:! jnt^nn^.r ^ th 111 jf the nr ~Ty . ssifrr c rrcn
^ and r<: classifying & number of p;. 2 porr < ; ! th •", cqve.dron took shape shortly

before the departure of the Main Eody. However, there were meny ques­ tions thet rerrtined unanswered due to the fact that 50 men were already

in Alsska with the /dvance Party*

The date of departure of the letter group hed been advanced 3©
days upon the recommendation of the 1st Fighter Group CO in order that
the barracks at Ledd Field, which were in a bad strte of repair could
be made habiteble. /ll of the Utilities personnel who were present
for duty were sent with volunteers completing the quote. Some of these
men were newly assigned and classification pnd interview for them was
necesserily hurried End brief.
With only &. short tita available before the scheduled departure
dates, personnel still arriving to fill the quota, and the necessery
arctic training continuing, the squrdron had no time before leaving
to work as a unit. No section head had e ehpnee to find ell of the
weaknesses in 'is section and the ability of the squadron to work os
a seperate-.utrct repaired completely untried.
The completed organization een be noted from the aocompanying
charts, this finfl form, however, war not determined until 12 Sept­ ember, 194.7, when the last instructions changing the authorized grades
8/
of severs! men end deleting the dental personnel Fere received.

8/
'1. Ltr Hq TiC file 210.3, "Medical Department Personnel for /.laskan
Maneuver (9Ath Ftr Sq)" to CG 12AF 21 /.ug 1947 (vid.s.d. #.5)
\ \
2. TFX Hq 12 IF No". A3E 0377, 12 Sept 1947, (vid.s.d.

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Operations and Training - POM

2/

Upon receipt of varning Orders, flying training was conducted in
preparation for the arctic corditions to be encountered. Emphasis was
placed on instrument flying.. Two ship instrument teams with pilots
using shielded goggles were sent over the prescribed 1st Fighter Group

12/

Instrument Course. In compliance with a Twelfth Air Force directive
each pilot completed fifty (50) GCii approaches in P-80s and when pos­ sible in the P-80B. The P-80B W P S used when available in order to

familiarize each pilot with its new characteristics. (The new air­ craft being heavier ?nd having more thrust) Each of the pilots was
r.ble to complete a major portion of his GCi runs in the P-80B. During
this tiire although JP-1 fuel was being used, eech pilot when starting
or stopping the aircraft, went through the procedure as though using
gasoline under arctic conditions. All pilots were checked and given
new instrument cerds and all night.flying requirements under //F Reg­ ulation 60-2 were completed for the hslf yer-r ending in December 194.7.
Alaskan Communications directives were received and all pilots were
briefed on the facilities available to them and on the required re­ porting procedures. Pilots also were required to make pre-flight
inspections under the supervision..of the Line Chiefs.
During the first '"cek in September, 194-7, an /rctic Indoctrinat­ ion Team from the 3718th /FPU, Chanute Field, Illinois, conducted
classes for all personnel. Until this time there had been no dir­ ect stimulus provided for the /-lasksn Maneuver. These talks were
§7 Ltr7~Hq //F, no file number, "^rning Orders - 94th Ftr Sq (JP)«
to CG T/C, 18 July 1947.
10/ No reference avails hie, -s

l

-7­

highly entertaining end much information was gained; however, it is
r-ecomrrended that personnel familiar with the aircraft to be used be
provided for presenting this information if it is at all possible.
Their discussion of equipment should be limited only to equipment
that will be issued and used in the /rctic. This course did have a
very definite value in boosting the morale of the squadron and in giv­ ing each individual something to look forward to.

TTVO

officers were sent to the Ordnance School at /berdeen Mary­

land for p course in preparing Ordnance vehicles for arctic us? . Also,
two officers and three enlisted men were sent to the Climatic Hangar
at Eglin Field, Florida. Due to the late integration of the squsdron,
however, certain key personnel who should have received this instruct­ ion, hrd not been assigned at that time.
POM - Maintenance
The squadron's 28 winterized P-8OB-5s ^vere received from the
Lockheed Aircraft Co. during /ngust and September of 194-7- The first
steps taken after their receipt was to perform the acceptance inspect­ ions and pack 263/' equipment for the move to Ladd Field. The paint­ ing of squfdron colors and imsignie was accomplished as soon as poss­ ible, usually during the acceptance inspections.
New tail pipe covers end wheel chocks vere menufactured by the
March Field Shops to be taken with the /ir Echelon group, /ill of
the £uxili?ry equipment - coitirr.unicrtions, armament end ordnance, was
checked by the sections concerned, and it wes found that AMC ^inter­ ization Cbr-ck lists h d not been completed; particularly on some comm­

11/
uricFtions equipment. TIT I t was also found t h f t the V pe A-l Gun Chargers

Interview with the Com^unications Chief
-8­

for the M-3 caliber .50 me chine guns had not been available c.t the
factory end ss a result, only a limited number of the guns could be
12/
test fired before leaving March Field.
During flight checks it wss determined that the type J-l Univ­ ersal /'ttitude Indicator contained s very noticeable and dangerous
lag in its erection system, /.fter numerous checks of the electrical
system, it was felt thst low voltepe. from the inverters was causing
this condition. A new type relay, the "Strato-Pax" was ordered and
installed in the aircraft during the stops at Great Falls and Edmonton,
Although this relay helped to some extent, a certain amount of l?g
was inherent in the instrument which was very noticeable when used
in high speed aircraft.
During the aircraft acceptance period following the receipt of
P-8OBs between 21 August and 5 September, 1947, the squadron hsd 25
old P-8OAs which were undergoing inspection prior to being transferr­ ed to other units. This numb r plus the addition of the P-8OBs, placed
an extremely nervy load on the engineering personnel who were maintain­ ing both old end new airplanes. The newly assigned personnel ^ere
not of much assistance et this time because of the time recuired in
processing and their a4tendance at arctic indoctrination classes.
Flying operations continued until three drys before departure of the
Air Echelon. (Completing the 50 GCA approaches per pilot.) By this

time the Ground Fchelon had departed snd sll last minute maintenance
-v. performed by the 25 mechanics assigned to accompany the Ai-r E«hel­ -fs on.
One of the largest time consuming problems was the necessity of

12/Interview with Armament Officer
-9­

replacing all J-33-21 units not incorporating the turbine wheel vith
the pinned type buckets, with other engine units having this feature:
After checking unit serial numbers, it was found that fourteen (14.)
units needed replacement. Arrangements were made with the Air Depot
at Ogden AAFld, Cteden Utah, for unit changes to be made at that stat­ ion. Ground handling equipment and maintenance crews were flown to
Ogden on 2 October, 194-7, to make these changes, which further depleted
the souadron1s strength in experienced mechanics at a time when they
were plso needed for the proper handling of airplane transfers and
maintaining aircraft for the completion of flying requirements.
POM - Supply
The initial preparation of supplying the 94th with minimum

11/

essential equipment as listed in the augmentation list was held up
by the necessity of awaiting the movement directive. Although the
movement directives were published on the 6th and 7th of August, 1947,
these directives were not received by the 94-th and by the March Field
Project Officer until the 18th of August.. This held up supply action
and the time remaining after receipt of the movement directive was
not adequate to ccmplete all supply action in the normal manner and
resulted in nnmbrouB' air pick-ups to complete the equipping of the
squadron.

w

of sending

Further supply complications arose when the ^lan

the Main Eody by air instead of by reil and water was changed on the
23d of September - Parkas and arctic overshoes had to be requisitioned.
Ltr & 2 Incl thereto, w a r Dept, file-AGAO-I 322 94th Ftr Sq (JP)
"Reorganization of the 94th Ftr Sq (JP)» H July 1947 (vid s.d.#7)
Amendment #1 to MovemenV Directive" Shipment w o . 6159 (vid s.d.
-10­

Also, other items such as field stoves, which were originally intend-,
ed to accompany troops, had to be left behind.
Technical Supply
Requisitions' were initiated to cover all T/Q&E items authorized
on the Arctic augmentation list (Fcuipment Modification List). Also,

requisitions were submitted for water proof paper, rust preventive
compounds, naptha flakes, shipping ticket envelopes, and other items
necessary for proper packaging of equipment. Squadron tool kits were
made up to conform with the augmented equipment lists and were packed
as were the equipment rnd clothing. Although packing itself involved
no difficulties - with the cooperation of the base Commercial Trans­ portation Section - the necessity of leaving necessary items unpacked
during the heavy flying schedule caused a last minute rush.
The Technical Supply Officer was designated as Liaison Officer
of the 94-th and he with two (2) enlisted men departed for the Seattle
Port of Embarkation on 6 October, 194-7. While at Seattle, he checked
shipping documents of incoming equipment before departing on 12 October
by ship for Whittier, Alaska. (As near as could be determined by

checking shipping documents, a major portion of the supplies had
reached the Port of Embarkation.)
Upon arriving at whittier on October 15th, this officer was des­ ignated as a Troop Train Commander for a train leaving that night for
Ladd Field. This allowed no opportunity to check the status of the
T/O&E equipment at this port. From the small amount of equipment found
at Ladd Field, upon his arrival there, it can be assumed that rrost of
the equipment was in storage at Whittier and Ft. Richardson awaiting
shipment by rail.

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Squadron Supply
Minimum essential equipment authorized by T/G&E 1-17R and indiv­ idual equipment authorized under T/E 21, Part II, Section V, was rec­ eived from the Base Qurrtcrmaster, March Field, promptly and was eas­ ily packed and distributed in time. The Movement Orders for the Ad­ vanced Echelon, received on the 18th of August, allowed only throe (3)
days to equip these three (3) officers and fifty (50) enlisted men be­ fore their departure on August 22d. This was accomplished in the re­ quired time and their departure Fas not delayed.
The late acquisition of personnel forced the requisition of add­ itional clothing based on QM clothing tables, and with few exchanges,
all personnel were properly equipped. Again the sudden change in
transportation of the Main Body forced the turn-in of all overcoats,
and in their place were issued the pile lined parkas. This change
caused much extra work and forced the Base Project Officer to make
flights to Ogden, Utah, and to other Supply Depots to obtain these
new items of equipment. Travel by air forced the squadron to store
some items, such as field stoves, that it had intended to tske. These
w - re inventoried and signed for by an officer from 1st Fighter Group
< Headquarters. Many problerrs could have been solved (turning-in of
buildings end storage of equipment) if a re^r party cculd have been
left to clean up after the Squadron had departed. This was done on the
return movement from Ladd Field. With the present accountability of
equipment, a clean-up party is considered a "must" for any large trovo­ ment of men and supplies,
POM - Summary
Most of the difficulties encountered during the preparation for
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overseas movement were due to the lack of time and changes made in
the original plans. Normally the tw© months allowed should have been
ample, but due to the delay in actually receiving and implementing
the plans, time ran,, short.
Personnel shortages wr-re encountered in some MOSs, and clear cut
directives on use of personnel in overseas theaters we-re not available,
particularly for those on Temporary Duty status. Incoming personnel
should have flowed smoothly into the squadron with administrative,
and key personnel coming firsts (Adjutant, Engineering Officer, Tech­

nical Supply Officer, Motor Transport Officer, classification personn­ el, typists, duty sergeant, etc.)
The arrival of new aircraft was some two to three weeks later
than anticipated. This delayed the transfer of old aircraft and thor­ ough shakedown flights o~ the new aircraft. Pilots did not have enough
time to become thoroughly familiar with the new aircraft. The extra
flying training necessery to prepare for arctic conditions brought great
pressure to bear on the Engineering and Techn ical Supply sections when
most of their time should have been devoted to readying aircraft and
packing supplies for the overseas movement.
Lack of time again appeared to be a major factor in the deliv­ ery of supplies, however-, this was not f.elt until the arrival of the

15/

squadron at Ladd Field-. Apparently, the supply depots lacked suffic­ ient time to obtain end ship the necesssry T/O&E equipment, resulting
in vehicles being shipped unwinterized.. Again,at the ports of Whit­ tier and Fort Richardson, Alaska, the volume of incoming supplies far
exceeded the facilities of the Alaskan Railroad to transport all equip­ ment by the deadline date of 1 September 194-7.
15/ Ltr: Liaison Officer, 1st Ftr Group, no file number "Status of
Incoming Yfeter Shipments., P-80 at Port of Wittier to TAC,l6 Oct
1947. (vid s.d. #8)
-13­

Chapter II

MOVEMENT TO LADD FIELD, FAIRBANKS, ALASKA

to Alaska
The 9Ath Fighter Squadron was broken down into five separate ship­ ments in accordsnce with the movement directives. Strength Off 1 EM 2 30 JO 0 265 6159 AI 6159 All 6159 AZ 6159 AIII Liaison Officer to Seattle FOE Air Maintenance Echelon Advance Air Echelon Flight Echelon Main Body Shipment No. .They are as follows:

Remarks

3 3
28

3

Advenes? Party
The departure date for the Advance Air Echelon vas moved forward
thirty (30) days upon the recomrrer.detion of the Commanding Officer, 1st
Fighter Group, following his inspection of the facilities for the 94-th
at Ladd Field. As was previously stated, this allowed three (3) days
for the men to be eauipped and readied for departure on August 22d.
Personnel needed to completely organize the advance group had not all
been assigned, however, each squadron section was represented by at
least one man; all of the vtilities personnel available were sent ­ the remaining number was com.Dosed of volunteers vho were able to leave
on short notice. One Major (1059) one Captain (0600), and one 2d Lieu­ tenant (2120) represented Operations, Motor Pool, and Orderly Room res­ pectivelyNon-commissioned officers represented the remaining sections

~Tar~~Dept Movement Directives for Shipment No. 6159 and Amendments
1, 2, and 3. (vid s.d. M )

-U­

of the Squadron, however, there remained a shortage of trained utilit­ ies men.
The Advance Party departed March Field in two (2) C-82s of the
Troop Carrier Comrand and.arrived at Ladd Field on August 2Uth after
stopping at the Port of Aerial Embarkation, Great Falls, Montana, for
processing.
Arriving at Ladd Field, the party set up its headquarters and
organized details to make electrical, plumbing, and carpentry repairs.
Other details cleaned the buildings, set up beds, policed the area,
and banked the buildings with gravel to provide insulation. After com­ pleting the rehabilitation of the barracks area, efforts were directed
to the hangar in an attempt to ^et up semi-permanent partitions, benches
and counters. Doors had to be hung, window penes replaced, and repairs
made to the permanent heating and electrical systems.
Since ho T/C&E ecui~ment had arrived, tools, trucks and equip­ ment were drawn from Ladd Field supplies to carry out this mission.
Scarce items proved to be lumber, hardware, and Class 25 equipment
for offices. However, with the cooperation of the Base, in the use
of their machine equipment, lumber from crates was reworked and items
such as drawing boards were manufactured locally.
By the time the Main Body arrived on 13 October, 19£7, the general
repair of the barrack? area and hangar had advanced sufficiently that
each section, *dth a fev minor changes, was ready to operate.
Main Body
The Main Body of the 9Ath left March Field on October 10th in
C-82 and C-4.7 type aircraft and reached Ladd Field on October 13th.

-15­

No difficulty was t f f £ # i g i |giti) ££Mmp|e$erig #<^c1tjual process­ ing at the Port of Aerial Embarkation (Great Falls) took only a matt­ er of hours. This movement would have been accomplished in two days
except for bad weather enroute which delayed the slower C-47s.
At this pcint, it is well to note that the 94th Fighter Squad­ ron was separated into five distinct parts. In accordance with Par­ agraph 2(d), AR 345-400, it was necessary to submit five (5) differ­ ent Morning Reports. This involved teaching four other clerks how to
make out this form. It is doubtful that a machine records unit with­

out previous knowledge of the nature of this movement could have de­ ciphered and actually accounted for all personnel. Several weeks were
taken after the 94th arrived at Ladd Field to consolidate and correct
all the errors that were previously made during this period. It is

recommended that a log be usrd for each separate u'^it or. that infor­ mation copies only (of the Morning Report) be sent to the p&rent unit
for consoldidtion and forwarding to the machine records unit.
Flight and Air Maintenance Echelons
Since this was the first attempt to move a large number of jet
aircraft over a long route, stopping at bases not normally equipped
to handle this type aircraft, this movement will be dealt with in de­ tail.
* The following extracts of a letter from Headquarters*Eastern

Pacific Wing, Pacific Division of ATC to the CG, Pacific Division,
ATC, "Strategic Air Command pnd Tactical Air Command Movements Over
Alcan Route", show clearly the plan devised for moving the flight
echelon of the 94th from Mardh Field, Cslifornia to Lsdd Field, Alaska:

I. Movements:

(Presently known)

B. TAC 94th Fighter Sq, (JP), 1st Fighter Gp. (JP), March
Field, California; twenty-eight (28) P-8OBs afoout 20 October 194.7,
returning ebout 1 April 194.8.

II. These moveirents more in detail are as follows:

B. TAC P-80B Movement
1. Fifty-three (53) personnel (Advance Party), y
. r g on TAC aircraft arriving Great Falls about 1 October 1947, proceed­ L. ing to Alaska stopping at Fort Nelson.
2. Four £4.) C-47s, crew of four (4) each aircraft (2 off
.":•?/')• plus three (3) officers and thirty (30) enlisted men total-(main•
^••rs...ice :md servicing personnel) arriving, Greet Falls about 15 October
a. Aircraft and personnel will be split ar<ong
Greet Falls, Edmonton, Fort Nelson and whitehorse to
await P-8Ps.
3. Twenty-eight (28) P-8OBs about 20 October 1947,
arriving Greet Falls for rest, servicing, route briefing, to be dis­ patched over route to La'V] Field, Fairbanks, Alaska, stopping at Ed­ monton, Fort Felson and W Mtehorse.
4. All aircraft to be processed for overseas movement
at home station. (Air-POM)
5. All personnel, advance and others, to be Arctic
equipped at home station. (Air-POM) x
6. All personnel to be processed for overseas move­ ment at home station, (Air-POM)
7. 1st Fighter Group sending Liaison Officer to Great
Falls to coordinate PAE details.
8. Aircraft winterized to -65 C.

i

III.

Arrangements made and discussion are as follows:

-17­

GREi-T FALLS:

a. P-80s will proceed from March Field via Hill
Field,1' Ogden Utah.
b. The four (A) C-A7s preceding the move are carry­ ing parts, tools, and personnel to service end
maintr.in the P-80s.
c. Dispatch one (l) C-4-7 each to Edmonton, Fort
Nelson, and Whitehorse, personnel on bosrd to be
determined by TAC officer in charge.
d. P-80s'restricted to daylight CFR.

e. rfter rest, servicing, supply of shortages and
route briefing, dispatch P-8rs (weather permitting)
in flights of four (A) over the route. Since day­ light CFR v'eather Fill be the bottleneck, aircraft
should not arbitrarily RON at Edmonton, but push on
through as far as daylight CFR weather permits.
f. To avoid overtaxing the perking space, P,-80s
should not bank up in excess of sixteen (16) at
one stop even though predicted weather makes it.
desireble.
g. Prepared emergency stops are Grand Prairie,
Fort St. John, TFratson Lake, and Northway, each
of which rill have JP-1 fuel available for emer­ gency (5000 gals.).

VI.

Following is a summery of personnel needed from TAC:

C. Four C-A7s each with' four (A), man crew, plus three (3)
officers end thirty (30) enlisted men to maintain ard service P-80s
at Great Falls, Idmonton, Fort kelson, end TOtehorse. C-47s to
carry tools, perts for P-80s, return Zone of Interior when P-80s reach
Ladd Field; in place again for P-80s return next April.

x

The plan outlined above was^ fo]lpy;.e^ except forvonedetail ­ The Souadron Fn^ineoring pfficerr-insfcea^ of dispersing his per.scnnol -18­

along the Alcsn Route, divided the sections ^nto four'.{'U) crews,
three (3) C-A7s preceded, the P-80s by one stop and were on hand to
prepare the refueling facilities, obtain parking spaces, and service
aircraft.
7

Tien the P-80s landed, there were enough, men to assist in
One crow always remained with the P-80s

the park?up of the aircraft.

to aid them in becoming airborne and repair any last minute mechan­ icrl difficulty. A fifth C-4.7 transport loaded with the majority off

the heavy ground handling eouipment .accompanied the Jet aircraft as
closely as possible so thft airplane hydraulic jacks, extra auxil­ iary Dov/er plants, unit change stands, and extra equipment was always
on hrnd for use shortly after lending of jet aircraft, and available
u^til after their takeoff. In this way, both rren and equipment carr­

ied • in the C-4/7s were closely available to perform any maintenance
required along the route: This method of sbheduling f,nd handling
the trrnsports end mechanics of the Air Echelon, worked very satis­ factorily.
Ogden
After waiting two clays for favorpble weather, 28 P-80s in three
(3) sections of eight, eight and twelve aircraft, departed for Ogden,
Utah, on the morning of October 22d. Servicing here was slow due to
the availability of only one (l) JP-1 refueling unit. Upon completion
of refueling, all jets departed for Great F.?lls AAFld, Mcntana.. Al­ though the field elevation here is £78'8 feet, no difficulty was exper­ 17/
ienced in using t^o ship elements for take off. Except for a blown
tire on lending, no difficulty v/as experienced on the flight from Ogden,
177 Photograph (vid s.d. #9)
-19­

Greet Falls
At Great Falls, a. production line was established in one of the
hangars snd all aircraft were -processed: Fifty-six (56) ice-grip­ tires and fourteen (l^)1Stra£6-Pax-Relays were installed. All wheel

be?rings v/ere cleaned and repacked with ANG-15 grease for cold leather
operation. Only one (l) 2000 gallon F2A fuel servicing trailer, with

a micronic filter installed, was available for use here. This trailer
had tp be reserviced by transferring fuel from 55 gallon drums into
the ur.it itself. As this method was too slow to accomplish the re-
servicing in time for the next scheduled flight, it was decided to
carry the c:5 gallon drums of JP-1 fuel on a 4.0 foot flat bed trailer,
and to use a gasoline driven refueling pump to refill.the fuel serv-,
icin£ trail-':r. By this method, as each aircraft was refueled,, the
truck was at the same tire being refilled from the 55 gallon drums.
Servicing was finally completed at 0200 hours on October 23d, having
started at sundown on the previous day.
It was necessary, v-'ith the aforementioned procedure, to hcndle

/ •

over 300 drums of fuel b*- loading and unloading from the 4-0 foot flat­ bed. At that time, it appeared that no underground JP-1 tanks, or

any electrics 1 pumping system Fas available for F2A fuel trailer re-
servicing. Therefore, in vier of the fac't thet Great Frl" s is the
point of departure for movement of aircraft into the Alaskan Theeter,
it is recommended that- Immediate steps be taken'to furnish adequate
ground storage facilities for JP-1 fuel for jet aircraft* and that
.sufficient F2A refueling trailers are available to properly service
larere numbers of aircraft-in the shortest time.

-20­

Edmopton. Canada
- - a y LJ • u ^
.

Before taking off from Gre?t Falls, a route briefing vas held for
all P-80 pilots. This included a film on the various intended landing
fields. After the briefing was concluded, each pilot was required to

take a large manila folder containing1 maps, cherts', tables, etc., issued
by ATC. Since there was no place in the cockpit for this folder, it
had to be stored in the nose of the aircraft. Iven If there had been,
sufficient room in the cockpit for these folders, they would have been
useless in flight, as it would have been practically impossible to sort
through all this material and still fly the airplane. In most cases

if it becomes necessary to resort to such information, it is too late
to use it successfully - Due to the short time in tr-nsit in jet air­ craft, it is recomrrended thet a thorough briefing be given at the start
of tho trip, and local briefings be limited to weather and local cir­ cumstances.
After briefing at Gre^t Falls, a short uneventful flicrht was
mede to Edmonton, Canada, on 25 October. Refueling here vas easily
accomplished as two (2) jet fuel units and experienced, capable £TC
personnel were available. The remainder of the Strato-Fax-Relays
were installed thet evening and on the following morning, 26 of the 28
P-80s cleared Edmonton: One plane required a canopy adjustment while

the second aborted with a low oil pressure reading, dropped his tip
tanks and landed. The oil transmitter Was bled and the geuge worked,,
perfectly. Procuring new tip t'rks was more of a problem: The set

of tanks -required at Edmonton, drawn from /F Supply, uncrated,were
found to be short one (l) st^ndpipe assembly and various other fittings.
Therefore, proper assembly was not poFp.ible without too much delay

-21­

in procuring the needed supplies. On> completely a-sembled set of tanks
was delivered to Edmonton by ATC, the next day, supplied from stock in
AF Supply at Grest Ft U s , Montana.
18/
Fort Felson, Crnade.

Having arrived at Fort Nelson at mid day, the first section now
with seven aircraft, decided to push on to Whitehorse. Approaching

w

?tson Lake, the flirht "-as forced to descend under the ov-rcast Hiich

soon lowered to a point where it was inadvisable to continue. Rather •
than climb out again and fly ever the top with the destination weather
questionable (no contact-could be made with rVtson Lake), the flight
returned to Fort Nelson. On the morning of 27 October, with all 28

P-80s present, (The two aircraft remaining at Edmonton rejoined late
on the -fternoon of the 26th) the flight to Whitehorse was begun. Over­ the-top flight was required and 26 aircraft arrived at whiteh..'rse. On
let-down, the left nose door on one of the planes was badly buckled
and a new door had to be flown from March Field to replace the old one.
Since weather delayed the flight to Ladd Field for four dgys, there was
ample time to replace the part.
One set of tip tanks was rccidentally released before take-off
from Fort Nelson, requiring the flight leader to remain behind with
the pilot of the disabled aircraft.
Arrangements, had been made with Headcuarters AMC for certain
aircraft supplies to be on hpnd at each scheduled stop along the route;
This equipment included sets of disassembled wing tip fuel tanks packed
in wood crates. It was necessary for the Air Echelon mechanics to
uncrate end assemble the fuel tanks on the spoJ^»w;.rEl|%|was considered

Photograph (vid s.d. #10)
-22­

drrrcrous •-n proved to b -•d

v ? T difficult due 4o'the lack-: of proper

tank cleaning and pressure testing facilities at any scheduled stop;
Leak testing facilities are of prime importance because the only meth­ od, of testing the tanks,in the field is to install them on the aircraft,
service them with JP-1 fuel, snd run the unit before proper tank press­ ure can be obtained;
In order to clarify this last statement, organizations based
at their home station always receive from their supply, wing tip fuel
tanks that ere assembled, cleaned and pressure-tested, and ready for
use. Due to this fact, rhen the organizations irove was planned, no
thought was given to the possible assembly of tanks, and no-arrange­ ments ivere made to include pressure tes-ti^g gauges snd fittings for
t^is work.
Due to this, lack of equipment, the set of tip tsnks used at
Fort *Telson., Canada, • as assembled, serviced with fuel, end found to
• leak. Tanks were drained, removed, end the outer extrusion bands
tightened three times. It was finally found necessary to caulk the
in^er and outer extrusion bands with a large quantity of gasket cem­ ent before tank fuel pressure would remain corstant. The tanks still
continued to stt'P fuel at the back and along the outer extrusion
band, but due to the rate of fuel seepage, and the length of the next
flight, it was decided to release the aircraft for its next move.
^hitehorse, Onada
^hile waiting for -esther to clear along the route to Fairbanks,
the two (2) aircraft lrft behind at Fort ?Jelson, arrived on the 27th
of October, thus all 28 airplanes
T:i

ere ready to make the last leg of

the- journey to Ladd Field together. During the few days of delay at
-23­

""Mtfchorse, the squadron was to observe the first effects of c61d
tber - Canopies became difficult to operate and in one case, it was
necessary to jettison the canopy in order to open it. Low struts and
tires were common and oxygen filler valves lodged in the open position
and had to he closed manually. Frost formed on the surfaces of the ar­ cre/'t and had to be removed with hydraulic fluid. This was particul­ arly true of the painted wing tips and tails where the frost seemed to
have .rn icy base.
A light two-inch snow had fallen the day previous to departure-- ­ and on the follbFing morning, vhen texiing,-the exhaust blast of the
first plane picked up this snow and turned it into water, covering the
following plene with a; costing of ice droplets, and ell planes returned
to the line. The ice TCS removed, plsnes reserviced, and again planes
taxied to the takeoff position. This time, ell pilots were acquainted
vith the difficulty and each m?n 'used his throttle sparingly in pull- \
ing out from the perking cres ^nd r 'lergt taxi interval was maintain­ ed. T"'O planes ?'ere delayed in attempting to close their cancjpji.es, but
all 28 aircraft Fere able to join in time for the Commanding Officer '

i \

to l a d a full squadron formation over Ladd Field on 1 ISJovemtper 194/7.

Chapter I I I

OFER/.TIONS i!T L/DD FIELD

ion of Area and

TrT

orking

Ladd Field is located almost in the center of Alaska - in the
Tenana Valley, Fhich is formed by the Brooks Range on the north and
by the Alaskan Rsnge to the s'~uth. As a result, the unpredictable
coastal Feather of southern Alaska is held out and in most cases,
wepther affecting the Ledd Field ares rroves from Nome eestvard. "Temp­ eratures however, do ^ot move with the frontal systems in winter, but
are dependent upon the cloud cover over each particular area. Long1
r^nge forecasts suitable for P-80 flying were not available end wea­ ther hed to be continue.]ly checked; This wss true during November,
19hi; in which most P-80 flying1 F S S done,
Ladd Field vith its lone; parallel., runways, filled the erea made
by the horseshoe curve of the Chena River. It'can readily be seen

that the 9Atb Squadron was located some distance from the main base.
Fighter Squadron Housing Area
A portion of the '300 Area1 had been selected t-: house the squad-
ron's enlisted men. This area, consisting of twelve (12) huts, plus
e mess hall and a latrine, was taken over by the Advance Echelon arr­ iving in August. Each of the housing units consisted of three (3)'
quonset type structures, arranged in T-shape, and joined at the tenter
by a 23 foot square building. These units were all that Fere available
to accomodate the 34.7 men assigned. Orie of the twelve buildings was

used as a combination Dry Rcom, Mail Room and Special Services Office,
and another for a Supply Room, which reduced the available living
19/ Photo-diaerem (vid s.d. 4'11)

nnflff

-25"

cr.nprtc.rs to ten (10). The center section of these huts measured 23'
x 23' x 9 f , with a 4 foot square coal bin'in one corner. Each of
the three Tings were 15' x 36', and were 7 l/2f high in the center.
Ten (10) enlisted iren vere quartered in each of the center sections
end eight (8) enlisted men in the wings: This arrangement gave each ,
,of the 24.7 men living in the wings approximately 67 square feet of
floor space. The center sections were more crowded, having only 51.3
square feet of floor space per person. Eecause x*f the necessity of
storing lprsre amounts of heavy arctic clothing, barracks bags and f o t-
> lockers in these crowded barracks, the maintenance of fires and pro­ tection against fires became a serious problem.
The 1&trine facilities for the 347 men included 16 comrrodes, 14
faucets for washing and shaving, 13 shower heads and approximately
15 feet of urinal space.* All of these were contained in one building
20' x 70'. These inadequate accomodations coupled with the necessity
of writing outdoors a distance of 100 to 650 feet from their huts, ser­ iously increased the tendency in cold weather for the men to neglect
their habits of cleanliness and sanitation. Tlis together vith crowd­ ed conditions in the barracks undoubtedly increased their susceptibil­ 20/
ity to, and aided in the spreading of respiratory diseases.
Repeated efforts were made to secure additional housing space
in the form of portable Facific Type Huts but with no sucoess.
» ,
P'ost of the improvements that were made in the housing situation
were accomplished on the initiative of the enlisted personnel living
in them. ' These improvements consisted of painting- the interiors, build­ inp- storm doors and making furniture.. Some improvements were accomplished
207 Photograph (vid s.d. #12)

by Jadd Field; these consisted of patching'roofs an& otHer external
repairs.
Initially the housing available for the officers of the squad­ ron was wholly inadequate. They were quartered in bays and rooms
of a hospital type building along with officers of the 375th Recon­ aissance Squadron, Theee rooms were quite crowded; floor space aver­ aging 58 square feet per person. Conditions were improved on 6 Dee*­ ember when quarters became available in a new BOQ which had just been
completed.
Recreational Fecilities
The recreational facilities at Lard Field might be considered

i

adequate, in that one cculd find most of the facilities there thet
one would expect at an overseas post, however, those available had hot
been erected with a view toward accomodating as man^ personnel as
were stationed there in 194.7-4.8. Most of the post facilities are
grouped in a central locstion near Ease Headquarters, ^ i l e they
are convenient to the nearby organizations, the outlying squadrons
and companiee were handicapped, especially in inclement weather, from
using these facilities. From the Squadron's viewpoint, it was des­ irable to bring certain facilities closer to its area. This could
have been done to an extent if more space had been available in the
living quarters - enough for a properly equipped Day Room, writing
rooms, etc. Inclement weather, irregular transportation service,
and crowded conditions prevented many of the personnel from utilizing
v
existing Base facilities.
In an attempt to add to the recreational facilities, a photo

c!&r>ro6m was constructed in one corner of the Dey Rooir. Although
.very small, it did offer diversion fbr a few camera enthusiasts.
Skis and ice skates were obtained from the Base Special Services
Office and were available on the basis of 1 pair of skis to each
2p. enlisted iren and 1 pair of skates to each 26 enlisted men. Dur­ ing favorable weather, the demand for these items exceeded the sup­ ply.
Two flights were made to Anchors^e in groups of six .(6) officers
and thirty (3H) enlisted men. At Anchorage, the men were the suests
of the 57th Fierhter Group. These trips proved to be a grert boost
in morale for ell who participated.
The Day Room was redecoratedf painted, and furnished with items
of local manufacture.. Although it was still too sirall to be of use
to all members of the Squadron, it acL'ed greatly to its utility.
Hangar Area
The working area assigned the 9£th 'at Ladd Field consisted of
one-half of the floor space of Hangar No. 3, p~'us the shop space sit­ uated on the ground floor and second floor on the north side of the
hangar. The other half of the hanger was utilized hy the 375th Rec­ onaissance Squadron (VLR). This arrangement was not satisfactory to

either this unit or the 375th Squadron, however, because of an over­ all lack of space, it represented the best arrangement possible at
that time*
Hangar Fo, 3 was levpe enough to conveniently arcomodate two
(2)
B-29E

parked end-to-end ?nd two (2) P-SOs, providing the P-80s

were parked between the wines of the two B-29s. The most frequent •
-28*

arrangement was to neve one (l) B-2} and up to six (6) P-80s in the

hangar, it ras not feasible to have more than six (6) P-80s inside
any time the ?75th was working on a B-29.
In order to enclose all of the engineering sub-sections, much
improvising and combining, of specialist groups was done. It was nec­

essary to combine the electrical and instrument sections in a room
approximately 12 feet x 12 feet. The sheet metal specialists, util­ ities persor'^el and carpenters were housed in a room 10 feet x 16
feet" - w? ich restricted tshe proper cutting of lumber and prevented
the use of T/0£E equipment by the sheet iinetal section. The- third
echelon maintenance specialists1of the squadron were assigned to the
proper jjeotions in the Base Maintenance Shops.
The Base Baitery Shop was inadequate to handle the needs of the
squadron <=nd its distance from the hunger made its use impractical.
The best available space on the ground floor of the hangar lepn-to
was chosen end battery chargers, racks and equipment installed.
w

ork

orders reauesting the installation of sinks, drains and ©xhaust fans
were instituted but this- work was not accomplished prior to the dep
arture of the squadron.
Another problem encountered was the fire hazard presented by
the lack of a suitable location for the Armament Section,to clean
guns and to store inflamable cleaning agents - No solution being found,
the arirorers were-situated in e. blocked off portion of the shop sect­ "ion and enjoined to use caution when handling cleaning solvents*
In gererel, ell of the maintenance specialists except cofsirun­ ^.catipns were situated on the lower ^opr^^the,: hangar, whiW> oa the'
-SiA

second floor were situated the Cbfcmunicafiofe Section, Operations
Office and Office of the C'otoranidihg Officer, Orderly Room, Engineer­ ing Office, personal equipment and locker rooms, pilots' ready room,
21/
and Engineering Inspection Office.
Storage space was totally lacking. Except for items needed
for immediate use, stored in the wing of the Squadron Supply room
and in the bins of the Technical Supply, all items were stored outside
the hangar under tarpaulins. This included all ordnance vehicles end
special purpose vehicles. Although storage space for bombs and ammun­ inition was never needed because of the grounding of aircraft, there
was no suitable plsce within a reasonable distance for the storage of
these explosives. Aircraft were left on the perking line and covered '
22/
canopy and wing covers.

2l7 Photographs (vid s.d. #13)
22/ Photograph (vid s.d.

Personnel and Administration

ComraancLControl of the 94th. Fighter Squadron
Directives from higher headquarters established the command and
control of: this squadron at,Ladd Field.

21/

In brief, the Comrranding

Officer of Ladd Field was charged vTith administration to include
rations, quarters, morale, welfare, end discipline. Supplies rculd
flow thrcugh the normrl channels of ladd Field to the squadron* and
administrative and technical inspections of the 94th would be made
by his agents. Operations and Training v^ould be under the supervision
of ihe Commanding Officer, Lacd Field, and the training directives of
the Alaskan Air Corrrand vculd be carried out.
Assignment and reporting of personnel and other routine admin­
l

istration v.'ould continue to be excercised by the Commanding General,
Tactical Air Comirand.
Orderly Room
As may be expected, once the squadron res stabilized, most of
the problems of the Orderly Room became routine. This section proved
to be adequately organized to perform its functions, however, it
should be noted that at le&st three (3) extra clerical personnel were
reouired to handle the number of extra reports required by the ex­ perimental nrture of the squadron's mission, and the fact thst corr­ espondence came both from the Tactical Air Comrrand and the Alaskan
Air Comirand. The crowding of desks in the orderly room was not the best

£2/

1. Par 2b, ^rr Dept Movement Directive, Shipment No, 6159, dated
7 August 1947.. (vid s.d. #4)
2. Ltr: Hq AAC, YIOPN 370.2 "Comirand Control of the 94th Ftr Sq."
To: CO, Ladd Field, 17

-31-..

for efficient oncrction, but the physical "set-up"was *on'"^ par with'
other organizations. Particular attention should be given to art­ ificial lighting required due to short hours of daylight. The bulb
reflector type of lighting definitely decreased the efficiency of ell
personnel, clerics1 and mechanical. Modern fluorescent type lights
would have given a much better light without appreciable increase
in the current consumption.

Reports
Prior to leaving March Field and anticipating a shortage of
blank forms, the squadron requisitioned as many of &11 types as
possible in order to be adequately supplied during its stay in Alaska,
No trouble was encountered except in obtaining the new WD AGO Form
67-1, and VD AGO Form 66, which could not be obtained at March Field
before leaving or at Ladd Field in an adequate number.
Although some difficulty was initially experienced as to which
reports required by comrrnds in the Alaskan Theater, and in the rout- ,
ing of reports going to the Zone of Interior, requests froir higher
headquarters for different reports scon clarified reporting procedure.
One remaining difficulty was the tiire element involved in mailing
them to Tactical Air Command or to March Field, California - Several
TwXs were received indicating nonreceipt of reports that had been
mailed from Lac^ Field as much as ten (1Q) days previously. Mail
coming from the States was'quite regulcry but meil going to the States
indicated more erratic schedules. It is felt that the time allowed
for submission of reports was insufficient considering the unavoid­ able delays in transmission.

It i s also belieyed that too many time-consuming, reports were
required during the same period of time, which W E F a definite hindrance
to accuracy. As an example, the following reports submitted by the
Classification Section were due as of the 31st of December,,1947;
Report of AAF Personnel (AAF Form 127)
Personel Survey of the Army (^ GPA-35)
Officers Efficiency Report {vrD AGO Fqrm 67-1)
Form 66 Data Sheet (TAC Form 35-3)
These reports were compiled and completed by the same clerical personnel,
especially trrined for this type of work. The normal activities, such
as submission of applications for graduate and undergraduate training,
work on officer and enlisted classification, compilation of Officer
Forms 66, ?nd all correspondence pertaining thereto, were also accomp­ lished during this period. This does not take into consideration all
other periodic reports from daily to annual, which must be either coor­ dinated or consolidated by elerief 1 perso^rel of the com::and section.
Oveir a period of time, the volume and magnitude of periodic reports
has greatly increased, and it is believed thr.t sufficient consideration
should be given to spread the special reports in order thr.t they do.not
fall due on or nee.r the same drte.
Delinquencies
A survey of the service records revealed that 126 enlisted men
or 30 of the strength, were under 21 y-'ars of age &nd that thirteen

w

(13) were under 18 years of age.

ith the number of young soldiers

it is f<ftlt th?t the behevior of the personnel reflected in the follo?i7­ ing delinquency report is exceptional. Especially, since the squadron
was not operational for the whole period and it was difficult to keep
personnel occupied at all times.

-33­

>orted

Date 1-15 November $1ttfr $%&• SQ ' rtliff 7 0 0 2 I Remarks Uniform Violations - U 3 cases reported within the Squadron

16 ­ 30 November 1-15 December

75
20 Curfew Violations New Years Celebrations

16 -. 31 December 1 ­ 15 January 1 6 - 3 1 January Duty Section

3
0

A2 36

As can be seen from the Table of Organization, the squadron
was authorized fifteen (15) privates MOS (590) and one (l) duty NCO,
MOS (566). These men ^-ere utilized entirely rithin the squadron as
firemen and orderlies. Twelve (12) firemen were required to fire all
the coal stoves and boilers in the quarters and buildings as?igned to
the squadron. These men also removed the ashes from the stoves, main­ tained hot water, kept the coal bins filled, end acted as fire guards.
This work was done on a twenty-four hour basis.
This number of men was inadequate to perform all of the jobs
in this category. It is recommended that st least one (590) Fireman
be assigned for each twenty (20) men assigned. The number of men re­ quired to fill Base details depends on the manning table of the Ease,
and other work lotds depend on the weather, facilities available for
use by the squadron, and the general conditions under which the squad­ ron is required to operate.
Some of the details for which the squadron was required to furnish
pfrsonnel are ennumerated belop:
11 Men Unloading JP-1 fuel drums Two Feeks
10 Men . Pumping fuel from drums to storage tanks Two ^'eeks
2 Men Ration breakdown at Base Quartermaster Permanent
h. Men Base AF Supply due to shortage of Base Supply

a

• <

'-tA'

B "' en

• J l o q u i r e d ^ b ^ ^ e 5 ^ ^ u g n ^ F jsj^di^epbomtf range (Furnished, but not requirecr'slLncW tfee i$qu£# was unable to fire gunnery.)

Mess An organizations Mess is of prime importance in /.rctic climates..
Not only does the health of the personnel depend on tlje Mess^ but its
efficient operation is the grur+est single factor in meintrining the
organizations morale.
The 9Ath's Mess Hall res a "T-shaped" building, located in the
barracks ar> s. The main portion contained the dining tables rnd sert­ ing space, vhile the single wing contaired the stoves, -ork tables,
si^ks, and storage space. The facilities offered v;»re hot adequate
for the preparation of rn average of 950 individual servings daily.
The single coal range had a capacity for serving approximately H O
men, "hile seating yas available for approximately 2J+0 men. . Space
was therefore at a premium. Vertical racks had to be constructed for
trays y cups rnd saucers. A large stainless steel topped serving table
r?as constructed to serve cold dishes and dry foods. Special rrcks
ye re required for hanging winter clothing, v:hich further reduced needed
space..
Problems not usually encountered in temperate climates are listed
below:
I* i Snon trrcked in soon melted on the cement floor forming'
a slippery film vitfc the ever-present ashes and coal dust,. This re­ quired frequent moppings between and during servings.

2. Sufficient warm storage sps.ee is vital*

Rations must be

uncrated and stored inside in order that they will not freeze..
3. Garbage must be stored in a shalter of sufficient warmth
to prevent freezing.
L. A larpe double boiler is desirable to melt the frozen milk

that is issued.
5. The rt-ater vcs unusually herd and it formed a large amount
of grease on the silverware and trays, even though water softener was
used.
6. Hot soup, with facilities available to keep it hot, should

be served at least twice daily.

XU

7. "Siting lines must "be inside the mess hallj therefore suf­ ficient space should be allowed for this. A satisfactory arrangement
was seen at Nome. A Nissen Hut adjoined the mess hall - here clothing
was stored and personnel could remain inside while waiting to be served
8.- The ispue of coffee should be increased to provide coffee
during working hours for personnel who eve required to work out-of­ doors for long periods of time..
9. Spoilage of fresh vegetrbles in transit is very high: Dur­

ing the period between 2.0 December and 29 December, a check was made of
spoilage of various issues made to this squadron:
Turnips Carrots Beets Lemons Potatoes Cabbage 52$ 20$ 53$ 31$ 12$ 4.8$ Celery Apples Oranges Pears Lettuce 37$
23$
22$
7$
50$
'

2^/

The above figures cannot be said to give a true overall picture,
however they may serve as a guide. This spoilage causes a number of

forced issues which, in turn* do not allow a variety of foods to be
served. This condition is due to the irregularity of the present
shipping schedules.
26/
It is believed that if a recent proposal, submitted by Head­ quarters Ladd Field, to have fruits and vegetables trucked in direct
to Ladd Field from Skagway or Seattle, Fere approved, much of this waste
would be eliminated, and a more steady flow of food would result.

Photograph (vid s.d. #15)
Interview with Mess Officer
26/ No document available

-37­

Operations end Training

Goals to be Achieved
Paragraph III of the operations annex to the "Army Air Forces
Arctic Program for one JP Squadron" discussed the arctic training
of the 94.th Fighter Squadron as follows:
* III. * * * * *

Phase 3, Theater Training.

A. 'Flight requirements as dictated by AAF Training Standards
and directives from this headquarters will constitute the flight prog­ ram. Additional stress will be placed on navigation, formation, inst­ rument' procedures, gunnery, and bombing; so as to arrive et the over­ all desired proficiency for Arctic operation.
1.. The 94-th Squadron, based at Ladd Field, Fairbanks,
Alaska, should be able to accomplish 24.00 hours flying time in P-80s
during the period 1 November through April 194-8, based on the follow­ ing assumptions.
p... During the six (6) months period, the weather bur­ eau estimates 100 operational days at Ladd Field (See
leather Anrex)
b.. Short working days during winter months (4. to 6
hours during December and January).
c. The expected reduced operational efficiency of
aircraft and personnel in cold climate,
d. The 94-th Squadron now avcrrges approximately 55%
assigned P-80s in commission at all times.
e*. Added supply and maintenance problems aggravated
by great distances to depot and difficulty of move-
Mnent of supply.
f. Considering all factors mentioned, the squadron
maintenence record will probably be reduced by 20$.
Using 35$ of total aircraft assigned as the bf st aver­ age percentage in commission, 8 aircraft can be expect­ ed to be kept in commission at all times.

g. Two sprties should be flov:n per operating day,
average sor-tie 1 1/2 hours. Three (3) hours per day
flying p^r elrcrpft in commission. (8 aircraft) X
(3fofce'per (ky) X (100 operational days) = 24-00
t f
a. The first flight each pilot irtes from Ladd Field
will be r familiarization flight to acqur.int the pilot
vith the field and surrounding terrain, become acquaint­ ed v.dth, and gain confidence in the radio rids at hand
rnd beccme familirr vith the operation of the aircraft
under /:rctic conditions.
b. The following missions will be conducted during
the six (6) months period of operations. Ccreful con­ siderrition will be given by the Squrdron Commander in
scheduling the belov; mentioned missions. Existing
conditions, will be considered, such as night flying
during the long nights through December and January,
concentrrting on other types of missions during the
longer d.?ys to be encountered in the spring.
. 1. Cruise control missions at various altitudes.

2. Formation both squadron and flight.
3. Navigation day and night.

4.. Acrobrtics.
5. Gunnery.
6. Dive Bombing.

7. Skip bombing.
S. Vicht flying.

* • • * # • * • * *

27/
i.n /,lesk.r-n /.ir Coiwrrnd directive further amplified the flying
and ground training to be performed by the squadron: Each pilot if
he completed the cousNe prescribed, would have flown eighty-eight
(88) hours, giving £he squadron, a total of 264.0 hours, there being
30 pilots assigned.
27/ Extract of SIC Reg 50-28, 31 tfuly tf (vld s.d. #16)

Hours Flown
Flying was conducted on seventeen (17) days during the squad­ rons stay in /:lpske, the maximum time floT.~n in one day being fifty­ (52) hours. For these seventeen days, the average time flown
per day was approximately 33 hours, giving ecch pilot an avercge
28/
twenty (20) hours of /rctic flying time.
Operations
the arrive 1 of the flight echelon on 1 November, 194.7, fly­ ing operations in Alaska began. Due to orientation lectures being
conducted for e.ll pilots, end the necessity of checking sll aircraft
after the flight from March Field, it was not until the 13th of Nov­ ember that flying could be begun in earnest. Except for the inter­ cept missions conducted on November 15th and November 18th, schedules
were determined, to a great extent, by iverther: Low ceilings and
changing weather for several drys caused lo*" level navigation, GCA
and loccl instrument flights to be in order. Each Saturday morning
Squadron formation flights ™ere customarily scheduled to keep the
squadron in its best form.
Flying routine ras just teing established., with tlpns underway
to commence gunnery and bombing., y-hen the fatal accident of 1st Lt..
iam J. Reilly led to the discovery of fuel filter trouble which
caused all P-80s to remain grounded for the remainder of our time in

22/

/laska<
g Time(vid
^;' 'Che.rt - P i l o t s ^ l 3 r < 5 ^ ^ ^ . C h ^ r t ( v i d s.d. #18)
3 . Photoprrph-Chcrt, D a i i y ^ P - W ^ ^ i ^ Time (vid s.d. # VOCO -40­ V l ^ ^f ' V lg R

22/

Temperature
The temperatures encountered et Ladd Field from 1 November 194.7
through 15 February 19/18, because of their moderateness, arc of inter­ est Hien compared to previous rrcorded figures in the files of the

22J­
/ir ^ecther Service. The mean temperature for this 107 day period as
recorded by the ]>dd Field leather Office vas 2,4°F. end the daily
average for the 17 dpys during ^hich the 94-th accomplished some fly-
encountered from 1These averages contrast sharplyv.'hen the 62d Fighter
January through 31 March 194-7 v-ith the temperatures
ing vps 11.3 F» Squadron was trtini^g r.t Ladd Field. The cverage temperature for
their training period, according to records was -28 F, and they were
able to do some flying on 52 dcys.
No attempt is being mrde here to compere effectiveness of the
two organizations or of the two types of aircraft, but only to note
that this Squadron's testing period was comparatively warm, unfort­ unately perhaps, when one of the primary considerations was to obtain
data on the effectiveness of the P-80B operating during extremely
Cold weather. In spite of the moderate temperatures experienced durr

o 21/

ing the 94th1s training period, the the cold WOP the r experienced was
of sufficient intensity to indicate certain major defects in the P-80B
aircraft and its engine unit. Cold weather, to show its real effects,
2J57 Annex #7, Plan AAF Arctic Maneuver, 9Ath Ftr Sq, Winter 1947-4.8
Hq. USAF
31/ 22/ Photograph-Chart, Temperatures Encountered (vid s.d. #20)
Annex #7, PLin A/F /.retic Maneuver, 94th Ftr Sq, Tr'inter 194-7-4-8
Hq. USAF

should lest for several drys - t sKarp <ffp in ' telhpcMture that may be
experienced in the temperate zones et night, during winter,- generally
does not last long enough to thoroughly "cold soak" the aircraft, all­ ied equipment, and fuel. It is only when "cold soaking" is accomp­

lished that the full effects of cold veather show their manifestations.
Accidents
Two major accidents occurred during the tour in Alaska, the first

21/

occurring on the lSth of November:
During takeoff, one aircraft flying ving position was bounced
into the air by the rough runway (aggravated by additionel snow fell
and periods of thawing and icing) before sufficient flying speed was
sttained. The aircraft settled back on the runway, rocking forward
and compressing the nose wheel strut to its maximum (12" from fully
extended position). The Pilot, believing the nose ge?r had collapsed,
retracted the gear p.nd slid off the end of the runway. The landing
gear and fairing doors received major damage end the fuselage and tip
tanks ™ere buckled. To prevent further accidents of this type, all
pilots were briefed on the circumstances and causes.
The following is a description of the events 1- ading to the
second, a fatal accident, occurring on December 1st, 194-7:
Having concluded a 13 minute test to determine if the tip tanks
were feeding properly, the pilot was on the initial approach of a
tactical lending pattern when observed by the tower operator and a
pilot on the ground: As the aircraft was seen to peel up, the pilot

radioed that his teilpipe temperature was rising rapidly and that he
22/ Chart-Photograph, Aircraft Accident Rate (vid s.d. #21)

-A2­

- ould make an emergency lending. ' The aircraft was se<>n by a P-80 pil­ ot on the ground, to peel up to an estimated 2000 feet, complete one
360 turn and 270° of a second turn. The aircraft appeared headed
60 to the runway at an estimated altitude of 500 feet rnd disapp­

eared behind a small rise. Flame was seen at the tail by both obser­ vers; neither could state whether the flame vrs continous or inter­ mittent, k fevf seconds later, black smoke was seen to rise from the
point of impact behind a small hill. Examination at the scene of the
crrsh, revealed thrt the right wing of the aircraft first struck a
tree, 16" in diameter, at a point 30 feet from the ground. The air­ craft then struck the ground on its left wing 150 feet from the tree.
The outer p r rt of the wing was broken off nnd the remainder of the
aircraft skidded 50 feet to a stop among hepvy trees *nd rough terrain,
Investigation also revealed that the gear, dive flaps, and wing flaps
were up. The pilot was killed instantly upon impact with the ground,
and shortly thereafter, the cockpit section of the aircraft was con­ suirrd by fire.

m

he direct cv.uso of the accident as determined by the accident
i = > eitp.i.,0 . i/^e-out due to clogged fuel screens, with a mal­ \v : " As a res­

bo"-.6

; 1 . • + . o nf ch- hydraulic system a contributing factor. '1.',.n

ult ;-*ill P--80s cf the squadron were grounded until the unsafe cond­ ition could be remedied.
Operational Difficulties
The following difficulties end/or experiences noted by pilots
while undergoing arctic training are listed below. None were part­ icularly hazardous, but all delayed scheduled missions are caused
aborts.

On seven occasions crnopies j°mired rnd failed to close due
to binding of metal prrts or jumping of the chains on the sprocket
teeth.
Changing wcrther did not allow missions to be scheduled e.s
desired; Flights rere held in the near vicinity of the field, or

crews -ere kept waiting for a change in weather.
On wr.rm drys there was danger from icing when taxiing close
to the preceding aircraft. Parking ^as done at a £5° angle to allow
ships to pull lication.
Upon arriv?.l rt Lodd Field, fuel pressure gauges on some air­ craft gave low readings; Hien the gauges TO re bled, no more trouble
v/rs encountered;
Four (4.) rircrrft became stuck in the deep snov7 when turning.
Snor removal is e necessity for P-80 aircraft.
Some crses of elevator trim trbs freezing were encountered,
hovever in all crscs xhe tab became operative before or shortly after

+

ut of the prrking line vith a minimum of throttle app­

ck«.of'f.. Centorir-? Lhe tat^ on the green light, just before takeoff,

i'ed;-::r3Ji r.nis h r ^ a r d .

flue ic zhe dense cold air, more thrust w s encountered; Take-
ol'r runs ivere shorter, patterns larger, due to idling thrust9 and the
flareout on a landing w?s longer;
The push button rrdios sometimes failed to change channels.
No explanation could be given by the com-unicc-ticns section due to the
short operational period.
•Landing gerr struts co1lapsed ^hile taxiing, this was 1L ter
remedied by checking the two vrlve core seals.
Photographs of Parking Area (vid s;d; #22)

High oil LTocsure was common, and warm up in flight was not
rapid. On ground test'stands (Cold ^either-Test Laboratory) run ups

were made from start to 100% as rapidly as possible until oil temper­ atures and-pressures weremormal without any ill effects.- Based on
these"tests, it was hoped that high oil pressures would be allowed
for cold neither operation.
Three (3) tip tank failures occurred when fuel failed to feed
from the tank. It is possible thrt ice formed in the tanks, plugging

the lines, howevrr, no opportunity for continued tests along this line
was available.
Full power could not be applied before takeoff due to slipping
of the tires on the icy runway. The brakes Ft re released at 60% and
full porcr applied grrdually. The ving man followed through and with
little practice, two ship elements took off easily.
Although not serious, the tail pipe temperature, guage (400° *
100O°C) did not have the proper range. On long let downs, tsil pipe
temperatures were lower than 4-00 C , therefore no indication was
- r the gauge. j It is always comforting to the pilot to glance

cr/ra :7d geo iirinedlately that the. unit is still operating*
ji Cn .let downs, close to the ground, where a cold layer of air
eEists (as much as 20° lower than the temperature a thousand feet
higher in the air) the camera lens were found to fog* resulting in
poor pictures. No solution was found during the Squadron's stay in
Alaska»
Two problems which were not encountered by this squadron, but
which will undoubtedly present themselves in future operations, are
the icing of the aircraft and the diffuser screen of the jet unit.

One pilot assigned to Air Materiel Comrrand, in ferrying a P-80B
from ^hitehorse, Canada, to Ladd Field, was forced to climb through
a front -Icing was encountered to such an extent that the maximum
ceiling of the iced aircraft was 20,000 feet. For all-vjoather oper­ ations of jet aircraft, deicing equipment should be considered.
Ice fog wos n e v r encountered but on one day, with the temper­ ature at approximately -35°F., one B-17 run-up was observed to com­ pletely cover the air field with ice fog. In future operations,
the possibility of the formation of ice fog in the take-off of large
numbers of jet aircraft should be a consideration. This fog could
prove to be extremely hazardous in the event an early return ?-as nec­ essary.
Ground Trr in: ng
Ground Training followed the course outlined in AAC Regulation

25/

50-28, 31 July 194-7. During the first few weeks, instructors from
the Bp.se conducted l curly classes at the beginning of each day while
i the airereft rere being prepared for flight. During the evenings,
vhar. flying bad stopped, rll pilots participated in seme form of ath­ .Ler."-s in the gymnasium.
After December 3d* v.-hen all aircraft were grounded, Ground Train­ ing was enlrrged upon. Several hundred reels of training films were
viewed, lectures were given by the pilots en topics of interest, and
athletics in the afternoons was increased to one end one-half hours
per day. The Link Trainer was used to capacity by all pilots. Min­ imum flying requirements w&re met by flying base aircraft.
Chart-Photographs - Ground Training (vid s.d. #23)

yoro '• Arctic Survival Course
All pilots attended the seven (7) dsy Arctic Survival Course
at Nome sometime during the tour in Alaska. This proved to be the
most instructive end most valuable course offered. It '?ss from ex­

periences gained at this school that the Squadron determined the re­ ouirements for the iretic Survival Kit recommended in the Personal
Equipment Section. In this school, tr:o days r;ere spent on the sea

ice and two days on tho tundra learning how to survive with the con­ tents of the survival kit. Although the course"was primarily fash­ ioned for bomber crevs, it could ree.dily be changed to aid fighter
pilots in learning to use bier equipment which is more limited. This
course should be giv<n to crews immediately upon their arrival in the
Alaskan Thoitor, as it forcefully bririgs home to the individual the
necessity for proper dress and equipment et all times.
Personal E - uipment
. Arctic flying presents new problems in divising personr.l equip­ ment for the fighter pilot. Limited space in the aircraft, plus the
probability that the pilot will resort to the use of the parachute
in case of accident, require th?t all survival equipment items be
carried on the pilot - As much necessary equipment as possible should
be carried, for in any case, chance of survival alone in the arctic
is slight*
"Scrabble trkeoffs" are out of the question with winter flying

26/

gear unless the pilot is actually in the aircraft. Waiting in the
Photograph of P-80 Cockpit (vid s*d." #

r

• •"

. ' S

1

i-

M

aircraft in cold weather is not practicable for long period of time.
One remedy suggested to overcome this problem is - to build the
survival kit and parachute into the ejection geat which remains with
the pilot on his p-rachute descent, ^ith this arrangement, the pilot
would only hr.ve "uo strap himself to the sect in readying for takeoff.
The kit, parachute, ?-nd seat should be ersily '"issassembled for re­ placement of components and for inspection.
Based on experiences at the Arctic Indoctrination School at
37/
Nome, the pilots of the 94-th Fighter Squadron listed the items they
fel-: ,;hoiv"''i he a prrt of the bail-out kit as it is now constructed.
j,: f/jn-rel, the priirr.ry requirement "warmth" has been neglect­ ed. {• sjA-epiyj^ \>r,e> for use in conjunction Fith the parachute, is a
All clothing should be designed on the layer principle

necessity.

with a tough we^er repellent top layer. An adequate stove for melt­ ing snow fcT••-',CT

and cocking should be carried.

All of this equip­

ment shou'i.d be ir. - smr.ll light weight pack that will not be lost dur*
i ing bail-ovt

Photographs taken at Survival School, Nome Alaska (vid sd #2.5)
Report, "Bail-out Kit and Clothing for Arctic Fighter Pilot "
(vid s.d. #26)

Maintenance and Supply

In order to give a clearer picture of Supply and Maintenance
activities at LadcH ^ e l d during the tour of duty there, a summary
of the outstanding f.j.fficulties, and general conditions existing
between 1 November, i^+7, end 1 February, 194-8, are described first.
Following that, each joction, and/or aircraft system is discussed
in detail.
bellowing the arrival of the Flight Echelon on November 1st,
iiPTret?!.: he preparations were undertaken to inspect the aircraft and
reljr-. t ' - tc seryi-;e . All of the ground personrel except the thirty
h.r (30) n>? n Tvith Lhe P-SOs had arrived by October 13th, and were work­ ing to improve the facilities in their sections. The major portion
of this work was completed durirg the middle of November, however,
certain phases continued throughout the squadron's stc.y in Alaska.
Transportation to^ior.sly handicapped the squadron in becoming oper­ ationalThere.' r'Pro no tow vehicles for use by line personnel or

by the Auxiliary Pov.-er U^it Section. The refueling section was only
able to furnish four (Z.) servicing trailers per day. Also, details
had to be furnished for unloading T/GSE equipment and JP-1 fuel from
flat cars. As a result, for the first two weeks in November, much
time was expended in preparing newly received equipment for use.
All of +he vehicles thst arrived were pushed into service first and
later withdrawn for service when they could be spared. Manpower was
^ushed from one essential job to another in order to become operation­ al with the least amount of delay. Sections had_just begun to estab­ lish their routine and flying schedules were well underway when the

accident of 1 December, 1947, led to the grounding of all squadron
aircraft on 3 December, 1947.
From this tirre until departure, all efforts were directed
toward establishing n : fix' that would allow the P-8OBs to fly. No
activities perfcrrpoa during tbis period could be considered normal
for a fighter squacro-3, end by the middle of January, 1948, it was
obvious that no 'fix1 /-ould be made before the cold weather passed.
Supply sections be^.aii to make initial preparations to turn in sup­ plies upon receipt, of xiiovement orders froir Headquarters, USAF. On
February 7th, initial plans were made to transfer all aircraft and
-T./C&n to bhe 57th Fighter Group, and to prepare for the return move
ment '.vhich w?s to begin on 1$ February 1948.
Aircrr ft General
X^irJ SlP.;.^ cores should be tightened on the air­

craft, before and during cold ^eether operations. It ^as found'
thst this accion prevented, to a large degree, the number of air­ craft that hrd deflated shock struts. The ".valve extension on the
hydraulic strut vrlve has proven very satisfactory, and in order to
increase its utility, it is suggested that this extension contain
the hydraulic strut v?lve core, the Kit-Dill-3O2O, Stock No. 6500,
Class 04A. This would provide a double seal with two valve cores in
series, one in the landing ge^r- strut and one in the extension. Valve
cores in the hydraulic accumulators should also be tightened after
the aircrcft has cold soaked.
OxyjSSH Filler Valves; It was found that oxygen filler velves

leaked sfter s e r v i c i n ^ ^ s ^ ^ W B ^ ^ t h i s leaking could be obtained
-50­

only by listening for a hissing sound from the valve and by a pres­ sure drop on the oxygen pressure gauge.. It is suggested that per­ sonnel be trained to check for oxygen leakage in cold weather and
that a new type filler valve be'provided.

Ill

Air Lowers: Permission was granted and work started on mod­ ifying the lower lef'„ and right air louvers between stations 283 and
307.5 of the aircre^c fuselage. This action was initiated after a
fire occurred in the fuselage, between the engine air baffle, and
the tail cone baffle; w K ich was not accessible -'to. fire exting­ uishers. ion cr<?:kc The fire occurred during a preflight inspection and ignit­ The starter was energized for some fifty seconds with

an axillary power unit and for five additional seconds with the
aircraft battery system cut in. During this tiire the control valve
had leaked and fuel, aided by gravity, flowed from the drip vslve
from the loTrier burners, and to the scupper drain from the upper bur­ ners. This fuel ignited and fire was seen on the ground under the

drip valve, and under the scupper drain in the fuselage where the
fuel had over flowed and come through the intersection between the
engine and tail cone.
Tip T?nks: Some trouble was encountered with tip tanks failing
to feed. The cause of this T"as determined to bo due_to air pressure
to the tanks being blocked off by the icing of the air pressure reg­ ulator. Air pressure was also released when the rubber regulator

seals lost their sealing efficiency in the cold temperatures.
Fuel Booster Purp Drains: Fuel booster pump drains are required
to be drained at each daily and preflight inspection: The leading
22/TWX: Hq. AMC, ^right Fid-No. TSMTS 36-10-35, TO: CO Ladd Fid.
-51­

cdp-c tank booster pumps are provided with drain lines
base to the dive flap opening and have spring loaded drain cocks.
This arrangement has proven quite advantageous to maintenance per­ sonnel.- The main Tiring rnd fuselage booster pumps have no drain
lines installed, however, and are much more difficult to service.
It is recommended ih-fT, as the time factor is of great importance
for line maintenance in cold weather operations, all booster pumps
be provided with dr-slr. lines that &re more accessible and that in­ corporate the spring loaded quick-drain cocks.
Canopies: During the November operations, approximately fif­ teen percent (1550 of the aircraft were out of commission due to
canopy trouble. Three factors are considered to have caused this
trouble:
1. The ccnopy seals restrict movement by hardening at low
temperatures.
2. The difference in the coefficient of expansion of the

metal canopy track and the plastic canopy caused as much as l/8 to
3/l6 inches difference in size between the canopy and track *vhen the
temperatures lowered, causing the canopy to bind.
3. As the aircraft mass shrinks faster than the canopy

chain, the chain loosens in cold weather. Thus, with a loose chain
and added friction, the canopy chain tends to jump the sprocket teeth
of the torque tube assembly and causes it to malfunction.
The following corrective.moasure was suggested by the Lockheed
company and found to work entirely satisfactory on one aircraft that
was tested to -20°F. - - Fashion micarta blocks and install

on the bulkheads,.Station 163.87, in the cutout support casting, No.
178*670, left and right. One other block is attached to the brace
located at the crenk ascembly on the right front torque tube sprocket,
These blocks prevent the chain from jumping, however, further tests
at lower temperatures are recommended.

J2H2H

SS^ i2?. li^ii-0.^!: 1^ was found that much ice accumulated

in the aircraft pc^-kirg area, just-aft of the exhaust from the tail­ pipe. Since snow r3:nnval is never complete, this will be a problem
where parking is crowded.
'• Unsatisfactory Report No. 4.8-143, submitt­ ed from March AFB. on 25 March 194.8, discusses the l&ck of a warning
lipht indication for the left leading edge fuel tank. This tank con­ tains 100 octane gasoline for cold weather starts. The present SOP
for cold weather gasoline starts, requires the pilot to purge the
fuel system of jet fuel by operating on gasoline for the firal two
irinutes before shutting of the engine unit. - If the gasoline level
is not known, it .is .possible to run out of gasoline and draw jet
fuel through the system. start. Thus the next ground'start will be a hot

It is recommended that a separately integrated fuel warning

light be installed in winterizing P-80 type aircraft for the left
leading edge fuel te.nl-.
Deterioration Of Tires: It ras found that JF-1 fuel soaks into

the snow to form a half frozen slush. During the suspended operation­ al period, it was impracticable to remove the aircraft and they re­ mained in this kerosene-snow mixture. ~Then tires were removed from
the aircraft, they were found to be deteriorated by the action of the

-53­

kerosene. Perforated wooden p?rkirg pads ".'ere manufactured by the
squadron .in order to preserve the remaining tires.
Ai££I£f£ in Commission; During the squadron's one month of
operation ppproximately 65% of the aircraft wore maintained in comm-

AQ/.

ission, raintensnee *-ss handicapped by the lack of hangar space
and by the difficulty for line personnel to work outside. It is
estimated that 75"/ .of the maintenance for this month was required
to be performed in the hangar. As has been previously stated, only
six (6) P-£Os and one (l) engine build-up section could be maint­ ained in the hunger. However, the overall efficiency began to increase
toward the end of the month as personnel became accustomed to adverse-
working conditions % For high maintenance efficiency and thus higher
efficiency in general, permanent or portable shelters for aircraft
opsrating in arctic climates should be added to the T/O&E.
Instrument £cctj.on
Tv/o problems encountered by this section were discovered upon
receipt of the aircraft: As was previously mentioned, inaccurate

readings were encountered in the Universal Attitude Indicator (J-l)
and to a lesser degree in the Slave Type Gyrosyn Compass.
The erroneous readinga from the attitude indicator ranged from
throe (3) to tvolvo (12) degrees with the average error being about
four {U) degrees. The use of the "Streto-Pax-Rtlay helped reduce
the error but rot to the extent necesssry for precision flying at
speeds of 4-00 to 500 miles per hour. The only recourse available ?'as
to change complete- assemblies and return the old assemblies to supply
Chart-Photographs Aircraft in Commission (vid s.d.

-54­

rs repairable; This action war necessary as there v!ere no Technical
Orders or test equipment available. It is recommended that necess­

ary Technics1 Orders and test equipment accompany any and all new
equipment, otherwise, corrective maintenance and constructive rec­ ommendations'on ne1- equipment are delayed until, receipt of necessary
items through normal supply chennels,
A program for a fanctionr.l test of the Gyrosyn Compass under the
direction of the Air Proving Ground Command had been arranged by their
project officer, however this flight test was never accomplished due
to the groundinp1 of P-80 aircraft.
Fuel System,
Following the major aircraft accident on 1 December 194.7, the
engine of the wrecked aircraft was brought back to Ladd Field and in­ spected by the engineering officers and by the Allison and Lockheed,
representatives. Investigation revealed that sediment and foreign

material had collected on the high pressure fuel filter discharge
nozzle--screens- Six (6) of the fourteen (14.) screens were collapsed
to e point inhere no .fuel could pass through them. The low pressure
fuel filter was examined and found fairly clean. Sediment similar
to that found on th< screens Fas found on the walls of the fuel cells-

Tfr

ith this condition existing, the engine would continue to operate

if G high RFM Fas m 3nt.?.i.ned,. however,, if the po-ver ues reduced, end
then increased, a flameout would occur. Inspection of the tail cone
revealed wrinklinp end discoloration of the metal, indicrting uneven
flame distribution end excessively high tailpipe temperatures.
LtrT" Hq APCG (no file No.) "Program for Functional Test (Cold
*Testher) of the Gyrosyn Compass (Proj. No. 4-43-3CW", To: CO
Det., Ladd Fid, Alaska

-55­

As a result of this finding, a spot chock of ell other units was
. instigated, it was found that the filters and screens on 15% of the

remaining aircraft ^ere at least partially clop-ged. This investigat­ ion resulted in the grounding of all P-80s at Ladd Field.
On 5 December 194-7, a conference, attended by the Squadron
Commander, Engineering Officers, Operations Officer, Technical Rep­ resentatives ;?as held and the following course of action decided
upon;
1. Trace fuel contamination from 55 gallon drums to storage
tanks through refueling units to aircraft by taking sludge and fuel
samples from each.
2. Cle.cn refueling systems and take necessary measures to
insure the servicing of clean fuel.
3. Flush all internal and external fuel tanks with 1500 gal­ lons of JP-1 fuel yhiile the aircraft were kept in constant rocking
motion to fcritate the fuel in the fuel cells. Fuel was to be servic­ ed to various tanks, passed through the fuel system and then pumped
out of the main fuel line just aft of the fuselage tank, back into
the servicing trailers. All trailers used were cleaned and tested
for proper functioning.
U. Flush the emergency fuel pump system thoroughly

5. Remove and replace the low pressure fuel filter, end
clean.the fuel filter bo^l thoroughly.
6. Remove mnin-fuselrpevfuel t&nk cover plate end tank man­

hole plates rnd wipe out the remaining sediment bv hand.

r

'. Remove, disassemble, clean, inspect, £.nd reinstall the

-56­

fuel flow meter.
8. Complete engine change.
9. 10. Complete 50 hour inspection on aircraft.
One plane designated as the test aircraft, with the

following test procedure.
a. One hour ground run-up of engine with rocking of sir
craft to .Tgitate fuel in the fuel tanks.
b. Reinspect and eleen both the high and low pressure
filters and visually inspect the fuel nozzle screens.
c. Providing engine inspection after ground run-up
proved satisfactory, a controlled flight test will be
performed.
d. i-.ftev flight test a complete inspection of fuel fil­ ters and engine ^ill be made. If fuel system is clean
at final inspection, all aircraft will be cleared for
flight. For the first ten hours, filters will be chocked
after each flight.
e. An adequate 50 Hour Inspection in accordance vdth
Technical Order 02B-105BA-2, 3 June 194.7, as revised
25 September 194-7, will be ac complished on old engines
as soon as the souadron is operational
It.was believed at this time that the contaminated fuel had
reached the fuel nozzle screens through the emergency fuel system.
Fuel is filtered through this system only by the low pressure fil­ ter and it was believed that the increased viscosity of jet fuel at
lor; temperatures was sufficient to cause sufficient pressure drop
across the low pressure filter to open both bypass valves and thus
allow contaminated fuel to go to the engine air adapter and nozzle
screens.
The Squadron Comrrander held a meeting of ell engineering off­ icers and enlisted section heads on 7 December, 1947, to prepare a
schedule and form working crews necessary for the fuel system flushing

-57­

and engine changes. Lt V Q S decided to place the squadron on a
2Ji hour, 7 day work schedule, effective the 8th of December. The
flieht creFS were augmented with mun from the APU, Armament, Elect-
rice 1, rnd Instrument Sections, and organized into four {U) eight
hour shifts of thirty-six (36) men. E?ch shift was controlled by
.31 officer rith engineering experience end one of the squadron's
"1 four Flight Chiefs,
The vork on the flusHn? rnd engine changes was hampered by
lack of hangar space ^hich allowed only five aircraft to be accom­ odated at one time.
P-80 No. 45-B574- ir-s established as the t^st plane and the
test was completed in approximately one week. All fuel tank- access
plates were removed and the t*nks cleaned as thoroughly as possible.
All fuel lines ^ere flushed with JP-1 fuel. Allengine accessories
were replaced. The entire had P. top overhaul in accordance vith TO

O2E-1O5BA-2 and the i ircrr t was serviced through a couble thickness
of cKmcJs skin. In subsequent ground rur.-up, dirt still passed
through the fuel system snd clogged the fuel nozzle screens: It
was then realized that the aircraft could not be cleaned properly
by flushing.
As a result of crconference between AMC rnd Cclonel Hrrdy, A-^.,
Yukon Sector, the Squadron wee required to stop engine changes tnd
be<?in top ove.rhcul O R --11 used engines. Four (^) of the six (6)
new engines :nst*-1"1 oc1 h- d to he removed t;nd returned to AF Supply.
To facilitate rnffirc overhrul, the Squadron '-ent of the 2U hour
schedule and established P.n assembly line: Eaoh flight vns respons­

ible for engine rcipovrl, turn-in of old ^nd instruction of new
engine fuel rcccssorics: barometrics, fuel pumps, governor, stop
cocks, end d o m i n g of the hi«h pressure fuel filter. The engine
accessory hoses rcre ettrched together in ? special hook-up so that
in one operrtion they could ell be flushed by pumping fuel into the

42/

mr-'n fuel line rnd out tbe manifold line,. As vork proceeded on the

front or accessory end of the engine, the tail pipe rats removed from
the other end. Tbe engine was then conveyed to the engine overhaul

crev,r

which accomplished the-top overhaul inspection. The tail pipe

was replaced and then the finished engine was iaspected and set on
blocks, as there were not enough engine stands to accomodate the
twenty-seven (27) engines. In the engine overhaul, there was 1CC#

replacement of fuel nozzles end air adapter fuel strainers. It
was found that approximately 90?" of the inner liners had to be changed,
This was attributed tc the uneven burning caused by clopged fuel
nozzles and possibly to the rapid cooling of these liners.after
flight in arctic weather. Supplies for this engine overhaul had
been requisitioned before Colonel Hardy's conference with Headquart­ ers AMC and were air lifted to the Squadron so that no time was lost.
The engine overhaul was completed on 29 December, 194.7 - - 27 engines
in 2 weeks. Four Unsatisfactory Reports were submitted on the fuel
system during this period: 47-488.
E>rly in January, as a result of tests conducted by Lockheed
Aircraft Corporation, Air Materiel Ccmirend, the 94th Fighter Squadron,
42/" Photograph-Engine Flushing Rig (vid s.«d, #
,43/ Test, Lockheed Co. No. 6349, "Cold Test on Low Pressure Micronic
Fuel Filter for Model P-8OB Fuel System, 22 December 1947.
-59­ UR Numbers £7-474, 47-4*73, 47-460 and

end the Cold " c i t h e r Te.*t Detachment at Ladd Field, the whole prob­

kkl
lem of unfiltered fuel became quite clear; All fuel accumulates a
minimum of 1% w&ter content through manufacture and condensation ­ o
This water freezes below 15 F, forming sufficient ice particles in
suspension to clog the low pressure filter now used. The micronic
filters installed on the F2A fuel servicing trailer, and the high
pressure filter in the P-8OB hatte fuel bypass festures: Therefore,
when these filters are blocked with ice, they bypass unfiltered fuel
directly to the engine resulting in eventuel loss of power..
The solution to this problem.seems to lie in one of two direct­ ions: Either a fuel filter be designed which will not be affected
by ice particles ("ot believed feasible), or c fuel of different spec­ ification be used th?t will eliminate the possibility of ice crystals
forming at low fuel temperatures.
It is recommended that the low pressure fuel filter be replaced
with one similar in design to the high pressure filter, and that an
additional filter be placed in the emergency bypass system. All three

of these filters s>ould he tested for proper fuel flow capacity vith
consideration given to the higher viscosity of jet fuel at low temp­ eratures and the fuel return features of the governor and berometric.
Hydraulic Section
Some difficulty was encountered with the "0" Ring Packing, PN
6227-4.3, in the main lending pear oleo struts, becoming cut and chipped
upon action of the geer. This is believed to be caused by the
(JJ Speciel Rerort #11 of Allison Co. Representative, Mr D.F.T'right,
"Jet Mrcreft Fuel System-Troubles Encountered", 3 Feb 194.8
" (vid s.d. #29)
-60­

\. c-kt,-_ «0!i Ri r g hydraulic being forced to r o l l -&thfr than slide when the oleo piston moves. This rolling is due to the piston becom­ Even though drily

ing excessively dry in the sub-arctic climtte.

cleaning end riping of oleo struts -"ith hydraulic oil was stressed to e l l mechanics, this condition s t i l l occurred at frequent inter­ vals. *

Only one Aileron Bocster Assembly, P T 1764.55-2 was required to * be reDlfced. The assembly furbished by La eld Field Supply did ^ot

have the proper winterized hydraulic "0" Rirp' packings installed. Therefore, i t was necessary to process the aileron
x

ooster assembly

through the B s - feintenance Hydraulic Shop for installation cf the a<~ correct winterized seals. Too much stress can not be placed on the proper winterized parts being available to any organization Inspection Section Even before the Flight Echelon left March Field for iPaska, it.was apparent thf t the rcorV lord of this section v;ould Ve heavy. At that hen needed.

tiire, due to the feet that the lrrger portion of the engineering per­ sonnel had gone vith the Ground Echelon, no immediate action cculd be teken to i^creFse the pers.nnel of thip ^roup. I t --'as apparent from

the existing ^ork load (transfer inspection on P-SOAs, inspection of accessories ?ftd auxiliary equipment, acceptance inspections of P*-8Us, forwarding of reports, end erf ting and storage of equipment) that addition? 1 £U?irent&tion of perso^'el v-ould bo necessary for cff*» icient operation in Alaska, Therefore, upon arrival in /'laska, an

inspection office v.e.s set up rrd inspection schedules established.
An edditionel. clerk <?nd one (l) additionel inspector viore added so
that a more thorough study end recort on difficulties encountered
could be made.
Inspections v?ere made of T/O&E equipment as it arrived, in
order to determine the nomenclature of each item and to decide whether
it vovld be needed for immediate use or shculd be stored out side.
In addition to the time consumed in routine- inspections, diff­ iculties rere encountered in the fuel system if/hich required £ more
thorough inspection of the aircraft tnd engine unit. The conditions
found showed ^be necessity for a complete Top Overhaul Inspection
of all units ?nd complete flushing of all tanks, lines end emergency
fuel systems.
During the special project, on aircraft rnd units, an inspection
system ^ s set up to cover the third echelon me.intenc.nce being conduct­ ed by the Sciuadron Engineering Section; This required the presence
of pn inspector ot erch ph^se of the project, vhich ™cs opc-r&ted on
e 2U hour schedule. A list of items thrt required replrcement
T-ICS

m&de rnd r study conducted of ir.?teri.'?l failures "nd causes v;hich r.re
listed in UR Fo. ^8-31, drted 22 Jrnu^ry.
At ccmplction of Top Overhaul, the J-^^-21-A po^tr units v;ere
placed in extended storr<?e. Due to the shortr^e of proper meteric.ls
for complete compliance of extended status, the Ease Air Inspector
'v:PS contrcted rnd approval obtained for present storr;?e v;ith r.ll
r.vr.ilnble precautions accomplished.
£n inspection -nd study of the rubber accessories -ith e fact­ ory representative, disclosed r considerable amount of deterioration
-62­

-'-• the ipp-in Irnding sec^r cssixifs, -hich is covered by U No. 4.8-39,
R dieted 23 January, 19A8
/n operational inspection v;re perforred on a l l P-8OBs with
special eirphrsis given to r i i electrics 1 end hydraulic syeteir.s £.nd
accessories for proper functioning. This specif! inspection '-." s mrde

juet prior to the transfer of the eircra'ft to the Le.dd Field Bese
Mrintenr.nce Section on verbs 1 orders of the Coirrrrndinq; General, Yukon
Sector, AAC, Ledd Field. All aircraft forms and 263 equipment FC.S

checked by the B so Inspectors for completeness subject to transfer.
? This inspection required the utilization of a l l Squadron Inspectors.
Electricr.l Section This secticn ras ccnirosed of- three (3) aircrr.ft (685) rnd tTi'O clectricr 1-rccossory repcirir.en (958). electricifns, It res soon ev­

ident thrt this secticn vrs inadequately supplied -".'ith men snd ecuip­ ircnt. The bfttery is one of the vcakest pieces of equipment in cold In fighters^ (P*-80s)thib is especir l l y truO'» They wer

^erther operrtions.

reroved r t the corpletion of flying ^ind plrccd in 0 v-rrro room on "trickle charge" to insure rdecurte crpLcity on the foil ovine: c.s.y* For arctie operation, the T/O&E of the Jet Fighter Squadron should provide for vt lecst eight (8) iron in the Brttery Section to cllov; 24- hour op­ Gr-tion, rnd a miniirurn of ten (10) x9.ll type rectifiers vith their relrted cquiprent. At the beginning of operations the ne.d of a Battery Shop vr-rs
felt - For the f i r s t of hrlf *f Foveirber, e l l squadron brttcries verc
serviced in the Erse Brttory Shop. The overcroi'deel f a c i l i t i e s thore,

-63­

proved insufficient ; to service f l l cf the Squrdron's •-•rttcries: 12 of 28 sets -ere ayrilrble for drily use.

Oily

Brtttries frcr the Squcd­

rons r.uxilirry pover units further inert-sod this lop.d. Even rfter the Squadron hrd forired i t s o-n b-: ttory shop, ths r c p o v l md ch/rging of bctteries remained c problem. All b

h.^d to be removed c.s scon -:s possible after erch flight.

kll

This involved in

64 instellrticns nnd reirovr.ls per dry T'ith sixte-jn (16) tircrrft corrission.

The-se brttorics weigh cpproximcte-ly 60 pounds rnd i t is

difficult to nlrcc their in the crovded quc.rters of the nose \vheel v:ell, rnd the necessrry rtrovr-l of he^vy outer clothing to Lcccrplish this further arer^v-fites the prcbler. I t is recojrrendcd thrt c. fast, lif?ht,

hydrpulically opc-rrtcd l i f t be designed to meet the follo^irij? spec­ ifications: (l) Cm operate on both snor; rnd clear ground. (2) Cm

be hrndlod easily by one rcn. During flight there is c difference in the temperature of the br.ttory plc.tes, ri£rrr! fror choiriccil ccticn, f;nd the plrstic top, cold frorr; outside
r

ir.

The ^rter vrpor formed frorr the cherrical action

condensed on the cold top -r>d r r l l s of the bsttery, err sting z. lr.ree drop in brtt' ry chrrrc rnd lovrc-ring the f u i d l^vel to such c.n extent t h r t proper hydrometer rc^nings could not bo trken. 75^ of the brtt&rios
T1

As v. result,

'cre found dry rfter four (4.) hours of flight.

After vmr storrge, the ^rttery reprined sore of i t s old charge end the electrolyte, though s t i l l lo", incrers.- #. zs the r r t e r returned to solution ^n the electrolyte. The lov humidity of the outside r±v

has a- tendency to further deplete the electrolyte. PDrstic brtt-ry c-et-s crc extro^ely vulncrrblo to cold tempers-tures 117 Photofrrph: Dcily Kemovrl of P-80B Brtterirs ( v id s.d. /-'30)

y?.F- was evidenced by the f&ct thst 32 batteries were salvaged with
cracked cases as compared with 12 for the same period in teirperate
climates.
Four'(4.) instances of difficulties ^ere encountered with the
Micro-Switch Actuator Arm of the Fuel Totalizer. (Part No. PN 45091-4-0)

The micro-switch was found to be loose and to have moved out of its corr­ ect operating position. This was corrected by moving the actuator arm
back to its normal position pnd adding additional tension. The actuat­ or arm was then secured with two (2) rivets instead of one (l)
.Auxiliary Po^er Unit Section
Four (4.) C-19 Auxiliary Power Units, one P-308 Air Compressor,
and one A-6 Fuel Transfer Pump, y*ere carried by the Air Echelon. The
regaining APU equipment was shipped with T/O&.E.
By 20 November, 1947, "hen the main portion of the flying
operations were being conducted, the following equipment was on
hand:
Power .UPits 9 4 2 2 1 Duel C-13A C-19 C-1B
C-10
C-11A
Heaters 19 - Herman Nelsons 16 - D-l Heaters
Compressors
1 - P-308

It was found that the nine -(9) C-13A power units were sufficient
for full operations, .however twelve C-13A's are desired to maintain nine
(9) in commission. It is recommended one additional Powerman (MOS 166)

making a total of fourteen (14) be authorized for this section. A]so,
adequate quarters must be available for the inspection and maintenance

of this equipment.
The dual C-13A Forer Unit was found to be adequate for starting
P-80s in temperatures d w n to -30 F , However, ir order to increase
. its efficiency for further operations, the following modifications
are recommended:
1. Length of cable (between power unit and receptacle on air­ craft) should be increased to 25 feet.
2. Power leads should be rerouted out the side of the unit
(preferably the left side) and both leads attached along the entire
length. This would enable mechanics to plug in for starting in one
operation. (The use of double leads, attached and routed in the
above manner is necessary in reducing voltage drop caused by added
physical drag in cold weather.) " '
3. The length of the trailer hitch (on front of trailer)
should be increased by 2U inches to allow more operating room and
to decrease the turning radius of the trailer.
U. Installation of internal and external li?ht< is deemed
necessary for efficient operation, inspection, maintenance, in arctic
dsrkness.
5. Increase battery heater pad aree in order that the two
(2) coolant va^or heaters may bring the batteries up to desired op­ erating temperature (1O°C) before startirg the APU engine.
Service tests were performed with the vapor heater in operation
prior to starting with the following results: - (Temperatures are shown
in Centigrade)
Time 0915 0930 094-5 Battery Temperature -22 -20 Oil Temperature -22 - 5 15 30 40 ' U5 45 50 Cylinder Head Temp 0 20 50 60 60 90 70 70

-15
-10 - 5 0

1000 1015 ' 1030

Additional Coolant Added 104.5 0 1100 L

6. Modify plywood panels and metal battery housing, hinging
the back and front panel so as to provide ease in removing and re­ placing batteries.

7. Battery "quick cS#ccfeAs^ibe''Use(i throughout. (No infor­
matioh available in UR Digest)
8. It is believed that at -5tf°F, these Units will be able to
Service only one (l) aircraft at a time,. It is recoirmended that the
R*l (300 Ampere capacity) Generator on the Dual C-13A Fewer Unit be
Replaced with one of 500 amp capacity, or more*
Refueling
flying began oft November 1st, only four {U) fuel trailers
that had been modified by Ladd Field were available. By the middle of
November six (6) JP-1 trailers and two1 (2) 100 Octane treilarE were
in use* Tithout these modified trailers provided by Ladd Field, fly­

ing operations con Id not have begun. The squadron's authorized trailers
arrived during the months of October, November, and December, however,
they had to be depickled and modified for JP-1 fuel before they could
be used.
During normal operations, JP-1 fuel consumption averaged 1^,000
gallons per day. Fuel being supplied in 55 gallon drums proved to be
a bottleneck - Even with the use of six auxiliary gasoline pumps, the
project- required a 2k hour schedule. This was necessary because fuel
was pumped from drums to storage tanks and then to refueling trucks•
To provide clean and easily obtainable fuel, railroad tank
cars should be used whenever possible.
After the accident on 1 December, 194-7, the refueling section
was used to trace the source of dirty fuel » -Samples were teken at
all critical points, however no unusual sediment was found except thpt
there was a larger amount due to the fuel being shipped in dirty fuel
drums.
"Photograph: Refueling Operaticns (vid s.d..#3l)
-67­

iiiirin^ January, :;hen there ras a possibility that it would be
necessary to mix alcohol with the fuel, classes were conducted by Mr.
Sherer of Air Weteriel Command to make certain that all personnel
would be well qualified in this process.
It T"ss found that the compressed air motors for actuating the
hose reels,'and the meter gauges stuck when SAE No, 10 lubricating oil
was used. Aircraft hydraulic fluid (ANW 0366) was substituted for
the lubricating; oil and found satisfactory.
Nozzle w-aehers do not make a close seal in cold weather; this
allied the fuel to leak and caused the clothes of the refueling pers­ onnel to become soaked with fuel. A winterized washer should be rran­ ufactured that will seal properly in cold weather.
The tra: ler fuel pump engines ^ere found to stall at the required
pump speed of L5 RPM. In order to comply with TO 19-25C-2 (maximum

rate of flow - h.0 gallons per minute), these pumps must be operated
at an even ltf^er KPM. It is suggestedthft tb&gear ratio be changed

to a higher engine speed te allow the prescribed flow of J+0 gallons
of fuel per minute. Th© exhaust pipe •f-'the "risccnsin motor should
be rerouted through the rear pump compartment to give hest to this
equipment.
Arctic Oil .(AN 00115 used in the U - 5 ton tractors, proved
unsatisfactory. - One tractor us«d eleven (11) quarts in one we-k,
and by the second week, with the oil level kept constantly high, the ,
crankshaft "end connector rods were ruined. SAE No* 10 oil was sub­ stituted and found satisfactory but required preheat for starting
at *-25° F. The Slav*-Kit (Auxiliary Cold "eather Starting) "CK-100,

TO

as found highly satisfactory.. .This unit ,cuid be made more maneuver­

able by placing it on a l/U ton trailer and if provided Tvith various
voltages, this w i t could start all vehicles in the motor pool, and
ground gasoline engines not having warm storage. r'snn storage should
be nrovided if at all possible for all special purpose vehicles.
Armament and Ordnance
Sinee no gunnery or bombing missions Fere flown, the armament
and ordnance personnel were called on for routine maintenance only.
It is believed that this section was adequately organized to perform
its mission even in cold weather. Cold weather did not bring about
any special problem other than reducing the efficiency of personnel.
The armament shop, as were others, was extremely crowded. Gun
cleaning facilities were poor, and there was no storage or working
space for the ordnance personnel if they had been required to belt
large'quantities of ammunition or handle explosives.
The installation of the K-3 Machine Gun brought on several
minor difficulties:
The charging cables had to be rerouted-in order to keep them
from fraying.
The G-19 Solenoids on the outboard and tunnel rmns hamper the
removal of the guns. Ey moving some of the wiring and making new cut­ outs to clear the solenoids, this problem was overcome. A detailed
description of these difficulties are contained in URs No. J+^-A5U and
4.7-471. Guns should be easy to remote as heavy gloves have to be worn
when handling metal objects in cold v/eather. "airtenance, outlined
in TM-9-219 and TO 11-1-28, performed on all guns proved to be satis­ factory.

''V-re srer^ho provisions for stowing the M-8 Fyro Jristol rnd
signal cartridges or for the AF-M3 Smoke 0-renedes. UR's A7-A4-O and
L1-L31 explain hovj the pistol and ^lares might be stored in the cock­ pit vhile the smoke grenades are fastened in the nose compartment.
The Y-llF gunsights T"ere difficult to rer ove from their
mounting because the cannon plug is located behind the instrument
panel and its rerrovel e.nd re-installaticn is hindered by other
instruments. It removal could he made cuicker end easier if the

plug and receptacle were moved to the rear of the sight bracket.
Several pf these sights gave trouble: S^nce rapid repair is not easy
on this critical item, an adequate stock level should be maintained
at Ease level. On six (6) sights the gyro 'pipper' was erratic and
'roamed beyond +he prescribed lirrits. The probable cause was due to
the oversized junction of the drive belts, causing the belt to whip
and slip. Either poor rorkmanship or irproper winterization proced­ ures (No winterization information available) caused the troubles
encountered.
Fhoto Section
By the middle "of February, only one third of the photo equip­ ment authorized "/as received. Iven if this equipment had arrived, it
is doubtful that a properly equipped Scuadron Photo Lab could have
been constructed, due to the lack of space.
Fhoto personnel worked ~ith the Be 5e personnel in their labs.

TrT

hen operations demanded, the required equipment ^es borrowed from

other orpTs^iza.ticns.
Due to the number of extra, reports, Unsatisfactory Reports, and
publicity pbojifgn:-phs required,-.t;*» (2) additional Laboratory Technicians

(MOS 945), making a total of four (•£), are required p or a mission
of this type. This type of work ^es the raj or portion of the work
accomplished by this section.
It is recommended that One (l) A x 5, C-3 Graflex Camera snai
Tit vith 200 flash bulbs be added to the equipment, list for this
section. It is also recommended that some provision v e made to prev­

ent the frosting--up of the AN-N6 and w~6 Gun Co IT eras' lens as discussed
by Squadron Operations.
Ccmmuni c ?ti ons
The substitution of related SSN's in this section resulted in
a Ifsrce number of unskilled men being assigned. These men were trained
as much as possible before their departure form March Field, end were
utilized in the winterizing of the communicctions equipment which had
not been winterized in accordance with M C winterization check lists.
One cormmunicaticns man ^as sent with the Air Echelon (Shipment
Fc. 6159A-II), carrying tvo complete units for the radio set AN/ARC-3,
spare tubes, microphones, headsets, and tools. This equipment proved
to be adequate as only one transmitter had to be replaced.
Due to the fact thst the VEF D/F facilities were installed at
Ladd Field, this section proved to be overstaffed. Three (3) men
assigned to the Squadron were placed on loan t~ the Base VHF D/F
Station.
All of the corrrrunciations equipment was new when put into seiv­ vice end very little trouble developed during the short operational
period.
-71­

Some confusion arose because of the similar color codinc- cf
the co-axial cables leading to the AN/ARC-?- and the P.w/kRk-S radio

sets. This mistake was easily me&e ir the poor artificial light of
the hangar, but ffter this vss brought to the attention of the mech­ anics, no further difficulty was encountered along this line. Other

causes of weak reception iray have been due to low temperatures causing
the squelch circuits to go out of adjustment, however, the short per­ iod of operations didn't afford enough time to perform tests. On the

whole, all comrouricrtions equipment proved to operate satisfactorily.
Squadron Supply
The Q¥ Supply Room was on a par vith others operating at Ladd
Field. Here a^sin, storage space v,-as a problem and less used items
were stored outside.
No trouble was experienced b v the section in securing supplies,
ercept in securing cloth-ire1 f»r mess personnel: Class X clothire was
issued in place of the usual cooks and brkers clothing.
The laundry facilities at Lad:' Field '••ere inadequate for the
number of men stationed there during the winter of 1947-4.8.

rT

ith

laundry being sent every tv?o ^eeks, it was necessary to issue extra
fatigue suits and winter underwear.
During the first month of operations, the lack of transport­ ation sloped up supply action and delayed the unloading of T/O prop­ erty consigned to the Ecuadron. -By the end of January, 1943, an in­ ventory indicated that 65^ of ell tfrdn&nce, Medical, Engineer, CT"S
and CM aquipment had been rocejved. -72­ In the missing equipment,

a drafting set end a plumbers tool kit were items that were urgently
needed, Although an Office Machine Repairman was authorized in the
Table of Organization, no tools were authorized for his use.
Once the scuadron wrs established and schedules set up, this
section operated satisfactorily.
Technical Supply
•AF Technical Supply action while enroute from March Field to
Ladd Field proved to be minor. The aircraft were equipped with
ice-grip tires at Orefet Falls (56 tires and tubes) and twenty-eipht
(28) Strato-Pax-Relays were requisitioned there. Two sets of tip
tanks ¥.-ere required enroute and were drawn from Great Falls and Fort
Nelson. At T""hitehorse, Canada, a nose compartment door was needed,
and it was received by air shipment from March Field.
At Ladd Field, the Tech. Supply Section was adecuate in size
except for the storage of large items which had to be kept outside
of the hangar, covered with tarpaulins. Sufficient space was avail­ a M e for the office area, stockroom and tool room. Counters end bins
were constructed by the middle of November and s ten-day stock level
of standard items of issue requisitioned and stored. In order to aid

Ease Supply in filling our supply requisitions, three (3) men "Tere
loaned to them for en rndefinite period.
It res found that the T/0?E allowance for arctic clothing was
inadequate to supply all personnel working cut of doorsj 50 additional
Parkas (B-2) were secured on memorandum receipt from the Ladd Field
Supply to fill this need.
Chart-Photograph: "AOCP" (vid s.d. #32)

The lack of transportation "-as a seriors problem to this
section for the first three weeks of operation. As a result there
w«rre delays in drawing- supplies from the Base and moving T/O&L into

place. •

During the period from 25 October to 12 November, 19A7, approx­ imately fifty percent (^Of) of the squadron's Air Force equipment
^as received and distributed. .After this date, a few items of . eauip­ rrent were received, but it was not until the last two weeks of Jan­ uary, 19A8 that an additional forty percent (bO0/) of the Air Force
equipment had arrived, bringing the total to ninety percent
( 9 0 A ) .

The fact that this equipment was not in place when the squadron was
ready to commence operations caused needless delay.
The T/O&E under which the squadron operated at Ladd Field was
found to be inadequate in sere instances: This was particularly true
for the Instrument Shop, ^nich lacked suitable test equipment for
the new type instruments in J he F-80B. The 00-30 Series of Technical
Orders which ruthcrized the organizational equipment had not been
property screened, therefore much equipment which wrs not needed,
arrived, and ether equipment which was needed still remained in tran­ sit. This extr-" equipment thre^ ?n additional burden on the supply
section thrt was unnecessary end delayed the processing of needed
equipment..
The following items of authorized equipment, considered essent­ ial to P-80E maintenance, but not received, £.re F S follows:
Class 17A 1 1 Z|7 ea ea CCITRESK'R, Air Portable CO?/TELSSOR, Air P;:rt: blc 8100-21H6O­ 8100-212000

Interview with Tcchn iccl Supply Offi

Class

17E

ea

1

PA0KIR Eesring, Aircraft

79n0-532700

Class

17C

ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea
ea

1
1

1 1
1

1
1

1
Class

EEFCH-Instrument Repair, Type FT VCH-Instruirent Repair, Type EDTCH-Instrument Repair, Type FLFCB-Instrurrent Repair, Type TESTER-Tachometer, Type M-l TESTER-Tachometer, 40823 TESTER-Liquidometer, Type 0-1 TE£71RfTorque, Spec 50452

1 2 3 5

7800-112253
7800-11225^
78^0-11225^-3
780O-112255
7800-901912
7800^805^50
7800-807330
7800-812260

18

ea
ea
ea

1 1 1

TOCL-Appliostin? & Extracting FD'TTTRE-Exbaust'-Cone TOOL-Rir.g & Tube Assembly

SOO3-56E533
£025-9074013
8025-9074091

The following Jist of items are examples of equipment needed
but not putft.prized;
C\at *s

17-C

ea ea ea ee ea
TESTEF.-Flux Velve Continuity Differential Milliameter & Tool Adapter 8056-100570
8056-100687

1 1 1
1

1

Power & Low Voltage Test Fixture 8056-100667 Tidrn Table & Adapter 8056^100810 TESTIR-Portable, for Indicator . Thermometer, Type Ar.6 (PN 6126­ 17E17) R&npe: 0° to 1000°C.

Class 17P
ea
ee.

"TRE".NCH, Box, 12 point 3/8 t t x7/l6" r TlE^CH, Fox, 12 point l/2 n x9/l6 r ? SCBI'DRIVER, P h i l l i p s , lTo. 2, 3"

7900-336^60 7900-836490 7900-663580

The following l i s t of items ere examples of those received, but for which there was no use: Class ,_17C 1 ea ea TESTER, Turbo Supercharger, Regulp tor Type Et-2 ^ 7800^812285

Class l g 1 ee. BiR, Propel l o r Sbrft / T ut "'rench (and o t h e r prope11or t o o l s ) 8CO3-UB9O55

C-^7 rircrrft authorized in T/O&E but not tr.ken.
••Clg.ss, 19 A
15 3 8 ee ee ee. STAND, Assetrbly, Crev Chief, Msintenrnce, Type A-l PLANT, Electrical, Prt 9. 4kva Type B-6B PLANT, Electrical Po-er, Stationary, Type B-8 8200-86^000 S200-730A60 8200-730650

It cer) reedily be seen th£.t the thig surplus hesvy equipment
bottlenecked the supply of items thet vere critically needed. It is

Trendstory that e Table of Organization suitable for p. Jet Fighter
Scuadron be devised.
TfT

hen operating conditions of e squadron sent

overseas are known In advance, Technical Orders should be screened end
unnecessary equipment be deleted or shipped at a later date.
Another factor contributing to the Souadron's supply problems,
was that Supply Tables II end IIP were compiled using consumption data
based on the P-8QA aircraft, /.s a result, these tables failed to in­ clude many of the items required due to lrte modifications mede'oa the
P-80B>for arctic operation.
The following list of critical items of supply for the maint­ enance of the P-80P were not on Tables II and III as a result of these
modifications:
Class 01-L
0112-LS3487 0112-35-175870 0112-60-17S185 EXTRUilO*
RUDDER
CANOPY

CL?ss ,02c 02 59 - 5 23 n.3 00 0259-6^02046 0259-8659142 0259-6702H90 0259-6702037 0259-670203? 0259-6702^39 0259-6702040 ^259-6702041 0259-6702^42 0P59-6702043 0259-6702044 0259-6702045 0259-9053859 Class.03B 4109-530?76-l 41O9-953n215f'Tl 4109-9530215M1 Classic 4220-6627901 4246-650-7099 4257-6041Hi57A 4295-FL3011-1 Class'03F 1504-13 0 U - p 4504-91147-2 4519-301 n 0 4519-B26R Class, O^G 4601-22-^107 4614-190-90020 4619-190-90360 4625-G47-10O Class 02H 2708-F97 4708-9039^73 Class, 031 4841-86223 4841-/J14010E 4842-135-00560
DIAPHRAI* ACCUMULATOR VILVE PLUG GASI-.ET CYLI:-T)ER CYI I"TLER C1'LI7'DER CAilI^7DER F1GULAT0R Vi.LVL AC;E?'ELY VALVE AS'E?*BLY MIRPOR FRuSH AESFTLY RELAY RECT. AS.CE?TLY
RLLAY

T0?2LE: FILTER PLUG PUMP ADAPTER ADAPTER

hVkFllB.
ADAFTER ADAPTER ADAPTER ADAPTER A.D^ PTER ADAPTER BUSKIFG

DISK ASSEMBLY ' T E E L ASSEVFLY BRAKE ASSE5-TLY

INVERTER

Class 031

4842-600-76080 4846-121 4846-124 4846-6-945-15 4832-121064-040-02 4869-L682C3 Class O^J 4906-31964 4906-32027 4912-NP1140-10 Class 05C 6053-215^02 6024-C2100 6040-656520 6040-664101 6040-664255 Class 05E 6319-4159178 6319-4159179 6319-4159180G2 6319-415961 6319-415963 Class 11B 5210-321923-4 Class 20
HJLAJER

FILTER BODY TIPPLE V/LVE PUMP PUMP

PLUG NIPPLE CAP

INDICATOR COf.TA£S TYPE B - l COKPASS INDICATOR TYPE J - l PTDICaTOR TYPE V - l

CASING • HOSE ELETv'ENT NUT INSULATOR

ASSENELY

2000-274100 ­

COVER ASSEMBLY

The 94th Fiphter Squadron's recommendations for the revision
of the T/OE for Arctic operations were submitted by the Squadron to
Headquarters, Tsctical M r Cciranend, during the month of February, 1948,
at a conference (Headquarters TAC) attended by the Squadron's Assistant
Engineering Officer. These recommendations vere based on the 94th's
operations at Ladd Field during the months ofMovember, December, and
January,. 1947*48..
-78­

" {•! , 3 *

is •! •

* '' ' •

After examining the facilities at Ladd Field, it was decided
to integrate the 94-thfs trarsnortation personnel and equipment with
the existing facilities in the Base rotor Pool, The decision was m?
for two reasons: The late arrival of the T/O&E from the Zone ofI i n t ­ erior and the Jack of a sheltered locrtion for the establishment of
a separate rotor pool. This arrangement worked to the advantage of
the Ladd Field shop et first, because our equipment was lste in
arriving1. Ko-ever as the vehicles arrive-"1, they were processed as
expeditiously as possible and rut into operation immediately.
In addition to arriving late, none of the motor vehicles had
been completely winterized in the 2one of Interior prior to shipment.
Some of those received had been relubricated with licht winter oils
and greases, but ir> no instance were heaters, defrosters', rr winter­ ized cabs installed. Information copies of shipping orders to vrr­

42/

. ous Ordnance Depots received by this Squadron indic: ted that an
1 attempt would be made to winterize vehicle? in the Zone of Interior;
They would be shipped on -heels End arrive prior to 1 November 194.7.
As it worked out, the major part (70?) of our vehicles did net reach
Ladd Field until mid-rovember; tro weeks after the Squadron became
operational. Durinp t v is time the Squadron was dependent on Ladd
Field to furnish the necessary vehicles. .At thst tirre, Ladd Field
was short of effective transportation pnd could furnish only a min­ imum of equipment*

r T 127 See"~document ^ 8 , Ltr: "Status of Incoming x. ter Shipments (P-80)
\ at Port oftfh.ittier"from T4C Ii_ais,o.n Officer to T/X 16 Oct 194.7

•-79­

'; lfVNovember, eighteen (lc) vehicles had arrived, and b •
•• ' •

52/

30 November5 an additional '<• enty - tl:-r^e (23) vehicles had arrived.
Due to the immediate need fcr t; yr.e vehicles, the action usually
t k e n on receipt> i:;as to first remove the oicklin." compound ?.nc lac ivr
lubricants: substitute winter lubricants and complete the re : t of
the vinteri^ation Process v;':e.i the vehicle could be temporarily
sp red.
Consider Lip: ell factors contributing to t^e delay in ar"iv:,l
of tha 9/th's transportation equipment; crowded oorts, heavy'shipments
to ti'R .ilas!;an Theater, existence of othor priority missions in
Alaska at t!is time, and poor rail*'*y service between Alaskan ports
j.nd Ladd Field, it is believed that tl:e or'.Ter for rrcveraen-t of vol.iclec
from the various Supply Depots tc tho Port of ISmbarkation, :should
have been given at least thirty (30) days sooner, or by 20 July, 1947.
(Information copies of sKippin;* orders from the "ar Department Tool
and xjquipinent Division at- .arr&n Ohio, addrcrsed to PTO ; Seattle,
hv.shinf-toii; and to the GO, *%. Fciniar Ordnance Depot are dated as
late a& 20 August 1947.) T-is additional time phorld be sufficient
for r?intorization to be ccrmleted in the lone of interior, and for
I
other time delays that mirht develop.
!To lie1? tecLni^ues 1/ere evolved either in routine maintenance ,
or in the, necessary "'interisation processes. Tec'^:cic:-1 Crd^r Uc. 19­ 11TA-1 cvnd other Technical Orders referenced in T. 0. No. 19-1-01 */ere
complied T'ith orior to the ore'oaration of the vehicles for -interir '
zation. The firet ,Jeep required a vieek to be connlotely vjinterized.
"Chart; .Status of Vehicles (vid s.d. #33)

As experience vras gained, and production lino mothods utilized, this
time uas cut to approximately 1$ man hours to "depickle" and winter­ ize one Jeep.
Spaco -T7O.B. not available in tho ton-stall shop at Lac-d Field, for
the ttintcrization of vehicles; This *.?ork rns done at the Ordnance
Shop serving Ictfc- Fiold." "..'hen this work was begun, four (4.) men wore
assigned to this shop and later, an. additional throe (3) men v/cro ass­ igned. In addition to tho T.'inter lubrication of vehicles, tho Arctic

\U--TU

Winterization Kits

aloo installed in thu vohiclcs ::t this shop.

Special tools urc locuirccl to inst~.ll tboso kitb and it is boliovoci
th?.t it "'o- Id be impr.-.ctical for -. 'organization such as thib on-:, to
>n do tl.i3 v:ork in tl:c fiold unl,. s tuOco- tools r.rl zAtiod to tho T/QSi,
and pi-0? spr.ee is avc.iL:.^lc. Ti is problem is solver1 if tho nocoss.ry
•Jork is ac complin hod in tho Zon-.i o f Litcrior. (is outlined in T. 0,.

.;. bhu 'Jec.tl.ier f.rov; coldor, OJI^- of tho bi^-^st prool-jms b;;cp^.
_tiict1 of gc-vtintr the vc'-clos r>t .rtod -ftor th;^- ]..->.& cold so-".l:od ov^.:r
"•ight or for •. lo:ic':-'~ i-i'ioc. - t lo" tom;)r-.^v.vo£ -o.; tv.it;:'ri.:;":• '.701.1c;
'hnot retain ^ '-.ir'h c!" .rf;o, •:h':n, .. •.v.s :v;C---ss-rj% they ;:^r-: loft oirL­ : :e sidc. Onco • ^ j rtc.c, it '•:•.?> inpr-p.ctic.a.L to cH .77v t!:o bntt rios by id­ {• 3..

ling "ibc .on.'-ini; b-.--c-.ujf.cj 11 v^ Nicies v;orc r.?ing 120-15 Arctic >.ri;.v
c .l/
Oil. Moreover, vcryiittlc ch'rrv could bo bu? It up on fie short "'"-ripn
ground tb.r b-.sr- on v'hie> tW.- v;-Licloc -;-ro bci«i? utt.:-d« (The -.'iiiteriz.jd

Joop-iT.s .'-.dditioii-.l •.•ciuipm'.nt th .t incr^asos tho lo'.c5 on t^c d o c t r j c a l
B.y£itoi.i, i.e., £out!v.;:hd '•e.-i.;-r, cr.'frosi^rr,, -,nd Lt-ndby '.iL...V..r.)

£'~d^ ?i^J-^ ^ : A ; l y £ Jv.inten..net. d i r e c t i v e , 5 Jr.n 4-3 - J l . .no -T/intoriz-d Y ^ M C I S "'.'ill b - ; L":i't :i.cltling v:hon "oho trjmv.or. t u r o i s -bovc ~10 G F.»,

-31­

Tests vrere conducted during tl;e early part of January "to deter­ mine the comparative effectiveness of standby heaters incl 'slave kits'
r.'hen used as aids to cold weather starting; In the fir Ft test, using

three (3) Jeeps and one{l) 2 l/2 ton truck as test vehicles, after
they had cold soaked for 12 hours in an averse temperature of -35°F,
the Jeeps reouired 35 to A5 minutes of heating and the 2' 1/2 ton
truck required 2 l/2 to L hourr; of h^atin? before they started effect­ ively on their own batteries. Under similar conditions, usinr-1 slave
kits, both the Jeep 311 r the truck started instaneously vithout any
heat application. In this test, however, it was for.nJ. advisable to

let the vehicle run at a fast idling speed for 10 to 1$ minutes in
order to rarm it up sufficiently for a restart to be made in the event
the engine stalled. The second nethc'i ^;s found to be more satis­ factory as quicker starts could be obtained rcith Jess work and also
because no fire guard was necessary. It war also found that if the

vehicle was to be parked and subject to cold soaking again, that it
should be idled from 30 to 4-5 minutes to v'arm up the battery suffic­ iently to insure restarts for the remainder of the day.
It was originally expected that the Squadron could make some
use of the M-29 Cargo Carriers (VJeasels) which v?cre substituted for
the Weapons Carriers on T/O&E 1-17R. Only two (2) of the seventeen
(17) '."easels r?ere received by this, organization,. One of the tT"o was
tested by the Engineering Section to determine its value in towing
F-80S on packed snow. The following observations were made!

'I'! • turning radius of H-29s ^ith P-GO in tor is too large
; for any practical operation.
The visibility is extremely poor and ^oul<? constitute an
unsafe condition as vjell as poor operating1 efficiency.
The clutch is too veals and it is estimated that i f *>ould
burn- out in a very short oeriod of operation. On the test vehicle,
the wear experienced was far beyond any acceptable amount.
The vehicle is underpowered and too light for pulling a
10000 - 15000 pound load.
The conclusion/ arrived at from the above ^TIF that 1 1/2 ton
personnel carriers would be a more suitable vehicle for the purpose.
This vehicle (personnel carrier) is hosvy enough; has six (6) wheels
which could be chained for traction^ ;,nd has sufficient -porer. Also,
it is believed that the C-13A Dual Auxiliary Power Plant, used for
starting P-oOs, could be mounted on the rear of this vehicle thereby
having the starting source on the same vehicle used to to?' the air­ craft to its starting- position. This vehicle could also be more eas­ ily adapted to multiple duties of the flight line such as personnel
carrying, cargo hauling, etc.
Summary
In the event of futrue missions of this type, to like climates,
it is recomrrended th^ts
Every effort be made to have the vehicles in place and oper­ ational prior to, or on the d:.to on vhich operations arc to begin.
Winteri&ation bo accomplished in-the Zone of Interior.
One and one-half (1 1/2) Ton Personnel Carriers be furnished
in place of the M-29 Cargo Carriers or 3/U Ton "ieanons Carriers.
The T/0uE be auf-Tfonted. to include provisions for recharging
of batteries in the field; i.e., three (3) battery rectifiers, and
one (1) EM, HOS 685, experienced in battory vork.

From the medical standpoint, the problems encountered during
the operations of this squadron rdttinj the Alaskan Theater have.
boon little different from those to bo expected at any station ••viv in
the Zone of Interior. Relatively high temperatures experienced dur­ ing the past winter eliminated for all practical purposes the prob­ lems which normally T"ould bo expected to arise as a result of train­ ing under the usual arctic conditions. ron
IUP.S

In addition; since the squad­

based at •. permanent Air Force station, it has been 'oossible
?

for the medical officer to have immodiatoly available the facilities
of an organized station hospital.
Upon receipt of movement orders, a Flight Surgeon and four (.4)
enlisted, men (Scrgenat 673? Sorr-oant 361, Private First Class *657,
and Private 657) r;oro assigned for duty -"ith the squadron. At this

time, the Dental officer and Dental assistant I'/oro deleted from tils
shipment. Due to the short-re of dental personnel at the nor; stat­

ion, the services 01 tl.is officer could havo boon utilized to tho ful­ lest extent.
Medical processing of the p. rson'iol prior to ovar^as shipment
was accomplished personal, y by the Flight Surgeon in accordance :vith
existing regulations. By m::..ns of individual interviews riith the
enlisted porsonnol of tho orjyutf z .tior., it -/as possible to accomplish
the roasir-.Timcnt of several individuals Dot qualified for arctic ser­ vice. These interviews also served to afford tic • GclicJL officer

52/

Sec Document #8, Ltr: TAC file 210.3 "Nodical Department Per­ sonnel" to CG 12AF " "

:- .:*• perspective of tho mo die; I a&poctc of the mon in \ho souad­ : ••: ron, which proved ic bo of considerable value. fo It is recommended

that such a policy be instituted in futrro operations rather then
tho frequent cursory processing pcrformo:"1 in an already ovorcroT dod
military outpctiont clinic.
It is J felt that a more thorough :rctic indoctrination of or­ ganizations ordered to this theater in the future ^/ould be beneficial.
Although the reports of Tr.sk Force Frigid - j d Exorcise iT-sk-Ox "./ore
ji made available and contained, useful information, the dero:istrations
and lectures by the mobile unit which vcro conducted before departure

T/OVO

of little practical value. Plastic-irurrod spectacles had boon

recommended for use of mon working at sub-zero temperatures but could
not bo obtained for this squadron because of lack of authorization
prior to deb rkation.
Tho personnel of the medical section arrived at Ladd Field on
14. October, 194-7? along '1th tho main body of the squadron. It ras

the decision of the Ba.rc Suxfoon that the dispens ry, at that time
oporctod by the 375th P.econnaiss.-:.ico Squadron (VLR)', bo'shared vith
this squadron ^hicb. proved to b.j a very satisfactory arrangement.
Supplies, for a thirty c'ay period, i;,rc requisitioned through a joint
account from the Base Medici Supply, Hot infrequently, some diffic­

ulty Has experienced in obtaining useful c.ru; s and equipment as a
rosu.lt of nonav-.liability of the-EG items in tho supply. Kov/evor, as.
a result of tho more or loss ido.,! setup in rc^.rds to si polios,
very little of the authorized equipment «as used.
It is bjlievod that in the event a squadron vss based at a
distance from 0. ho& Ditp^^fct thojiuthog^zcd equipment v.'ould_be qui-'.

-65­

inadequate under the usual erotic conditions. Since: we h:d no
occasion to cope -ith this problem, no specific recommendations are
mo.de as to 'p.ossiblo changes.
As is si\ov?n in the accompanying chart, there vorc no unusur.l
medical trends. There -'ore ao medical problems arising' from expos­ ure to extreme cold. This may bo attributed to the inordinately

high temperatures and to the fact that except for the month of Nov­ ember, normal operational activities bore not carried on especially
as regards the enlisted men v/orkiag en the flight lino.
During the first month -'ftcr arrival, there was an increase
in respiratory infections r-;bich v/asoscribablo to the sud..".on clr.-.ngc
in climate and to the improper "taring of clothing during the acclim­ atization process. It has boon observed that round-healing time is
apparently increased in this area: There was no opportunity to c a n y
out any scientific study of this problem. Hero reported during the. tour of duty.
Although the mossing facilities vrora inadequate, the Moss v;as
reasonably sanitary and the diet quite adequate. There -crc no cases
of nutritional deficiencies.
No chanp'-'S arc recommended for Quartermaster issues of clothing.
As to recommendr.tions for changes in rog-.rds to flying equipment, they
arc discussed under the report of the Personal Equipment Section.•
It is recommended that the First-Aid Kit in the Fightur Pilot
Bail-Out Kit bo rcolacoo and the following items inserted:
Carlisle dressings Ono (I11) inch adhesive tape Tourniquet One tube of petrolatum
Small pair of scissors
Sulfanilamidc powder or
other topical application.
No cases of Venereal disease

"?kdical Report Cl-r.rt (vid s» d. #
-86­

nC.cr the circumstances, the morale of the men v-. unusu lly
good ovon rith the :• .thor Door facilitio: > of enlisted iron on tin.' Ease. rovided for the rocre-.tion

Lack of spr.ee prevented the rjst-:blish­

mont of r.n adcauato Day-Room for the enlisted men ^itbin the squadron
arc.;?.. It is suggested that organizations traini '• in this .TO-, in the
•' future bo made aware of this problem.

ks :. result of unf?,vor bio circumst-.ncos, tl..e Medic .1 section of
this squadron had little opportunity to study the medical •r.spocts or
tho off cts of ortromc cold.
1. The c.ccomplifhment of more thorough processing and indoc­ trination of men scheduled for e.rctic clinLP.to is recommended. It is

further sugvrostod that the rrscdicrl section precede the ruain body of
r.n organization for the "ourpose of sotting up an effective dispensary
before their arrival.
2. Organizations should be given more comprehensive informat­

ion c.s to tho facilities in "hich they r/ill bo b::red in order tlv.t more
detailed planning mr.y be done in ror-rds to the mocsi-:g, housinr/ and
recreation of the men..
3. Authorized medical equipment accorapanyins c squadron
.

training .i a distance from any hospital facilities should be revised
.t for arctic olimatcs.
Um Rccor^ondoo chaivjes s!i uld DO irndo in the First-Aid Kit

v.'!iich is a component of the Fighter Pilot E-.il-Out Kit.

-87­

C h a p t e r IV

RETURN MOVEMENT

^

'•'*•

&

'-:';

**'

In order to clarify the conditions existing i-ndor which tho P-BOB ,-.ircr;ft remained grounded, the follov/ing teletype corforenco hold on 28 January, 1%8, botvoon Headquarters U A and Ho-.dcuart rs S F Yukon Sector, Alaskan Air Cor rand, is ruotod hero;

TELETYPE GOi-TFEPJEMCE

281859Z JAN TT-9J013 PRESENT HE;.Es B/C-EN E . J . TIliBiJILAKE, A-3
3/GEN D . F . G.FliEY, A-3
3/GEN L . P . WHITTEN, AF/MAT

COL J . r'ooruii, P&O
COL A. '.;, REED, TAC
COL C . C . TIAR":^.. trAIi:T
COL P., J . VJFIE, THIC-HT FIELD
COL J . D. CiLD^Ra, ALASKAN AIR
LT. COL C.^OVERSTRLET, ;XASKAH AIR COMI':'-.ND
LT. COL •:.':';. V&ju, P&O
TAJ. '-I. \ . iilLLER, 11/lINT
r r AJ. J . E . COE:.. P&O
CAPT. F . " : » KLIFEE, 56TII FTO OR.
COL. ' . E . M C DOrALD A SUBJECTS P - r O AIRCRAFT (added later)

0 LAr SIFIC .'-.T ION-RESTRICTED THOSE PF.ESE?IT F . F . EV"^; ECT, CG YIAAON SEOTOl^ AAC? UDD FIELD ALASKA
LT. COL D. E . 7-ILU^IN, CO, 94TI- FIC-\-TER SQDN
LT. 00L B o K. SUvS, MR SUPPLY c, I - . r T , LADD I'lLLD ALASKA
TVJOR C . L . P^'ERSON, 9/+TII FIGFTJiT": SCIADRON
CAPT. R . A. BOONS; 9-iTP FIGHTER SQUADRON
COL T . J» ^.-iil^TT. P0"'ER PL...NT L;jiOR..TORl ; TSIGHT FiELD
J.1P^ F . TJT.-KFT'SPT, PO'LR PL-NT LABOR-TORY, -.RIGI'T FIELD
T^i J . ".TIT-TLE. P0"I.R PLANT L.SOI, TORY, '.RIGI^T FIELD

TELETYPE CCITlilPEKCE - CQUT'D D..-1. ThIS T E L E C O ^ E ^ r C S H.:£ hEEN G^LL-il? TO 'OirCiSS T ' 3 RETURN OF THE 94-TI- FIGHTER SQI.JEION PERSONNEL. REPR'.SENT/iT^.VES FROM ;J13 ? TIU] I'ATEP.IEL DIVISION /iND OPE^TIONS DIVISION OF THIS >.'I;..Dqi t J;'iEF£, COLO1IEL C ,LD;.R;. OF ..LLSK,., ..ITT:- THE
ENGIFEJEH-JNG OFFIUER

OF THE f%0 GROTJP AT Sy;LFRID&E FI^LD /J:E PRESENT.

TIS1-E K-S EKSN SUCK ,. T ;i^S DIV.iliGS-ICE OF O?I:'ION Or THE PROPOr LD FEL FOR THE P-8O ..IRCR .FT T:i..T UP TO NOU IT H:tS I L ^ F IMP03SIIIS TO RE.JCH L RE.S01T;Li:iE DECISION '.S TO T";E HISPOSITION OF T:TE 94TII GQI ;.D­ RON. (END DL-1) DA-2 FORMERLY GL?"1L?.:.L EV" P.EST, CO ; L."..DD .FIELD, IGCOMJEI-TDED TH-.T SnD'>: BE RiCTt:.ii^ED UJ7IIL 17 FEERiT:.RY| RECO^T;: 7 ^ THE S ,];E ON 2U J.-.I^JJJIY. EO-'BV^R, GE1GRLL ?;VLr:LcT on 25 J .NU.'J.Y IN R^DIO YKCGO-0152 RECOI.'DKDS B 1 E D I , T E RETURN. .(EV-ID ?J.-2) VrJY THjtL RE«/ER&/.L OF DLCISIOI^?

YII-1 ..NS D.--2 DJJCISIOI-: REV. ^^D LEG JTSI: FIELD TE:.T ;.T LUDD VIMDER DIHECTIOI' OF M ERKE!^:."F I-I.'.VL FIDIC .TED LITTLE LIKELIHOOD TR..T BLEND OF ^NL-18 R ;.LCOI:OL'MTU J P - 1 FUEL ".'ILL E L I H I M L FORR:..TICW OF ICE CRIST..L£ WHICH BLOOK LO" F ^ S S u P L FILTZR ilKCEPT UI^DER CO'^'ROLLED GO-'DD:iO?TS OF BLui-fDIir- I1:TRXTIC:-L TO ATT/.IN IiJ THE FIELD.

-89­

H:.VE TEE TESTS TEEN COMPLETED ON THE T1O ( 2 ) P-80B a THIS KQ \l.S .".DVISED TH/..T THE TESTS OULD ES GCf.TLETE 25 J.'.NU.'JIY.
r

:H.'.T

"ERE THE REST!-UTS? (END D/,-3)

(IX-2

:.NS D.>3) THi..Tr.ER CONDITIONS HLVE PRSVL1TTED TESTS TUNS
l4T

PRESCRIBED TEI-T­

ER.JTRES.

RES'OLTS OF RUNS LI T',0 FULL

TEJTE:

.TIRES INCONCLUSIVE. TESTS CO^'TI^TUE TOD/.Y. ICE

POORLY E^LENDED FUEL USE DURING RUN ON 24TII. ^r..S •£ COUNTERED

ITH ..ICOHOL BLENDED FUEL :.T PLUS 5 TO PLUS 9 DEGREES F
KELING

BELIEVED DUE TO I/JCK OF COM'ROL'ir UNIT. (END YK-2) HEIii IS MORE ON YIv-2 YK-2 /,NS D/.-3 COi-TTD.

PROCESS IN THE .SEiWICIFG

FLUID PROPORTIONING DEVICE QUOT-.TIO.TT M-FKS "PROPORTIO^IERE" OUOT..TION M'-RK C .N PROBXLY ES UTILIZED INSUFE TEGREE OF CC:rTROL IN BI5NDING REQUIRED IN USING ,.ICOI"OL .N-/.-18 'TITH J P - 1 FUEL. KiWN ..V;.IL.EIE END YK.-2 aC. NOrlE /.V.'.IL'iLE OR

r

:iEN GROUND RUN ""...S Il.DE ON
?:L.?ORT.:D

P-3OB TE .T H _D FUEL SY.'TEM FLUSHED SO?.E FOREIGN : 1TLR STILL IN SYSTEM NOli^L? TOO TviUCII FOR S..FE

JITH 1500 G . L . FTiiJL, YOU

Wu.T DO YOU COi'StDLR »»£01CM?

fORE TE^

1DRE TKJ-N : "..-^ IXPERIEiiCED IN ZI?

(END D/i-A )

TELETYPE CONFEREWE -«Llii v T'D

FOREIGN r.JTT'Jl OBTAINED TFRU GROUND RUNS OF P-8OB

.HIGH IUJD BEEN

FLUSHED !:;4S TOO GRE..T FOR S .FE OPEI ..TION CONSIDERING 1HE F.XT TI-UT LOV: PRESSURE FILTERS '.ILL NOT FUNCTION. I F LOv: PRESSURE FILTERS COULD EE

DEPENDED UPON TFE REDLINING FOREIGN RVTTER COULD PROP..BLY BE ELIJ1IN..TED IN SEVLUL FOURS OF FLYING VJTH FREQUENT CHJTES OF FILTERS.

ADVISE TF..T SELFRIDGE F.J5 ENCOUNTE' ED ONLY ONE ICNO'.'N C Y E OF ICING OF LOr: PRESSURE FILTER DURING "INTER WLF..GE GROt ND
TEIIFIL­

^TURE 12 DEGEEES. 1. PER D .Y. 2; THEN

FOLLOT;ING PRECAUTIONS T KEN BY SELFRIDGE :.S SOP.

DRAINING QF REFUEL! "G SEGREG .TCPl U^TITS TIPEE OR ?.XDFE TIT^S

DRJNING . .LL FUEL T. M S Jl TH,;.ED IN'H/*NG;it

n \ . E ' v £ D ,ILY; IF m S^

/JUC ICED

..IRPL.NJ^

..ND m .I-.^D BEFORE

FJuIILSING FOR

FLIGJ :T. 3.

. DRAINING OF T I P T .NIX :.T".E CUING ;.CGOPTLISI ED Z.FTER TFE L / / T ECKT D.YS OPERATION

FLIGHT OF DJ.Y -ND PRIOR TO REFUELING FOR (END D:>5)

SELFRIDGE SOP T\"-S BEEN FOLLOWED ,.T LJT• EXCEPT FOR ITEI/ 3 . T..NKS F..VE BEEN I.©DIFIED .FTER GROUNDING. ED BY 94TH.

TIP

THIS MODIFIC TICN RECOMI'END­ OURS

••JkVER..Oii'GROUND TEfPEK .TURES OF SECO^DIRY BV!PO?.T:.NCE.

F:.VE BEEN -»5 DEGREES F .

.XTU..L TEMPER .TURE OF FUEL / J TII.E OF OPERATION SELFRIDGE FIELD SOP

IS £ETEPJ>;TINING FACTOR IN FORMATION OF ICE CRY^T'.LS.

TELETYPE CONFERENCE CO^T'D

ONLY ELII-2F..1E FREE ' .TER IN n"UJ:L AND r I L L NO± LLIPTN..TE ENTR. INED OR DISSOLVED TJ.TLR TMICF FORMS CRYSTALS </f LO'.ER TEMPERATURE. (END YK-A)

DA-6
v

HAS A S i n i L J l SOP B..EN ESTABLISHED JS LADD?

(END a . - 6 )

IN ORDER TO AVOID A LONG .RANGE SP/JIRING MATCH LETS GET TO THE BASIC QUESTION I'S IGH ISs SHi.LL P - 8 0 /.IRGRJ.l- EL 'FLOl.'N OTDER COLD !.\AITTER CONDITIONS IN VJHICH TEE LOT- FREGa.RE FILTER '.ILL BE INOPERATIVE TO .. L..RGS PROPORT­ ION OF TITE TIME QUERY I F VIEYJ OF TIE KNO' N SENSITIVITY OF J - 3 3 ENGINES .ND TFE F-8O FUEL TOTALIZER TO i^Y COOTJ!IN,;.TIOF IN FUEL CFA A'T" REG;RD­

LESS OF ;.LL PRACTICAL INSURES TAKEN TO PROVIDE C I E N FUEL TO AIRCR .FT CMA IT IS THE CONSENSIS FERE THAT P-8OS SVOULD NOT EL FLOHN FUNCTIONING LO1. PRESSURE FILTER.
Tr

ITH A NON­

THE QUESTION OF R^TlllHING THE 94TH

TO TFIE Z . I . FINGES ON TEE PRCB .BILITY OF PROVIDING A F K FOR THE FUEL ..ND FILTER COf/IBIN,.TION I F THE IMJ-LDI.TK FUT1;RE. ALTHOUGH NOT CONCLUSIVE, HOLD LITTLE PROMISE. FIELD TESTS TO D..TE, ANOTIIJLR POINT IS THAT

THIS LOW PRESSURE FILTER I S INSI.-JIUD TO PROTECT ENGINE ..ND TOTALIZER FROM FOREIGN M..TTER ORIGIN.1TING IN THE ..IRCR .FT ITSELF SUCH .AS FUEL BOOST:ii'i PUfQP F/.ILURES C?L DISINTEGRATION OF FUEL CELLS ..ND HOSE CONN­ ECTIONS. AITIIOUT /* FUNCTIONING FILTER Ci:A H..Z..rnS .JLE INTROrVCED (END YK-5)

I'JIIICH ,Jll-i L'KPENK^fT OF SERVICED FUEL CONDITIONS

TELETYPE CO^ELENCE GONT'D

B:.SI:D ON YOUR :.. IMPLIES, PRESENT ? L . F S ;,::: TO RETLRN PORTION OF SQDN TO Z I . /JASKA. GEN TMNIFCILL K _VE COFFIN E DET..ILS ON HIS RETURN TO

PROCEED " I T H CLE JJI1TG OPERATIONS AS OUTLINED IK XOORD^NCE

W.JQC 94-651 DATED 2 3 J:.-N.

(END DA-7)

-x-

#

-*

•: ?-

•*

-*

Once tho docision to return the Squadron to the Zone of Inter­ ior had been nr.de, all sections bognn the turn-in of supplies and
pecking of equipment. On 9 February, 1948, a conference \ic.s held
r-.t Fondouartors Yukon Sector attended by Generals Lee end Fitzimmons,
TiX, Colonel Broggor, TuC, Colonels ITcflcy ?.nd B^.ldv'in, AMD, Commanding
Officer, 94-th Fightor Scuadron, Commanding General, Yukon Sector.
At this conference iho following plan was formulated and subsequently
carried out by the 94th Fighter Squadrons
Tv/cnty (20) C-02 type aircraft of the 62d Troop Carrier Group
wore designated as the air lift to move the 94th from Ladd Field to
Iwarch ..ir Force Base, California,
Method of return to be by individual C-S2
1Q:.GS.

First C-82 to arrive Ladd Field by 12 February} 194-8.
Last C-S2 to depart Lade! Field by 19, February 194-8.
.-ircro.ft to be loo.doc?, to maximum gross of 54?000 pounds.. (To
include 8400 pounds of payload - personnel, b-.££ci£o, and minimum ess­ ential couipment,.
The route used to bo the s^me as for Yukon Exercise except
loading ^ n .turn-around at L;.dc instead of Bir Delta and delivery
.d to f.brch instead of McChord.
320 Parachutos to be delivered to tjrc 94th on first C-82
arriving Ladd Field.
The backlog of freight destined for Alaskan Theater at Groat
Falls mav bo lifted provided no delay vith early return of 94-th results.

i\. was osstUEt]^ ih^fthSfc-ntovb^^

in the

time available so that the C-S2 Unit would be through in time for
tho final lift of"Yukon Exorcise -"D" from Simondorf Field on March
2d.
This plan called for the return of minimum essential equipment
to March ;«.ir Force Base: Tools had been inventoried and p-cked to
be air lifted and it was then learned that all T/O&C, including tool
kits would be turned in at Ladd Field. •, This change did not delay
. tho departure of the main body of the 94-th, Tiiich began on 15 Febru­ ary, 194.8, as a rear party composed of supply and c-ngincoring personnel

11/

had boon design'.ted to complete the transfer of P-8OB aircr .ft, turn
in supplies and vehicles, and clear buildings.
..11 boxes of equipment were stenciled ;.nd a packing .list com­ piled for the contents of each. **11 Class 13 clothing was cleaned
and returned to Base Supply. When tho Technical Supply Officer
cleared his account with the Ladd Fiold Supply, approximately 10,000
items had been turned in during'' this tvo -Track".period. Considering

tho short time in which the Squadron had to prepare and execute this
move, very little difficulty was encountered*
Secret Book Message No. 132352, Headquarters Yukon Sector
Photographs "Transfer Inspections at Ladd Field" (vid s.d. #35)

A P I*,

I
ft
B I X

A

t
I A

I

APPE^fDEC

Documents 1 2 Plan:
Chart;

3 Chart:
4- Letter:
5 Letter:
6 T'-Xi
7 Lottjr:
8 Letter:
9 Photorr.voh:
10 Photograph:
11 Di..gr.-.rn:
12 Photograph;
13 Photogripn's:
14. Photographs
15 Photograph:
16 Regulation:
17 Chert:
18 Chnrtt
19 Chertt
20 Ch,.rt:
21 Chart:
22 Photographs:
2 3 0 Ch-:rtJ
23^ Ch-.rt:
24 Photograph:
25 Photographs:
26 Report*
27 Ch-.rt:
28 Photog-r ph:
29 Report:
30 Photogiv.nh:
31 Phctorraph:
32 Chart:
33 Cb.-.rt:
34- Chu-ts:
35 Pbotogrr.ph:

Page 1" •i;F « r c t i c Maneuver * 94-th Ft.r £0 Orgs.niJiP.tion of 94th F t r So . , . . 2 ^4. Augmentation of 94th Ftr Sq . , , . ; 5 ?iovomont Directives, Shipment No4 6159 6-23 ?fcdic.->l Dcot Portonncl, Hq T .C 24. /OB 0377, Hq 12 ^ 4 . . 25 F.oorganizitio.n of tho 94th Ftr Sq . . . . . . . . . . . 26 - 44 c 4-5 -t-;tus of Incoming '.r.tor Shipments 4-6 • T i l l Field, Utah i. * Fort Poison Canc.c; • • k 4.7 lacic! Ficlc!, ..l-.sk?, US J.nlistod JiO.trino
49
^qu.idron Facilities ,
50 - 57
P-SO Stor...go •».,
4 58

I:QZS :I-.II
59

Rc-.ul ;tion
Hours Flovn •• » Pilot Progress (Flj'ing Training) P^eo Flying Time Temperature «...••.»....»........*... :»ircr nft in Commission • 4.5 Dogroo Parking , , Pilot Progress (Ground r.ir. .in:- -^) Progress, Ground P?r3o:a-'el Fli:-r in ' :intiT Clothing ' Arctic Indoctrination B?.il-0ut Kit, Arctic Fifhtor Pilot Alrcr ift in Commission • Fuel tcyrtora FlusM:,^ Fi~ Jet ...ircr-.it Fu^l Syr.ton Romov:.l of P-30B B-.ttcTios Rofuol;i;-'.p Operations
AOCP Status of Vehicles Modic^l Report.P-80B Transfer Inspection

4 .iC i

£0 - 67
..#..* 60
* 69
70
71
•. 72
73
• 74­ , 75
• 76
77
•..• 78 - 88
72
90
91 - 93
94­ 95

96 97 98 99

C O P Y
HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY AIR FORCES
Washington 25, D C
EXTRACT COPY
Plan: AAF Arctic Maneuver, Winter 1947-48, 94th Fighter
Squadron, Jet Propelled

DISCUSSION:
A. "ForId w ar II Fith its complexities of global warfare a)nd div­ ersified employment of air power radically modified our fundamental con-
concepts in;logistics and operations. Intricate theories developed dur­ ing the years of peace were found to be totally inadequate and were maj­ or decaying factors in accomplishing the change from defensive to off­ ensive operations, It is of paramount importance to the future defens©
of- this country that projected Dlans be kept up to date, continually
substituting modern methods of employment for those thtt become obsol­ ete. Combtt actionjin Africa, Italy, France, Germany, China and the
South Pacific has provided experience necessary to operate successfully
anywhere in the world, except in areas of extreme cold cliirate. Small
scale operations were carried out in the Aleutians, Iceland, and Green­ land, but ccrrplete knowledge is lacking in the difficulties which would
be encountered by tactical units in the Arctic. There is no possible
comparison in the -"-eather of the above arees and that encountered in
the Arctic. The Arctic has a low humidity with very intense' cold, while
others have a high humidity and temperature xrange from 20 to 100 degrees
warmer."
B. "The Army Air Forces realizing the possibility of future intense
operations in Arctic regions h^s instituted a policy that all Army Air
Forces Units will undergo a period of Arctic training. From this train­ ing Army Air Forces hopes to develop a standard pattern of cold climate
operations."
C. "Conforming with thi^ policy, /rmy Air Forces has directed
that Taotioal Air Corrmsnd seijd one Squadron (JP Aircraft) to Ladd Field
Fairbanks, Alaska, to undergo winter training for a period of six
months beginning 1 November 1947* The 94th Squadron, 1st Fighter Group,
stationed at March Field, Riverside, California, has been designated '
by Tectical Air Comirand as the Jet Squadron to accomplish the directed
mission."

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The Adjutant General's Office
Washington 25, D,C.
AGAO-I 370.5 ( l Aug 4-7) AFCOP-ATOSP-M SUE^CT: TO: Movement D i r e c t i v e , SMpment 6 1 ® Commanding Generals
Tactical Air Command
Alaskan Department
Seattle Port of Embarkation
Air Transport Command
Air Materiel Command, Attn: TSSC0-6D
CMe"fs of Technical Services
7 August 19-47

1. It is desired tliat you take without delay t t action for
Be which you are responsible to prepare for foreign serviee and to move
the unit listed in par 2 to the appropriate port of embarkation and
thence to Ladd Field, Alaska.
2. Unit Unit designation and other pertinent data:
Shipment Agency to Issue Strength Number Station Movement Orders Off EM

T/O&E '

94th Ftr Sq 6159-A March Fid CG, Tactical JP(Less Air Riverside Air Command ,Calif Ech Shpmt

4

267 1-17R

61®-AI
(Less Adv Air Ech Shpmt 6159-AIl) (less Fit Ech Shpmt 6159-AZ

20 Nov 45 Motes a, (3) (30) b & c

(3) (50)
(28)

Note, a: Reorganized in accordance with letter AGAO-I 322 94th
Ftr Sq JP (9Jul 47)AFC0R~(536e)-M, 14 July 1947, Subj
Reorganization of the 94th Fighter Squadron, JP.
Note b: Ur.it will irove in current status of training, Status
reports are not required.
• Note c: Unit is authorized to move with over-ages in grade and
substitution of related SSN's,
3w a, This movement -ill 'constitute a TEMPORARY Change of
station for six (6) months.
b. Upon arrival, at destination, unit is attached to the
Alaskan Department for logistical support. Assignment and reporting
of personnel and routine administration will continue to be exercised
by the Commanding General, Tactical Air C i - o n .
orrad

A TRUE COPY
Sbpmt 6l59^^^^WPMBSIi!i!!> (contd)

c. Upon completion of the temporary duty authorized for the
94-th Ftr Sq, JP (Shipment 6159-A the Commanding General, Alasjcan
Department will take action and issue instructions to return this
unit, personnel and equipment, to the cirftinental United States in
accordance with the provisions of letter AG 370.5 (23 Jun 4.3) OB^S­ E-*M, 30 June 194-3, Sub;}: Procedure Concerning the Movement of Troops
Overseas. At the appropriate time, the Commanding General, Alaskan
Department will request assignment of shipment number to cover return
of this unit in accordance with letter AG 370.5(17 Apr 46) AO-IE­ Sf-MOT-M, 25 April 19^6. Subj i Assignment of Shipment Numbers to
Overseas Commanders.
d. The Commanding General, Alaskan Department will report
to the Adjutant General by radio when Shipment 6159-A has. arrived at
destination. Code designation, 6159-A will be used in lieu of des­ ignation of unit. This report is,of the utmost importance.
e. Immediately ut>on arrival, in the,theater and daily there­ after , an information copy of the morning report (TQ^GO Form #1) of
the 94-th Ftr Sq, JP. will be.submitted to the Statistical Control Unit
servicing the area*
f* the appropriate commanders concerned will comply with the
provisiors of paragraph 2*a* (34)> AR 345-4-00 and further ccmply with
the provisions of AAfc1 Letters 15-6 ahd 15-12* 10 June 194-7k
g. The appropriate commanders concerned will notify by TWX
or otfter means of communication, the Statistical Control Office or
Unit servicing the gaining, and losing command when the action directed
by this movement directive has been completed.
4 4 Preparation for Oversea Movement t
. a. Detailed instructions concerning the preparation of the
unit listed in par 2 above, as well as for the movement itself, yere .
. to be found in the publications cited bleov/c It is highly essential
that the provisions of. these"publications which are an integral part
of this movement directive, be thoroughly understood and implicitly
folio ed by all concerned.
(1) Preparation for Overseas Movement- (l-CM) (Third Edit­ ion), 15 Jan 194-5, as modified by IIVJI No, 1 avlached
hereto ­ (2) In addition to POM (Third Edition), par UP., (l) above,
AIR-POM (Second Edition) /:G 370.5 (6 Aug 13) 0:>3i'.F-M,
1 August 194-3, is applicable to the Army Ah.- Forces unit
in this movement directive with the following modifications:

(2)
" Page , j 7

A TRUE COPY
M/D Shpmt 6159 (Contd)

(a) The first sentence of paregraph 38 is deleted
and the following substituted therefor:
"In addition to the distribution of orders and reports
required by ^ar Department Memorandum 55-130-2, 22 Oct 194-6,
and other appropriate distribution, copies of all movement
orders issued by 'the agency to issue movement orders1 as
specified in paragraph 2 above, will be furnished without
delay as follows:"
(b) All references in POM and AIR-POM regarding the,
submission^ of shortage lists covering Signal equip­ ment, both airborne and ground are amended to pro­ vide that action (original) copies of lists of short­ ages Tor AAF procured equipment and supplies peculiar
to the AAF supplied by S-he Chiefs of Technical Ser­ vices and common items ci' equipment procured by the
Chiefs of Technical Services v.dll be forwarded by Air
Mail cr other expedition mear^s direct to both the
Commanding General, Air Materiel Con.mand, ?'fi*ght
Field, Deyton, Ohio, and to the Signal Corps Stock
Control Agency, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
(c) Kits, tool, individual for mechanics in AAF
units (including only those tools normally issued
to the individuals) procured by the Commanding Gen­ eral, AAF (Air Materiel Command) and the Chiefs of
Technical Services as authorized in appropriate T/E
and T/O&E will accompany unit to the port of em­ barkation through which the personnel moves and to
overseas destination. These tools will be packed
and marked at TAT equipmsnt.
5 • Allowances of Clothing and Eo u i "PHI q rrb:
a. Clothing and individual equipment as prescribed in Part
II, Section V, T/E 21, 1 Sept 194-5, with changes thereto and as mod­ ified below:
(1) One (l) set of cotton khaki o . v e ^•r^p/.r-.^ (garrison
-..v cap, F-hiv, c.nd trousers) per Mi ia- aiYthor.Li-e:! "or comfort
during the jcarney to the rort, These Li-y.<.<3 intied meet,
the rsquir^Tjients for Class CS clothing cn.-.y,
(2) Ona (l) overcoat, parka tyo^, ^.i.th p:7ie ].?:•:• or and
one (l) jjr.ir of overshoes arctic 19A5, to o- icfj-jed at
-: the port of embarkation (See par 10c»(l) balo:?).

(3)

A TRUE COPY

U

•M/D Shpmt 6159 (Contd),
(3) Blankets, wook, od (2 per EM) will be substituted
for bags, sleeping, wocl and cases, water repellent for
EM.
Rolls, bedding, M1935, are authorized only when re­ quired as cover for personally owned sleeping gear taken
by officers.
(5) Bags, sleeping, iirool, and blankets, wool, od are
not authorized for officers, except personally owned
sleeping bags which maybe taken if desired by the ind­ ividuals . ;
£ ) Cases, water repellent, ba&s, sleeping, are author­ ized only for officers taking personally owned sleeping}
bags*
(7) The following itemis a^e not authorized:
',Tents, shelter, half
Poles, tent, single section
Pins,-tent, wood
Helmets, steel, Ml, complete
Releases, chinstrap
Plastic canteens
Note: These modifications ot clothing ond equipment will
serve as a guide for officers and warrant officers.
The basis of issue to^ or requirements for pur­ chase by officers and warraiv. cfficers as prescribed
in i/E 21, is not effected by -Ir.a modifications in­ dicated above, rteirs m t au'j'u^iiiad for issue will
be purchased if take;,
b. Unit 94th Fti- Sq JP \ *Note: Organizational equipment is author:- ~ss: .*s prescribed below:
-' T/Q&E *1-17R . Date 20 Nov U5 Changes
^

As modified by Equipment Modification List attached as
Incl No. 2 to letter, AGAO-I 322 >Vih Ftr 'Sq, JP)
(9 Jul ll) AFCOR (536e)-M, Subject Reorganization
of the 94-th Fighter Squadron, Jet 1 repelled, 14, July 194.7.
(l) Items of organizational equipment normally issued
to the individual are modified where applicable
to agree with the adjusted unit strength indicated
in paragraph 2 above.

App, Page *.' 9

A TRUE COPY
M/D Shpmt 6 l 5 | p f e ^ | i ^ ^ p g i ^ ^ (Contd)

(2) Less such items of organizational equipment as
are authorized to the Air end Flight Echelons
in Movement Directive, Air and Flight Echelons.
Shipment 6159 (Published as seperrte directives)
c. Allowances of special equipment and supplies:
(l) Obtain at present station:
Packet, first aid il per individual)
d. Not authorized for theumovement:
Tentage as prescribed in the applicable Equipment Tables,
except thft authorized as Minimum Essential Equipment,
Gas Jiaska, all types
Tent stoves
6. Equipment to Accompany Unit from Present Station:
a. Minimum essential equipment (less any items of such equips
ment issued at the port in accordance with paragraph 10a below) as set
forth in paragraph 4k of POM. For disposition of other organizational
equipment, see paragraph 11 below,
7. Readiness.Pete and Port Designation:
a. Unit will move to the Seattle Port of Embarkation on call
of the port commander. Readiness Date: 1 October 19LJ­ b. Initial arrival date at the Seattle Port of Embarkation
for shipments by the Chiefs of Technical Services and the Commanding
General*, Air Materiel Command: 25 September 19A7.
c. Final arrival date at the Seattle Port of Embarkation
for Shipments by the Chiefs of Technical Services and the Commanding
Generd. Air Materiel Command will be as notified direct to them by
the Commanding Officer, Seattle Port of Embarkation.
g. Method of Movement: Movement to the port will be made by
rail and/or motor. Maximum practicable use will be made of rail trans­ portation. Movement to the oversea destination will be made by water
transportation.
.9^ Specific Instructions Relative to Shipments:
a. To be shipped to the Seattle Port of Embarkation:

(5)

shpmt 6159

RM|I1|11|>.

' (1) The Ohiefs of Technical Services will ^hip the fol­ lowing to the Seattle Port of Embarkation:
(a) Marked: 6159-A-(Abbreviation)

•Complete organizational equipment for the
unit as authorized in the applicable equip­ ment tables, except the follqwing items:
,MEE as set forth in par 4k of POM *
(See par 6a above)
Items not authorized for the movement
(See par 5d above)
AAF procured and controlled equipment
See par 9a(2) below)
*Note: See par lie below.
(2) The Commanding General^ Air Materiel Command
ship the following to the Seattle Port of Embarkation:
(a) Marked; 6159-A-AIR
Air Forces procured and controlled itoms of
equipment as authorized above*
b. Marking of Shipments:
(1) Shipments of equipment to accompany the unit to the
Seattle Port of Embarkation will be marked as follows:

V

TO:

PORT TR/NS 0
SEATTLE PE
SEATTLE FASH

FOR: 6 1 5 9 - A - M
(2) Shipments of organizational Signal equipment will
be addressed as indicrted in par 9b(l) above,, but marked
as follows:
FOR: 6159-A-AIRSIG

(3) Shipment of other equipment and supplies to the
Seattle Port of Embarkation will be addressed as ind­ icated in 9b(l) above, but marked as prescribed in
9a above.

(6)
App. Page c; 11

A T)
M/D Sbpmt 10. 6159 (Cont'd)

Instructions to the Port Commander:
£. The Comiranding General, Seattle, Port of Embarkation,
will:
(1) Furnish from port stocks end issue to each indiv­ idual prior to embrrkction:
(a) One (1) overcoat, parka type, with pile liner
and one (l) pair of overshoes, arctic, 1945*

(2) Report to the Adjutant General the time and date
of arrival of the unit at the port of embarkation.
(3) Notify the Chiefs of Technical Services and the
Commanding General, Air Materiel Command final arriv­ al d^te ct the port of embarkation of organizational
equipment shipped directly from depots. •
11. Other Instructions;
a. Cormunic-tion: Direct comrunic.' tionr is authorized.

b. All orgnnizetional equipment rendered surplus as a
result of shipments made by the Chiefs of Technic 1 Services end
the Commanding General, Air Materiel Commandf will be dlsppsod^gf
in zc^rdnt^af^ithl^instructions- issued by the Comianding General, .
Air Materiel'Command. \
c. All ^heeled and tracked equipment and vehicles shipped
by the Chiefs of Technical Services and the Comranding General, Air
Materiel Command for the ur>its on this movement directive ^ill be
shipped 0?;T HffiELS or OF TR.' CKS as appropriate.
d. Every effort r.'ill be made to furnish all vehicles com*
pletely ?/interized. In the event this can not be accomplished vprior
to readiness date of the squadron, rocuisite meteriels will be furri­ ished for the performance of the normal winterizing functions. Hard
cabs Fill be furnished subject to availibility for supply.
\
e. The APO number and postmaster address to be used for
personnel of unit listed in this letter is as follows:
APO #731, c/o Postmaster, Seattle Washington
f. One (1) copy of movement orders published in accord­ ance pith this directive be furnished Movements Branch, Strice Group,
Service Supply end Procurement Division rTar Department General Staff.

iipp.

Pege

P. TRUE COPY
M/D Sbpmt"6i59 (contd)

g. Per diem allowance is authorized for this unit for
movement to and from place of tempersry duty. No per diem allow­ ance is authorized at an installation ^here housing and messing fac
ilities are available.
12, Obligate to the extent necessary the appropriate allot­ ments in' acccordance vith Circular No. \L3ffi*arDepartment 1947, as
amended.
BY ORDER OF THE SECRET/RY OF WAR:
(S) JCFES
1 Inclosure: Incl: Modification of POM
(Fifth Revision)
Copies 'furnished:
Commanding Generals
Army Air Forces
AAF(AC/AS-3, Orders Section)
Army Ground Forces
Fifth Army
Sixth Army
Alaskan Air Command
Sacramento Air Materiel Coir.rrnd
Ogden Air Materiel Comirand
Commanding Officers
Port of Aerial Embarkation, Gr at Frlls Army Air Field,
Great Falls, Montana
12th AAF Base Unit (Port /.AF Liaison Section)
Seattle Port of Embarkation, Seattle, "'fishingtcn
Cfr'.ef of.' Transportation
™pter Transport Service Division
Movements Control Division
Freight Traffic Brp.nch
Passenger Traffic Bre.nch
Directors of •
Personnel and Administration T"DGS
Plans and Operations T"DGS
Organization and Training "TDGS
Service Supply ?nd Porcurement
T<:7DGS
Postal Officer
APO #731, c/o PM, Seattle ^cshirgton
The Inspector General
Twelve copies to the static listed in parrgraph 2 FOR INFORMATION
O^LY

One copy t o t h e u n i t l i s t e d i n paragraph 2 THRU THE ST/TION COMtYNDER A TRUE COPY:

Adjutant. General

ROY 0. SMITH, JR
Captain, USAF.

App. Page

. 13
-

A TRUE COPY 4 ^AR DEPARTMENT The Adjutant General's Offie 25, D.C.
AGAO-I 370*5(1 Aug 47)/.£C0P-/>M
SUBJECT: Movement Directive, Air and Flight Echelons,
Shipment 6159
TO: Command Generals

T a c t i c a l Aii4 Command

Alaskan Department.
Air,Transport Command
Seattle Port of Embrocation
Air Materiel Command, Attn: TSSC0-6D
Commanding Officer
Port of Aerial Embr rkation, Great Falls
Army Air Field, Great Falls, Montana
Chiefs of Technical Serviees
1. It is desired tbrt you trke without delay the action for
which y u are responsible to prepare for foreign serviee and to move
the units, listed in paragraph 2 to the appropriate port of embarkation
and thence to Ladd Field, Alaska.

2.
Unit

Unit designation and other p e r t i n e n t d^tr.:
Agency to Issue Strength
Movement Orders Off EM CG, Tactical
3 30 Air Comix and T/O&E

Shipment Number Station 94th Ftr Sq 6159-AI March Fid Riverside JP Air Ech Calif 94th Ftr Sq 6159-AII «

, 3 •

1-17R
20 Nov 45
Notes a,b:
c &e
50 1-17R
20 Nov 45
Notes a,
b, c & f

94th Ftr Sq
JP Fit Ech

6159-AZ

28

0

1-17R
20 Nov 45
Notes a,
b,c&d

Notb a:

Reorganized in accordance with letter this office* AGAO-1
322 94th Ftr Sq JP (9 Jul 47)AFC0R-(536e)-M, 14 July 1947,
Subject: Reorganization of the 94th Ftr Sq, JP.

Note b: Unit Fill move in current status of training. Status reports
are not required. ,

App.

Page 3 4
-

A TRUE COPY M/D nr 4 & F i t Ecb, Shpmt 6159 (contd)

Note c: Units are authorized to move with overages in grade and
substitution of related SS^'s.
Note d; Flight Fchelon, Shipment 6199-AZ will consist of twenty-
eight (28) P-80B aircraft each with a crew of one (l) off­ icer per aircraft.

Note e: The Commmanding General, Tc.ctic^l Air Command will furnish
four (4) C-47 aircraft i?ith assigned crews, to transport three
(3) officers and thirty (30) enlisted men of Shipment 6159-AI
to overseas destination^ Upon completion of this mission,
the four (4) C-47 aircraft and crev;s rill be returned to their
proper station within the continental United States*
Note f: The Commanding Generrl, Tpcticrl /.ir Command :?ill furnish the
necessary aircraft to transport the three (3) officers and
fifty (50) enlisted men of Shipment 6159-AII to overseas
destination.
3. a. This movement ^ill constitute a TEMFOR/.RY change of station
for six (6) months.
b. Upon arrivr.l at destination, units rre attached to the
Alaskan Department for logistical support. Assignment ?nd reporting
of personnel rnd routine administration will continue to be exercised
by the Commrnding General, Trctic^l Air Command.
c. Upon completion of the tffimpor,?ry duty authorized for the
94th Ftr Sq, JP, the Contending General, Alaskan Department will take
action ?nd issue necessary instructions to return this unit, personnel
and equipment, to the continental United States, in recordsnee with
the provisions of letter AG 370.5 (23 Jun 43) 03-S-E-M, 30 June 1943,
Subj: Procedure Concerning the Movement of Troops Overseas. At the
appropriate time, the Commanding Generrl, /.laskrn Department will re­ quest assignment of shipment number to cover return of this unit in
accordance tfith letter AG 370.5 (17 Apr 46)A0-I-E-SPIOT-M, 25 April
I946, Subj1 Assignment of Shipment Numbers to Overseas Commanders.
d. The Commanding General, Alaskan Department will report to
the Adjutc?nt Gerer&l by r^dio vhen Shipment 6159 (examples: 6159-AI)
has arrived at dest5.nstion. Code designrtion (example: 6159-AI) will
be used in lieu of designation unit. These reports are of the utmost
importance.
e. Immediately upon arrival in the theater end drily thereaftar
an information copy of the morning report(TOAGO Form #l) of the 94th
Ftr Sq, JP rill be submitted to the Statistic?11 Control Ur-it servicing
the area.
f. The appropriate comrpnders concerned v/ill comply Fit! the
provisions of par 2.a.(34), AR 3A5-400 end furhter comply with the
provisions of A/.F Letters 15-6 end 15-12, 10 June 1947.

App.

Page ;

15

M/D Air & Fit Ech, Shpmt 6159

(contd)

g. The appropriate commrnders concerned will notify by
or Other means of communication, the Statistical Control Office or
Unit servicing the grining and losing command when the action dir­ ected by this movement directive has been completed.
4. Preparation for Oversea Movement;

a. .Detailed instructions concerning the preparation of the
units listed in per 2 above, as veil as for the movement itself, are
to be found in the publications cited below. It is highly essential
that the provisions of these publications, vhich are ?n integral part
of this movement directive be thoroughly understood and implicitly
followed by all concerned.
(1) Preparation for Overseas Movement (POM) (Third Editicn)
15 January 1945.
(2) letter, AG 370.5(6 Aug 43)0B-S-AF-M, 1 August 1943,
Subj: Additional preparation for Overseas Movement for
Army Air Forces Units (AIR-POM) (Second Edition), except
as modified below;
(a) The first sentence of paragraph 38 is deleted
and the following substituted therefor:
"th addition tc the distribution of orders and reports
required by *"ar Department Memorandum 55-130-2, 22 October 1946 and
other appropriate distribution, copies of all movement crdcrs issued
by 'the agency to issue movement orders1 as specified in par 2 above,
will be furnished without delay as follows:M
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of par 23 of AIR*
POM, no call Fill be issued by the commander of the
port of aerial embarkation and no delay in arrival
date rill be made unless mutually rgreed upon by the
Commanding Generals, Tactical Air Command a n the Army
.d Air Forces (AC//.S-3, Operations Division).
(c) Personnel rill-be immunized as follors:
1. Smallpox immunization is required for mil­ itary personnel prior to embarkation.
2. Tetanus immunization is required for all mil­ itary personnel. After basic series of three (3^
innocula.tions followed in one (l) ye?r by a sing­ le one cc booster dose, no additional booster doses
are required except in cases of injury.

(3)

/* 16

,., . ,

- —

A TRUE COPY

.
(con^d)

M/D Air & Fit Ech Shpt 6159

J. Typhoid-pa ratypKdd immunization is required
within one (l) yecr prior to embrrkation for all
military personnel.
5. Allowances of Clothing end Equipment:
a. Clothing and Individual Equipment:

Clothing and individual equipment v;ill be t--ken in accord­ ance v/ith Column "Pu of ^rr Department Pamphlet 38-6, Itemized Baggage
List, January 194-5, as amended.
b. Allowances of Organizational Ecuipment:
Tuenty-eigbt (28) P-80B aircraft fcr Shipment 6159-/.Z
6. Equipment to Accompany Units from Present Station;

Ecuipment, individual and organizational equipment as specified
in parr graph' 5 above.
7. Readiness Dctcs and Port Designations:

a. Readiness D?+e for movement of personnel and accompanying
equipment of Advance /.ir Echelon, Shipment 6159-AII from Port of
Aerial Embarkation, Grert Falls Army Air Field, Gre;t Falls, Montana
is 15 August 194/7 cr as soon thereafter as practicable.
b. Personnel end equipment of Flight Echelon, Shipment 6159-AZ
will be moved from March Field, Riverside, California to Port of Aerial
Embarkation, Greet Falls AAF, Great Falls, Montena so as to arrive
thereat on 20 October 194.7.
c. Readiness Date for movement of personnel and accompanying
equipment of Air Echelon, Shipment 6159-AI from Port of Aerial Em­ barkation, Great Falls AAF, Great Falls, Montana, is 20 October 19
/
d. March Field, Riverside, California is designated as an
/rmy Air Forces staging aree for this movement only.
8. Method of Movement:
a. Personnel and accompanying1 equipment of Shipment 6159-AI
and All vdir'be iroved to overseas destination in aircraft assigned
to the Tactical Air Command.
b. Personnel>nd accompanying equipment of Flight Echelon,
Shipment 6159=/1 ^ill irove to overseas destination in aircraft as
provided in paragraphs 2 and 5 *vove.
c. The Chief of Transportation will -furnish the necessary
rail transportation.
(4.)
.App. Page 17

_ _ / TRUE COPY
; M/D Air & Fit Ech, Shpmt 9. 6159 (contd)

Specific Instructions Relative to Shipments:

The comirander cf the i/.F installation preparing the unit for
overseas rrovement rill prepare and properly mark items of individual
clothing and eo.uipment of officer personnel to be shipped overseas by
vater. These items r/51"1 be shipped Yi'ithout delay from, home station to
the Seattle Fort of Embarkation. Under no conditions will personal
baggage be crated or >oxed ft-2? shipment to a r;ater port, Personal
baggage will be marked as follows:
TO: FORT TR/.-S 0
SE PE
SE«TTLE--\SE FOR: 6l59-(use appropriate l e t t e r symbls

10* Instructions for the fort Ccmnanders and Ccmnrnding General,
Lir Transport Command.

i

- a. The commanding Generrl, i i r Transport Command, ' - i l l insure t h a t no personnel or Fircraft.are rrcved beyond the crritir.-nta.l limits of the United States p r i c r to a. receipt of cle^rpnce fro'rr the "ar Dep­ artment through the Ccmirandinf C-enerrl, irmy /:ir Forces (AC//.S-3, Op­ erations Division). b. The Comtrandi^cr General, Port of ;.erirl Embrrkpticn, Great F a l l s , Army / i r F i e l , Grert F a l l s , ¥ ntanr will report- drte a-nd time of a r r i v a l end departure of each i i r and Flight Echelon tc the Ccm­ mrndins General, Army /.ir Forces (;C/iS-3, Operations Division). c . The'Comma^di^? General, S e a t t l e Fort of Embarkation ship by^r'ater to cverse-s d e s t i n r t i c n the bcg?:r -e l i s t e d in pr. 9 above. 11. Other Instructions:

a. In the event that aircraft becomes damaged or u'-fit for
flight at the /.rmy &~r Forces strgi^g or pert of aerial embarkation
and other aircraft can not >e substituted therefor, the Commanding
General, Tactical Air Command, ^ill arrange the necessary priority
for the movement cf the creF, if u*ii* jured ans still fit for flying
frcm. the port of aerial embarkation tc overseas destination.
b. Per diem plicence i? authcriz<"d for this urit for move­ ment to and frcm place cf temporary duty. No per diem a.llo1 rnce is
authorized rt an installation where housing «r>d messing facilities
are available. *

(5(

App. Page 18

. ; T R U E COPY. M/D Air & F i t Ech Sipmt c. 6159 (contd) »

Direct ccwu.nicg.ticn i s authorized.

d. The APO number and postmaster eddress tc be used for personnel of units l i s t e d in t h i s l e t t e r , i s as f e l l o r s : i'PO P 731 c/o Postmaster, Seattle '"'sshington 12. Obligete t c the extent necessary the appropriate pllotmeljts in Ficcordfrtce with Circular No. 1^3 ""cr Department 1947, as fmended
BY ORDER OF Thl tECWri.Rl OF TT R: ' " (S) J O ^ S

1 Inclcsure ' Incl: Modifierticn of POM
(Fifth Revision
Ccpies furnished:

/djutc-nt Generrl

Ccmrr.s.ndine; Gc-;ri.erf.ls i.rmy I IT Fcrees AAF(iC//;£-3,Orders Secticn Fifth i,riry Sixth /..rmy Scxrrmerito- :'ir Mrteriel >rec Offden i.ir *Vteriel Are? f.les^en i.iv Crirrrnd Comirp-ndinking Officer 12th Ijf Base Unit (Port !i.F LiEisin Section) S e a t t l e r c r t of Eirbf r k e t i c n , Se?:t + le r r rshingtcn Directors of Personnel end i dmi^istrr tion ""DGS Pirns ?nd Opf-rrti^ns "DGS Orpr-n^zpticn end Tr i r i n g T7DGS Service Supply rnd Procurement rT3C-S Postal Officer APO 731 c/o P S e e t t i e , "r-shinptcn M The Inspector Generpl Twelve copies t c the s t a t i o n listed in per 2 FOR rTOR^ One copy to the u ^ i t s l i s t e d in per 2 THRU THE STATION

(6)
li"i COi-Y:

App.

Ppge

A TRUE COPY

L

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ,
The Adjutant General's Office
Washington 25, D. C.
AGAO-I 370.5(17 Sep LI) AFCOP-A-CSGSP-M SUBJECT: Amendment No. 1 to Movement Directive
Air & Flight Echelons, Shipment 6159
Commanding Generals
Tactical Air Coirmand
Alaskan Department
Air Transport Command
Seattle Fort of Embarkation
Air Materiel Comrrard-, Attn: TSSC0-6D
Command Officer
Port of Aerial Embarkation,
Great Falls A^Fld, Great Falls, Montana
Chiefs of Technical Services '
23 September 1947

TO:

1. Letter this office, KiAO-I 370.5(lAug 47)AFC0P-A-M, 6 Aug
ust 194-7, Subj: Movement Directive, Air and Flight Echelons, Ship­ ment 6159, is amended to add an adr'itio^al air echelon. Specific
amendment is as follows:

t

a. Add to the conclusion of the tabulation in paragraph
2 the following:
< Shipment Agency to Issue Strength
TT Unit Number Station ovement Orders Off EM
94-th Ftr 6159-AIII Sq JP Rear Air Ech b. March. Field Riverside California CG, Tactical Air Command 3 265 1-17R
20 Nov U5
Notes a,
b,e & g

Add Note gj to the footnotes in paragraph 2:

"Note g: The Companding General, Tactical Air Comrrand will
furnish the necessary aircraft to transport the three
(3) officers and t-o hundred sixty-five (265) EM of
Shipment 6159-AIII from March Field, Riverside, Csli­ fronia to the Port of Aerie1 Embarkation, Great Falls
AJFld, Great Falls, Montana. The CG, Air Transport
Coirmand Fill furnish the necessary aircraft to tran­ sport the three (3) officers and tvo hundred sixty-
five (265) EM of shipment 6159-AIII from Port of
Aerial Embarkation, Great Falls, AAFld, G*eat Falls
Montana, to overseas destination."
c. Add paraeTftph 7 e.

Pa ere .?'. 20

A TRUE COPY
U
(contd)
e k Readiness date for movement of personnel and accom­ panying equipment of Rear Air Echelon, Shipment 6159-AIII from the
Port of Aerial Embarkation, Greet Fells Army Air Field, Great Fells,
Montana is not eerlier than 12 October 194.7 and not later that 13
October 1947."
d. Add subparagraph 8d«.

H

"d. Personnel and accompanying equipment of Shipment 6159­ AIII will be moved to overseas destination in aircraft assigned to
the Air Transport Command under APR AL-USR-2D-94.51-AF-1O."
e. Delete paragraph lib. and substitute the following:
"b. No per dieir allowance is authorized".

BY ORDER OF THE SFCFET/RY OF THE ARMY:
(S) JONLS
Adjutant General

Copies furnished:
(same as basic letter)

A TRUE COPY:

/ 2 ^ C. J"<.//^/
ROY 0 . SKITH, JR
C a p t a i n , USAF

App.

Page ~"

21

A TRUE COPY

L

DEP/RTMENT OF THE ARMY
The /djutent General's Office
Washington 25, D. C.
AGAO-I 370.5(20 Jan 48)CSGSP-M SUBJECT: TO: Amendment No 2 to Movement Directive,
M r & Flight Echelons, Shipment 6159
Commanding Generals
Tactical Air Command
US Army, Alaska
Air Transport Corrirand
Seattle Port of Embarkation
Air Ma+eriel Command
Commanding Officer
Port of Aerial Embarkation, Great Falls
i./Fld, Grept Falls, Montana
Chiefs of Technical Seryices
23 January 1948

Letter this office, AGAO-I 370.5(1 Lng 47) AFCOP-A-K, 6
August 1947, Subject: /"Movement Directive, /.ir and Flight Echelons,
Shipment 6159", as amended, is further amended to delete paragraph

lib'.

BY ORDER OF THE SECRET/RY OF TEE /.RFY:
(S) JONES
adjutant General
Copies furnished:
(Same as basic letter)

A TRUE COPY:

ROY 0. SMITH, JR
Captain, US/F

Pa?e :

22

A TRUE COPY
DEPARTMENT OF THE
The Adjutant General's Office
Washington 25, D.C.
AG/O-I 370.5 (10 Feb 48)CSGSP-K
SUBJECT: Amendment No. 3 to movement Direptive, Air and Flight
Echelons, Shipment 6159
I
TO: Commanding Generals
Tactical Air Coroirpnd
US Army, Alaska
Air Transport Comirrnd
Seattle Port of Embarkation
Air Materiel Comrand, ATTN:TSSC0-63
Commanding Officer
Port of Aerial Embarkation, Great Falls, Air Force B?s"e,
Great Falls, Mo-tana
Chiefs of Technical Services
1. Letter this office, /GAO-I 370.5 (1 Aug 47) AFCOP-A-M,
6 August 1947, subject: "movement Directive, Air and Flight Echelons, t
Shipment 6159, as rirended, is furhter emended as follows: /
follows: a, Paragraph lib of brsic directive is reinstated as
'

"b. Per diem allowance is authorized for this unit for
movement to and from place of temporary duty- No per diem allowance
ia authorized at an installation where housing and messing facilities
are available."
BY ORDER OF THE SECRET-'RY OF THE ARMY:
(S) JONES
Adjutant General

(Copies furnished same as basic letter)

pp. Page

A TRUE COPY
HEADQUARTERS TACTICAL AIR COMMAND Langley Field, Virginia

MD

TAC 210.3 (21 Aug U7)

21 August 1947

SUBJECT: Medical Department Personnel for Alaskan Maneuver
(94-th Fighter Scuadron)

T "

Commanding General
Twelfth' Air Force
March Field
Riverside, California

1. Due to the present shortage of dental officers end tech*­ nicians in this command it is desired that no dental personnel ace*
ompany the movement of the 94-th Fighter Scuadron (JP) to its temp­ orary duty station in Alaska.
2. A recent survey of the medical facilities in the /.laska'n
Theatre by personnel of this Headquarters indicates that adequate
provisions exist for emergency dental care at Lcdd Field, Alaska.
A dental survey will be made of the assigned or attached personnel
of this organization and all will be placed in dental condition Class
IV before departure. This procedure will be given the same .prior­ ity by the Surgeon of the twelfth Air Force, March Field, as the
first-»aid indoctrination and Arctic survival briefing previously
directed.
3. The assignment to this squadron of an Aviation Medical
Examiner and other medical department personnel to establish and con­ duct dispensary service at the temporary duty station will be the
responsibility of the Surgeon, Twelfth Air Force, March Field,
California.
p^ C0?-"-V.ND OF r.'.JOR GENERAL w ILLLtfS:

1*1
A TRUE COPY:

P. G. PORTER Captain, A. G. D. Ass't Adjutant General

fpp.

Pfge ZL

COPY
————

,
b

" UNCLASSIFIED VIA MESSAGE CENTER X ORIGINAL MESSAGE

HEADQUARTERS TT"ELFTH AIR FORCE, MARCH FLD, CALIF

A3E

0377

PD

CITE TAG LTR FILE T" 0 ZERO ONE PT SIX TTO PARE?7 ONE FOUR

AUG FOUR SEVEN PAREN DTD FOURTEEN AUG FOUR SEVEN CMA SUBJ S/MPLE REPORT­ ING GUIDE FOR NINE FOUR FTR SC PAREN J P PA REN C A FIRST FTR GP PD TAC M ADVISES THAT ™d AGO LTR ABLE GEORGE ABLE OEOE D/SH ITEM THR1.E T^O T^O CMA NINE FOUR FTR SQ C A J I G PETER PAREN NINE JUL FOUR'SEVEN PAREN CM/ i BLE , M FOX CHARLIE OBOE ROGER P/.REN FIVE THREE SIX EASY PARE!1 Di.SK MIKE CMA DTD 6NE FOUR JUL FOUR SEVEN C A SUBJ CLN QUOTE REORGN OF THE NINE FOUR FTR SQ M CMA. J I G PETER CM/ UNCU07E HAS BEEN /MENDED TO CHANGE SO CTCH AS READS CLN M QUOTE DELETE TTE'O CLK D'SH TYPIST F'UR ZERO FIVE.'PVT UNQUOTE C A TO REi,D CLN DELETE ONE; CLK D/SH TYPIST FOUR ZERO FIVE PVT SEMICLM AS RLADS CLN , QUOTE DELETE ONE /.P.ABTOItt.R MM ONE ONE S SGT UNQUOTE C A TO RE/.D CLN M

DELETE T"0 .,AP ARMORER NINE ONE ONE S SGT SEMICLN AS RE./.DS QUOTE DELETE SEVEN AP ARMORER NINE ONE ONE SGT UNQUOTE C A TO .READ CLN (!)NE EIGHT i:P M ARMORER SGT PD PENDING RECEIPT OF ^ w , REPORTING GUIDE CFA CHANGE PRESENT REPORTING GUIDE TO RE/D AS FOLLOWS CLN AP ARMORER NIME ONE ONE C A T'"0 M ZERO CMA TOTAL S SGT AUTH SIX EIGHT C A TOTAL SGT NI T ^ THREE CMA TOT/L M EM AiUTH THRE^l FOUR SEVEN PD ACTION
rr

ILL BE TAKEN BY YOUR HEADQUARTERS TO

BRING ASSIGNED STRENGTH OF SUBJ U^TIT TO THREE FOUR SEVEN ENLISTED fEN PD BARCUS CG T^LFTH AF UNCLASSIFIED & MANP(TER 120925Sep47

/s/ Robert C Bedwell C17T0 Duty Off 12 Sept 47

Page

2$

A TRUE COPY
*7.R DEPARTMENT
The Adjutant General's Office
Washington 25, D C
AG/;O-I 322 94th Fighter Squadron, Jet Propelled (9Jul 47)AFC0R (536e)-M
SUBJECT: TO U July 1947

Reorganization of the 94-th Fighter Squadron, Jet Propelled

: Commanding General
.Tactical /.ir Command

1. The 94-th Fighter Squadron/Jet Propelled wi3,l be reorganized
as indicated below within thirty days after the dcte of this letter.
T/O&E 1-17R, 20 Nov 45 as modified by Incloeures 1 and 2 Composition 1 x Column 4 Auth Strength
Off 38j EM 347

/ 2. personnel will be Xurnished from sources under your control
and personnel rendered surplus absorbed in other Army Air Forces
units without loss in grade.
3. Equipment is authorized in accordance with the appropriate
column of T/G&E 1-17R; the attached Equipment Modification List,
inclosure 2, is applicable only for such period as this unit is on
temporary duty in the arctic. v
v •
4. Thirty (30) copies of the order issued pursuant to this "
letter.will be forwerded to the Commending General, /rmy Air Forces
Attention: Publication Division, Air Adjutant General, in addition
to the distribution directed in paragraph 17e, / R 310-50. No other
. distribution will be made to offices of Headquarters, Army Air Forces.
5. T/*hen the action directed herein has been accomplished, a
report indicating the date and station thereof will be submitted to
this office, Attention: AGAO-I and the army commander concerned.
6. Obligate to the .extent necessrry the appropriate allotment
in accordance with Circular No. 143 > ^ar Department, 194.7.
' BY OBDFR OF THE £ECRIT/RY OF T"'LR:

JONES
2 Inels " Adjutant General
1. T/OScE 1-17R (Modified)
94th Ftr. Sq, JP
2. EML for the 94th Ftr Sq, Jet Propelled
App, Page J 26

?

: COPY

'

w

*

'•• ••

•" "I

:

'

7

TAC 322 ( U Jul 47),

ist'Ind '

HQ Tactical Air Command, Langley Field, Vir?., 18 July LH
TO: Commanding General, Twelfth Air Force,, March Field, Crlif.

1. Necessary action will be taken to reorganise, the 9£th Ftr
Sq Jet Propelled as outlined in basic communication.
2. "."hen action has been completed, a reply indicating the date
will be submitted to this office by indorsement hereon, and copies
of the General Order accomplishing the action rill be attached.
/s/ BRIGHT T, ROBINSON,
,Major, A.G.D.
Asst Adj Gen
2d Inc
HE/DQUA-RTERS T^LFTH AIR FORCE, Fp.rch Field, Aaliforria. TO: Commanding Officer, March Field, Calif.
25 July 47

1. Forwarded for compliance with basic communication and first
indorsement thereto.

i

2. Advise this herdquarters of r.ny difficulties encQuntered in
carrying out the provisions of par-'graph 1 above.
3. Action directed in par. 2 of first indorsement will be rout­ ed through channels.
BY COi*"", ND OF ERIGi.DIER GENER/.L B/.RCUS:
*\ R. PURPUS
Major, i.GD
Asst Adj

T/G&E No. 1-17R (Modified) ... Add the
Number
Added
1
1
1
1
1
1 ,
1
following
SSN
0600
2161
3170
4821
4822
4823
4532
4902 014 014 024 050 050
050
055 055 055 060 060 062 062 070 GRADE
Lt
Ccpt
Ccpt
Lt
Lt

1

4 4

1 1

1
2 1
1
1

6

2

3

8
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
1

3
6

1
1
1

1

1
1

1

2
2

5 5

1
1 2
2
2

MOS
Motor transport
Operations
Dental
Flight Test Maintenance
Arrcament end chemical
Aircraft Maintenance
Aviation ordnance
Technical Supply, oir Automotive equirirent Mechanic Automotive equipment mechanic filacksiritb
Cofpenter1"
Carpenter Carpenter Clerk
Clerk
Clerk •
Cook
Cook
Mess Attendant
Mess Attendant
-Draftsman
Electrician
Machinist
Machinist
Painter
Painter
Photographer
Plumber
Plumber
Powermen
Powermen
Powermen
Sheet metal worker
Toolroom keeper,
Welder, combination
Welder, combination
Office machine serviceman
Classification specialist
Refrigeration mechanic
Automotive equipment operator
Clerk-typist
Clerk-typist Clerk-typist Ammunition supply technician
'
Administrative specialist
Airplane hydraulic mechanic
Airplene hydraulic mechanic
Airplane hydraulic mechanic

Lt

Lt
Lt
Sgt
Cpl
Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Sgt
Cpl
Pvt
S Sg£
Sgt
Cpl
Pvt
Sgt
Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Pvt
Cpl
Sgt
Cpl
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Cpl/
Cplf^
S Sgt
Sgt
Sgt
S Sgt
Cpl
Sgt
S Sgt

078 114 114
144 '

144
152

164 164 166 166 166
201

242 256 256
282

275
322

345 405
405 405 5050
502
528
528
528

sgt

Cpl
S Sgt
T Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl

Page 1,

Incl 1
e ' 28

T/O&E NO, 1-17R (ModKjgflK.

TITLE; 94th Fighter Squadron, JP (Cont'd)

Add the following: l i W i W l ^ O ^ T i ] ? ^

p 1 4 3 1 1 1 13 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 9 5 9 41 26 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 MOS Fabric and dope mechanic Airplane sheet metel rorker Airplane sheet metal rorker Puty NCO '"elder aircraft "'elder aircraft Puty soldier (Quarters Firemen) Personal equipment technician Se-Brchlight operator Pars chute rigger end repsirir-sn Finance technics1 clerk Finance technical clerk Finance typist clerk Rcdio repairmen, aircraft equipment Redio repairmen, eircraft equipmert Radio repairman., aircraft eouirjnent Medical corpsman P^er turret and gunsight mechanic Power turret and gunsight mechanic Airplane electrical mechan8c Airplane electrics1 mechanic Airplane electrical mechen<:c Airplane instrument mechanic Airplane instrument mechenic Airrlane instrument mechanic Airplane propeller mechanic Airplane and engine mechanic /irplsne snd engine mechanic Airplane and engine mechanic Airplane snd engine mechanic Airplane maintenance technician Airplane maintenance technician Radio mechanic, A/.F Radio mechenic, Ml Radio mechanic, /./F Rsdio operator, CNS Redio operator, CNS Redio operator, CNS Air operations specialist Utilities technician Mess Steward A/F supply technician /-/F supply technician Supply clerk Supply clerk Supply clerk Supply clerk Pental assistant Surgical technician SSN 54.8 555 555 566 573 573 590 594. 601 620 622 622 623 64.7 64.7 64-7 657 678 678 685 685 685 686 686 686 687 74.7 74.7 74-7 74.7 750 750 754. 754 754759 759 759 791 822 824. 826 826 835 835 835 835 855 861 'GR/DE
CpT
Sgt
Cpl
Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Fvt
Set
Sgt
Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Sgt
S
Sgt
Cpl
Pvt
S Sgt
Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Pvt
H Sgt
T Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
S Sgt
S Sgt
T Sgt
T Sgt
S Sgt
S Sgt
Sgt
Cpl
Pvt
Cpl
S Sgt

Page 2, Incl 1
App. Page „ 29

T/O&E Not 1-17R (Modified) Add the £oliowi«ng.:
NUTBER

TITLE: 94th Fighter Squadron JF (Contfd)

/-DDED
1
1
1
2
3
4.
1
7
6
1
2
8
3
2 1 1 1 1
1

128

Radar mechanic, IFF
Redrr mechanic, IFF
Chemical technician
Munitions worker
J'unitions v-orkeT
Munitions worker
Airrlcne armorer (chief)
Airplane armprer
Airplane armorer
Aircrrft engineering technician
Aircraft engineering technician
Special vehicle -ope re tor
Cemera technician
Cproerc tec^icisn
Photographic laboratory technician
Fhotogrepjlic laboratory technician
Airplane electrical instrument mechanic
Airrl^ce" electrical instrument mechanic
Airplofafi and engine electricfcl
accessories repairmen
/.irplaiie and engine electrical
accessories repairman
/.utpwbtive repp, irms n
Automotive reppirmon
Automotive repairmen

SSN 862 862 670 901

stoi
9IX

901

921 9H %5 9#

943 941 945 957 957 958 95< 965

9ft

9K6

Grade S Sjrfc Sgt S Sgt Sgt Cpl Pvt M Sgt Cpl Pvt M Sgt T Sgt Sgt Sjzt Cpl Sgt Cpl

S Set
Sgt

S Sgt
Sgt

S Sgt
Sgt Cpl Lt

965
965
1042 ' 1055 060 405

Delete the following:
1 Personal equipment

1 2 Fighter pilot, single-engine Qpok

Capt

Cpl

2 1 1 17 1 1 17

0ierk-typist Jfedical technicion
Administrative specialist
* /irplane mainttnence technician
$upply technician
Airplene armorer
'Airplane armorer

409
502 750 821 911 911

Fvt

Cpl

6 Sgt * Sgt ' $ $gt S'Sgt
Sgt

This results in the following:
Unit
Lieutenant colonel
Ptejor
Captain
First end Becond lieutenant
Txstal" commissioned
Page 3, Incl 1

Column L

1
1

9
27

38

tPage

. 30

7
T/OScE No, 1-17R (Modified) TITLE: 94th Fighter Sauedron, JP (Cont'd)

Master Sergeant First Sergeant Technical Sergeant

o"taii oer^eant

9

1
34
68

Sergeant Corporal Private, first class end private Total enlisted Aggregate

93

89

53
347
385

Page 4, Incl 1 to Ltr AGAO-I 322 94th Ftr Sq, Jet Propelled (9 Jul 1,7) £FCOR (536e)-M, U July

Page

31

F . R DIP^RTFENT
. The Adjutant General's Office
Washington 25 > D. C*
-1 - 94th Ftr Sq Jet Propelled (22 Aug 47) £FC0R-M
SUEJECT: Reorganization of the 94-th Fighter
Squadron, Jet Propelled
TOs Contending General
Tccticel Air Cosurend
4 September 1947

Inclosure 2, letter, this office, AGi!0-1322. 94th Fighter
Squadron, Jet Propelled (9 Jul 47). AFCORk (536e)-M 14 July 1947, sub­ ject as above, o.s amended, is further amended to include the follow­ ing items:
1 Iteir 2 Reduction Addition 13
2 _^ Besis of Distribution and Remarks

Plant Assy, electric power, proteble, eifcrpft
engine starting nnd testing
(dual type C-13^ po^er pirn*
with 6 ea batteries) (NS)

BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
S/ Jones
T/ Adjutsnt General
Copies furnished:
Commanding Generals
/rmy /ir Forces
Air Mrteriel Corirand
Sixth Army
Directors of
Organization ond Training, "BOS
Personnel and /dministrrtion, ^'DGS
Service, Supply and Procurement, r7DGS
Chiefs of Technical Services
A TRUE COPYJ

App. Page

32

ECUrFMENT MODIFICATION LIST
for the
94th Fighter Squadron, Jet Propelled
Table of Organization and Eouipment 1-17R, Army Air Forces,
Fighter Squr.dron Jet Propelled, 20 November 1945, is amended as
so far as it pertains to the above unit:

Item

Reduction Addition 116 1

Basis of Distribution and Remarks

Chock Assy, Aircraft uheel ice type (HS) Cleaner, vrpor pressure, spray, rinse, gesolins engine operated, portable, -type B-2 Compressor, air portable, 3 stage lcfm, high pressure, 1900 to 2500 psi, motor DC, 24 v, complete w/lesds air hose rith chuck, type C-22 Cord, extension, attachment plug and receptacle Cylinder assy, emergency oxygen, typi'H-2 Dollp, trailer converter, 2 vjheel 2DJ1 ( for type F-2 fuel serv unit) Funnel and Screen Assy, hydroulic" fjuid (40B3918) Funnel, copperized, screened round, 1 gal Gage Assy, nozzle alignment spark plug clerner, rodel D Jester /ssy, aircraft engine end cockpit (dual F-1A b-oter) (NS) Heater, hand operated, type F-2 Hoist, portable engine, 4500 lb cap,, type A-7A Hydrometer: Antifreeze solution i Page 1, Incl7 2

2

8 1 4 2 2 1 U 15 2 L 1 per fir (2161) (4821) 1 per 2 each F-2A fuel servicing tlrs.

_ Page ' 33

EQUIPMENT MODIFICATION LIST
for the
94-th Fighter Squadron, Jet Propelled
(Cont'd)

Item

Basis of Distribution
Reduction Addition and Remarks
ARMY AIR FORCES (Cont'd)
5

Hydrometer: (Cont'd)
Storage Ba+tery testing temperature corrected,
specific gravity scale
.1175 to .1325
Kit: Battery servicing, type D-l
Clothing and Equipment, Flyers' T.O. 00-30-41
Clothinp ground Crewman "T.O. 00-30-42"

2
1 130 1 per fir
1 per (345) (647) (687) (862 (932) pround crm (014)(166)
(528)(542) (555)
(678) (635) (686)
(747) (750) (754)
901 (911) (925)
(941) (958) (965)

Electrician "T.O. 00-30-32" Inspector Aircraft n T.0.
00-30-33" Machinist "T.O. 00-30-52 Mechanic and Technician Mechanic:
Armorer "T.O. OO-3O-55u Engine "T.O. 00-30-56" Hydraulic "T.O, 00-30-214"
Instrument »T.0'. 00-30-57" Propellor "T.0# 00-30-58" Radar and Radio"TO 00-30-59

1 per actf elec (685)(958)

3 3 54

1 per machinist (114)
1 per machinist (114)
1 per ap & eng mech (747)
ap maint techn (750)
1 per Armorer (911)
1 per Hvdraulic Mech (528)
1 per hydraulic Mech (528)
1 per ap inst mech (686)
1 per ap propeller mech(687)
1 per rad mech (754); radar
mech (862); radio operator
CMS (759)

6 1 6 4
1 12

Page 2 Incl 2
App. Page 34

"T

:5:i

ECUIPfiENT MODIFICATION LIST for the

94-th Fighter Squadron, Jet Propelled
(Cont'd)
2

Item

Basis of Distribution
Reduction Addition and Remarks
ARMY AIR FORCES (Cont'd)
25
Per pilot (4.821)
1 per rad repairman ( 6 . . 4 7
Per J5r*3ht repairman (620)
Per fir '
1 per camera techn (94.1)
Per utilities techn (822)
1 per fir
2 X
1 per acft welder (573)

Kit (Cont'd)
Mechanic (Cont'd;
Turbo-Jsi Engine T.O. 00-30-235 Navigation, Pilot "TO 00-30-63 • 1 Repairman, Comirunicetion
"T.O. 00-30-307 4 ­ Rigger and Repairmen, Parachute
1 "TO 00-30-67 Shelter, Personnel, Individual Technician:
Camera "TO 00-30-12" Utility "TO 00-30-186" Vest, Emergency Sustenance 28 Type C-l "EO 00-30-196
^elder, "TO 00-30-73 ^elding, Portable, Keliard (Type H-W-4 Linde Air-or
equal
Woodworker, Aircraft, "TO 00-30-39
^orker:
SheetMetal, Aircraft "TO 00-30-60" Paint, Dope and Fabric "TO 00-30-4.8" Lamp Assy:
Electric, work, extension, vapor tight, 50 ft cord
1 5
1

4.

1 per carpenter (05Q)

7
5

1 per sheet iretal worker
()
1 per painter (144.); Fab and
and dope worker (54.8)

12

Page 3 , Psge .;•• 35

EQUIPMENT MODIFICATION LIST
for the
94-th Fighter Squadron, Jet Propelled
(Cont'd)

Item Lsnsp /.ssy (ront'd):
Hangar, incandescent, Forteble flood light

Baeis of Distribution
Reduction Addition and Remarks
ARMX £IR FORCES (CcntM)""
12
1
1

Lubricator, bearing (804.2­ BGS4.00)
Packer, bearing acft wheel, 2-1/2 lb cap,, for 1 to 6
in dia*bearing
Plant, electric power: Portable, 120-2A0 v AC
7.5 kw, 60 eye, 1 ph,
914, kva, type B-6B
Portable, type C-11A, 115
v, AC,2500 vtf 60 eye, 1 ^h Stationary, 120 v, ACfc 60­ eye, 1 ph, 27 kva, type B-8
Pump:
Air hand high pressure Tire, single cylinder Raft, pneumatic, type C-2A 1 man perachute type
Set:
Engineering, Third Echelon,
Tactical "TO 00-30-13 Jack, Aircraft "TO
00-30-269" < Maintenance:
Photographic "TO
00-30-269" Oxygen Mask "TO
00-30-158 Oxygen System "TO
00-30-157 Radio "TO 00-30-69 1

2

5
5
5
4­ 1
Per fir

1
1

1
1
1
1

Page 4- Incl 2
36

ECUIPKENT NODIFICmON LIST
for the
94th Fighter Squadron, Jep Propelled
(Cont'd)

Item

Basis of DistributReduction Addition ion and Remarks ARMY AIR FORCIb (Com'dl 1
1

1 1 1 2

Set (Cont'd.1 Photographic, Fighter "TO 00-3(5-23 Repair and Pecking Parachute
*'TO 00-30-16
Tool and Sling, Special: Engine "TO 00-30-206A Propeller "TO 00-3Q-?0tfB Air Frame "TO OO-3O-206C "'elding, Portable "TO 00-30-17

Stand Assy:
Aircraft maintenance, fixed type p-1 Engine repair, handling and storage Stand, turbine transportation
1-4.0 ges turbine Tank, hydraulic servicing rnd bleeding systems', type C-l Tensiometer, control cable, type 0-5 Tester Assy:
Aviation ignliion accessory ceble Continuity £#d voltage indicator Tester, elecrtricel thermometer, field, and stentfrrd, type N-2 Torch, bloff, gasoline 1 qu cop,, round 14
9
9
1 1 1
1 3 U

Tractor, heavy,duty, U wheel, 2 wheel drive •
4000 V> DBP L
Trailer: Oxygen servicing, type E-2 Sefti, tank, 2 Trheel 2 D for type F2A T fu/sl servicing truck, 2000 gel cpa. Modified in ..accord with TO 00-250-2 Pege 5 Incl 2 2 8

App. Page ' 37

EQUIPMENT rODIFIGXTldN LIST
for the
94-th Fighter Squcdron, Jet Propelled
(Cont'd)

BF.SIS

Item

Redaction Addition A B Y /'-It FORCES (Cont : d) 'BE

of Distribution and Remarks

Vise, bench, clamp hose, Z in Jaw Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter, portable . C snd PC, voltege O-&-15-3O-15O­ A 300, DC W l i a m p s 0-^15-150-300-1500 Ohms: 0-2000-200,000, complete w/carrying case, type F-2 Welder, a r c , portdhfr, v e r t i c a l type, 200 amp, c^rent renge welding duty, 3Qr> 10-250 amp, motor AC, 22Ov, iph, 60cyc (Lincoln E l e c t r i c , SAE20X or equal) CHEMICAL A p p a r a t u s , dec(»ytr.minating t 1 1/2 q u a r t , A2

30

1 per FOEV
1 per indiv

152 Mask, gas, service, combat M5-11-7
Mask, gas, service, lightweight
R%-1OA1-^ (Natural rubber
facepiei;? 385

Respirrtor, dust, M2

385 233

1 per indiv
1 per indiv

dust Ml 731 ILTUE FAB
CG A/F Bomb Comd, Ftr.
Comd, ATC, AMC or equ

Engineer
equipment, Set No.
I, battalion Extinguisher, fire water, k gal demountable nestable pump type
Generator set, portable, diesel eng 1 ' driven, skid mounted 15-KF 127-220V, 3 ?
3 phase, 60-cycle or 230-AOOV, 3 p h
50 cycle
Tool Kit, set No. 7 refrigtu repair 1 Page 6 Incl 2
Page Per Sq
1 per 70 indiv or MFT
Per Sq

per utilities section
38

EC-UIFiVENT rODIFICATION LIST for the 94.th Fighter Squadron, J e t Propelled
(Cont'd)

Item

Reduction

Addition

for Distribution
anc. Remcrks

Individual Equipment
Brassard, Geneva Convention Fedical Kit:
per dental assistant (855)
Dental assistants, T!-2 Dental Officers complete, W2 1
per dental off (3170)
1
6
3 per ind (med and dent sv

Organizational Equipment
Blanket, OD Litter, straight, aluminum Kit, first-aid Gas Casualty, complete
Kit, first-aid (Cont'd) Motor Vehicle, 12 unit
50
U per truck, 3/4 ton amb
4 ­ 9
30
1 per 25 ind or MFT
OCU ^AB TOC
1 per FCMV OCUS M B TOC

ORDNANCE
"'eopons .and Miscellaneous
Bayonet-knife, 1% w/scabbard
M8A1 Carbine, cal 30 ?! .2 Clinometer, machine gun M1917
(limited-stand^rd)
Clock, message center, ¥2
File, visible record, book type
/ rockets, bound canvas
in back 22 x 12 in
Gun submachine gun cal . - M3A1
45 230
225
1 per ind except med
1 per ind otherwise not
armed except med
2 per sq having aeft
w/fixed MG
per sq

1 per 10 fiM or M T except F med To be installed in t r k , 3/U ton l&A wpns c r r ' r or crr'r,cargo M29C

Ordnance Maintenance Set:

t»AU

Page H Incl 2

9£th Fighter-Squpdron, Jet Propelled

Iterr Ord ? r '

Reduction Addition ORDN/MCE (Cont'd)

Bt-sis: for d i s t r i b u t i o n and Rer.*,rks

"L", tools end equipment
P i s t o l , sutonvrtic cr.l 4.5 M911A1 'mt, gunners ^1
ir>r

To be installed in trk
2 1/2 Ton, 6x6 Csrrgo
per fir
: er Sq
1 per off not auth a v/etch
under any other auth OCUS
"AE TOC.

;tch, v-Tist 7 or nore j

Vehicles
Carrier, e« rgo, ?;29C Trriler: 1/2 ton, 7T crrgo l-ton,2F Car^o ™ater trnk, 250 ^ Truck: 3 per Sq, 1 per tool set
rrobile arc v.elder
3/A-tcn, ixA arbulence K D ""e^pons Carrier 2 l/2-ton 6x6 Cr-rgo lutorotive reprir, Lor.d / T -'8A1 (Lirited - St&ndnrd) A-5 ton l&I. tractor Bomb l i f t "1 Borrib Service *6 "A Page 8 Incl 2 App. 13 5 per Sq 1 per ord maint
set
ffL"
1 8 8 2 Page
fuel servicing
1 per tlr F-fiA
Not e. F C W
Per ftr sq1 1/2 ton
17 3 3

9£th Fighter Sctirdron, Jet Propelled
(ContJd)

Iteir

deduction Addition ORDIw^CE (Cort'd.)

Bcsis of Distribution rrd Ecrr.rks

f'otor Tr^ nsport Equipment /xe handled, cloppir.p;, single
bit st*ndrrd grade £-lh
Chain motor vehicle, to?:
7/16" x !?• ft
5/8" x 16 ft
Defroster and deicer, wind­ shield, electric
Kit, auxiliary cold sterting
a r sae kt i , lv i ( )
Mattock, pick, handled, 5 lb
9 9 8 86 1 1 per FC?ffV except /.«-F ve­ hicle and C r r r i e r Car^Q Lr-'29 1 per WSN 1 1/2 ton t o 2 1/2 ton i n c l , except AAF vehicle 1 per FCI^V over 2 l / 2 ton
except AAF vehicles
2 per FCF"V except AAF vehicles 1 per Sq 1 per FCJW except trk
1/4. ton capacity except
AAF vehicles and carrier
P129C
8 1 per FCMV under 1 l/2
ton cap except AAF ve­ hicles and Carrier Cergo
?.'-29C
1 per TCWI except AAF ve
hides and K-29 Carrier
1 per blacksmith
28
1 per a u t o equip mech (014.); pwwerman (166); a u t o repairman (965) per Sq per Sq

Rope, tow, ,20? long 1" diam

Shovel, general purpose, D-handled, round point No* 2 Tool set:
Blacksmiths' No. 2
General mechanics'

1' cHobilerAreo^elder
Second Echelon:
Set No. 8, tire remover,
heavy duty
Special Set "B M
Page 9

1
1
(a)

1 per each type of vehicle
listed in vehicle section
above, for which a tool set
2d Echelon, Special, Set B

Pa ere

for.the
9£th Fighter Scundron, Jet Propelled
(Cont'd)

Iteg

Reduction Addition OEDNf/.KCE (Cont l d)

;.?. O_ Jistribution . ;;.n. Reir.rrks

•'otor Trensport Equiprent (Cont'd) Tool Set: (Oc.nt'd)fl Specie I , se« ttB
p 7-Tot authorized i f is-,-:cc under S?TL. Tool set r-u'j'v irstch rodel nur.^ ber of vehicle issued. See pertinent O 7 SNL R per sheet petal worker (201) 1 p;-r welder, combination (256)
QUARTER:*/STER

Sheet I' r etal r.nd r?dif t o r mecbcinics' ~V lders •

Orpanizationr.l equipment f s, ' v t e r , Sterilizing, porous, corplete-^ith-suspen* sion-ropes-pnd cover Carrying, oEirunition Bucket: Crnvr.s, r-cter, 18-quart Genera1-purpose, ^clv£ nized, her vy-v:eight, rithout-lip, .l/-quart-C£pacity Can:
Corrugated, nesting, galvanized,
with-cover:
10-gallon 16-gallon 1 2 U 1 per 100 indiv of MFT.. (B-G, Canvas, itr ater,. s t e r ­ i l i z i n g , complete-vdth ropes-*.'nd cover *" El ILTUE 1 per S::.G, e e l . 15 1 per FC! V except coirbct vehicles; generator s e t 1 per 5 tf' "FT (7'iB authority)

g 32-Prallon Water, 5-gp.llon C?se, field for-tvperriter­ •non-portable, 11-in-co rri- ? .#<Page 10 Incl Clipp

1 2 1 1 67 6 Page 1 per 5 indiv or ?TT 1 per typewriter, non-port able ll-inch-c,',rrir^:e

KODIFICTIW LIST 9Ath Fighter Squrdron, J e t Propelled (Cont'd)

Item

Reduction Addition QU/RTER'.7STILR (Ccat'd) Organizational Equipment

for Distribution and Remcrks

Clipper, h.?.,r

1 per 50 indiv or ?*FT opore.ting in extrerrely co:.-l Bt.ee.s OCUS ' B TOC 1 1 P^: ••ess Sgt (82-4) Desk, fid (empty), fiber ^eodquarters or ches^ record, fiber V.rEI 2 per generrtor s e t , FCJA except t r k , l/4.-ton end oorrb-t vehicles; 1 per trk* l/A w tcn; range, fid M-1937
2 per F M C V

Clock, alarm Desk, f i e l d , M-1945

Drum, gasoline, 5-grllon

25

G o b i e s , M-1944.

59

Heater, Inversion-type, f<# cans k
corrugated, complete-wit1*24-*gclJLon-cen*
and-cover
Lsntern, gasoline, lecdet'fuel 38
Machine: Numbering, a u ^ ^ t i c ,
2
6 wheel, ^.-movement f Paper fastening,
type, v;ire stapZ'?* prfrrd, l i t e duty
Outfit, officers 1 ri'ss, M-19U • P e r f o r r t o r :
Adjustable,
Non-adjustab?-j two-hole
R^.nge, f i e l d , >1937, * Sefe, f i d , c-rbinstion-lock Shears, off'-ce, bankers, 9-in Tool-set, (Complete ••••'ith t o o l s ) , , No. 1 Tray, jess> 6-compcrtrent

I per set of range !v1-l937

per 6 off or M T F

Scfe, f i d , key-lock, T '3I ILTUE

Per elee (078) 1 per plurcber (164.) 1 per indiv

Pag* A

Inc

94 th Fishier Squadron, £et Propelled (Cont'd)

Item Tube, flexible-nozzle

Reduction addition
Q OrpT.niz&tioncl Equip M

Basis of Discributiori ^r.d Remarks
.l) 1 p'vx> FC?.!V except coir.bat veri-jcJ.es; g e n e r a t o r s e t ^ sob <;i r s n g e , f i d , K-193? 1 .)<:«! per 5 FCKV of J/iFT

Typewriter: Non-port*ble: 11-inch corrirre 14-inch carriage 26-inch corri&pe Portsble with carrying cose
SIGNAL F l a s h l i g h t TL-122-(

1 per desk, fldt M­ 3 per Sq

193

2 per »»fO 00-30-16"; 1 per off; El.: 1st 3 gr not. otherwise auth flashlight_ cuto equip rreeh; FCRTV; . "TO 00-30-32; "TO 00­ 30-33", "TO OO-3O-4.51; "TO 00-30-52", TO 00-30­ 57"; "TO 00-30*59; "TO 00-30-208"

L&ntern ?iX­
• /

A TRUE COPY: R Y 0. SMITH, JR O Ccptain, US/'F

Page 12; Incl 2 Letter /G/O-I 322 94th Ftr Sq (JP) (9 Jul 47) itfCOR (536e)-?^14 July 4 7 n '_ App.

U

COPY

STATUS OF INCOMING WATER SHIPMENTS (P-80) AT PORT OF FHITTIER
AC/S k-L Tactical Air Command 16 Oct Ul
Lt W^ll?.-^:! T. C order
Tactical A - . - onrand
.- . (Liaison O:\{' f:,r P»-80 Activ

r 1. The undersigned visited Port of Fhittier .?.ka, on 1J+
Oct 4.7 for piT_-poj.e of determining status of shipms ' •••f A i r F o r c e
Special Projects (A.FSP) for the P*80 Winter a ctivii; at Ladd Field
Alaska. The following informetion was obtained thr •n discussions
with Major Fitzmorice, the Port Commander and his u> ',xive officer,
Captain Mennie.

a. All v-arehouses (except vehicles) had been emptied and
contents shipped as marked prior to arrival of the undersigned. This
progress was made possible b* the fact that no ships had been in port
the previous week. This afforded the port personnel an opportunity
to concentrate all efforts on cleaning out the warehouses and thereby,
cutting to a minimum, the backlog of shipments.
b. All shipments arriving at the port are shipped out by
rail in the order in which they were received. No priorities have
been established by the A.laskan Service Base. The responsible ware­ housemen have rot been informed of the meaning of the Air Force ship­ ment number prefix AFSP. At present, routine AF shipments are receiv­ ing the same priority as those marked AFSP.
c. At present there is a backlog of approximately 100 flat
car loads of vehicles in port. The cause of this backlog is a short­ age of rail flat cars. On 21 Oct the SS Chief ^ashakie Is due in
at wiiittier with 9000 tons of vehicles. A personal observation of
the port, accompanied by Captain Mennie, leads me to believe that there
is insufficient parking space available for that number of vehicles.
If the vehicles ere unloaded at Vi'hittier it will cause additional delay
in shipment to the consignee.
2. Reference per lb. It is requested that a priority be est­ ablished for shipment of Air Force Special Projects to proper stations.
Reference par lc. It is requested that action be taken to receive
the SS Chief ^Tashakie at the Anchorage Port and that vehicles be
shipped to proper stations from Anchorage.

FILLIAM T. CONDER 1 s t L t . Air Corps

Tactical Air Command
(Liaison Off for P-80 Activities

App. Vsze

LJL,

-o-Sbip Tfkc-Cffs ?t Hill Field Utah E l e c t i o n - 4788 Feet

A pp.

Pa p;e

10

P-80's Refuelling a+ Ft, Nelson, Canada, With One 4-00 Gallon
And One 2000 Gallon Refuelling? Un.it

App.

Page 47

Diagram^of Ladd Kield (Squadron area showtt'lh black) Aup Tage

12

Enlisted Latrine

App. i-age

13

Day Room

Mess HP.11 - Xmas Dinrer

13

/..rmrment Shop

Coirmunicr.ticns Shop /.pp. Prge 51

Battery Shop

Electrical Shop

Orderly Room

Operations Section 53

Carpenter Shop (Hangar)

Hydraulic Shop

App.

13

Carpenter Shop (Barracks Area)

pis r r? ""

App.

Page 56

13

Squadr ri inspection & Tech.Reps Office
.

App.

Page

M

Viev: of P-30E Stored on Parking Line
VT ith Canopy and Trinp Covers

£pp.

Free

58

15

Waiting Line in Mess Hell

App'. Page 59

A/:C REGULATION)'^, V > ',: • : NO. 50-28) TRAINING POUR OPERATIONS AND
Fighter Units
(P-80 Type Aircraft)

K£# AIR COMMAND FT. RICHARDSON, ALASKA 31 July 1947

Introduction Polar Operations and Training Requirements . »

SECTION
I
II

II-

POUR OPIRiTIONS./ND TR/.INING REQUIREMENTS
1. General:

a. Pilot Training: Pilots shall be so trained in Polar
Operations that they are thoroughly proficient in the performsnee of
all functions pertaining to their individual assignment..
(1) Flight training to include:
(a) Emphasis on pre-flisht planning -hich will in­ clude a careful check of all leather conditions,
thorough knowledge of cruise control problems effect
ing the flight plan, all available navigation aids,
proper navigation equipment, and emergency map kits.

:
(b) i.bility to perform the pre-flde : .irspection of

the aircraft and necessary equi p*.-* ••', .Li •••

?xtremely
ccld weather to insure that its r:~v.r' r.-Lcn will per­ :v:i o n .
mit accomplishment of the
(c) Special emphasis *ill be placed on a pre-flight
clothing check, ^ail-out procedures and emergency
x
l d in sub-zero weather, day or night.

(d) Ability to take off in deylight or dfrkness un­ der very extreme temperatures with maximum load,
navigate with whatever aids are available to the ex­ treme range of the airdraft, perform the assigned
mission, and return to tfce home base end land.
(e) Ability to adequately utilize effective offen­ sive and defensive maneuvers under extreme temper­ atures at all altitudes.
(f) The ability to record and report correctly all
observations made during flipht.
(g) The correct use of coirmunicstic-ns equipment and
procedures for the /.laskan Theater in accordance
with ell directives of the 59th /.ACS and of Hq i la­ skan i.ifcJQjamifiaiiiL: Page 60

AJC Reg 50-28
31 July 4/7 Contd.
(b) Ability to perform p&lar land searoh operations,
(2) Technical Training' to include:
(a) Proficiency in the performance of the assigned
aircrew specialty under extreme weather conditions.
(b) Proficiency is required by pilots in the perform­ ance of all duties on the pertinent aircraft and allied
equipments, including the ability to perform engine maint­ enance under extreme weather conditions.
(c) Proficiency in servicing assigned aircraft rap­ idly with fuel, lubricants, ammunitions, bombs, oxygen,
etc., under all weather conditions,
(d) Ability to service and maintain allied ground
equipment in extreme weather conditions,
2. Flying Training; - 88 Hours
-a. Orientation Flights Phase Total
9:30

(1) All pilots, including staff pilots 8:00
will receive a "theater check-out" flight
by the troop carrier unit of this command
prior to engaging in any flight operations
in the Alaskan Therter, Correct "in-flight"
position reporting will be emphasized dur­ ing this flight.
")
(2) This flight will be conducted to 1:3C
insure that the pilot becomes familiar with
local flying radio procedures
b. Formation At least three (3^flights will be con­ ducted in this pKvsc with at least one of the flights
above 25,000 feet to demonstrate the difference in
flying characteristics at altitude.
4*30

c. d.

Acrobatics: Instruments:

4:30 10L00

(1) Five (5) hours of hooded flying will
be utilized in basic instruments and beam
orientation.
(2) Five (5) hours of hooded flying will be utilized in OgfflS&MtiS ^Oifcftu&d Contrcfl Approaches.

A TRUE EXTRACT COPY
AAC Reg 50*28 31 J u l y U7 Contd. ei Navigation: (1) Medium Altitude. (2) High Altitude Cruise Control (3) Low Altitude f. Night Flying: (1) Night, local. (2)" Formation, local. (3) Navigation (round robin) g. Interception 1:30 A'?^
1:30 4:30 3:00 6:00
1:30 6:00 1:30 9:00
Total
9:00

(1) One (l) mission planned*and coord­ inpted by organization comrander.
(2) Three (3) missions planned and coordinated with VHB Unit by Headquarters
Yukon Sector
H. Camera Gunnery:
(1) High Side Approaches. (2) Flat Side Approaches (3) Low Side Approaches {/+) Overhead Approaches ii Ground Gunnery and Skip Bombing:
(1) A minimum of 800 rounds will be
fired on four missions.
(2) A minimum 8 practice bombs will
be dropped.

9:00 3:0C
1:30
•:>•
I*.- ;'O

6:00

j. Aerial Gunnery, Dive Bombing and Rocketry:
( (A minimum of 2,000 rounds will be fired by
each pilot, and as many rockets as feasible will be fired)
(1) High Side Approaches (2) Flat Side Approaches
4KM

20:30

3:00 3:00 3:00

A TRUE EXTRACT COFI
A C Reg 50-28 A 31 July 4-7 Coi (4.) (5) Overhead Approaches Record Firing 3:00 3*00 5:30

(6) A minimum of 10 bombs will be dropped by each p i l o t , \ 3. Ground Training: ­ 46 Hours a. b. Intelligence and Security. Communications. (1) Equipment tt (a) Operations and pre-flight of AN//J?rl-3 (b) Operation and pre-flight of AN/AJIA-8 (») Operation and pre-flight of S,CH-695 (2) Radio Procedures: (a) (b) (c) (3) Radio Ranges. Radio F a c i l i t i e s in Alaska Demonstration and lecture on r;?;\

1:00 15:00 3 s 00

4.:00

Flight Control: (a) Function.

iV?0

(b) GCI - Ground Controlled
Interceptions.
1. 2. Coverage, accuracy and
procedure.
Fighter R/T procedure and
code. FM 1-46

^.- Combined R/T procedure, CCBP 3-2.
It. Fighter directory vocabulary CCBP 11-3.
j>. Radio call words, current 501.

App. Page

63

A TI AAC Reg 50-28
31 July LI Contd.
c. Engineering:

COPY

16

Phase

Total U:00

(1) Cold leather and its effects
(2) Cold leather starting procedures
(3) Cold Weather handling of equipment
(4.) Arctic Cruise control
(5) Operation of aircraft
d. Meteorology: (l)... _W-eath ere odes and symbols*
(2) Arctic weather.
(a) Ground fogs..
(b) Teirperature inversions.
e. Navigation:
(1) Reading of maps.
(2) Terrain features in Alaska
(3) Filling out the Form 23 and 23A
f. Gunnery:
(1) Location, safety and range rules
(2) Curve of pursuit.
(a) 90 degree high, flat, low
side approa^es.
(b) 180 degree } igh, flat, low
side approaches.
v (c) 360 degree overhead approaches
(3) Dive and skip bombing:
U) Rocketry:
(a) OjJeration and testing of
installstion

2:00 1:00 4.: 00 1:00 6:00 4:00 2:00

3:00 1:00 1:00

9:00

2:00

1:00
3:00

(c) Sighting of rockets.

(App. Page 64.)

/ TRUE EXTR/CT COPY
A A Reg 50-28 C 31 July LI Contd, (5) K-U gunsight (a) Pre-flight and operation
(b) Fixed and Gyro sight
(c) Rocket Sight
g, Arctic Indoctrination
(l) Practical field h. (l) Sc/mOuled 1'V squadrons based
on ov?i.':.£»biii'i j -f facilities. 4-• Special „T~;:;;;.Cl!£ L"v. li-:?
1 week
7?:. 00
3:00 per
wee;
Phase 2:00 Total

( l ) Any f l i g h t j pther than in neer v i c i n i t y of field will. be ccmprisee o f / t l e a s t two a i r c r a f t , (2) To isc'ilitTta search and rescue and t o orValn the g r e a t e s t srtev.y :'sci^r daring polar training cr/: -iterations the folxcwir;^ [r.-csUvrer. v d l l be r i g i d l y acReiv.'-" •'; . j>id w i l l govern a l l fy-^-^-on .r<?'-'cr--,r;; (P) HI) 'ilr'jra";- ^n- airr/ays w i l l tra •i;:iTi^"i:. o/;Tp"Aete position rspcT"'ir- wren p.-3.';;-i.ng crer or•:<.'.<.•• .; ' • ""-oi.) r?;;:?; •
de3ipr?.?i'ec! radio I'-ii],-"1? ^ J . e j r s e j v t ^ o b , or i.tv •..'•i .•'!"*'••.,:. Vvhei?

'

elapbecl s.'lyii'p. *Am bcjtv:(-?e.n the aoovo cY.O'.r r>-;",.'&& i s greater L'i'?vj tnj.i't/ (lO) minutes, position report:3 w i l l be inltiatefl t o oho nearest communications station*

(b) ^hsr» flying off airways, position reports will
b£ ma dp eve:?j cnirty (30) minutes, and may be given by
latitude ri.d loif Itude, or direct route fixes may be used,
(c) To a r j l . ' information svailable to Search and
jcvLfy Rescue and A!? Traffic Control Center, and to facilitate
efficient operation of their respective functions, it is
imperative thst all aircraft transmit position reports
every thirty (3$ minutes., on or off airways, Reports should
be directed to the nearest communications station where
two-way cohtact can be established, using appropriate voi^e
or CW frequencies. All pilots will c ntact the nearest
airways Station serving a flight control cs:xteF3t'occhapgaor
any part of their flight planor to enter a control area.
Do no'S enter a control area without prior clearance, except

in r

A T f U EXTRACT COPY
-lE AAC Reg 50-28 31 July Ul Contd
16

lese items will be given in order listed on
position reports.
1. On Airways.
a. Aircraft ihdentification (Specify Army)

b. Reporting fix or station (between fixes
give time-distance from fix to fix).

ci, e,
iu

Cruising Altitude.
ETA to next fix or station,

<J'i i.:f, \t •:• oiv'i:•. X \ o n s ( w e a t h e r ? e t c , ) .

So jba

Aircraft identification (Specify Army) Latitude and Longitude or ujr^ct route
•P-' -v
1 J 'I. .-3

c., Time.
c_. 0 ^ii s: ng Alti bv.d e ,

f5.. .11': f c : ci-7 A'l./ii r.?J.j.-: c c-z\ &. 't ;annot be irr^e yiLt4L3lri.J.4^:J;^..\i2i.Ji4li.VL^£§ pa--'". "Vhe t h i r t y ('3$') minute l i m i t , ths f l i g h t w i l l be< aborted and 5;VJ trr, fj-.T.raft Irnrled a t the e l c s e s t , suitable (3) l i ai:-crp.f c are not equipped with complete a n t i icing fu-.w »:c3-icing; ^quipmont., actual instrument flight (A) HoodtBd fj.ying -procedures will be governed by AAF Regulations 60-4- and 60-7.
(5) All pilots will be thoroughly familiar with the
charge^eristics of compressibility, its cause, pre­ vent ion, 2nd method of recovery when entered.

(App.

Page

66)

. EXTRACT COPY
AAC Reg 50-28

31 July Ul Contd
b. Gunnery.

16

(1) Camemfilm will be used in conjunction -?ith all
phases of gunnery and each pilot will apse?*- ris own
film under the supervision of the organ-^.a^.:.on gunnery
officer,
(2) The safety rules outlined in A£F Mr.,-' L Ivo. 64
will he applicable to gunnery ranges uc.-d < ^.'.junction
with aircraft in this command.
(3) A record of hits Tfrill be kept on fi'u: in operations
offices vhen feasible, for individuals for all phases
of gunnery, dive and skip bombing, and rocketry.

BY COMMAND OF BRIGADIER Gl NERAL ATKINSON:

OFFICIAL:

JACK G. PITCHER
Col, Air Corps
Chief of Staff
ADDITIONAL DISTRIBUTION:

E. R. AUTHEY Lt Col, /.GD Adjutant General DISTRIBUTION: "A"

24-CG, 6-CG, 6-CG, 6-Air 3-CG> 6-CG, 6-Air 3-CG, 12-CG,

Tactical Air Command
A£F Washington
Air Defense Command
Material Command
M r University
Strategic Air Command
Proving Ground Command
Air Transport Command
Z.ir Training Command

EXTR/CT COH:

App. Page 67

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App Page 69

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A5° Parking Was Used

App. Page 73

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MCORiNO OF AIRCRAFT NECESSIT. FORUS'NS »PU - 5 * H E EQUIPMENT WITHOUT EKOiNES K LUBR'CATICN OF Ti.NNlNO Mu • F > I tMAMOTORS

COLD STARTS OF AP'J,buTM 2 4 VPC »

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2L

F l i e r in TrTinter Clothing
Demonstrates limited Rcoir in Cockpit

Pilots Constructed Their Oftfc Igloos
At Arctic Indoctrination School

Cooking w as Done In The Crairpe< Quarters Of The Igloo App. Paee 77

!• Bail-Out Kit; It has been determined that the primary-
requirement for arctic survival, i»e., warmth, hrs been sadly neg- .
lected in previous kits provided to sustain a fighter Pilot forced
to bail cut and arait rescue. All other ecuipment provided is just
so much useless vjeight for the pilot to carry, unless he can be
assured of remaining T?arm enough to avoid frostbite or collapse from
exposure. Of necessity the fighter pilot's emergency equipment is
quite limited as to size and weight. Consequently, only his barest
and most essential needs may be provided for, Certain additional
items may be stored in available spaces within the aircreft, but if
he is forced to leave his aircraft, these items will not, of course,
be of any vaule to him. Certain items in the following listed kit
either are net now aveiL-ble, or t?re not rvailrble in the desired
form. It is hoped that efforts will be made to provide ell the list­ ed items as soon as possible, in a standard kit, as its importance
to arctic flying cannot be cvei estimated. The bail-out kit is part­ icularly adapted for use with the 24 foot, B-10 brck-type, quick rel­ ease parachute. The following items comprise the contents of the kit:
AMOUNT UNIT ea
ITEM Bag, Sleeping, A-3A Spec 0 REMARKS
Preferably modified to include
a thin, light weight, inflat­ able eir mr.ttress to insulate
agrinst the cold or T;et ground.
From locrl tests, this has
been decided to be an extreme-­ ly desircblc item.
This type flcre seems most
versatile sinee it eliminates
carrying tv:o different types
of firres.
None.

ea

Radio Transmitter Distress, AN/CRN-16 (XA-5) Fith flash light attachment
Flares, /<-P Day-Nite Distress Signal

ea

er

Mirror, Emergency Signaling, Size 15
Spec. 50653
General Purpose Machete and Snow-Saw folding type

ea

Comparable to ^codmtn's Pal
Victor Tool Co., Reading'Pa.
Rip saw teeth desired rnd fold-
in? blade essential. The hook
on end of Goodman's Pal not
desired»

(1)

App. Pcge 78

Fail-Out Kit And Clothing For
AMOUNT 3 UNIT ea ITEM Matchcese, waterproof with flint strip and waterproof matches. REM/RKS
One case to include compass
top, which v;ill be only
compass in the kit.

1

ea

Coleman Gasoline Stove Constructed slong lines of
Primus stove now in use,
but of a much smaller size.
Gasoline Container Constructed to fit into
Bail-Out Kit, to give as
much room as possible

ee

ea ee.

Ccndles, 5 inch, 1 inch diameter Bf\ ti ons, pr re chute, emergency Irrge winding key to
open rith gloved hrnd.
Present Cf.n opener to
small to handle.

1

ea

Valuable as signaling dev­ Ten^, poncho, QM, red, (now experimental ice in addition to protect­ ion against elements.
SGcks, xvccl, medium Socks, wool, light Inndrscles, felt Bag, knit, from A-14. Mukluk insert kit. .Mittens, arctic, QM Inserts, mitten arctic, CM I n s e r t s , wool \d.th fingers, Q M I n s e r t s , glove, rr.yon Stock Mo. 8300-4560
(2)

1 1 1 1

pr pr pr ea

To contrin seeks rnd in^er­ soles and clso may be vorh
as a head protector

1 1

pr pr pr pr

Required for tasks requir­ ing use of fingers
Considered tc protect hands
for short periods when fing­ er dexterity required.

App. Page 79

! 1 2^1&
.rctic Fighter Pilot

AMOUNT

UNIT
pr

ITEM Ski goggles, Stock No. 74-G-79 ^ire, copper, .025" gauge, 20 feet. Mrnun1, £retic Survival Chapstick Fhisk broom'Alpine, Mountain, snow dust­ ing. Ammunition, .22 cal, 50 rounds, hollow point long rifle Kit contriver, canvas, -vater-repellent, heary duty zipper, non-rigid To remove snow from cloth*
ing before it ire Its.
For sucgested pistol to
be carried on person
Dimensions not to exceed:
Length - 15 inches
width - 12 inches
Height * 5 l/2 inches
It is desired that this be
be kept as small as possible
The fold of the sleeping brg
provides a comfortable sect
even though the equipment may
be tightly packed. Container
should be thoroughly drop
tested.
Eliminate chapters on
Tropic and Desert Survival

1 1 1

roll
ea ee

1 1

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box

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2» Survival Equipment Carried en Person: In order to keep the bulk
and weight of the bail-out kit to a minimum to permit handling, and
most important, ersy exit from the cockpit in emergency, certain
necessary items must be carried on the person of the pilot. The
following is recomrr ended

rOUNT

UFIT
ee.

ITEM

Revolver, .22 Ccl

REM/.RKS

This is believed to be far
superiod to the ,4-5 eel auto­ matic for cold we&ther oper­ ations, accuracy, End the
killing of small grme. Mere
ammunition can be carried and
hollow point ammunition is
adequate against seme of the
the larger animals. Long
rifle ammunition is desired.

(3)

AMOUNT 1

UNIT ea

ITEM Holster, shoulder

MOM With smell emmuniticn pouch attrched.

1 1

ea ea

Knife, sbetrth
MatchcF.se, water­ proof, with water­ proof matches
Mittens, /rctic, QM
Inserts, mitten,
Arctic, QM
Inserts, glove, rayon
Stock No,'8300-4560
First /:id Kit
The Flight Surgeon recommends
that a practical one-man erotic
first aid kit should contain
the following ix.e:r;s;
Sir ail Cu'G"1; cid dressing,
U3 /riT!y; Carlisle model.
/.dhasivo tape
Petrcl.'itvi3_ 1/2 cz tube
Sulf£-ni.'.!.aifi1.de powder or
other topical application
Smell peir of scissors

1 1 1 1

pr pr pr ea

He farther recommended that pilots be issued, r morphine
syrette prior to e-'ch flight.
The entire first cid kit should be as smell rs possible
and attached tc the parachute harness.,
The pilot will probably eugrrent this list with additional
small items of his opn choosing,
3. Pilots Flight _CL:_thir}g: From the variety of eld end new
flying clcthing now avail;* ole, the following items h.:vo been select­ ed as having qualities best suited tc both flying zud survival for
the arctic fighter pilot. In selecting these items ; warmthj balk,
and practicability for all around use during normal or emergency
operations were considered.
a. Outer Garments

(l) ./ very light weight two-piece removable, r-rter prcof
' skin of tough fabric should be provided to be worn over

U)

App. Pr:?e 81

Kit aid Clcthing For Arctic Fighter Pilot
the parkn and trousers the thaw pcint. These the parka and trousers ing, thus losing their characteristic is that when not in use,
when the teuperatures are nep.r
light weight "skins" will protect
from getting ret end lrter freez­ insulating properties, A desired
they may be folded rnd carried

(2) Jacket: The parka type is mest desired. Recommend
the jacket style now being tested by the Perscne.l Equip­ ment Laboratory, Air Technicrl Service Command, Project
XB-67. The new type hood is extremely satisfactory for
protection of the face during bail-cut as well r.s prot­ ection on the grcund.
(3) Trousers: The opinion of the pilots of this or­ ganization indicates a choice of tv;o types of cuter
trousers, All agree thrt eigher type should be supple­ mented with the extreme outer garments dec^i-ibed in par­ agraph 3 . c ( l ) .
(a) A large minority are more cr J>c?s c'i.isf.'.fc' rit,h
the present Air Force B-ll t? pe trc-,;it:.,s (0: r i ? r . r ­ .< -vn parable end more desirable type T>"V ;f;i.if. -« s^td it ihc
,. Perse TIE 1 Fquipment Laboratory, / • C L1 C , 1'::-,,eA XB-6'V),
The unp.niirously accepted ^-erkneso oi - : •s "ype trouser
I i . are as
1. They are too bulky to worV- in.
2. ^ e n removed, because of excess wai-mth, too
t a contrast in temper'ture is ncticed.
-hey s?pk up meisture, mostly frcm the cutside,
"hi3n. c-v.imrjt be- removed. Ibis mcs.'/curo then
f.'.-ejzesj thus destroying the insv:l::'li:ig qaalit­ ±os of the trousers, or, if the trousers are
rc.Tcved rnd then freeze ; they are p
iir-pcssitle to put back cnc
4* ?hr-~j 5 . c : ! have r higher "Ois'h „ p v. bi c
*ii.d : 1 j.n jr c,:. .is a definite 'c-jd t.'p^':' .'s robice­ able t.otre.

(b) The majority of the pilots prefer tao lighter
weight, multi leyer principle. v'hile at the /laskan
Air Ccmrr&nd Arctic Indoctrination School, at Ncme,
Alaska, these pilots wore the QM cc-tton twill trousers
as cuter garments and were extremely satisfied uith
them for the follorirg reasons:
(5)
App. Page 82

26
%Lt 'Arid' Clothing For Arctic frighter Pilot
1. 2. ^. They -are not tco bulky.
They are v?ter repellent, protecting under
garments frcm outside mcsiture.
In the event they did became undesirably vret,
they could be removed Fithcut tco grer.t r-. loss
of hert insulation rnd v-'hen frozen, the ice could
be reiroved with comparative case.

;4» The thin multi-layer principle permits the removal
of garments without exceeding a desired increment
of change in temperature
/
The reccmrrendations based on these advantages call for
the design of c type of cuter trcuscrs cf s vr-ier rep­ ellent, medium v/sight material that rrLU. net 40.^ its
water repellent quality when clernecV, W:y ?rcu>i hs.ve
pockets as required in a flying sv.r-- _.u: Glv.^.ld ' o arm
u pit height to retain the heat at, • . o -'-i3'" . F.rT<-/vei\, it
•h is desired that both the B-ll type r-:d " " *<••.•"'<:;.&• .c.3<*
:. type b-; provided; as either one ti 1 z;... •?.^j 'v • 5t r
.c pending upon t-he individual pilo~ • • -.-f-. M: '.:.O -,r.e
'

^*

ISIS.^! Garmentsc (1) J'2Pi£?.i* The h. avy weel jacker, -/lor DLJ.I'.'; ofs'z.ed under
project X3-67, Clcthing Branch, / r : Te^.'-jy'jc?-! ,-:trv;loe G m ­ o mand seems quite f a v c r r b l e ,
(2) ^sr^szraj I ncavy wool trouscr of tbo ncLie ir.ct3r.1al
as the jack'3 5 described in the y.r:evicts pcr:r-:-;-j;oh i s de­ sired,, : . lit.".'.-ET'atv^.cry" aroeriif to i s "ji.e '.'R'.' .>.u"-:sey-? j.ncd
' * p l a i n tj^ro b."Ciirer3.- The l-rttei hrs oi-jvf.-xi t o t-. ru OJC­ celleno boo-j he? t. ./et^iner during tbe /.rcti". "^..i.coco.r-lniiti
Coui'se f t ^'Ti-io, i' la ski.
(3) T i r t e r -xrd^y-^z v w i l l cus-ccrnf.ri.i.y be .7orn

C.

E-ii-C'P-;?'1^^:

( l ) 'jlpves: The rAC°-'-, desirable i r ^ y ^ ; ; pl?"^o w;c"Icl be a thin pair cf electric gloves there Vivuiol not ::e6-'-:.c±ct finger dexterity. However, in the evenx t u r t -^hrse ere net available or the aircr-ft is net v/ircd to acccmcdcte them, the A-ll / i r Force glove v-ith rr.y.n inserts ar"e ade quate, though slightly too bulky for monipuleticn of the various sritches in the cockpit.

(6)
4 pp. Pr.ge 83

Bril-Ogt Kit And Clothing For irctic Fighter Pilot
(2) Boots: The A - H Mukluk with the L-ll ins.rts rre
very satisfactory with cne exception; if the temperature
is near the thaw print, -due to the hert frcra 0 fire cr
climatic condition, they will get v.et rnd freeze and nc
longer provide protection. It is believed that a thir>,
removable, -ater-procf cuter cover, to be used under these
conditions, w.uld prevent this trouble. These covers
should be stored in a pocket on the beet when net in use.
4 » Additional Survival Equipment: In the event that a belly
landing is possible, it would be highly desirable to heve a few add­ iticnal items; too bulky for the reccr-mended br.il-cut kit, available
to the pilot: This could include the fclicking items of equipment
to be stored in the aircrrft.
a. Over-under sbctgun-rifle, 4-10 gruge and .22 caliber Stev­ ens Rifle, Stock No. B001-0079160.
b. Flares and smoke grenades.
c. Rations, Type C,
d. QM quilted inner-liner for sleeping bag.
e. Small shcvel.

(7)
&pp. Page 84.

/ii!cft;icthing Fcr /rptio-Fightor P i l o t

oide View cf Parachute ^ i Sleeping Bag end /.retic Beil-Out Kit attached

(8) App, 85

26
lit And Clothing For / re tic Firhtcr Pilot

Front View of Parachute with Sleeping Bag
and Arctic Bail-Out Kit Attached

Seat type cents-iner, hcevy canvas, vith
supporting strep passing'completely under
container.
Air Force sleeping bag - - attached to length
of parachute v.'ith remainder packed within kit
container thrcugh slot at rear cf ccntriner.
Socks, inrersoles, and poncho tent are packed
in between sleeping bag and B-10 parachute.

(9)

/.pp. Page

86

Bail-Out Fit And Clothing For /rctic Fighter Pilot

Three-Quarter Plan View
of Fighter Pilot Arctic
Bail-Out Kit. Kit is in
Open Position.

A. Portion of sleeping b.-g, carried in
canvas container.
B. Canvas container with arctic equipment
C. Canvas cover with heavy zipper.
D. Remainder cf sleeping bag used os
parachute brck pad.

(10)

App. Page

87

Fcr Arctici-Fighttr Pilct Lay-Out of Kit A. B. Knit bag from A-1A. IL'ukluk i n s e r t s Light weight
VJCOI

F.

socks

Radio d i s t r e s s transmitter /.N/CRN-16 (X/.-5) and generntcr v:ith f l a s h l i t e attach­ ment

C. Medium ueight rcol socks
D. Felt innerscles E. I. J. Poncho tent, red Chapstick
Heat tablets

G. Emergency parachute rations.
H. 20 feet copper wire.

)
: K, Collapsible stove )

These items substituted for smrll r'scline
stove and £pscline container
P. Signal mirror, rnd ski
regales
Q. Inserts fcr arctic mittens

L. M.

Canvas sheath for machete-sa77 Sharpening st/:ne

N. Example cf ir?.chete-saw,
brush hook not desired 0. Match.«cntriners, ne vrith
cempass in top
S. T. U, Manual en emergency uses of prrachute Dual purpose day-nite flares Candles ..

R. Heat t?blots, QM issue - ­ see (J & K)

V. . /jrotic survival r.c^ual
w

.

Arctic mittens, 0M

X, Parachute, sleeping bag, and canvas container
Note:Additional articles included in desired kit but net available
at time photograph V T S t<:ken are:
Alpine T-hisk br r cm
Two (2) pr reyen glove inserts
One (1) candle 5" long, 1 1/4." in diameter
One (l) box .22 cal heller; point, lcn~ rifle ammunition
One (l) pr wcclen glove inserts "ith fingers

i l l ) 1 '

f% ?% P. r

27

The "aircraft in Commission Chart"
r.ppo.-.rs in conjunction v'ith the
"accident Rate Chart" on p?.go 72
of the appendix, Document rTo. 21.

Lpp.

P?.go

89

J-33-21 Fuel System Flushing Rig

App. Pape

90

Copy

29

Specie! Report # 11
Plant #3
Indianopolis, Indiana
Nordale Hotel
Fairbanks, Alaska
Februsry 3, 194-8

I.E. Dixon D.F.

Jet Aircraft Fuel System
Difficulties Experienced, 7rinter
of 1947-1948, Ladd Field, Alaska
a. D. F. ^riebt'r Specif 1 Report #2, deted Jan. 3, 194-7
b. D . F . ™ri?ht!s Specif. 1 Report #4, dated Dec 6, 1947
c. Lockheed Cold Test on Low Pressure Micronic Filter
for *Todel P-8OB Fuel System, Report #6349, dated
Dec. 22, 1947,
Preliminary Icing Tests at Lrdd Field, ^i of 47-4.8

d.

TROUBLE. ENCOUNT1RED
Investigation of a P-8OB crash shewed foreign materiel clogging the
fuel nozzle screens of the J-33-A-21 engine. (Ref.b) This condition
was identical with two en^i^es' which had power failures during the
winter of 1946-1947, also under Arctic Conditions. (Ref. a)
Complete.investigation of all P-8Q aircraft ft Ladd Field proved
foreign mpteri^l resembling dirt, rust, ?nd lint, to be present in
all fuel sy r tems. The only sffety margin afforded after the foreign
material Fas present in the fuel was the 1o\> pressure filter. This
filter WES corrpf ratively cler.n in ev'ry c o e .
Suspicions regerding the Pressure Filter Micronic blocking off .pGrcert£c'e, temperatures and by-pass were noted flso clinging of irinute size pnd often effective r?ngc of filtering by the L6w
Element as to maximum flo^1, foreign rrcterial
possible chance in viscosity of fuel at low
valve settings were voiced. Ice crystals
to the Micronic Element although there- were
overlooked.

The condition wrs referred to Lockheed Aircrf- t Corporation and it was
discovered that ice crystals were forming & block on the Ficrcnic
Element under certain temperature r.nd moisture content coi'dition,
which csused the by-pess v^Jvcs to open. (Ref c) This not m l y
allo*-od the foreign mrterial to pass directly from the fuel cells
to the engine but also, because of the design of the I O F pressure
filter, &]lowed fry foeeign mftericl f.lrecdy tr. pped on the filter
element before the by-pr.ss valves opened, to ^e pi eked .up r:nd prssed
on tb- the engine, Results: Pcver Loss or Failure.
(App. Frr-e 91

Copy
Mr. C. E. .
February 3, 194.8
Page 2
ATTEMPTED CQRKBCTIVE ACTION
The basic answer seemed to be to keep the foreign materials from gett­ ing into the fuel tanks of the aircraft. £11 fuel servicing equipment
W F S clcrned including the required inspection of the tank truck
filters: hewemsr, even with this condition being prevalent, the prob­ lem TCS what to do v-ith aircraft alrerdy contaminuted. A complete
flushing of the aircraft fuel syrt.em proved inadequate. Without the
low pressure filter worki~?, the ccntaminrtcd aircraft were unsafe to
fly. Likewise, in cases where LT\ internal frilure of one of the fuel
system components mifht occur: without the low pressure filter work­ ing, the circrrft ve^re unsafe for.flight.
The addition of alcohol to the fuel, : s proposed by Lockheed Aircraft also rpreercd to be iricdequatc rs mixing proved to bo a complex prob­ lem with the equipment rvi il-:ble for even carefully trained ^nd veil informed personnel. (Ref. d) This mernt thrt the lcrgc velume cf fuel required for squadron operation would prove tc great a problem for complete assuranco th^t '11 fuel wuld have sufficient anti­ freeze quality for a l l expected icin*r cenditions. The possibility that by adding r.lcohol a remedy mi^ht be found, is' s t i l l und^ r test at this date but unlc-sr the problem of mixing is simplified, l i t t l o hope is held for this being the complete and ccrrpctcnt answer tc the icing problem.

For successful ':p-ration under Arctic cerditions, the f.Uterine systems of the aircraft ?nd particularly the Jet Aircraft, must be. able to offrate effective ly under the greatest s-fety liri-.it'tion possible. The present fuel systems vhich incorporttc f- Micr. fie Elorront vdll ±rc up T.'ith the moisture cc-ntont co^trJncd in solution 'ry the sligh+ly hygroscopic abilities of rcsoline or JP fuel. (Rof.c) If ihe f i l t e r s i n s t a t e d in the aircraft rrc not effective, the air­ craft are rot sffe for flight under rny squadrcn operating condition • • d especially in the Arctic rhere greater fuel flows v i l l dislodge "n md c.1 rry foreign material mere readily tc a pcint in the engine where porer failure r i l l occur.

1. •

Addition cf s m ^ type nnti-freeze to the fuel so that ice crn be o e eliminated dovm to r temporrture cf -70 F.

2, The ideal rrti-freezo wculd be one thr-t c.uld be rdried to the fuel at time cf manufacture or through a properties 1 met-..ring pump at time the service trucks or fircraft fuel systems ere filled. 3, Design t r\^r lov pressure filter vhich wculd ccntein mctrlic filt
ering elements.
> 92) h (

Copy. Mr, C. E. Dixoi
February 3, 194-8
Pa ere 3

29

to replace the Ii-icroric paper elements. The Micrcnic element
seoms to absorb the moisture from the fuel end hold it with
the fibers. Als© make s w e the opening of the by-pass v:ill not
disturb the foreign material that may be already trapped in th«
filter element.
U*' The entire fuel systeic should be tested in a cbld box by porre com­ petent organization dovn to a temperature of ^10°^, to a plus 60°F,
before it is approved for testing under /rctic Conditions on &n
aircraft.
(Signed)
P. F, ^ri-
Representative

30

Daily Rerrove.l of P-SOB Batteries

App.

Pa.^e 94

31

Refueling Operations

App.
IS

Pape 95

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