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TE4103 Sistem Komunikasi Bergerak

Modul#7
Cell Site Design

Obyektif Pengajaran

Memberikan penjelasan mengenai divais-


divais yang ada pada sebuah cell site
Penjelasan kriteria-kriteria unjuk kerja
masing-masing divais secara secara
singkat

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Cellular Radio Access System

PSTN

MSC
BTS1/cell site 1

Packet/IP
Network
BTS1/cell site n

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Radio (Tx & Rx) System

propagation
Signal
Source Signal
Txer PA Rxer
(Voice, Information
data, etc) Tx filter feedline Rx filter Pre-Amp

Signal Source: Informasi & Baseband Processing.


Tx-er: Modulator, Channel Encoder, Interleaver, etc.
PA: Power Amplifier.
Feedline: Cable, Connector and Jumper.
Pre-Amp: LNA.
Rx-er: Demodulator, Channel Decoder, De-Interleaver,
etc.
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Structure of Transmitter

Connector
Jumper
Info BB
Mod PA
Signal Processing

Depend on Jumper Cable


type of Mod used
BB Processing: to process analog signal into digital signal & other
processing
Mod: translate from BB freq. To RF freq depend on type of cellular
system being used e.g. G-MSK modulator for GSM.
Power Amp:
- Class A: high linearity
- Class B: greater output power more efficient than Class A, but less linear
- Class AB: combined adv. of class A & B become widely used in
wireless.
- Class C: more power efficient widely used in wireless

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Transmitting Combiners

Allows multiple transmitters to feed


single antenna, providing
Minimum power loss from transmitter
to antenna
Maximum isolation between
transmitters
Combiner types
Tuned
low insertion loss ~1-3 dB
transmitter frequencies must be
significantly separated
Hybrid
insertion loss -3 dB per stage
no restriction on transmitter
frequencies
Linear amplifier
Linearity and intermodulation are
major design and operation issues

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Generic Structure of Rxer

Antenna Rxer
IF
1
jumper
2
. X Chanel Data/
PA IF
. Encoder Signal
filter .
N
feedline Multicoupler/ LO
RF Distributor
Block diagram of Rxer varies depend on type of modulation, encoder,
and/ or base band processing.
Parameters to be considered are:
- frequency range
- dynamic range
- sensitivity
- distortion
- noise
- tuning speed

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Receiver Components

Antenna: to convert electromagnetic energy from


atmosfer electric energy and transfer it to feed line
Feed line
= Connector

Jumper Cable Jumper


Jumper to ease maintenance and installation

Filter & Pre-Amplifier:


- Filter: to pass the wanted signal & attenuated the
interference designed to work
according to the intended bands
- Pre-Amplifier is used to increased S/N of received
signals.

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Receiver Components

Multicoupler:
- used for RF distribution
- many signals/users can share the same receive antenna:

signal
#1
1:4 #2
Splitter #3
#4
RFin 1:4
Splitter

# 13
1:4 # 14
Splitter # 15
# 16

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Performance Criteria of Receivers

Sensitivity:
Ability to detect a weak signals, measured by minimum discernible
signal (MDS).
MDS is measured by turning off the AGC, input a signal with correct
BW, and increasing the signal output from generator until S + N = 3
dB higher than 0 when there is no signal.
Sensitivity incorporate thermal noise, NF and BW, defined as:

Sen = 10 log (kTB) + 10 log (Channel BW) + NF


where: 10 log (kTB) = -174 dBm/Hz for T = 25oC,
B = 840 MHz and k = 1.38 x 10-23 J/K
Sen = -174 + 10 log(W) + NF
where: W = Channel Bandwidth
e.g. for IS-9 W = 1.23 MHz
S = -174 + 10 log (1.23 x 106) + 4 = 109.1 dBm
GSM W = 200 kHz
S = -174 + 10 log (2 x 105) + 4 = -117 dBm

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Performance Criteria of Receiver

Dynamic Range
a range of levels of the signal that receiver can handle accurately.
blocking DR is defined from MDS to 1 dB compression point.
spurious free DR (SFDR) is defined from MDS to a specified 3rd order
intermodulation level.

Intercept point

1-dB compression
Output power, dBm

Linear operation

Third order
Signal slope Input power
causing burnout
Spurious free Noise level
dynamic range

Input power, dBm


- e.g. a range from -13 to -104 dBm DR = 91 dB

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Performance Criteria of Receiver

SINAD = signal to noise and distortion:


S+N+D
SINAD= (dB)
N+D
Noise = thermal noise + other noises:
affect overall performance of receiver
quantified by Noise
S Figure, NF:
NF =10log
( N)
(S N)
input

output

Selectivity:
- a measure of protection from off channel interference.
- depend upon filtering.
- greater selectivity means better rejection to unwanted signal
however if too selective, the signal could be distorted.

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4 Basic Antenna System

/4
/2 Ground plane
G=2.14 dBi G=4 dBi
= 73 = 36
a. Dipole b. monopole

conductor
Feed point

/2
dielectric
/2

Ground plane

c. Loop d. Microstrip/ patch


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Base Station Antenna

Use antenna with higher gain


Could be omnidirectional or sectoral depending on cell
type
Collinear antenna:

4
Omnidirectional
Radiation
Pattern
main lobe
2
feeder
S
line
boresight
(elevation)
2
side lobe

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Base Station Antenna

Log periodic dipole array (LPDA)


Directional Radiation
Transmission Dipoles Pattern
line

- very wide BW, with constant SWR


- typical gain 10 dBi

Yagi antenna
main lobe
Reflector Driven element (dipole) Directors

back lobe
- BW is smaller than LPDA side lobe main lobe
- typical gain 12 14 dB

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Directional BS Antenna

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Omni Antennas
Collinear Vertical Arrays

The family of omni-directional


wireless antennas:
Number of elements
determines
Physical size
Gain
Beamwidth, first null angle
Models with many elements
have
very narrow beamwidths
Require stable mounting and
careful alignment
be sure nulls do not fall in
important coverageareas
Rod and grid reflectors are
sometimes added for mild
directivity

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Sector Antennas
Reflectors And Vertical Arrays

Typical commercial sector


antennas are vertical
combinations of dipoles, yagis,
or log-periodic elements with
reflector (panel or grid)
backing:
Vertical plane pattern is
determined by number of
vertically-separated elements
varies from 1 to 8, affecting
mainly gain and vertical
planebeamwidth
Horizontal plane pattern is
determined by:
number of horizontally-spaced
elements
shape of reflectors (is reflector
folded?)

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Example Of Antenna Catalog Specifications

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Antenna Downtilt

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Vertical Depression Angles

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Types Of Downtilt

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Antenna Downtilt: Reduce Interference

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Antenna Downtilt: Avoid Overshoot

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SWR of Antenna

Amplitude
/2
Vmax

Vmin

SWR = Vmax/Vmin, define the matching level between antenna and


feeder line
Reflection coefficient:
SWR 1
=
SWR + 1
where 2 represent a percent of reflected power defined
by:
Re turn Loss = 10log 2
( )
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Performance Criteria of Antenna

Antenna pattern, defined at azimuth and elevation orientation


either omni or bidirectional antenna
Main lobe & side lobe, the lower side lobe the better resistance to
interference
Input impedance, usually complex matching input ipedance and
feeder line impedance is very critical to have maximum power
transfer from feeder to antenna
Beamwidth, usually defined as angular separation where there is 3
dB reduction from bore-sight
Directivity & Gain, is ratio of radiation intensity at wanted direction
and coverage radiation intensity over all direction
G = .D
Bandwidth, define operating range of antenna, limited by SWR. A
typical BW is for SWR 1:1.2 at the band edge.
Polarization, defined by orientation ofr
E

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Performance Criteria of Antenna

Front to Back Ratio, is ratio between main lobe & back


lobe, very impotant for directional antenna.
Spatial diversity:

h 835
Rx2 Rx1 d = x ( feet )
11 f
h
where f is in MHz

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Antenna Installation

d Tx Tx Rx2

Rx2 Rx1 d

a) Tower
Rx1

b) Roof Top, Edge of Building


c) Roof Top
sector 1 Rx1

Tx Rx2

d
d
2 Tx

Rx1
3
Rx2

d) Wall Mounting
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Antenna Installation Tolerance

Apply to physical oriented & plumbness of its


installation
For omnidirectional antenna, it is unnecessary. But for
directi-onal antenna it is very critical
Usually taken +/- 5% from antenna horizontal/azimuth
pattern.
Table: Horizontal Antenna Tolerance
Azimuth/Horizontal Pattern Tolerance from Bore Sight

110O +/- 5.5o


92O +/- 4.5o
60O +/- 3.0o
40O +/- 2.0o
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Antenna Isolation

Tx
x y
y Tx Rx

Rx

a. vertical b) horizontal c. slant

y x
VI = 28 + 40 log dB HI = 22 + 20 log dB SI = (VI HI ) + HI dB
90 o
where y > where x > 10 where slant angle

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Link Budget

path loss
TXer RXer
Txer Rxer
component component

link budget component

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Link Budget Up Link

Frequency range, MHz Base station parameters


- Rx ant. gain Rx jumper loss
Mobile parameters
- Rx tower top amp gain (net)
- Tx PA output (max)
- Cable loss - Rx cable loss
- Antenna gain - Rx ligthning arrester loss
-------- (Subsc. ERP max, dB)
- Rx duplexer loss
Environmental margins
- Fading margin - Rx diversity gain
- Environmental attenuation - Rx coding gain
- Cell overlap - Rx sensitivity
-------------------- (dB)
------- Up-link budget, dB

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Link Budget Down Link

Frequency range, MHz Environmental margins


- Tx diversity gain
Base station parameters
- Fading margin
- Tx PA output power - Environmental attenuation
- Tx combiner loss - Cell overlap
- Tx duplexer loss (dB)
- Tx ligthning arrester loss Mobile parameters
- Antenna gain
- Tx cable loss
- Rx diversity gain
- Tx jumper loss
- Antenna cable loss
- Tx tower top amp gain - Coding gain
- Tx antenna gain - Rx sensitivity
(Cell ERP, dB) ---------- Down-link budget, dB

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Type of Cell Site/BTS (1)

Tx

Rx11
Rx1 Tx Rx2
1 Rx21
Tx1

Rx1 Rx2
Rx12
120o
Tx2 2
Rx32

Tx3
Rx22
Monopole Roof Top 3
Rx31

a) Omni cell b) 3 Sectors

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Type of Cell Site/BTS (2)

Micro- or pico-cell antenna

1
R R Traffic light
R R
T
6 2
T 60 T
R R
R R

T T
5 3
T
R R
R R

c) 6 sectors d) Microcell or picocell

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Cell Site Design (1)

Search area

Site Qualification Test


(SQT)

Site
Accepted?

Planning and
Zoning Board

EMF Compliance

Site activation

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Cell Site Design (2)

Search Area:
- searching area to place cell site/BTS that meet the specifications
- plot the propagation path, including clearance
- mapping the area for planning & documentation

SQT:
- to assure the area is a viable candidate for a cell site by
measurements
- include a sketch of the location, antenna type, height, ERP, path
clearance,
and do callibration

Site acceptance:
- if SQT is positive then the area is accepted to place a cell site
- if not, then area is rejected
- both site acceptance and rejection should be documented

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Cell Site Design (3)

Planning and zoning board:


- why the site is needed
- how the site will improve the network
- drawing the sketch of site

Electromagnetic Force (EMF) Compliance:


- EMF identify the source of EM from the site itself and surrounding
area
- to ensure it complies with personal safety and government regulation
- incorporated the type of Txer, power, frequency range, etc
- method for calculating EMF, e.g. IEEE C95.1 1991 standard

Site activation:
- when every steps above is OK, the cell site/BTS could be placed and
turn on

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Conclusion

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The End

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