You are on page 1of 16

<[T\| <X+, sh+ sT>TTq

<&T\qT, $e\qT es+#+&...


|P dk< de k|q ~qyTq
d|+sT 24 qT+& 30 es \ s\H
\+ du\T, deyX\T s|+&.
d.|.(m+.m) q&yd, sh $T{, m.|
d+|{ ` 3 T{H : 4
q&yd
2017 >dT - d|+sY |J\T : 16
|& |\ | |
+<|<X sh $T{ (duT\ eyT)

.mdt.{ es+#+&! .mdt.{ es bs{\qT \|s+&! |s |qT\ s<TqT &e+& #jT+&! !


|\| |qT us |+|<\ #jT&, q sV ` d.|. (m+.m) q&yd, +<$T{ |\T|
|]XeT\ +f & ss{ X \ qT bV+#&, us $|+> |]>sTT. de\+{ MT< |qT |s>&+ bT q |]XeT me X+ nd+|T{ s+>+ qT+& eT
sC+>+ sc\ *+q ] V\qT V]+#&, nH edTe\ MT< L& |qT |]+~. mdt{ qT+ neds\qT deTLsT+{sTT. $<q+ e\q n~
sddt _C|\ HjT+ +<|uT+ 2017 p 1 $TqVsTT+q y{|q e> $~+q y{|q L& us+ |qT\T #*+#*e n$ jT |]d +~.
qT+& edT eT]jTT de\ |qT (>& n+& dddt {` |&+~. d<sT edTe\T < de\qT , syD, neT+ s+> q |]XeT\qT <rd & |]XeT\ mdt{
mdt{) bs+_++~. key< |T&, us #d <>Zs md e]+|#jT&+ e\ mdt{ us+ y{| |j>|&TT+~. &+|\ b~\q me>
ss{ X\T mdt{ neT\T #jTeT #\+> L& |s+> y|&+~. mdt{ e\q k<sD |\T +&<T . |qT\ |+|<\qT d ]keT+, ds ]keT+
sT HsTT. ~ |\|q LsyTq<& > sc\ spy $j+# edTe\T, de\T, <s\T |] us+ |b~+q |qT d+dsD\T L& &+|\
V\qT V]+yd~ L&. |s |qT\ |< d+dsD> qTHsTT. |j>|&sTT. mdt{ |s |qT\qT >]w ksTT
B |uT + |#s+ #d+ ~. mdt{ 3s\T nH <=+s\ T sTybsT\|q mdt{ re |u y #|qTq~. #sqTq~. |s |qT\ |uy Z+#\H #qqT
(Xu) * +~. |{ n~ |qT\qT ed\T #dTq |qT $~+# |]$T ~+#&+ <s ybs\+{ |uT+ $s$T+#T=q~.
|{*jT+qT>, V > mdt{ |]~ <T. mdt{ |]~ #sT. n+><T H\ eT&TksT d<s T |&T |b~+q mdt{ sD+> |qT\ us+
n+><T $$< XK\ n~sT\T ed\T #d |s |qT\ ybs y<M\qT |uT ||sT s|+ y* yjT n~ ksTT b~ *dTq |]XeT\T eT|&
$<q+ =qk>TT+~. +T+~. q eT< s> |]XeT\+{ m>Te <=+s |]d TT+~. sD+> |qT\T sTTq ]\T
|\T |{ #*+ # |s |qT\ us mdt{ |]~ #sT. <X+ b]X$T ]\ me eT+~ eTs= | <=s +~ |& |]dT\T @s&qTHsTT.
eT]+ |+#qTq~. |{ |uT + ed\T #dT q |qT q eT< sV |]XeT\ qT+& b~ b+<TTHsH mdt{ e\q jTeqT\| e# usq+{ ]\|
2/3 e+T |s |qT\ |< H ed\T #d +~. n_e~ $w j > e Tq+ rd T y*. s + > mdt { y| |jT+ #ksT. sD+> ]\ yH\T,
#+~q <X\ |s |qT 1/3 e+T> +~. d<s T <X\ b~ \q MT< L& |qT<& #dT q ~. n~ |qT\ us ks\T eT]+ >TsjT |]d TT+~.
b*qsTT &| |qT X+ us<X+ n~+> y|q sD+> |]XeT\T me X+ eT|& neX+ jTeqT\T ] #{\ desDqT eT]+ s $<+>
+~. <X\ d+eT #s\ me> s$q (|qT\ +~. s+s+ ]sY deT]+# |L& usyT |uT+ |]dT\qT *dTq~. s+> #+~q
<s |uT s&) KsT|&TTHsT. us<X+ |]XeT\qT re |e<+ |&yjTqTq~. mdt{ |qT jTeqT\T mdt{ esd bs&TTHsT. c|\ y
d+eT+| HeTe+> KsT#dTHsT. $<, s> MT< |qT y]dT+ < |#s+ #ksT. y{ >T]+ L& es \T L & < s V mdt { e s + >
s+>\| #dTq KsT b*qsTT us<X+ n~ eT >+ H |#s+ #ksT. |&T < L& = bs&TTHsT. us sC+>+ b+<T|s#&q s+
e> +~. |\| |s |qT\T us+ n~+> q mdt{ *|XsT. |{ es \ sqTe+{ jTT deK duy L& mdt{ re+> <rjTqTq~.
H|< + mdt{ eT]+ |qT\ us y|qTq~. mdt{ =qT> neT\qT = |<T\ <s k+#&+ e\ <X+ es{ |qT H<+ sh |uT\T
|{ neT\T #dq <X\ edTe\, de\ jTT <s\T #> \ueTjT$. neX\ mdt{ s]dT+~. (sTysTT 9e |J)
sT\, eekjT L\ sTD\qT s<T#j*. KsT\| 50% *| eT<T <s y*.
eekjT+ |f H`|{ <s\T Z+#*. eT<T <s\ +f e =q{ w~+#*.
eT<|<X eT+<ksY s+>+| pH 6q s<T # j
\ &e+& #ksT. |+\{ eT< T <s * y\ eT[ d T < T bj \ L b >MTD_ e ~ ,
| u T + \T\T ]| s T > T s T s T \ bD\qT &e+& #ksT. b|dsY k$TH<H HjT+ 2006 eekjTs+> d++~+q eT[ d<T bj\ \qL
*rdT+~. s+>+ |+&+q |+\ <s\T n+ @sfq CrjT s+> MTwH dbsT\ <s+> |<\ ks\ \qL e+ KsT #jT f< T . s +>+
<sTD+> |&b jsTT. B es+> bs&TTq y~ KsT\| n<q+> 50% *| y\ &e+& #ksT. _C| edTq n\&T\ < |<qyTq sD+. |C es
eT+~ sT\ *d eT sdqqT \T|Tq jTTe sT* HjT + qs+< y& dV 2014 m\, {e ]q $<H\ b\esZ\ +> HsTT. bs&TTq
|uT+ * #+|+~. e{, +><T+|, *>&\T s|<X m L& k$TH<H MTwH dbsT\qT s+>+| C es\T> _C| eTT<yd+~. CrjT
yTT<q y{ 50 |d\ qT+& sbsTT neTT=H neT\T #keT, sTD\T s<T#keT y>Zq+ #ksT. > u < |e<eT |uT + e{&T +~. s +> bs{
<Td s+>+ H&sT. e], $T], kj;H, y\T |uT \| q esq T u> keTT #dT HsT. |&T || b\ yTT& kqTu *bsTT. deCyB
yTT<q T\ <s\ nH sc\ <sTD+> _C| HjT\T eTTK+ #fksT. s+>| >V b +{$ = eTs=&T>T eTT+<Td n|\ s<TqT
|&bjsTT. eT b&TT+< X\T |+#Tq nDyjT& s+< neT\T sT|THsT. $eT]dTHsTT.
s+> V+< |uT+ s+ eTT++~. |< q b\esZ >V+ H`|{ <s\T n~+, |+&q |+\ <s\T e+ sT#
eT+ |+\ ;e |< + s +> b&TT+< |{ + # s+> sTD s<T &e+& y] ] eTDqT s +> & e +& n + Hj T y T q $.
<s+ L& _C| HjT <T. |<q eT+ L& qw|sTdT+<, n_e~ <T\ =s @s&TT+<+ eekj d_&\T neds+. |uT+ eT<T neds+.
eTqe b{+#&T. |+&+q |+\ TuT <s \ T b\esZ\T >V e+ #dTHsTT. s=s{ d+d\ B b]X$T T b\s<T. < <Xq nyT],
~y rdq s+>+ V\ b\&TTHsT. > |r d+es+ <T, sT \\ sbjT\ |qT\qT sc, CbH, #H \T eekj 90 X+ d_& *dTH sTT.
22 d+es\ (1995) qT+& sE q\u eT+~ |> |uT\T s<T#dTHsTT. |< s=s{ d+d\T u+\ eT[ d<Tbj\T *dTHsTT. # <s\ H|{
sT\T V\T #dT+THsT #*+ # sTD\T sT, @&T \\ sbjT\Tq $wj n+~dTH sTT. eT< T <s \ T\ qT =+THsTT. us
s+>+ >V+ ` dyT |uT\T eTsT>T |sTdTHsTT. M+{ |uT\T |uT + e+ B es+> +~. Vs T\ <s \ T
eT+<ksY s+>+ bs+_+q sdq dyT> n+eT+> s<T # k sTT. y] qT+& @e+ ed #jT sT. e> e+ s +> ] HX q + # j \
bs+ueTsTT+~. eT<|<X, eTVsh |< |D\ ysT #| n_e~ <T\T L& |D b+ ]jT md{ sT+{+~.
eekjT T\ ds|s| s+>+ w<+ $~++~. KsT#dTHsT. dC\L, CrjT sV<sT\L, s\L, us <X+ H|{ <s\T # n~+>
s&| b\T, Ls>jT\T bsuksT. sTD\{ q esZ\ $H< se\, ksY d{\L, yD (sTysTT 10e |J)
2 q&yd T*fH `4

>dT 9 ||+# ~yd V\ ~q+


u$T`n&$`sT| V <e |qs+eTe<+ !
>dT 9 ||+# ~yd ~He+. ||+# +~. #+ neT\T s e\+ B 9% u$T (80,000 ` mdt.we T]
y|+> ~ydT\ sD deT 1982 sd$T ms\T) eyT ~ydT\ ] n|+#&+~. sh K \\ +~. 1995 j ds |t +&j
Cy 170 <X\ #+~q |<T\ deyX+ ]q d+eTXK`1995 |{+q \ |s+ 9 |s+ &c, Cs+ &, #r w |t T & sc\ nM b++
sV++~. |r d+es+ >dT 9q ~yd ||+# w& b++ yTT+ u $T 1848209.56 m\T 28 |<q s\ #+~q KC\T e+&> y{ eC\T
~He+> sb\ rs++~. n+> 1994`2014 e+&> B 753435.66 m\T ]HsT\ #T e+~. 1.30 qT\T $d]+ eHsTT. n> qTeTT 14630
~yd <Xu\ \+> |{+ eqe V\T, n+f 48.29 X+. s \+ L& ~ydT\ u eTT\ qT\T, u>TZ 253302 , u{ 3290 , dTq|ssTT
|sesD+, $<, s>+, d+d, k+|<j\T, ke, |sjTsD |s + =qk>TH e+~. <VsD |eT 175345 , &\yT{ 7533 , sYC{ 1145 ,
] s + >\ | > k~ + # & w # j \ ><e] 2007 syq ]sT\ |s+ ~ydT\T {HyT 101237 , =s+&yT 28337 eHsTT.
rs++~. rsH eTq <X+ L& u>k$T. 33007.61 m\T *e+&> ]HT sT\T 70589.57 m\T + >s + , n+, +#sHY { +{ K d+d< nbs+>
~yd ~H |+&T>\T, CsT > esdq eTq b\\T *eHsT. J\T>T$T* eT+&\+H 71% u$T e+~. eTq $XK @C +|*, >&+ =M~, ns
eTs| ~ydT\ V\qT V]+# #s\T #|{sT. ]HTsT\ #T e+~. eT+&\ |]~ nM b++ 31516 Vs
~ydT\ sC+>< V\qT \sd n&$, ~ydT\qT +< >MTD_e~XK y] y~ 2007`08 $ds+qT, sT ><e] @C b++ 1,230
key< VQC +|\, & s=s{ d+d\ |s+ <X+ $$< sc\ qT+& 9.02 \\ m\ #+~q VsqT yTT+ 565 $TjTH qT\ u{ K+
<|& *#jT& |PqTHsT. 5.06 \\ u$y< dT\T ]wsY njsTT. M{ 2.25 $d]+ e+~. nM b+ \\ $\Te #d
ss\T> n&$H q*> qeTT= ~ydT\T \\ dT\T |]w]+#& 5 \\ ms\| ~ydT\ V\T nbs K d+|<\ qT <|& esZ\ }&>+ #dT q b\\T
eT JeH kd e#sT. eT<q | ], ke <K\T |s&sTT. 4.11 \\ ms\ #+~q 1.99 \\ VQC d+d\ , s=s{ X \ n|q+> u &
eed\ d#, k+\ L&q djT+ b\q dT\T $$< sD\ e\ sw ]+#&sTT. eT& sh+ |PqTHsT.
k+#T+ me] \e+#+& J$d e#sT. w& b+ 3,39,699 ms\ u$y<\ H&T +<+ y& |uT+ eT]+ <&T>
eTq <X _{wty] s ~ydT\ d# JeH, d++~+ 76,762 dT\T e+&> 2010 H{ 3,32,852 eeV]d ~ydT\q sD \qT, #{\qT s<T # j &
V\ |e<yTs&+~. <X <#T= nbs d+|<qT m\ #+~q 74,973 dT\T mdt.&.d sT\ <s \T #k+~. > jTT|@ |uT + q 2013 u dsD
=\>=& eq _{dtysT n&$ L& eT ybs |]w]+#&sTT. M{ 36,512 dT\T ~ydT\ #{ de]+ < eq =~b{ |CqTL\ n+X\qT
ds > e]yksT. 1865 d+ bs dT #{ rdTe nqTL\+> rsT 1,43,683 m\| M] V\T s<T#d+~. >qT\T, KC_e~ #+(1957) desD
n&$| ~yd\q k+|<jT V\qT \sksT. >T]+#&sTT. #sD ~ydT\ 1,22,011 m\T _\T(2015)qT |yX|{ bsyT+T # y~+|#d+~.
e\d b\\ <|& $<H\T ~ydT\ J$\qT eyT < +~. n< d+<s + 38,461 dT\T ]Hs T \ nM d+|<\qT n|q+> s=s{ X\ <|&
H_q+ #ksTT. n+<Te\H 1808 qT+& 1942 d+ nqTL\+> rsT*e& y] 1,89,169 m\ u $T <K\T n&$ qT+& ~ydT\qT ]$TyjT & d<y T + ~. eTs|
es ~ydT\T _{wty]| nH bs{\T, sT>TuT |&+~. l+, $jTq>s+ w& @]j |swH de<H neT\T#d <+&sTD+
#ksT. _seTT+&, \DYHjT, n\] dseTsE, (l <eT b++) d++~+ d+|, bsr|s+ ~ydT\| re s+<+ |jdTq~. nbs K
=eTs+ ;+, kjT+ >+>T\T e+{ nH eT+~ MsT\T .{.&.@\ e< qTq de#s+ |s+ 2012 yT es d+|<qT b&Te& ~ydT\T kdTq bs{
bs{\ bD>\T #ksT. bs{\ |*+> 8,652.16 m s \ # + ~q 1832 u $y< d T \T HjT+ eVdTq eysTTdT\ nDy |sT Ls
_{dtysT 1917 @C b+ e& eT]jTT u<sTT+| ]ds j sTT. M{ 6257.17 ms\ #+~q 1286 dT\T V+dqT neT\T#k+~. ns d \>\ d+KqT |+#T
s< #+ e+{ = #{\T rdTe#sT. #{M ~ydT\ nqTL\+> |]w]+#&sTT. #sD nejT ~ydT\qT eTV\T, |\\T nH & +&
~ydT\ V\qT s+ #< T . ~ydT\| <|&, <sq +, 1102 dT\ eyT 6027.32 ms\ u $T ~ydT\ $#DsV++> | mH+s * #+|+~.
nDy =qk>TH e#sTT. ] n|C|&+ ]+~. @ s& dT\T sT\ eTq sh+ #+<uT n~s+ eq |r
1947 n~s e]& s s+#& sC+>+ q\T>T |]cs+ be&+ ~ydT\T eT u eTT\qT d+<s + q @C b+ ~ydT\ u eTT\qT, nM
~ydT\ | nd+, | V\qT >T]d 5, 6 Bs\+> edTHsT. sjT |\T&, ] d+|<qT <|& esZ\ <|& \T kdH
w&\qT b+<T|]#sT. 1950 w& @]j ssY \+ <+&> e+& ~ydjT s u keT, |+ <esZ\ eH&T. >+ n~s+ eq|&T $XK @C u {
|{+#sT. B |s+ eT& +< sh+ 9 dT\T q& @ ns\+, n+>\+ ~ydT\T sT\ e\ |jT+ ~ydT\ deTso\ bs{\
5,400 >e\qT w& >e\T> >T]+#sT. nsTT >\ebTHsT. b\\T <qe+T\ nqTL\+> eTT&#&T. 2014 ] n~s+ s>H J.z.H+.
e+<~ ~yd >e\qT C_ #s+& eeV]d ~ydT\ nHjT+ #dT H sT. |* +> @C 97 rdTe eTs\ u{ KC y*rd s=s{
e~*yksT. #dq #{M ~ydT\ V\qT b&<T. b+ ~ydT\ u $T deTd H{ n|]w+>H e+~. +|\ <|& d<|&&T. B| n& ~ydT\T
|*+> q\, l kjTT< s+> bs{\T, eTs| ~ydT\T n~+ > eddT q HH`w& @]j $|e, |C d+|\ eT<T |<mTq <$T+#&+
><e]jT ||TH bs{\T ~yd deTdqT ] >eT #=s& e\d ukeT, |+< esZ\T, yqT&T>T yd *+> J.z neT\TqT *|yk&T.
mC+& MT< #sTT. bs{\ |*+>H b\\T s{, qj d+|q esZ\T jT<#> ~ydT\ q J.y e+ s<T#jT<T. nM b+
1970 1/59 #{ de]+ 1/70 u <sTT+| s< ueTT\qT #> =ydTHsT. eTs s|+ ~yd =+&\ \\ $\Te #d >H{ b\T eHsTT.
#{ #sT. sTy jTT>+<sY MTwH yd eT& b+ u+BsD k>T+~. ~ydT\T eT d+ M{ e\ #+<uT |uT+ & +|\ E\T
sh+ 753 ~yd >e\qT w& @]j u eTT\H L \T> e]b T Hs T . n< $ < + > eT+psT #k+~. $jTq>s+ bsr|s+ eT+&\+
#s&e*q$> >T]+#sT. 1980 sh nd+; ~ydT\ >+ |uT+ |+|D #dq ndH ueTT\qT u&=+&, &<es=+&\qT E\ =+&\ <s+>
C_qT y~+ sh| y<+ d+ +< |uT L& 99 d+\ E |sT =yjT&+ e\ ~ydT\ nH~> J$dTq ~ydT\qT Jeq $< +k >T]#k+~.
|+|++~. H{ C_ sh| y<+ b+<< T . #T d+T u$T L& +& bjT |]d e+~. <X+ s sc\ L& n& b\\T ~yd es
|*+> >e ~ydT\ ueTT\ sD @C b+ ukeT, |+< esZ\ +f $<H nqTdT]dTHsT. y{ es+> ~ydT\T
u|ssTD jT<#> k>T+~. <TssZ+> |uT\T eeV]dT edTHsTT. n&$|, <$Td nXe\T udTH sT. &c [+>q>sY y<+
~ydT\ d+ m #{\T, sC+> sD\T eH ~ydT\| _{wtysT nqTd]+q <|&, nDy +| es+> k+q bs+ 14 eT+~ ~ydT\T
y] u eTT\ <TseTD =qk>TH e+~. y] V\T $<H\H nqTd]dTHsTT. ss\T> n&$H J$dTq bD>+ #ksT. n> j+] bk +|
V]+#&TH eHsTT. n~s+ #|{q n <|& ~yd n&$ <=+>> r]dTHsTT. ~ydT\ q u { e\ nqTeTT\ s<T d+ d+es\ s &
|uT\T ~yd\ sD> eq 5e w&, 1/70 sC+>< sD\qT, #{\qT T+>= y] @C ~ydT\T bs&TTHsT. nM b+ K d+|<q T
#{ s<T#jT& < de]+#& |PqTHsTT. b+\ qT+& ]$Tyd $<H\qT nqTd]dTH sT. eTTK+> y*rd $sTTd j b+\bT, ~ydT\T L&
~ydT\ ueTT\ <TseTD\qT n]& #s\T <X+ ||+ NsD $<H\T neT\T ]q s b\\T n_e~ #+<Ts b\\T |#s+ #d<+ | +.
rdTb> |uT |< <TseTD<sT> eeV]+#sTT. key<T\ |jH\ d+ ~ydT\| jTT<H = K $<q+ |s+ nM b+ K e\T
eT& sh+ 1/70 #+ neT\T ]| H{ w& |{+#sT. us<X+ nM b++ $ks+> e+~. kdTq +|\T eT u 26 X+, j +|\T
@]j 56% (8.7 \\ ms\T) u $T ]Hs T \ #T eTTK+> <+&sTD+ 3,04,084 #..MT $ds+ nbs (sTysTT 3e |J)
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 3

eTV\| eT]+> V+dqT |+#TTq | u T eT< $<H K+&+#+&!


Vy\qT &H{| #jT+ b*! eT< jT++, s~+#*!
sE \ T# T +f < \ =< y ! nqT H mfyT eT+<T e+ &sY &*e #keT+THsT. ` m+. \, POW sh |<qs<]
eTTKeT+>] \+| dT|+sT rsT d+ \ MTsT sTq u+& sTq d keT+THsT. eT<yT sDeT *d Te+{ eTsD\ |uTyT
+<Tb sTT Hwq , sw V y\T d + &`H{ | nsTTbsTT f{b b\T ds|s #dH #jTH eT< sDeTT+~. +<T |P] u< |uT < { eT<+
q> s s& T > e]bj sTT. ;sY k V & + f{b{ n+~keT+THsT. eTV\| T+ V+d, eTsD\ |uT V.
nsTTbsTT+~. +=~ sE eT< d+ yT&dH> ke V+d sT |s>{ eT<+ |<q sD+ n |CkeT |uT+> #|+Tq |uT+
|{ k sT . n+<T eTV\ sH <\T, m&+{ eTsD\T *d L& V+dqT =qk+#{, + |+#{ + <sTD ~>CsT&TH e&>e#? |uT+
+f b\\ eT+<T uT\ neds\T, c|\T d+es+ y\+ b 5 d+\ b&+#sT. n+~q & #d | <H? ~ |{ + # |uT + n~s+ e+<?
sV+#y] c |+#sTT. n+<T c|\ dH |E \T <+&T= s| qT n~s+ H H q u<s, |ws\ |#s KsT|{q <+{ be e+T nsTTH
Z+|, w|+> |E\ s<T, 24 >+ nqTeTT\T keT nqT#sT\, e+~e><T\ mTe+{ qw+ s>+& 5 eT< es|#s KsT|bsTTH |\T eT+
|{ + #XsT. Ms m\ eTT+<T eT< w<+ eT++ |d d+\ es & +& y] ks keC dTds+ eTT # q e+T eT<+ e<T n+T+f eTT de+
n~s+ s>H #+ $|\yT+< myjT&+ #XsT. nH s\ V+d, nX+ sDeTT+~. { B
]yE> e]bsTT+~. @ #+ nsTTH #sD $|yT sC+>, #{ <T q&T#T+{q s<T #jT+& n+T+f #jTeTT n+ #Td ndeTs
n~ #+ neT\T #dy] #>q+. <| CsTTr, |eD+ #d n~s+ #|{q eTTKeT+>sT ] 47qT |uT @eT+<+? |qT\ qT+& mes |+#TsT
X~ q+. n+eT+> n~ y] y|\+. n+> \+|Td eT<yT H |<q <jT eqsT n+THsT. n+ mdt{ rdT=q b\\T w<+ qT+& mes
neT\T #jTbTHeTT. Hs s~+#bTHeTT. dT|+sT rsTqT d + \sd d{ eT]jTT Hwq V y\ | +#TsT n+ eT<w<, +< $<q+> m+<T
{ Hs y< eTT< yjT+& n+f n~ <TssZ+. |q q eT<+ c|* myjT+& y{ q>s s&T> rdT=s<T. eTq qT+& +~bT> <+&Te{,
|dT+ |uT+ <TssZ b\&+~. es+<T & H{| #XsT. <#Te{ +B $<q+ | |\ yT\T #d+<T
eTTKeT+ #+<uT>sT m\ e|k, eT<+ neT yTT<{kq+ @|<. eTV\| +B $<q+ m+<T <T? $wj* |uT
|#s+ eT< jT+kq n+<T |d+sY V+d yTT<{kq+ @|<. \Bd+<T |+#+<T |uT eT< ybs
&`m&H d+sY |&eT, >TuT* #qe+T* j&+{ yTT<{kq+ @|<. n$ e s + > ] > bs+ eTV \ T, | \T,
#d+<T |#s se\T sVkq, uc|\T yTT<{kq+ @|<. |Ck$Ty<T\T *d sy\ |z&T $| #dT+~.
mykeT |{+#&T. n |{+#&T f &y
n+<\+ m+#sT | eT< eT&T |e\T, sTjT\T s \T> y T T< { k q + d + b~+# + < T
#kq+f n~s+ e<T. n |{+ #+<uT nV]X\T w| & T Tq eTq eTTKeT+>sT |\ d{+ >
n~s+ #|<T. syT +& >TuT\T &+ &y |T&+&
B b\\ H+ : eTTKeT+> n~s+ e u d|+> syT L& @sT #d d< MT de n+
c|\ s<T d++ #d #sD y{ s +&+\T #XsT. KCH +|Tq <Xuq >TuT\ de
uc|\T q&| y| rkqq u e<T nq y| ]+#qTHsT. |uT \T |\qT b~ u <, Vs u<
rdTHsT. eT< jT++#*q mCXK # eT< *+#be+ |<, eT<s> T+u\T bwVs
n$TdTq ~. 4,380 c|\ d+KqT ~+#{ <T\T + |+ +bTHsT. y]# b\\T eT <jT+d+
85 c|\qT |+#sT. 8000 uc|\ s{+| #dTHsT. eT <|& b\q dCe> k+#T=H+<T dTHsT.
Hu b|~q swH, sT, $<, y<+ B ysT # e \+H eTsD #seTHsT.
bsTTH 30,000 Hu usY +& rs*+< ~ |uT+ *d#dTq V\T. eTs=|
n+THsT. eT[ edT \T @M neds+ bsTTH eT+<T q&|yT j&+{ sD+ n Vy <]{ ysT
e + meT s d dt + < | T y T | \ MT< s]dTH s& |q c|\T rjT+& s&qT & H{ | eT< esd s\T
n+~+#keT+THsT. @{myT\ mfy T eT n+~+H #d c|\T =qk+#\ #dTH sT. s& j&+{\
2 e |J sTysTT .{.&.@\ <s @{ e+<\ T KsT|&TTH n$
kdTq e\ e\ <q |\ y+#\ #|~ #{\qT \TeH > |P& ~ydT\ V\qT \sd
L& |\ yd+#&. @ n& | +& K bC sD+ kdTHsT. 300 >e\qT eTT+| sjT HjT\, n~sT\, & +{s CT\T
e\ jT<#> k+ s=s{ X\ u&. >T]#d 2.75 \\ eT+~ |\qT sdT\qT #dTq +|THsTT. @C b+ s&T, ueH\ sDyT
>+ |uT\T ~yd\ <>\T ekjT, n_e~ bC C s+> |jH\d+ <T. d n_e~> b\\T ]dTHsT. y<+, eT+sT e+{ d
#+<Ts ejTe\T #| dsT, e#YK+&, *yT\, ]&sY eTTK+> |.d.|..sY ]+#ujT $HXs neds\ + ]q de+ n&TH +~. @{
|]XeT\ nedsy T q { s+s+ > ds| s #jT &. eT]j s\ e+<\ eT+~ #bTHsT. Vd,
&=+ssTT e+{ \ $<TY +<\T H\=sT.
Be\ ><e] & k>T{ d sD b n<q+> \\ nXeT d #<T eTq $<sT\ L& y< + d\+
~ydT\ @ <>eT e<T. b+eT n_e~ n+< eTTy |&TTHsT. yd$ sT ><e]
#+<< T . b\\T #| e\T m+ y <VsD> ms\ u$T k>TsT n+<TT+<H~ e{ +. sh
eTTKeT+ #+<uT bC +>sTuT e]+~. @C #|ssTT 17 eT+~ ~yd\T $ws\ u]q
n& ~ydT\T *#sT. H&T n_e~ eTTdT>T ~yd |& #b sh y< `s>XU eT+ $TH ~ydT\T
deyT n+]+bjT |e<yTs&+~. n+<T eT ; #+~q +|\ u +{\T
n|Cb&T. u bC\ e\ u+ +f $HXqyT $w|P]yTq Vs+ q&+ e\H #bjs |{+
nM V\ #+`2006 ]sT bsdT |uT s ||# |jT+ #k&T.
u eTT\| ~yd\ |{* #| s V *keT #| d+u$++< Xdy\T, |sesDy\T, |DT\T nH
n<jTH\ <s *jTCdT+f b\\T y{ |&#$q dTBs \+> ~ydT\ u $T deTd, n&$| V,
|< |Vdq+ q&|q <|& b\\T #sD #d+~ djT+b\H ~s deTd\T b\\ <T, | ,
HeTeyT. nH d+es\T> ~ydT\T k>T#dTq |&TTHsT. |{ u &eTT\ e\ <X+ 5 (M]
3 eT+~ ~ydT) eT+~ |> |\T sT e+#q >T] #jT &T edTH sTT. ~ydT\ V\ sD
# ueTT\ @yy k\T #| |{\T e<T. |> #dq #{\T, sC+> +<q\T {MT< s>
u eTT\ qT+& ~yd T \qT > +{ y j T & _sT\jsT. y] |Xs+> e]bsTT+~.
~yd T \ d + e T+, n_ e ~ n+< < > $T*bTHsTT. ~ydT\ eT& Jeq $<q+, d+d,
|PqT+THsT. \+>D dsY |uT+ V]Vs+ k+|<j\T < +d+ #jT &TTHsTT. b\\ $< +ds
e]bjsTT. |<T \ d+K MTwH\ T, $T{\T yjT &H
|sT es+>, +<T @]j b&T ueTT\ qT+& $<H\ e\ H&T ~yd deTd eTsk] mC+& MT<
y{ dbsT\qT b\\T T <K\T #ksT. ns=s =
~ydT\qT ]$TyjT& re s+< |jdTq~. #{\T #dH y{ neT\T #jT<T. <VsD 1996 e+~. eT eTqT>& d+ ~ydT\T ] bsTu
s+> k>T{ deTH |sT ~ydT\qT |k #+ <K\T |]q ~ydT\ >eTdu\ d|]b\q |&T THsT. <X+ ~ydT\qT Jeq $< +k >T]#d
ds$HXH >T]#d b\es+ bCqT ]dTHsT. < *#s T . y T < qb+ | + #j T r\ b\qqT $<H\ es+> k>TTq <e\T, bs{\ <qT>
sC+>+ 5e w&, 1/70 #+, 1996 |k #+, ~ydT\| sT<TTHsT. @C | |D[\ +< m \& n$ eT]+> d+|T {y T eTT+<T k>& w
1980 |sesD #+, 1986 nM d+sD #+ e+{ y\ <T\T KsT |{H ~ydT\ T\T es<T. #j *q nedse TT+~.
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 4

C usY ` #H d]V<T $y< |Ps|s\T ` $XwD


n&e\T +& #T e+{sTT. #T +&
n&e\T+&e. es\T +& eTT\T+{sTT. eTT\T
ke eed >+q b ke eed jTT `|. |k<
neX c \T \Te+{sTT. es e q ke eed j T T keTs+ bT n |< m>TeT <] ] eed> #H
+& es\T see. M{H | <s\+{sT. +{$ | H< T \T \Te+{sTT. sqTq ke eed j T T m<T>TTq~. eTTK+> H&T #H \+ #e dsT e+~.
sj\ L& e+{sTT. nsTT y{ sjT ;C\T
;C\Te+{sTT. #H 1949 $|yq+s+ @s& qq |T&< eed o|Te~ sDeTjT dsT\ H&T eed
<s \+{sT. jTT<\T +& jTT< yT| \T+{sTT. jTT<\T |C+ keT eed b |P& eed jTT #H o|Te~ ~X e+~. y| nyT] jTT<\ }_
s>e *d L& sjT+> jTT< dHV\T #d neXc\T+&+ dVyT. n$ # \+ $|MsD |]esH ~>&TT+f, #H dsT \ m>TeTT\ m<T>TTq~. nyT ]
d+<s\T+{sTT. ne\ y&T jTT<+ #jT & sTTe* y& |jT ++> | #XsTT. n~ dVyT.n< $<+> |<q+> jTT<\ ybs+ #dT+f, #H $eTjT dsT \
dw+ > *dq d+<s $ T~. e\ y&T jTT<+ #jT & ne\ Cq #H <q #H > e]q s #\+ es b q#H ybs+ n++ f |~ s T me ksTT #dT q ~. > |<
y& L& n+ u> *dq d+<s $ T~. $ jTT< dw+# neXc\T+{sTT. 1949 s <q #H |H<T\ MT< =+ \+ dTesT e+< <X\ #H ybs, yD |+<\T
jTT< yT|\T <T. jTT<H< n+ eT>\ n yTs b |P& #H |]\+ =qkqf, 1980 s #dTq~. eTTK+> |, {H nyT], dj <X\qT
K<q dsT> #d jTT<yT|*$. H&T us`#H eq <q #H |H<T\ MT< L& |Ps kw*dT |&T yT&H nyT] <+f yT&H jTs|t dsT \T
d]V<T eTTq jTT< yT| \T n& qTqT L& neXc\T \+>H |]\+ MT< # \+ es e+{sTT. eTT+#sTT. H&T y{ kH #H # dsT \T $TdTH sTT.
s\be#T. n$ s+&T <X\ dT$X\ uu>\ MT< neXc\T \eT+ $~> qkjT eTdT <eT ||+ # ] +<+ |eT+ qT+ sT ~ sT>TTq~.
u es\qT sT|dTHsTT. eTT\T # e+f, es\T XDT\ >+ >T& sjT $Xd+e+&~. >], es nyT] ` #H\ eT< yD+ L& #H u
ys= # sTdTHsTT. m<Ts<TsT> \& s+&T <X\ #] uy< d<+\qT ysT d]>Z ns+ #dT $T>T\T e+~. n+f nyT] <ojT es{qT d+ #H
=+~sd d\T k|+> |X+ d eHsT. |*eT~. n{ eT&qeT+H k$jT{ jTjTH dsT\T eTT+#&+ #sD ||+# bdTqT nu<
s +&T <X\ 270 eT+~ |\T e+ |sd s+ eqd |T&< eed |qsT<sDqT # \+ n+^]+# H & T T q~. ~ + e s L ny T ] bw d T q b q T
jTT< kdTHsT. o\ Ve\j\ y& |{+~ <T. n e+&~. , #T key< eed q |]dT\ s>sjT&yT. #H {*jTH &\s |> nyT]
nT j+^, jT+> qB |]yV b+\q, > neXc\T L& ] |H<T\T> esjT #] u\THsTT. ~ nyT] sjT $c<\ $c<+.
T >+> ` y qB |]yV b+\q &T dT HsTT. s|++~. H&T #H L& sTT< s>eTq |]DeT+ ~ us <X nsd+es &| deq+. $<+> H&T
eqdq jTT<+ yde u jTT<+ +f rdbjT~ ]+~. #H dsT\ u+ nyT] ] eedqT y+{&TTq~.
<T. |> d]V<T u jTT<+ k~+# = |Tq $|y <X q #H >+ ]+#Tq kw*dT nyT] de+s+> H&T y| jTs|jTH
$j\qT deTL] |&TTq~. sjT, ke, ] d+eT eed\+{ H{ <q #H jTjTH L$T, eTsy| _ L$T b{ ], sjT
<X |\ MT< .mdt.{. #+ <s y& dssT s k] <+d+#<T. n~ #sD k<+ L& <T. #H eed\T> eTT+<T=dTHsTT. |]d nyT] +<q
sV ] jTT< bs+_+#& d]>Z ys+ eTT+<T |sq y[q =+<] n+{ kw*dT neXc\T *dTq~. s+&T LeTT\ N*\qT dw+#&+ H&T
y& nyT] |sq y&T. < +f dTesT ys+ |ksTT. n$ kw*dT <X+>H ueT\qT *ksTT < nyT] \+> e+~. nyT]qT > |&\ {
eTT+<T #H d\T us uu>+ |y+qT =* y] <<+ L& n+{~ L& e#T. kw*C ujT|&TTq~. &\sT b{> ||+#es k<q+>
ys\T y\Te&sTT. n$ VsT> 130 eT+~ usrjTT\ s +# & + eT* es Z bs d < + < < jTsqT |yX |& {q s <X+ + d<yT VQdH
yT<qT y&+#sTT. H\T>T sE\ s d]V<T $y< + _q+>kw &e{ b\L jTs eTdT b\L |jT+ #X&T. n|&T nyT] ;*+~. H&T _,
#H ` u{H\ eT< | usY ` #H\ eT< @s&+~ nq <<\T+&+ *d+<. C #H dsT \ s+> jT LeTT\ eT+ eTTqT+<T &\sT se TsT>T <]rd
<q #e TsTqT eTq MT&j jT eT\ ys\ T > |#s+ H&T ||+# |+ Xsy>+ m<T>TTq~. n~ $|ys |]d <] rjTe#T. n+<T #H \bqT bw+#
#d+~. |> #=suT #H d\~ <q eTs #e TsT yDs+> e]+~. ||+ # X$T esZ H{ |T&< neX\THsTT. #H dsT\ eed ||+# es{qT m+
L& eTs 2 sE\ s $H* e+~. s HeT~> #H <s+ <T. us ]esZ L& n~ sjT me Xdd n+ me ksTT #H n{ \ bq T
#H Bq uu>+ d #=suT ]+<q eT]+ d] < <T. n<deTjT+nyT] ` #H\ eT< >\ bw+# neX\T |s>qTHsTT.(n{ #H e~ e
eT\ys\qT eTq+ $H* e+~. n$ L& u{H d ysT<\ bT H{ ||+# |T&< <X\ eT< u> |s# & + nyT] D \ +> e+~). #H dsT \ eedq T
#=suT <, u {H | q eT& <X+ > us <X d ysT<\qT ||+# X$TesZ+ $j+#T+T+~. M{ <rjT&+ <sH nyT] n~ @< yTs k<|&TT+~.
#H Bq u eTT #=s&s $ ys\ qT $H* e+~. us ]esZ+ L& d]>Z n<jTq+ #d d~j>+ #H es+> _ L$T \bqT bwdTq
y{ L& eTq MT&jT |#s+ #d+~. nsTT sTT+eTq # d T y*e+~. < D+ H { | ] De\qT us<X s#>=&+ MT< nyT] <w |&+ jT+
<X |\ qT jTT< yTsT esTT. eT m<TsT> @ $Xw+#T+<+. <T.
s+>T edTe\TH n$ |# s+>T eyT |+# yTs nyT] d+> H{ ||+#+ n |<<. ||+# {e\ #H ]+q eH u\T ` eH s& eseq
<w yTd+~. <w <w+ e\ \d+> n+~q d ejT+ |< | nyT]<. ||+# J&| L& ||+# ] eedqT eT\T| |Tq~. |,
eT\ ys\T L& |#s+>TH |ksTT < ! nX<eT nyT]< H{ n>kq+. nyT]qT |< \Vq |edj\ bT jTs|t #H ] eedqT <>Zs
V V' +s +s qT MH d eTq y+{&TTq~. dsT \ s+>+ nyT] kq+ eT+> #dTq~. n< $<+> |eT #H qT+ kH, sc, u
+& bsTT+~. C #+~ nX<eT <T. nsTTH \Vq|&TTq~. y{ $j>+ n~ eTT+<Tq~. sc, b+&, s, u*jT+, bH\ MT<T> +^w #q
nX<eTqT {jT nd ys #+|d+~. jTT<+ dsT\ |jT, y{ $eTjT |jT eT< |< u>s+ >T+& \+&H esL eTs u usyD esZ
yTTyTT< d+ e~+#&TT+<q {ksTT d ysT<+ +~. ysT<+ nyT] ] eedqT eT+> #H ]++~. ( eT< yTT<{ dsT\ fH jT sH
jTT<s+u+ +&H sTEybsTT+~. ~>CsTdTq~. eTTK+> nyT] +{ jT{ n|\T L& ]+~.) <s jTs|tqT eTTqT+<T #H q #
.mdt.{. <s |]> |qT\ us+ sTT|&T eTq |]>sTT. H&T <ojT+> |\ qT+ #dq n|\T 15 dsT\ eTT+#qTq~. dj esqT jTs|t dsT\T
q&+& bsTT+~. nyT] <>\T nyT]q, {*jTH &\s #ssTT. n$ J&| 90% #ssTT. ++ f eTT+#q > #]qT #H H&T s>s dTq ~. +y| @djT H
us<X { <>Ts >u H<\ ><Hq +|t me $<o n|\THsTT. n~ H&T |q |{s+ ` q {s+ du <X\ bT ksY du <X\ esqT *| syD
MT< n+esL eTq jTTe |+#Tq >VyX\T e+{ ] eed eyT. eTsy| s, |kH\ eedqT L& <T]++~. +~s>+B + ksYqT
< #\&bjsTT. +|tqT s \eqTq y& u <TseTD\ <s nyT] ], d eed\T s+s+ # es usY Xd+#>*+~. k$jT{ jTjTH |q+
MT< { X\T |T q {~ eT+~ eT< s> , T~ Je\ H T s =& T T q >j \T> essTT. n$ ny T ] > s n++f $T+ nyT] Xd++~. |&T ksY
yT<qT C d]V<T ~ *>Z <] eT[+#>*+~. ||+ #~| kH HH{ ~>CsTTq~. + nyT] bkH, Hb, +><X , l\+, ee\T eT+> #H |T
C nyT] y[ us jTTe y& <> u<qT b{> #H, sc\ kq+ eT+> \|&T e+~. < |ue+ #]bTHsTT. l\+ > @&~ m\
k~+#\ n+esL eTq <X |\T +> sTq d nyT] J&| 12 {*jTq &\sTq |&T s +&T {*jTq s d]dq |uT+ nyT] nqTL\ yK] =+
e+&~. s #H MT< jTT< +|t |uT+ qT+ &\s ] eed #H ||+#+ @&e < m$T<e |<]dTq|{, #H n+ eTT+<T s| |uT+
d kj y& k~d d]bT+< eTq jTTe d+| kq+ e+~. n|&T nyT] ] eed #H ~ 17 X+ <TsTq yD |+<\qT |P]> s>sjT |]d
|&+~. $<+> @\+ s+&T de+s $j\qT eyT e+~. > |< \+ , bH, _H, s, l\+ e+~. n+<T l\+ <D rs+ V+H
d]V<T $y<+ k~+|{+~. dsq eTTVAs d]V<T bH\qT #H n+#\+#\T> <{+~. n~ H&T 11 {*jTH sesD |+<+ |\ <sq+. |#+& |<> eq
$y< dw d\+ m+| s>&+ >eTHs+. &\s s +& kH m~+~. H&T 17 {*jTq &\s nyT] =~\+ Hb | n<T| k~+#& y& |uT+ # dq
yeT| b\T H{ #H qT kw*dT <X+ > u$dTH sTT. ] eed #H ] eed eT&+ s +&T e+T\ #]+~. |jT+ ${++~. H{ wsY V<sY <y |uT
f+&T $|e |\T L& d+~>+ eHsTT. #H C nyT]qT n~>$T+ |<eT kH #s& #H eTs Vj+ n~ #H eT]+ <>Zsq~. n~ 2017 e] 8
m|& q q#H nd sTT+~. |&~ <q #H H\T> L& |be#T. nyT] |<q \Vq\T _*jTH &\s |TT\qT #H qT+ b+~+~. H&T #H,
eyT. #] |]DeT d\ |s+ | <X #+~q m&THj, #H \+ L& n& e+~. n~ <
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 5
Hb\ eT< s q sD+ sT>TTq~. 1971 bqT us<X ]eedqT y& dssT eTT&ydTq~. nyT] e+{ <X\ # XeTX dsT\ j yTH +&j
$u+ +><XqT @sT #sTT+q usY n& L& |u nd$ T+# y| |jT dTq |]d nqT>TD+> b nyT] e+{ |jT\qT bVdTHsTT. # +&j `
kq+ +& bTq~. @&~ @| L& +> |< nqTL\ <X\T eT |jH\ d+ *$> #H, sc\ # ~>TeTT\ $eTjT+ nyT] nq \+ +<T
& |sq usY ` u+>\ eT< |+<\T ]>sTT. L$T y| eT+> sT>TTHsTT. ~q+> us $T& e+~. <s #H # dsT\ eed u yj \q
n+ sT H\\ eTT+<T #H, +>\ eT< 24 _*jTH ] eedqT eTTbTq nyT] jTT< He eTT& |PV+ L& e+~. y& yTH sTT+&j |<+ L&
&\s $\Te >\ yD |+<\ b* # d\ ksTT yd+<T y& dssT be\T <T |Tq~. |* +> + < |* +#< T . n< $<+ > #H n&T y d \ + > <Xu
+<$ T~. 2012 ee\ s< e $eHXjT sD C &+ d]V<T $y<+. |> eTq |uT \T @djT H <s b#<X\ yD+ d+
+{ .m+.sY. >| #|{+~. n~ H&T #H ~ HsT > #H jTT< ~>\+f @< e+ nyT] sT #&T (\T dT) $<H #|&T e#sTT. <
nsTT+~. eT]= Be\qT #H E rdTe&+ >eTHs+. <=sb<T. #H | jTT<+ #jT>*> |]d H{ y& |uT+ => sT #jYT (j dT) $< q+>
n< $<+ > 1898 dsTTH ke+ =* K+&s jTT<+ nyT] <T. $jT+ qT+ s esL jTT<\ }_ e]+~. M{ nyT] n+&e+~. , #sD yM #H
#d |* |HqT nyT] > \T#Tq~. (H&T s =]j {s{Z n~ |\ esL LsTbsTT+~. n{ nyT] #H \+ #e dsT\ m<TT |*+#\T<T.
#dTq >Ty+ B|+ L& n|&T b+~+<.) > q{ sy >] \TdT. T* s =]j d V#]\ H{ nyT ] C H&T +&j +f #H eT]+ e
@ n~ nyT] key< ds e\d>H e+Tq~. ;\TTq~. n~ #H | jT+ m |T>\<T ? < ejT+ dsT \ j |jT =qk>TTq~. n+<T
n+{ |*|H |uT+ dTesT @&~ + nyT] > #HqT m>H jTT<+ ~+b\q~ nyT] \+. s+&T sD\THsTT. yTT<{~, +&j +f #H u>
d |+< s<T #dT q~. n~ L& H&T #H <>sZ + ~. #H jTT<s ] eedqT jTT< ] eed> es\q~ k+ e~ k~++~. s+&e~. nyT], jTs|t\
<jYT+&, $TjTHsY, eTwj ,$jT+, +|Pj, ydt, nyT] d+\+. <s # dsT\ |jTqT XeTX +f #H XeTX # <s <=sTTq~. n~
+&Hwj, d+>|PsY, H <X\T d+ #H yD +|s#e#T. n|&T u jTT< ejT+ C&+#&TT+~. us <X XeTX +f u> me <T. C 2008
e\jT+ #ssTT. <+ nyT] +<q *dTq~. |*+> H{ #H # dsT\ |jT L& K<q ds T\ s #H ]esZ+ |< mTq Ju\ yTsT>T<\ d+
#H yD |+<\T #dTb bH, <D |jT esTT+~. <s < # m>TeTT\ |jTqT bs&+~. eTTK+> <D #H nH |< b]X$T
=]j, yH\ ] eed\T D+# |]d @s&+~. L& <rjTe#T. n~ H&T dT\u+> eX|s#T+Tq b+\T 2010`11`12\ ] esZ bs{\ jTT<
eT&T <X\ <s b#+ nyT] nqTL\ d |>V $<o es |jTqT $q+ #jTe#T. n+ +&, ueTT\T> essTT. |*+> 2011 , 2016 eT< s{+|
sC\T>H (eTTK+> < =]j,y H) b#Ts+ b+<sTT. sT>T bsT>T <X\ |\ q |#s e<e\ <s Ju\T |]>sTT. nsTTH k+ n_e~, syD eed
y{ nyT] H&T d+ dsT\ d+||s# #H | $<w+ |+#e#TqT. < <s+> #dT j dT\u sD\ e\ H{ us<X+ +f e <
bTq~. nyT] n~ < ejT+ js, <s <X\ |\ # #H dsT\ VwsD qT #|{+#e#T. ejT+ #H dsT \ m>TeT |jT sT>TTq~. s +&T
syD ej L& C&+q nyT] dsT\ +f #H #H dsT \ neT\T @ yTs Z , yTs j <X\ sD\ e\ y& |uT e j dT eT]jTT yTH +&j
# dsT\T =q&+ e\H bH, <=]j, yH ] n++f me K<q q d+ dsT\qT neTTe#T. <s #H ] eedqT jT++#&+ k<+ < nyT]
eed\ H&T u+ *> |]d @s&+~. n+<T n$ H&T +{ nyT] jTT<H< ePV *|X e> <=]q >T]++~. n+<T sTT|&T C jTT< |<+ |+~.
ny T ] e qT s d ]+ # H yD +< <X+ us<X+. eTT *|Xe\T> es& #H ` u{H <X\ eT< $y<d< b+\THsTT.
|+#T+THsTT. n~ <sb#+ MT< nyT] yD, d nyT] s\ d $TsC\T L& sd]dTq |]d jT<< d =qk+| nq~ L& k|yTq~. #H
|TqT #CsTTq~. ~ L& nyT]qT re +<q sTT~ _qyTq~. jTT<H<+ ePbTq +|t dssT sV<] sD+ #d+<q b++ L& #H ydyBq
>T]#dTq~. H&T y& dssT n+~dTq = qT sTT<. uu>+<. $y<d< b++ sV<sT\ sDeTH~
ny T ]qT < b e eTs | ] DeT+ L & d ] V < T \ ] > eT+ # & T \qT { M #q $y<d< n+XeTeT+~. n+ | neT #=suT +~
<sb#+H sT>TTq~. n< s =]j nDd $<q+. ssTT+#e. sTT|&T y{ eTq #q, | s<T. #H qT+ neT #=suT ], d++~ u{H
nDd jTT< d+| e+<H |sT sqT 2003 nyT] ssTTdTHsTT. H&T eTq MT&j #+sT ysY syT> n&T H V e+T+~. (2000 +f eTT+<Tq usY ` u{H
< T s $ T++~. n~ nDd s V < X + > | | + # e]bjsTT. ys\T #~$ < #dq <X |\T jTT< dV &+& |s+ n+{ neX =+ yTs usY
sTEejT| s <TseTD, d<yT ]r\ |jT\ |jT T\T > e]bTHsT. #H edT VwsD y] ueq> e+&~.) us<X |{ yK] |s+ L& #H~
eTTXsTT. n~ eT& ||+# <X\+{ q >TDbseT |\ |sT>TTq~. sE L& nyT] dsT\ #=suT +~ s<T. n~ e\+ |+<\ neTD +~
H& s =]j |{++~. nDd kjTT< d+| VwsD >] \ L& +# eTq eT< s> eyT edT+ ~. n~ jT.jTH.z. |s <T #j *q $y<\
deTLsTbe&+ e\H s <TseTD >Tsq< esZ+ MT&j |Pq+ |dTq~. eTq <X \ s+>\qT e edT+ ~. nsTTH d+ u {H dH \T L& +&
n+<Te\ eT& ||+# <X\T eT eT ksue~s\ d+ \[dTq nyT] |T&T\ #=suTqT es+# @+> eTq dH #H ydyBq uu>+ #=s&sTT.
|]sD d+ nDjTT< d+| nysyTq sD yqT #H dsT\ VwsD MT&j d<+ #dTq~. jT.jTH.z. d\ |s+ >, |+#o\ $<q+ |s+>
|jT > #|{ \ 2006H n~ |{ + +~. n{ =]j H&T {M #q m<T \ MT< Ls= #dTq eTq <X eTq <X #s deTs jT+ <T. {$ #q }<+ |&T $+|
e <X+ C* ed nyT] eTVq>s\qT d + ud + #k+ |\T |& _+ #H MT< ue jTT<+ #dTHsT. jTT<H< ys\ }V jTT< d\T> esTTq
n H&T kVk|yTq V#] #d+~. key< |#s yde+ ysT> e+~. eTq MT&j <|&Tq eTq eT< s> ~ | > |+#<T . n~ jTT.mH.y,
e<e\T s =]jqT H< <X+ > d +#e#T. #<Tydy\T # eHsTT. ksY u{H | @ s d\ |s+ #\T& <T.
n~ nyT] <TseTD $<H Bs<+> m~]+ du <X+ eTq <X yK ] \|s# & + <T . @dj H yTT+ us< X ] eed k| + > HH{ ~>CsTTq~.
\&TTq kVk| q s+> eTTqT+<T ||TH 11 du <X\ @ <X+ eTq <X yK] \|s#&+ nsTTH {e\ eT]+ sTD>d <X+ > ~>Csb e&, eTq
||+ # #] sksTT> *bT+~. ||+ # bdT b <T. bH, d*j, < =]j,<jT+&, yH e+{ $<o es <e \\T dTesT 400 _*jTH &\s #s& ,
H&T @<e n>s+> #eTD nsTTq nyT] k+|<jT nyT] nqTL\ <X\T d+ \|s#&+ <T. H{ e+< |]dT L& dTesT @&T X+ ]_e~
q <X+ K&sYn d dy $ds&+ nk<sDyTq~. yM #H #sqT | |{+~ <T. es H{ nqT+<+ sT =qk>& s+&T *k# kqTL\ sD\THsTT.
n~ L& nyT]qT H&T eT]+> qT|e+& >\ jTs|t L$T L& nyT]qT nqTd]+#&+ <T. yTT<{~, {e\ #eTTsT <s u> Z+~. eTq ~>TeTT\
#dTq~. n++<T, nyT] d+ *$> +& <=s+& sT |<q U#eTTsT T\ KseTq~. n~ eTq ]
| |L\ |]dT\ qT+ jT|&{ nyT] <X\ V|<X+ d]|{+~. u{H s|q u<X + eedqT eT]+ ~>Cse+& dV]++~.
key<+ m<T dj |+# XsD+ jT.jTH.z. |s<T #d e+&*+< n~ <X\T eT s+&e~,#H qT+ #e dsT\ ~>TeTT\T {e\ u>
y& us<X+ ! #H \T <T$+#& nyT] #dq n_bj\qT e+ #XsTT. ~ d{> +&j yK] |]>sTT. B e\ eTq ~>TeTT\ KsT\T k|+> >ZsTT.
ss \ |jT \qT < nqTL\ bH, d* j, <=]j | |& y T . eT< e] bqT bw+#*q usY q |] ~ y #H ~>TeTT\ <T\T nyT],jTs|t <X\ K<q
e+{ <X\ |uT\T d+ (|# deTT<+, <D #H deTT< $T+ #H #=suT ~>&+ deT+d+> < yTC dsT\ ~>TeTT me b H{ =qk e+f eTq
$y<\ d+<s+>) y~+#<T. C >+ bH, ||+#<X\ k<sD n_bjT+> e+~. eTq {M\T #d $<o yDC T eT]+ |] e+&~. |*+> $<o es
<=]j, d* j\ nyT] nqTL\ |Ps |uT \T |& _+, | || =] eT< s> |\ y\+ <e \\T u> ] e+&$. ~ eTq <X ] eed
n+<T = |jT\T #>sTT. , n$ u&d={sTT. y] <Xu =~d| | |&<+. ||+ # <X\, eTTK+> H&T {> |#d+~. n{ {qT eTq # qT+
j <X\ m nyT] nqTL\ b\qT eT+> dj <X\, eT eTTK+> eTq sT>T bsT>T <X\ rddTH+<T y& dssT n+& nyT] |<+ |+~.
|\T z&d e#sT. eT |\ eTHuy\ qT>TD+> eTq <X |sTe |w\qT y& dssT n+srjT+> eT+ n< #H jTT< |PV+.
qq |uT\T #H #e dsT\ ybs+ <s >\T|Tq+<T yTq <Xu\T $#]+# |<T. H&T us<X $<o yD+ usY #HjT |<eT
yT\Tb+<pdTH sTT. us< X + *| f> nyT] s+&T e+<\ d+s\ #]>\ nyT], jTs|t <X\ kH nqTu$dTq~. > @&~ #H eTq $<o yD
<=]+~. us< X ] eed |j H\ +f nyT] d ]esZ Ju\T, Jeq |eD\T n~+> eHsTT. $\Te 71.71 _*jTH &\s #]+~. usY nyT] yD+
eed V eTT y& dssT b<q dTq ~. d* j, #] \+ kw*dT $|y\ qT+ ysD eT]jTT 62.12 _*jTH &\s s +& kq+ e+~. (#H m>TeTT\
bH, <=]j, |* |H, d+>|P sY, <jYT+& e+{ s\ jT+D\ d+ eT d+ <X\ ]esZ Jeq |eD\qT us< X + e\+ |<e kq+ eq|{ ). C n+<T
nyT] |PV u>keT sC\T d + sT>T uT yK ] j |T& < <X\T d+eT+ |] u> |+#sTT. #H usY #dq m>TeTT\ $\Te 9 _*jTH &\sT ey T
#|TTHsTT. n+<T _q+> nyT] jTT<s< #\ n+<T n~ Ju\Tq nyT], jTs|t <X\T +&j #H qT+ usY ~>TeTT\ $\Te dTesT 62 _*jTH
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 6
&\s #]+~. B _q+> usY qT+ nyT] m>TeTT\ |X e\T> eTsD+ #s ePV+#T+f, us <X e>D\ neeqsy T q z$T> y& dssT u$dTq ~.|rs+ d+
$\Te 40 _*jTH &\sT >, nyT] qT+ usY ~>TeTT\ n+ +f |~s T me ysTT eT+~ #=|q s T \T V\T m<TsT #dTq ~. H|< + u {HqT s+ # |] T
$\Te dTesT 22 _*jTH &\sT \<T. nyT] qT+ dsT \ #dT y* se#T. d]V<T =&T\ (yqT)q, b\ ydT=H+<T y& dw+# &+ d]V<T $y<+.
~>TeTT\ ejT+ b* #H #e ~>TeTT\ e\ dTesT +&T\ (kqT)q bq |TH s|{ | b~ jTT< Ve\j\ d+ nqT u<eT sC
15 qT+ 20 X+ <s usY *edTq~. n< $<+> usrjTT\T es+#* e+~. n< $<+> eTq |]XeT\ +~s>+B |uT+ 1975 +&j $q+ #d+~.
nyT] #d m>TeTT\ $\Te b* #H eTq m>TeTT\ eTd y\ L& <]rd |]DeT+ \~eT+~ ] n+<T +><X $se+ s s, ._.\ sV d |s wH
e\ L& eTq =+ *dedTq ~. |&T jTT<H<+ |] esZ sT<>T\T> esTT+~. n+<T n+<s+ es+#*. #sTT++~. eT+ ~. 9.4.1975 \y sTsaeTTq yTsT|
#H yD+ d+_+# neX+ e+~. <X+ nyT] u{H | @ ksY du <X+ usY H&T #s > us dH \qT >+> s* ++~. \y se TT+<
nqTL\ sY.mdt.mdt. e+{ bddT X\T #H dsT\ d++<\T e. 2015 Hb n\ d+U e<o >\ d+ sueHqT eTT&+ sE #>qT >V s+<+
VwsD <X |\qT s # >=&TTq $wjT + *d+<. #H |\ +<q y& dssT syqT qT+ eT<+~. #d+~. eTsTH& d+qT us<X+ $q+ #dTqT
qT+ H&T |~ &\s ~>TeT #dT+Tq dbH <X |\ #eTTsT dV dsT\qT n+<+& ~>+<H VH # du\ |<T\# +~s |uT+ |q
=qT>qT MsT |yksqT +<+. n< |j> $\Te >\ >T] #d |<q bqT bw++~. ue\jT <X+> q sTT|++~. H\T>T sE\ ~. 14.4.1975q +&j d +
d bHqT nyT], jTs|t <X\ qT+& 15 &\s eTq V\ +&j u+ >+ *dTq <+ jT.jTH.z. 2015 $q |q MT< | ]|s+&+qT +~s |uT+
|\T s | =qT>\T #j *q |]d edT+ ~. y| sTT|{ nsY Hb |s<T #d+~. +&j n+srjT+> sV++~. 97 X+ z{+> >\Tb+~qT |{++~.
mdt{ e\ |qT\T |sT>TTHsTT. eTsy| $<o dsT\ n|wb+~. H&T Hb |\ H& +&j es+> < jT|X HsjTDY, C] |s+&C, yTTs ~s
$j>+ d+ eT]+ &T KsT #j*. |qT\T 20 X+ e+~. b d+> ds d]. 1971 +><XqT $eTT #dq H{ |eTTK || H\ T L& nH $q #s > K+&+#sT.
|]>jTqT+<+. ~>TeT dsT\ $eTjT <s\T L& +&j =+es VdH |uT + qT+ | n& |\ qT |< nj d+ $q #sqT dMT+#& yTTs
eTs 20 X+ |]>jTqT+<+. yTT+ 40 X+ <X |\ H&T m+{ <sD <T. sqTq 2018 m\ #H <X $|\ |jT+ #X&T. @<H u< sC
Jeq |eD\T ~>CssTT. & s=sT MT&j dwd T q nqTL\ K< b (_.jTH.|) $jeX\T+&+ V+<T sC+ d+> [++<q $eTs nH&T ||+#
jTT<H< \+ ks+X+ #e dsT\ kq+ me >eTHs+. u {H C |]d L& n+{<. y& |< y|+> u<eT e\+\ e+~. $T*q eTs
<s\ dsT\ ybs eTq <X+ #|{+#&yT. nj =* $<o |sq u{H #|{&T. C y& Ve\jTH u< syTq u{HqT [+#+<T H&T y &
H{ |]dT\ +&j jTT<+ #jT& #H s eTT+< usY | u {H |\ es e+~. u {H dssT |jTdTq<q s|D\T u{H |\ H&T u>
d<+> < nseTeTq~. n+<T s+&T sD\THsTT. | |sT>TTq us esqT y& |sq Z+# <T. $|dTHsTT. HsT> #H #s\T ]| neX+ u{H
yTT<{~, @{ 70 _*jTH &\s (dTesT H\T>Tqs \\ |> |++~. nyT] neds\T nyT] eqf, b+rjT 2007 \_++~. s H{ 24 s+& #s\T #H `
s\T) $\Te >\ us <X yD es{qT jTT<+ $dsDy< + >\ us b\esZ\ L& = u{H\ eT< ]>sTT. #H u{H <b+> d]V<T
e\ #H y* edT+ ~. s +&e~, |PV+> q ||+# |jH\THsTT. u{H n+s+ |]d L& & $y< |]w]+#T+T<y qq uj +<q y& dssT
| ] nyT] |PV+ +&j qT #CseL&<q yK ] $y<= sD+. |]+~. |*+>H |\e |s++> nTV+ #H
#H * e+~. +&j jTT< |]d #H yD ke C 1979 VyH nq <X\ d<dT qT+ 1949 ydyBq uu>+ #=s&+~. <s #H | $<w+
$dsD qw+ *dT+~. n+<T q ydyBq b++ H{ us`Y u {H dV &+& qT d+d]+#\ u {H u{HqT q |T #TH+<T y& dssT ePV+
nd++~ us dH \ #=suT #s qT L& <|jT sT e+~. s+s e \e+q us |uT+ |+~. sY.mdt.mdt |eTVQ&T >\sY s+q +#Y |t
|]w]+#TpdT+~. #H ydT\TuT, <sy< |]cs 2007 b dV &+& s +&e EqT de]++~. <{ |e+q V+<T s $dsD \+ y& dssT
|jTqT #|&+ nyT] $T+>T&T |&+ <T. n+<T b E |s+ u {H $<X+> $<q+ usY jT+D e+&+ dV yT. H&T nyT] L& n$ nedsy T . +~s
pH 18 qT+ yd+ sdTq deTj dTesT 50 e+&*. de]+q = E u{H $<X+> $<q+ dssT H{ d+ $dsD y< + @< sE
sE\T >&+~. nsTTq|{ d]V<T jTT< yT|\T u {H<. s +&T <X\T |sd s dV s |]$T+ nsTT+~. VsT> $q+ #dTqf H{ u{HqT L& +&j
{qT L& e]+#be&+ >eTHs+. n~ us b\esZ\ $dsD y< u yd+~. y& y& dssT $q+ #dT H Xs |&q s< T . +<q
28.3.2006e +&j ` #H\ |uT\ eT< n~s e# ] u{H | ~|+ d+ be\T H&T u{H |\ eq<.
eekjT T\ m>TeT, ~>TeTT\| <b yD <T|Tq~. |q |s=q us b\esZ\ $dsDy< +\T
|+<+ ]+~. s #H eTq eekjT T\ 2008 y T T< { k ] bs y T +T m \ sE |dT+ &+ $y< ~rjT sD+> eHsTT.
m>TeTT\T |]>sTT. |* +> & = yD |+\ $ds + HjT+ u{H VsH b yTT+ 47 kH\ 43 eseq ||+#+ nyT] ` #H\ eT< ~| b{jT
L& |]+~. 2016 d|+sT & _ ` n MT{+> >\T#Tq~. n~ k|+> u{H d+qT sTq~. eT\ sD+. nyT] ||+#~| sj\ d+
]+~. n+<T us< X + qT+ |+#<s, _jT+, yTTCq, n+<T us |uT+ q dsX\ n+s+ e u s < X + j T T< H < | ] d T \ H & T u\e+ + >
m+&T< e+{ eekjT T\qT =qT>\T #j*+~> q nqTL\ || &y { b s +&k] m\ (2013) &&TTq~. eTq <X e>D\ ><TeT, e], Cq, #sT ,
y& dssT #HqT ]+~. us eekjT XU eT+ >*|+#T>*+~. m\ eTT+< usY sdH,#eTTsT |, $Ts|, |>, =], ;& ~s eekjT |+\T
s<yVH d+> #H #dq $| |, J&||, ns{, ds| s \ ~>+ <q + bT sTTs e nds |]d T \qT |+&dTq {~ s+> * |Xe\T> esTdTq
=], =]qH, $T]j\T, sTT\T, , #|\T, s=jT\T *++~. <s > |uT | z&+#>*+~. q jTT<H<$T~. eT]= \\ eT+~ sT\qT V\
e+{ T\ qT L& eT]+ y<T =qe*+~> #H qT nqTL\ dssTqT >*|+#T>*+~. nsTTH u{H | >T] #sTT+# |]DeT$T~. n< $<+ > eT <X u eTTdT>T
s&T. s+&T \T>T sc\ $ks+> s+>+ |+&dTq usY nqTL\yTq |dT dssT| {e\ ndeT u> e+< sbjT\ $\Te>\ #H dsT\qT Vw]+, s+&T
| |+qT <VsD> rdT+<+. 2016 @| qT+& |]+~. us es #H nqTL\+> L& e+<\ s\T n++f me <s nyT], jTs|t <X\
&X+ sT es 9 H\\ | dH eTq | ~>TeT n+ esTTq~. eTTK+> u{H jTTes #H jYT#{, dsT\qT eTTK+> eTq eT< s> q+ # =qT>\T
eTT+<T @&~ n< 9 H\\ dH ~>TeTT\+f e\+ 12 H{ esT u> ]dTq~. y& nqTL\ |dT u{H #sTT+# jTT<H<$T~. (<Ts< we XT n< eT< s> es+Z
X+ #H Z+#Tq~. 2015 @| ` &X+sT\ eT< 98 |uT+ L& u{ |C_bj Z usY |yTjT+ sT * |Xe> e|j>|&TTq~) bVjH,
J\ | #H ~>TeT #dT +f 2016 @| `&d+sY +& #H d]V<T $y<+ MT< H&T eTTUeTT> #s \T jTTyH #Ty+>\ \+ qT+ y\ @ #] d++<\T
eT< 87 qT\ J\T #dTq~. 12 X+ sT|Tq~. ~ y& dssT sT+#&+ <T . n+ +& >\ s+&T djTH sC\ |\ eT< $<w+ |+, nyT]H
Z+#Tq+<T eTq | <s 20 qT+ 25 X+ esL 2015 ksY deyXq+s+ +><X , u {H, +&j , Hb key<T\ |&> & +~ us<X ] eedqT # s
|&bsTT+~. eTq | s+>+ u ~ueTq~. n< $<+> (__mH)\ eT< y{sT yVH\ d# d+#s |+<+ u>$T~. eTTK+> Ve\j\ yqq, $X\
bkH eTq +&j qT+ sT&T <T y\ sbjT\ (myT.$.m) ]+~. BH _._..jTH. ` jT+.$.m. |+<+ us e>D\ sT, L\q, + ]esZ bq
$\Te >\ | ~>TeT #dTq~. +|t qTdq n+{sT. k] d#yVq d+#s |+<+ ] sTT |T H key< \qT m~]<+. bddT es+Z y&
sYjT dtjT dt kjT+ y& dssT #H dsT \qT Vw]+| us<X yVq syD eed\ eT <X+ eTT+# dssT |+#TTq jTT<H< es+> |#s<e
CsTT++<qT+<+. n~ H{ n+srjT |]dT #H &TT+<q uj+<q\T u{H | eHsTT. y& k<+. | <Xu |+# H< |#s ujT|& +&
bT b yD VwsD L& <] rjTe#TqT. H&T nqTL\ u{H |< m\ ~>Te du # | ydy\ b|~ MT< <s+> \& |C+ e<eT
ksY, @djT H du <X\ MT< #H >\ yD |T * d+<. __mH`myT$m _\TqT ~. 26.6.2016q y~+|CX&T. sD+ d + w # < + . ~ e\+ H< bj T
< e\ usY j <X\ ~>TeTT\| L& |ue+ u{H bs de+, eTTK+> &es jTjTq |#s<eT+> kd d*\T se. {~ eT+~ eTq sT
\>e#T. n+<T #H |PqT+f yTTyTT< us < X ||T \ Z m>Te du y~+#< T . < #+ > e] L\L, ]\L, eT< s> |\L, d \L jTT<+
eekjTs+>+ |&T>TbT >TseT+~. nd @&~ u{HqT q e\d> esTe#q ePV+ y& dssT e #H dsT\ VwsD e eTTqT+<T us\T
20 qT+& 25 X+ | $ds+ |]+<q ys\T edTHsTT. e+~. n s\ e +>+& m>Te du \&+ |s>qTHsTT. eq y& |uT jTT<H< <Tw*\
<e\ | TuT <s\ >Z |e<+ e+~. sT&T $T], n~ #+> es<T. 2018 u{H m\THsTT. H{ es+>, <Xu eTTdT>T <X <Vs $<H\ es+>
|dT|, +<T\ <s ~>C]q <Tw\\qT #$#XeTT. y& nqTL\ u{H |uT+ |C_eT $sT<+> <$T<+. jTT<H< $<H\ e\ <X |\ #L sqTq
jTT<H< $<q+ |, $T], |>, =], J&, #s, e] y[q# s| z$T |<T. qT y&dssT L&eqT n<q| c\T, keq |\ d + nse TjT dT\u
e+{ eekjT T\ <s\T |H <] rjTe#T. s|{ |+~. B H&T eT&T <X\ (+> ` Hb ` +&j) uw sD |#s |<T\qT #|& dsq |*\T
jTT<+ e\ #H d]V<T e+<eT+~ us dqT\T * | +< + > ~+# | < T . ~ T* u {H # eksTT. n+<T B eV+#T<+.
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 7

|C| XdE&T, uy~ |.m+. usZe eT d+|+


eqe d e n_ e ~ T\d yTT\ e+{ Xdy\T L& =+<sT b<T. d{ |t $T dsY | #XsT. +>+&T,
\b bw+q XdE\T XdjT ueC\+ d q$Tq XdE\T b<T. nyT], q& <X\ |eTTKT\ *d nH |]X<q\
HsT. bD\qT bd y<T\T d + nH dH <s eqe de $k |j >|& yT bZHsT. qsY | |+> |]X<q #XsT. dTes T
HsT. u, skjTq, K>, <T. yTT+ eqe de+ d+ nH esZ+ <s 50 |> <X\ |s {+#sT. Xdj
T $<H\ | |uT+
K, Je | ~ s |jT+#\ L& sTHsT. de+T\T> n+f |usTTw+> eeV]+q|&T Xw_w\T +&
s + >\ c T q $C q uy<T\T> VTy< <<+ J$+q ysT eHsT. e s + #& T . qT e]& e+> & \T Xd j T
e+T\THsT. nDT+sZeTT\T n+{ =~eT+~ |s>$T y<T\ |eTTK XdE & T |.m+. s|+#&+& eTq <X+ y{ y& w~+#\
yTT<\T= Xq s sT useZ sT . |w$T useZ >sT ~. 01-08-2017e Bq &e+&T #XsT. XdE&T n+f u edTe\ u+>
qT>= >V\ sVk\qT V<su< qTeTXsT. jTq eT d| (jT+.jT) |]o*+#&yT <HsT. |<s #\q d\qqTd]+
|>V\ <s |]X~dTq nH eT+~ yT<e\HsT. q&yd d+|+ *jTCdTq~. uy~> L& J$+#\ u~+#sT. jTq u<q
sV |s=+~q ||+# |U Xdy\T d+, dw s |.m+. useZ |\ |+ eV+# XdE
& T . dq TqT |]$T+ <T . q J$+ #]+#&T. qT eTsD+ #+
< <e&T eH& qyT de+ eTq~. eT eqe e\+ j++> +& #\q d dV+> es n> J$+#sT. nTe+{ |C yT<$ eTsD+
yT<dT jsT#dq sT |j>+ |*+#\ sT| >T]+#\HsT. s n |>o\ Xk\ *e+{ u<s+. jTq eT| d| (jT+.jT) q&yd
yTT m <s> <X+ eTq~. bD *|+<T |s wH e]+ L& XdyTqHsT. s esY z >=| +<|<X sw $T{ d+|+ *jTCdT+~. u $Cq
#dT q &s |w+T bD b&eT <e yTT Vqd XdE& #b&T. XdjT $CH, VTy< << Xk\ bT e]+ nH dq TqT L& eqy[ n_e~
eTq~. n+{ eT&+ e+ |{+#Tq yT<e\T |\ rdT= y+<T w #XsT. d+ deC nqsTT+#&y T jTq eTq+ sTT# yTq
<X+ n~+ >H eHsT. n+<T _q+> >+CsTT eq+ skH JsY jTq 1928 |e] 22q y\T. |.myT. usZy CVsT.
+#&T. <> V<su< ds|&sT. +&jTH ` d.|.(m+.m) q &yd, +<|<X sh $T{

swH &b\ |<\ eds dsT\ |+|D =qk+#\ <s\T


+>s&> &+ &$H : }V+qT>H sh+ >b\|s+ 60 eT+~ osT |dT\ eTT+<T <s\T
#+<uT |uT+ swH &b\ eds dsT\ ]>sTT. n> |.y.m <s+ 21q .sY.|s+
|+|D *|yd \ sT< sT\ q><T ~ d<| & + ~. .d.d |d t eTT+<T 150 eT+~ <s ]+~. yTT+
> s+&T H\\T> &b\ swH, +~||, #s e+{ <s se\ $$< # q&yd $T{
dsT \qT *|yd e\+ _jT+ eyT k+~. sujT duT\T .$.seTD, +>s&>&+ |D s<]
\+ BL& s<T#d q><T ~ #jT& @dTuT, HjT\T |.lydt, m.qusTT,
m.ds+, mH.eTTs&, |&mdtjTT sh s<]
mdt.syVH, |P HjT\T yT& us& seTT,
.^w esY , yd T usTTq lqT, | . H > X s s e,
d.myT.syT wt, |s HuJ, <q sC, |z& |D HjT\T
yT& .dTuwD, |.us, |.\, @...m+.mdt
n<\T y{ dTq, s<] |.lydt, n+<Ck sT. d+<s + > |z& q>s s<] |.|<
yT& ns <s se, .>+s&, |ym HjT\T yT& e{&T d+eT |<\T neT\T#keT VMT*
.bTs&, .|k< s&, $.d<TZsT, {.use eT]j TT > < H q +< , sh | u T \T | \| u s\T
$.lseTT\T, &.<TsZse, &.nHs+, .y+fX ~sT \T y|THjTHsT. swH dsT\ |+|D |P]> s<T# d
bZHsT. <s\ nq+s+ d++~ n~sT\ q><T ~ #jT& sh |uT+ |PqT+<, ~
#k+~. B es+> d.|. (m+.m) q&yd $q|\T n+<CjT&+ ]+~. |< |\ +& <s+ #jT&yTq nHsT. sqTq
+>s&>&+ &$H $T{ eT+&\ +<\ <s\ $jTy& : |uT swH &b\ _jT+ dV \+ q><T ~ myd |<\ H{ eTqT =&
|\T|+~. .19`6`17q +>s&>&+ z |dT n eds dsT\qT jT<$~> |\ |+|D #+<uT #dTH& $eT]+#sT. |uT|
eTT+<T 70 eT+~ <s ]+~. pH 20q J\T>T$T* #j\ sT |>o\ eTV d+|T+ (|z&) <TssZ #s\ es+> <$T+#\ |\T|#sT.
50 eT+~, <es|* 30 eT+~, 21q {.qs|s+, $jTy& q>s $T{ <s+ .29`6`17q @\sT + seT+ q>s n<s\T .<TsZ eT]jTT
22q &<y \T, 24q T{jT >&+, 27q b\es+ \ q+& >+Bq>sY osT |dT es eTV\T dTC, \, C, <TsZ\bT |\TesT eTV\T
100 eT+~, 28q =jT\>&+ 70 eT+~, 29q sdq |<sq #ksT. nq+s+ osT $q|+ bZHsT.

eT<T neT nsdTqT K+&d, y+H $&T<\ #j\ <s, sks


@\sT : KeT+ >s dMT|+ .25`7`17 lqT, seTD, seTT, |< , ds, qsE, nbse, dTs wt,
s bdT\T nsdT #dq d.|. (m+.m) q&yd dyT ~sT\T HjT+ eV+#sT.
q $T{ s<], nC <H neq] eT<TqT $j T y& : d . | . (m+.m ) q& y d
eT]jTT nsTD<jT HjT\T |k<, X+syT\qT y+H +>D sh HjT&T, es+>, KeT+, =>&+,
$&T<\ #j\ q&yd b <s+ @\sT eTVuu< \ q s<], <H eT<T bT
.26`7`2017q s, <s sV+#sT. k $.$.q>sY nsdT #dq |k<, X+syT\qT y+H $&T<\ #j\
qT+& s> jT\T<] sT\ e< CrjT sV <]| .26`7`17q $jTy& yTT>|s+, d<s d
ns>+ d| sks #ksT. d+<s+> q&yd d+sY q&yd ss\T <s sV+#sT.
n~s |~ jTT.y+fXsse e{&T d+<s + > q>s HjT\T <~ lydse e{&T
KeT+, es+> nMb++ ~yd\qT b&T
~yd\ b&T ueTT\ sD k>TTq bs+ \
ueTT\ qT+& >+{yjT& dsY |uT+ rdT+Tq
#s \ es+> ~yd\ | q bs&TTq+<T > { b sVdTq eT<T \+>D |uT+ {sZ{ #d
eT<TqT nsdT #ks, q y+H sT VsT|s\ bdT <&T\T #sTTdT+<HsT. y+H nsdT #dq y]
&e+& #ksT. se |P HjT\T jTs $&T<\ #j\ &e+& #ksT.
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 8

$|e d] ]q yT& y+|{| d+, ~u w+\ 47e es+du


bsr|s+ : eTVs l kjTT< s+> bs eTVs l bs+ eseq+, u$wT \jT <s +> * y] $|e bs{\ y| ]+, ndeq
j<T\T yT& y+|{| d+, ~u w+\ 47 e nH bs{\ y>T#T *+<, q\, l >\ |]>=jTHsT. H&T $|e |+< <*
es + d u q T d . | . (m+.m ) q& y d , bs{\T $|e ss\ , jTTer, jTTe\, $<sT\ bsyT+ }_ b ~+q ]$dT\T |u~+#
l + `bs r| s + @]j $ T{ bs r| s + esZd+s $<H\T, ] bs{\ <s |\ e#~
.10`7`17q sV+ |Tq+> y\]++~. @MT e+&<, $T*f+{ sjT bs{\T <s eyT
du |<q e> bZq u\#+< w&+ |\T $j\T k~+#T>\s d+ 50 ed+\T
(@...m+.mdt CrjT dVjT s<]) |d+d us +&q q\, l\T sTEe #kjT #bsT.
$|y<eT+ |s>q bs+ l+ ]q s+> nq+s+ m+.y+fXsT (.m|t.{.jTT sh
bseT, bs{ | + > ks< + eV+q yT& b<\T) e{&T l+ bs+ n+~+q
y+|{| d+, ~u w+\T $|e ~LN\ ysd+H H&T b\\ $<+d n_e~ es+>
=j&sT. q\, l+ s*q $|e C\ s k+|, s|* |C <e\T s +< <$ +#jT
><e]jT, d]d, \, |T&, HsjTD|, #bsT. H{ b\\T key<T\ n+&<+&\ us
H{ <+&sTD+ $|y<e\qT s*++< nHsT. |\| |qT <&T\ |PqT+THs, y& |uT+

V+By <s e #sTe\ [e+& | d<o |+ #d , eTs| key<T\ n&T>T\


eT&T>TT +<, yT H +&j |sT <X+ dV

` \ k<q d$T &e+& V+ByqT 2017 >dT |P]#d


eqsT\qT VQC d+d\, &s=s{ +|\
<|&TTq< $eT]+#sT. sc\ #+<uT e+{
keT+T\T y $<H\qT nqTd]d <|& esZ\ de
#dTHsHsT. eekjT+ d+u+ LsTbsTT s+>
nq+|s+ \k<q d$T, #s |<s& V\T |#T |sT>TTHjT, ]\ V\T
yTy]jT dT\ <s+ .3`7`17q #sTe #sT e\T, bC \ qT +b\, sjT\deT 400 {m+d\T,
\sjT&TTHjT y<q e+ #ksT. <X+
jTT sT\T +<+ s{ e< u <s nq+|s+ 100 {m+d\T Ks \T {sTT+ #<
eTH<+, H<+ $+_+, <[T\T, ~yd\T,
sV+#sT. V+By <s e #sTe\ [e+& V\T *+#\, lX\+ bC d {eT+ 854 yTH ]{\T, eTV\| V+k+& $#\$&> k>T+<,
&e+& #d = #sTe, ||], T|+ eT+&\ n&T>T\ >Z+& |qsT<]+#\HsT. V#Ymd b\\ n+& cjT eT\T >d+sD |sT Vs+>
#sTe jTT sT\T, >e\ ds+#T\T dTesT 600 <T ]+ |P] keTs + jTT u eTT\ { ds| s <&T\T, V\T kdTH jTHsT. <|& b\qqT n++
eT+~ 70 .MT. {s e <s sV+#sT. #j\, V+By 40 {m+d\ #< V\T #jT+< |<\ yTq k++ s<, Bd+ qq
<s \k<q d$T |<q s<] syTesY, *+#\, J.z.H+.69 sT<T#d V+By, >sT, |Ck$T $|e \ k<q w #j\ #bsT.
yTy]jT dT HjT\T #s $jT uwsYs& mdtsYmd, \T>T >+> bC \ { n+~+#\ ~s + du y.=+&jT (q&yd $XK
HjT+ eV+#sT. <s sT\ d+|Tue+> &e+& L&q $q| sT\ |~esZ+ q>s s<]), |.seTD (|.z.& s<]),
@...m+.mdt sh n<\T +& |usY, s<] CsTT+{ s Y n+~+#sT. &e+&q T y+H |uT y\>& w (@...m+.mdt n<\T) ~sT\T
d.H>sE, |D |<\ d+|T+ n<\T MsHs|, |<q *jTCd |]w]+# w #j\ ssT. |d++#sT. du q&yd @]j HjT\T
~sT\ bZ |d++#sT. +& |wt n< eV+#sT.

<[T\|k>TTq V+d es+> <$T+#*


|P sh d<dT e\ <q
<X V+<T s+> e] n&T>T X$T, m...jT+.jTdt. sw b<\T <sT\ dTswt\ n< q <TsZ|k< e{&T \ s\H bs{\qT esZ bs{
<[ esZ\qT eT]+ <|& >T]#d \+ V+dqT ]q d<dT >s>|sT u~T\ s|q . dTeH, u>+> sV+#\ $| #XsT.
bVdTq y&,#+<uT\ <TssZ $<H\ es+> ]|* u~T\ s|q |* dTs+<\T e{&T eT bs V\ d+|T+ sw dVjT s<] jTH.
<$T+#\ ]fsY b|dsY .$. dTuse |\T|#sT ., ]q nHj $e]+#sT. n>es\TeT | nqTd]+q leTHsjTD eT{&T |>o\ <e\ <sH <|&
>+>|sT <[T\ y*y, ]|* <[T\| neT dT\T, $wj\qT u<| V<j\ *jTCdq rsT d_\qT eed +u dq <\T={\ |\T|#sT.
<es|* <[T\qT ueTT\ qT+& >+{ yjT& esd +&|{++~. <[T\| sT>TTq $e es+> + du nsTD<jT swn<\T sese,
m|t{jTT, mjT+jTdt <s+ ~ys+ &|*>&+ |< mTq H<\T #XsT. |P sw |<q s~ . b], sw X~] jTT.
cBUH ]q swd<dT dTuse eTTKn~> du m|t{jTT sw n<\T |. |k< y+fXsse (jTT.$) ~sT\T |d++#sT.
bZ |d+ +#sT. neTse 125 n&T>T\ mq n+u< sY e{&T s+&e ||+# jTT<+ nyTs >w 6q nsTD<jT sT\T b&q b\T d_\qT
$>V |wk q #| H b\\T, n< n+u< sY $>V Vswe | nDTu+T\T ]|+, nHeT+~ HXq+ THsTT.
>eT+ <[T\T @sT #d k+|T VwsD =qk+#&+ #d+<, n< >w 6q #T+&sT <[T\| }# rsq+ : <[T\| k>TTq $e, nDy,
d>TZ# jTq re+> $eT]+#sT. |uT\ n+& ]+< $e]+#sT. ssT\T> \$e <&T\T V+d\ es+> dyTK+> <$T+#\ rs+#sT.
~|,n>es <TsV+sT\T <[T\| <&T\, V+d sT>TTHjTHsT. s+#&T, y+|, sT=+&, +|, >s> | sT <[T\+<] |]Vs+ #*+ #\, ]|* <[T\|
>&TTHs jTq s|+#sT. <sy< ] $y<\ H{ >s>|sT, <es|*, ]|*, <=+&b&T |Tq\T yd e dT\T myj\, <es|* <[T\ ueTT\qT ]
H | < + eqT, eT e s T d s T > ess |]dT\ n<+ |&TTHjTHsT. M{ es+> ] n|+#\, <=+&b&T <[T\| <& #dq y] sdT #d
<TjT{sT. <T\| sT>TTq n s\ V+d\ <|& bT ke nDy es+> <$T+#\ + #\ rs+#sT. |P HjT\T e$T& <q es|k<
es+> |\T <$T+#\ $| #XsT. |\T|#sT. d<dT @sqT |sy+#sT.
m|t{jTT sw b<\T m+. y+fXsT, m.. .j T +.j T dt . sw | < q s < ] m+.
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 9

] d+eT |<\ neT\T |P sh$T{ <s


$jTy& : #+<q ;e |jH\T d\+ |]Vs 2 \\ |+# j#q #dTqT *bsT.
deT+> n+<Cj\, _.z.d e~]> { y{sT <s |P sh |<q s<] e{&T
eT]jTT Ve ]\ d+eT usT\T @sT #d # + < q ; e | < + # | u sTTw + > neT\T
|<\T neT\T #j\, _.z.d d+eT |<\T |P]> sT>TTq<, {, y{sT, Ve ~s s+>\ #+~q
_.z.d <sH neT\T #j\ sT .m|t.{.jTT sh ]\T # eT+~ |<+ duT\T <HsT.
$ T{ < s + . 4`7`17q $j T y& eTs| |< + e\q \_<sT\ n+<e\dq |j H\T
dseT|s+ eq sh ]XK s\jT+ eTT+<T L& deT+> n+<&+ < #bsT. { y{sT s+>,
]\T |<m Tq <s #ksT. nq+s+ sY n~sT\ Ve s+> $&$&> d+ e T usT\ qT @sT #j \
$q|+ n+<CksT. $q|+ d]+q ]XK ssT. _.z.d <T\qT _.z.d ]\ $j+#\,
MTwqsY es|k< ] HjT\ e{&T k\sYw| \t T |e< |]Vs+ bT n |jH\T _.z.d usT
H\ sE $&T<\ #dTqT> #bsT. n<$<+> <sH n+<Cj &e+& #ksT.
#+<q ;e qy<T y] qy<T #sTT+#+<T seT+ |P sh HjT\T |.|k<se,
@sT #keTHsT. dV eTsD # 30 y\ s\ m.| |> o\ ue q sD ] d+|T + HjT\T .$.seTD,

.jTdt.{. #+ s<T @\sT d<dT


|\ q&$]# |qT\ eedqT rdTedTq |uT+|
deTsX+ K+ |P]+#\ jTq $| #XsT. q, dqsT, _.y+{e, |>o\ { ] d+|T+ HjT\T <~
eT<sV |]XeT\T, {s |]XeT\T, \|TT |]XeT\T, lydse, m.yTXsse, |>o\ eTTs] d+|T+
q e<sT\qT <rd, & b]X$T esZ\ yT\T HjT\T dV#Y.w ~sT\T bZHsT.
#d< .jTdt.{. #eT |k< $e]+#sT. eekjT
s + > | P ] > < rd | q T\ $< q+ #
@C b+ ~ydT\
qwsyTq<HsT. eekjT, b]X$Ts+>\qT \>*|,
|uT, |yT s+>\qT *| $TXeT ] eedqT
y< d<Tbj\T yTsT>T|s*
bsr|s+ : @C b+ ~ydT\ q
us<X+ sb+~+#s, |&T < |P]> s y< d<Tbj\T yTsT>|s\ sT $jTq>s+
|s |yTs+> |P]> bV+# y& $<H\qT @...m+.mdt |~ +<+ .19.7.17q bsr|s+
| ={\ |k< $| #XsT. .{.&.@ bC n~] >] *d $q|+ n+<Cd + ~.
du d.|. (m+.m) q&y d HjT\T @C b+ q+ eT+~ y<T\qT, d+~
|\ <rd .jTdt.{. #{ s<T # j \ jTT. y+fXsse (jTT.$), jT..d. @C+{ jTjTH jT$T+#\, eT+<T\T, s |]s\qT d]|&q+>
m|t{jTT, d.|.. (jT+.jT) q&yd\ <s+ HjT\T ._.se ~sT\T |d++#sT. du e+#\, s> ss\ d+KqT |+ d+ ys
@\sT .6`7`17q s yq ue q+ sdq du ]+~. ]\T, |\T n~ d+K VsjsT. nsTD<jT ksH n ~yd >e\qT |s {+ d\+ y< +
m|t{jTT q>s |<q s<] < y+{e n< q sT\T $|e>j\T \|+#sT. m|t{jTT HjT\T n+~+# #s \T rdTy\, d+#s y< X\\qT @sT
]q du m|t{jTT sw n<\T |. |k< s nbse, jTs lqT, s+uT, seTD, |&jTdtjT #j\, d+\T, eTTK L&\T\ yT& +|\T
eTTKe> bZ |d++#sT. us |\| ssV HjT\T . H, yH\, $<TY m+bsTdt jTjTH sV+ ~ydT\ y<+ n+~+#\, bD+
jTT< ~>TTq y& |uT $<H\ es+> |\T HjT\T H>Xsse, m|{m |t HjT\T _.$. k\HsE, y<T\ eTsD+# ~ydT\ T+u\qT |uT+ q
<$T+#\ |k< |\T|#sT. .jTdt.{. #+ <s {. sese ~sT\T bZHsT. $<+> <Ty\ |.z ssT.
1 e |J sTysTT #TTHsT. d]+q |qT\qT |\| s+< |+# jTT<\
d+ e T #s \ =s $~+# |qT\qT L& s]+# $<q+ b]X$T #d sc\ +f s |< =qT>, |C <e\qT nDyd u< \>\qT
+<T +~. sc\T |jq+ b+<TjT mdt{ deTs\T |+#&, |\| |sq T> q s+X n~s
b\esZ\ |]b\q q sc\ |uT \T $XwdTHsT. m+<T+f sc M{ $j>+ me> jT+ |+ #jT& yTT+> |\ s |
L& |\| |qT\ us |+#TsTT. mdt{ |qT\qT +T+<+THsT. k] u> |qT $~+#&q sT y jT++> |+#& $jdTHsT. |\ |sT MT<
ssTT+# $wjT+ >T~| +<|uT <K\T |< sc\ $j><sT\|q L& us+ |&T T+~. |\T <+ kdTHsT.
|sTdT+~. < +< $wjT+ $dyTq #*+ # <s \ |s |qT 2/3 e+T +T+~. $T>T\T nH~ mdt{ |yX|& beTTKyTq~> |{+
n~s\T <K\T |&sTT. sc\ |]d eTTb*{\ <sT\T qT+& ]& qT+& >T+&+ <sH @s&TT+~. < e+ sb\ ss TT+ nss bsy T +{
ksTT ~+#&TT+~. ydy us b\esZ\T us |s |qT\ us+ yH \ MT< s <j\ MT< |&T T+~. |yX|{ sddt _C| |uT+ |< V&e& #d +~.
s+ yTT deK duy es& |jTdTHsTT. n+eT+> XeT Je\|H useT+ sT< &TT+~. |s >+ 1947 n~s e]& d+<s + > s+ > #ksT.
nsTT _{wt es bs+ qT+& | deK |qT\qT s<T #j \ \yTq &e+& q|{ us e\dy< es bs+ d u>keT+
++ \+> eq+<Tq y] n_bj\qT sT<& |uT + mdt{ |sT us eT]+ |+#TTq~. <X|Ps+> H&T <s+> q sddt ` _C| X\T
b\\T d+d e#sT. nsTT _{wt y qT+& us us |\| b\ esZ\T #dT q <&T\ mdt{ n~s e]& d+<s neX+> rdT= |\|
b\esZ\ n~s+ <sTT+#&q sTy |<+ eTs <VsD> +~. y| ysT ] e~ eT+ uj
q mdt{ <& |PqTHsT. deK duy < +d+
|s+ |]b\q kd y] neX+ eq|&T y] |dH +{sT. n< d+<s+ ss{ X\ u\T #jT& |PqTHsT.
<X\qT neT\ |PqT+THsT. key<T\, #Ls nHwD n< ] e~ <rd #s\L mdt{ |sT |\| |qT\ us |+#&,
&|T & < s T \, & u keTT\ | j H\qT |PqT+{sT. q><T s<T n+<T <VsD> *+~. sc\ jTT ] V\qT V]+#& d|(m+`m)
Hsys*> \yTq +B sC @ss#&yT us n~ k< s D | \ u s + > e]+~. n_ e ~ q&yd K+&dTq~. sD+> |qT\T, ybs+
b\esZ\ \+> +~. $$< s\ |qT\qT s<T #d +T|]+~. q><T s<T ]_e~ +T|s#&yT jT ]\T, q |]XeT\ jTeqT\T kdTq
n+{ >=&T>T +< y\H # \+> $<o +& ss{ X\ |jH\qT Hsy]+< bs{ d|(m+`m) q&yd \|sTdTq~.
+|\T |uT \qT &e+& #dT H sTT. $<o |T&T\qT TTEesTT+~. |\ |jq+ =s < *bsTT+~. |Ces mdt{ sj esd, |uT\ jTT
]+#& L& ~ |j>|&TT+< us b\ mdt{ L& n+{ eTs= <VsD eyT. |Ces $<H\qT esd kdTq bs{\qT
esZ\T #TTHsTT. H]* bTq ] eedqT eT]+ re | s \ d | (m+`m ) q& y d
] eed jTT |]d $e]d |\| |qT\
\u & mdt { eT+ Ww < + | # d T + < |\T|dT+~.
us |+#& b\\T |jTdTHsT. s+>
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 10

p{ $T\qT ]|+#\ sh ]XUeT+ |P $q|+ |H&T <eT+| s+<


myd VMT\qT neT\T #j*
$jTq>s+ Bs\+> eT|& eq p{ {~ s\ b$&+{ |+&, uqdt, .mdt., m..d, |Ck$T |< T \qT \sd |H&T <eT+|
$T\T \ qT ] | + #\ sh ] X UeT+ | + \ T, s +< + | j +# & d . | . (m+.m )
&Y |+&\qT #*+#+& m>yd+~. d+ ]fsY, ]CH,
d HsjTD >] |P $jTq>s+ $T{ $q|+ q&yd +<|<X sh $T{ re+> K+&dTq~.
&Y ]\ >&{, |.m|\t nsTTH #*+ #< T . eT&T m\ deTjT+ | zqT =\>=f+ <T {.&.| VMT\T
n+<Cd+~. n<$<+> k m+.m.@ MTk\ ^ >] $T\T\ {\qT sh |uT+ J.z.H+. 353, 354, 355
L& $q|+ #sT. p{ deTd | w #d n~s e# |&T VMT neT\T #j\
\ .12`5`2016q w~++~. jeq+ B| ] >Vs+<\T, nsdT\T #d sh |uT+ |\|
|]w]keT ] eT+ VMT#sT. eT+ *dq |P V s T qT+& d s s Y # T q~. d s s Y
|<T\ sh b<\T m+.y+fXsT, nDy kdTq~. dyTq |Ck$T V nsTTq
mysTT+#& ]XK +sY |{wH yjT+& b<jqT n&Te&+, sh yTT+> s+<+ neT\T
n<\T .dHdse, dVjT s<]
mH.dsHsjTDsE, HjT\T n|\HjTT&T jeH dV]dTq~. #dT q rsTqT q&y d re+> esdT q ~. |{ H
~sT\T eHsT. $T\T\ eT e\ ]\T re +<T\T |&T THsT. Te+{ n|Ck$T s+< $<H\qT $&H& m\
l \lyd #+~q $jTq>s+ s+&T es V\T #dTH es |]d $w$T+q d d+<s+> |\ q VMT\qT $T{\ |sT
$T\T\T, u_* $T\T d+es \+> eT|& sTT. y+H deTd |]w]+#\, $T\T\qT ]|+ ]\ \j|q #jT+& neT\T #j\ &e+& #dTH+.
eT&T $T\T\ #+~q dTesT 10 y\ eT+~ ]\T sTT\ #*+ # #j \ d+<s + > |P |uT y.k+ese, sh n~s |~
b~ jsT. $T\T\ jeq+ ]\ #*+ #*q &e+& #d+~. d.|. (m+.m) q&yd, +.|. sh $T{

s+#&T neTsMsT\ 32 es+ du >s>|sT <[T\ k+|T VwsD, bs |*+> { ]\T


$jTy& : $jTy& .17`7`17q s+#&T n]|* <[T\| bdT\ <& es+> <s k~+#Tq >dt |*+> dwH bs+u+
neTsMsT\ 32e es+ du d.|. (m+.m) q&y d $jTy& : >s>|sT <[ T+u\qT k+|T
VwsD >T]#dq n>es <TsV +sT\ #s qT K+&d , $jTy& : mH bs{\ |*+> { ]\T
q>s $T{ <s+ ]+~. du |<qe> k~+#Tq >dt |*+> dwH CsTT+{ sY >+< +
bZq .m|.t {.jTT sh b< \T m+.y+fX sT n]|* <[T\| bdT\ <sTD V+d\qT sdd
d.|. (m+.m) q&yd $jTy& q>s $T{ # + < T & T >s T bs + _ + #s T . . 27`7`2017q
e{&T` +<, sh |uT\T edT H<, <s+ .1`7`17q H d+sY <s sV+#sT. $jTy& {q>sY 100 n&T>T\ s&T qq+>
eTH< X\T <[T\|, yTH]{\|, eTV\| d+<s+> q>s s<] b] e{&T H{ @sT #dq d.mH. >dt |*+> dwH bs+_+q
<& T \ | P qT +Tq d e Tj T + ke s+#&T , #T+&sT, yb+, |~]|+, sT=+&, q{ nq+s+ ]q du jTq e{&T { ]\T
<eTsT\T s+#&T eTMsT\ >\ d]> \+| <sTD\T H{ >s>|sT, n]|* <+\T @ deTd\T m<Ts=H q <w rdT= ed |]cs
rdTy\ #bsT. s+#&T |Tq H{ qT+& H{ < [ T \| s s \T> k> T T q k+| T nDy , w #kq #bsT. bs+u se u>q>sY
es <[T\| n>es \<TsV +sT\ <&T\ |s+ |s n>H< <&T\ =qk+|qHsT. <[T\ d>T >dt *$Tf&, V+<kH |{*jT+ *$Tf& q~sT\T
=qk>TH e+<HsT. B yTTq{ \+|, H{ =+#yTH esT sy\+f |r |< <[ T+u 3 L& VsjsT. |P HjT+ |<mTq {
>s> | sT, ns|* , <es|* |T q <VsD nHsT. ms\ u $T y\, b~, d+ e T #s \ L&q b ]\T bZHsT. d+<s+> { ]\ s|q
| { + #\ & e +& # k s T . < [ T \| <& T \T |>o\ { ] d+|T+ q>s n<\T <~
s+#&T <[T\| kq qsyT<+ <[ >se n]&\+f <[, VQqT\T, X$TesZ\T +>
bs{\qT eTT+<T +< bs{\qT eTT+<T lydse e{&T dmH {\T >+ +f |&T
bs&\HsT. |]q|{ |sT>TTq sB eTs H\T>< T = +\
rdT\ jTq ssT. + <s l<sYuT, |.&.mdt.jTT sh
n< \T m.s$#+<, sCw,t |P HjT\T <~ lydse, nedse TT+< C.d <w #sT. seT+ @{jT Td
q&yd q>s s<] .b] du
m.yTwt, m.<TsZse, |.z.& HjT\T |.|<, .<TsZ HjT\T <H|P & X+s,Y m|{t j T T HjT\T eTTX+s,Y
n< eV+ \ $e es+> esZ#q+ l<sYuT, m. yTwt ~sT\T bZHsT.
<eTX\qT + #j*q nedseTT+<HsT. eT]jTT q&yd HjT\T |.|k<se, eTTX+sY

1 e |J sTysTT
~sT\T bZHsT.
ds|s #k+~. eekjT+ <+f Vs T\T
qT 15 s\T |+#Tq
HsTT. $H\ <s\, skjT msTe\ <s\, $T
d+Vs eT+<T\ <s\ VQ C d+d\ csTTc\
|&bsTT. Vs T\ ~>TeTT\| <s|& Vs
|<s\T eT]+ K<bsTT. s+>+ ~y rd
$.sY.m. eTTs ]\T
|s+ ssTT+# &TTHsTT. eekjT s+> { X$T\T> e]bsT. n|&T |]XeT\ y*q
bsT<\, $<TY ks\T <X+ n+ e> eHsTT. XeTX n+ sT#> \ueTeT+~. me yH\T $jTy& $jq+< {HbsT q+<T 150 eT+~
|uT n~ |qT\ |* +> & s T n~+ > HsTT. y\H & e +& s~ + # & T T +~. u s < X + eTTs ]\T m>TeT, ~>TeT |qT\T #dTHsT. M]
b]X$T T\ <s \ qT +Z #eT |]XeT\| |uT + s+>+`X$T\T eTqT>& k+#eTH~ dV d++~+q L*s |+<+ pH 19e B eTTd+~.
& #jTf<T. ueTT\qT T |sTTH n~ <s\T d++<+ *e+~. eekjT ] |qsT<s D nH~ s +&T y+H = |+<+ sT &e+& H{dT sTT#sT.
+|\ #*+ H|{ =qT>\T #d > s+> esZ\L &&TT+~. .mdt.{. #+ sD+> #s\T ysTT< |&T e#sTT.
H&T +~. B n<q+> u+ e&\ T. esu e deTjT+ <eT deTqjT+ es ~. 31.7.2017q yTHCyT+T ]q #s\
s+>+ eT]+ re qc\ >TseTHsT. es\T u> m +< T \Tq| { < X + s +> < e\T qT m>TeT >, ~>TeT > eq L* 95 s\|
|& n~ ~>T&Td <s\T |qeTeTHsTT. |+\ |sT>TTHsTT. | &e+& k<q <X+ 130 d+d\T 15 s\T |+ 110 s\T sTTe& jeq+
;e <T. eT<T <s <T. |uT dsD <T. y| *d n\ us sT d+|TsD deTqjT $T{ < n+^]++~.
Jeq eejT+ |sT>T+~. s> KsT\T |sT>TTHsTT. @s]#sTT. $T{ <X y| s+> $eTT j n< $<+ > T+> |d T | #jT T y]
$< KsT\T |sT>TTHsTT. syD KsT\T |sT>TTHsTT. (cH eTT j) nH se eT<|<X eT+<ksY sE yq+ 500 s| 50 s\T |+ 550 s\T>
M+{ s T \, u eTT\T |< \ eT]+ qT+& p 6 qT+& bs+_++~. j p 18 & #*+#T n+^]+#sT.
sTD>dT \ eTHsT. ~ |C |uT e & b]X$T +s eT+sY #sT n& kH bsyT+{ ]\ s|q |>o\ eTTs ] d+|T+
y\ |uT e nH |X T +~. ~ |C esyTq ~. sV++~. B s j nsY 2 ;VsY #+bsH
{ s+> <Te{ q #s\T rdTeT HjT\T dV#Y. w, jT+. dse, m|t{jTT q>s
#sTT+~. seT+ n\ us sT`L d+|T+
& e +& # d | u T | T sy # j T & + n + n< s<sT\T |. |k<se, jT+. X+sY bZHsT.
(@...m+.mdt) s+&T &e+&| u>k$T> e+~.
HjTyTq< @...m+.mdt u$dTq~. <X+ s+> eTqT>& k> bs{ eT<T> 2017 >w 1e B qT+& |+<+ neT\T edT+~.
se+ @$T{ ? s +> + , | C k$T X \ eTT+< T sy\ |+<+ ]q d+<s+> ~. 4.8.2017q ]\ qs
<X Hu 50 X+> eq s+>+ eTqT>& @...m+.mdt $| #k+~. u& sV+ |+<| $es\qT *jTCXsT. qs
k+#*. Vs u< b&&*. s+>+ HXq+ +< sesZ+ u& m|t{jTT sw |<q s<] . b] bZ
y\ |uT + sT+{+~. y] bw $\Te Vs+ n\ us sT`L d+|T+ (@...m+.mdt) |dT sjT |]De\| e{&sT
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 11

$XK u u\| |C d+|\ |]o\H ]bsT


$XK q>s+ q>~*, ;$T*, |+<T], > d T +T+< u ~ ]+ nej T s T \qT VosY dVs+ + dsse, |* nbse
q+<|s+, >Ey, |sy&, des+ eT+& +>BdTqT #bsT. ms \s bjT\T n&qT> |] ]sT\T dw+ HsjTDsE nH e <sH
\~ ms\ |uTueTT\ ]sT\T >\+sTTqT, #*+ f{ && , bdtT\T >dT= 16 s\ ||sM T< b\&TTHs, eTs 68 ms\ L& |&T ]sT
ueTT\T {+|]+> ]qT sY |MDYesY d+\T, y*eTT<\T #sTT+#THs *bsT. ydy \T dw+ n< sE neT+> nqTu$ dTH & s T \T #bsT.
djT+> |{+#sT. |uTueTT\T, ndHyT+{ >V+ ueTT\T es]+q sT\ ueTTqT+ $jTq>s+ eHdt dt ueTT\T |&T &yT+
u eTT\T, bs dt u eTT\T, <e<jT <s <jT u eTT\qT |uT+ qT+& eTT+<dT> @ nqTeTr +&H #qT kBq+ #dT= k>T sT\ H{ eT{ =&TTHs
n~sb n+&<+&\ u<sT\T |<mTq y~ q] 50 n&T>T\ s&TqT Cd_ |j+ <sq+> #bsT. b++ 500 ms\ bs dT u eTT\T L&
ms\ ueTT\ ]sT\T sTesT #dqT>q, ]+#s #bsT. s+> |< mTq eTT<b HjT y{ L& nqTue V H <s
ssTTr\T> qy<T #dq T>q, HH nqTue V, | + #sTTr | ] ~ q 900 m s \ | > q dTH s <e\q k |<\T nqTu$ +# b THs
|{V, yu+& qy<T ~s #|syTq ndHueTT\qT ed+ #dTe{ |jTdTHs e #bsT.
qy<T\qT n+ dT\Te> #dq T>q esTd <H \qT JeH<syT q u eTT\qT =e< y & u dMTsD 12 eT+~ sT\ m+sTT #d uu<sT\
|\T |#T]+#sTT. VosY ksTT n~sT\ MT<, (+& |P*+>) #dqsTT eT <>Zs qT+& #j\ |{\T s<T#d sT\ n&+> k>T V |uT+
n&dt\T \_+# ue]& > MT< Hs H{ &e+& #XsT. eT| |&T dT\T HsTT+#+& qy<T #d+< #bsT. eT kBq+ q ueTT\
ydT H sT. e|j ksTT sT>TTq u u eT+T\, sD y\ ssT. |{\T |+#\, eHdt dt ueTT\qT, bsdT
n~sT\ djH wt u>keTeTT+<H s|D\qT n|{ ueTT\T n|CTTq sT\qT \e> u eTT\qT k |< s T \ n| +# $< + >
|<] |{+#& #+<uT |uT+ |jTdTq~. eT u dMTsD <s & qT+& |]Vs+> ms ss TT+#\, k] 3 < 5 d+s\ n|+#$<+ >
|< mTq uu n~sb n+&<+&\ k+<H 1210 >C\T keT #|qT> |s=HsT. \$VsY #j\ ssT.
ys\T edTq H|<+ pH 15q s{ Vs+> sE e T n| + < & T* b+X HT ;$T* eT+&\+ #|\Tb& md\ #+~q
$#sD +T+< yTT< s Y sT y s $q eT+ ysTT+#THs #bsT. eTT |<]+ HeT, 2 ms\ ssTTr =qT>\T #d 5 ms\T <sq+>
qs+ |{+ eT |uT+ n+ e+yTq< | & T | C d + | \ d V s + H & | { \ T $T+ nqTu$dTHs *bsT. rs+ |]~ md\
#| H |jT + #ksT. Vs+> $#sD |<k sTT k~+#THeT n+<T eT L& >T HjT+ |&T ueTT\T {sTT+q dsY& |]~ ysTT
|\T, |Cd+| \T, sjT b\T, yT<e\T, |DT\T ]>T #&eT ssT. eT ~ed HjT, eq n+<T |ejT+ #|+#*. |\Tb&
Vs |uT \BksH n+#H #+<uT eT |\\ b~<=s&+ <, eT s>\T L& 25 ms\ u$T <sq+> $Td < kBq+
Vs+> $#sDqT s<T#d | <s| +<+ d{ d]>e, eekj eT<T|\T ks+ #dTq~ <T.
@sT #dT q T |{ + u u\qT | yd |jT \qT k>T#jT bTHeT *bsT. n+<T \$VsY s+&T sE\ |sq |uT ueTT\T |<
eTeTTs+ #XsT. nBL& e\+ =e~, eT<T sy&\ sE>] =+<sT neT& d<|&qT #bsT. mTq n+ dT\Te> ]sT\ sTes u
]q {+|]+>\qT |]$T+ #d n~s+ E\T+ ds+#Y us dj~ nbse bH q >TsTqT >T]++~. ~ n~s+ q eT+T\T,
#+<uT |uT+ |jTdTq~. < |d || n_bjT+ *jT|sTd qT ueTT\T neT myT\ dVs+ k>TTqT, qksTT n~s\
ymdtsYd|, sjT b\T pH 22q sdq \|& eT<e]+ eV+#<, nsTTH |\ $wj\ u>keT+ L& +&f s+ > ]> neXeTT+<
< b{> \T>T<X+ b eTVd+\+ |] *dq sT y n< k< eTT+< nHsT. |\+<] n_bjT|&Tq~. s< udsD $j+q
uu\| $#sD >+&=f n<s>=f #s\ deyX+ yd eTeTT\qT V+ ssTT+#T+{eT +& |P*+> (u dMTsD) $<q+, |D u>]w
|PqT+Tq~. +>dt b\q ]qT> #TTq #bsT. | ] $T # { m y j T & + , md H y T +{ | { \
$wj\qT jT|{ yTT+ $#sD |jTqT sT>s & dMTsD |s D |s+ <<| 1500 T d++~+q ndHyT+{ ueTT\ <sTT+| s<q
#s |PqT+Tq~. yTT+ > |dT + , >+ q ]q K<T #d u eTT\qT e\+ 90 =fj \ #dqT #+ 9/77 myjT&+, {e\ +< sw |uT\T
u u \ qT j T sj T +& # j T & u~T\T *bsT. n+<T 30 T {\ s|+ n # { \ qT | { w + > neT\T # j T & y{
|PqT+Tq~. bjT |e<eTT+< #bsT. e] ms sT { | +#Te& desD\ #dq sD+> + |< mTq
H|< + |\T J$+# Vd+ |#dT q 20 \\ <T\T 5,6 \\T eyT #s |]d uu\ ks+ @s&TT+< u$dTH+. #{\qT
|Cd+|\T IFTU-OPDR-APCLC-POW-AIKMS- u u<sT\T dw+ #s, y]| $Tq #s \T rdT=, dT\us+ #jT&+ uu\T dT\u+> e&
<[ $eTT ` $<|]sD $T{. s+< d+|TsD eT ueTT\T &H +& |P*+> <s dMT]+#\ <]rd+~.
d$T ` eTT]y& ydT\ d+eT d+|T+ d+jTT+> < eekjT ueTT\qT d< $j+#Te{ $XK q>s +{ +> es bC\
pH 14, 15 B\ q>s+q, |]ds >eq |uT+ ns\T> eT<T y\ ssT. $<H |uT+ $&H&*. \Twks+> $XK
|s{+#sTT. |\ qT+& ydy\T d]+#+ ]+~. $XK q>s |]~ =e~ >eT |]~ 2986 es& s~+#*. |#<H b&*. |sesD
|+<T] eT+&\+ eTT<b >eT |+#sTTr ms\T yTT+ u $ds + qT>, n+<T nM u eTT |]s+#*. Vs u<qT <rd eekjT ueTT\
| ] ~ >$+< | s + , eTT< b | \qT, 2163 ms\T qT>, |uTbs+u ueTT\T 326 e]& s~+#*.
u&THjTT&Tb+ yd eTT<b ds+#Y us nsTTq m s \TqT > ssTTr u eTT\T 377 m s \T, &e+&T : 1. $XK ]q, sT>TTq u u\+{
dj~ nbse n+<TuT q+<Tq bH ndH y T +{ u eTT\T 212 ms\T, eTq bs+u\T $#]+#& |uT+ E&wjT m+sTT ]|+#*.
d+|~+#+ ]+~. 120 ms\T, eTq bs+u 14 ms\T |uT + bs<s , yT<]H T& +&*.
>$+<|s+ >eTdT\T eT b+ \$VsY eTD qT> |uT+ $&T<\ #dq ]sT |uT+ +sY <e\T #jT&+ \T|<\ #j*.
sE nH e q ndd+T seTT <s eT >eT+ *jTCdT+~. 2. eTT<b ndH y T +{ u eTT\ u |jT +q y]
e ndHyT+{ ueTT\qT ms 10 \\ =qT>\T ueTT\ {+|]+> $wjT+ jT eq + #*. u u<sT\qT+& |{\T, d+\T |{q U
#d |b<q #Xs #bsT. ueTT\qT & +& sT y s Y jT$T+q n~sT\ +<+ 178 ms\ \T &yT+T kBq+ #dT= y] n|Cb*.
|P*+> <s d]dT+ < >eTdT\ *jT&+ yT ]sT bs dT u $T |uT sT|j > u $T> eZ] + eekjT u eTT\ +> eT<T|\T |uT +
&s> & #T+{eT #|qT *jTCXsT. {+|]+> #dq T |{ + #sT. =e~ s $q |]~ *+ eekjT T\ eT<T<s *+#*.
b++ q <s\qT { +& |P*+> dyT q <<| 3y\ ms\ ueTT ssTTr ueTT\THsTT. ~ed q qT |q]+#& |uT + |PqTy*.
+<q\qT { sT ms { 20 \\T $\Te n~ ueTT\T bsdT +<, |uT+ +< HsTT. sT<>T\ * u *+ b~ \q#j*.
#d u $T m{yT +{ neT+< n+<T \$VsY sE M{ ]sT\T {+|sY #d CjT& eT+T\T, |<\ s>+, #<Te\ u< |uT+ eV+#*.
neTueT #|qT #bsT. < e |ksTT q~sT\ ksTTH s>TTqT ]q rsT { 3. nqes+ s T \ u eTT\ |{V \T *+#*. u
sjT |\T& +< wt, >+{, +&sT +{ \TdT+~. |jT+q y]| $Tq dT\T |{*. eHdt dt
y eT< T e T +< y T eTT | P qT +f @MT ;$T* eT+&\+ nqes+ |]~ k 12 eT+~ ueTT\, bsdTueTT\ k |< k>TV *
#*+ # +& ndH y T +{ u eTT\T { |uT + +> sT\T k>T#dTq 26 ms\ ueTT\qT sese nH +& $<+> #s\T #|{*.

>dT 28 wsYu> $<TY bs neTsMsT\ CVsT...


T*fH ` 4 q&yd 12

|z& se\ ]bsT


nq+|s+ : sw, $T{\ sjT+ yTs E *bsT. ~sT\T bZ eT{&sT.
2q qq mC b\d es+> qX q>sY qT+& 80 ~. 23.07.2017 s\T |z& se\ ]bsT
eT+~ eTV\ q&$Te+ es s> jT\T<] n& qq m C b\d s<T #j \ |z&, <, ~. 13.07.2017
eq s+&T eT<+ c|\qT <+d+ #d +<q #jT&+ yjTdtsY eTV $u>+, m|t{jTT, z|&sY, +<|< X sw, $T{\ sjT+ yTs |>o\ eTV
]+~. seT+ |z& sw dVjT s<] eTV d+|T+ <s+ nq+|s+ q&$Te+ <>Zs |< d+|T+ (|z&) <seTT E 13e Bq s\T
eTD, n<, s<] CH+;, dTydD eT]jTT mTq +<q #|&+ ]+~. +<qqT <+ sT |dT eTT+<T qq mC b\d s<T #j\,
$T{ duT \T nXe T, s<, |< , X +\, y+\ , |z& |< q s<] dTydD e{&T u c|\T eT<+ c|\qT myj\ &e+& #d |z& `
eT]>eT, es\, seTT\eT, |<e, T\XeT ~TsT\T q&|y] { rkqq #+<uT uc |\T, eT<+ c|\T |&jTdtjT d+jTT+> 80 eT+~ <s #XsT.
+<q bZHsT. +<qqT <d + swd V jT e< +<q #dTq eTV d+|\ HjT\qT nsdT se n<s\T $jTeT n< eV+#>
s<] . eTD e{&T |uT + rdT=q qq #jT&+, dT\T HsTT+#&+ d>TZ# |z& |<q s<] . eTD, sw b<s\T Cq,
mC b\d y+H s<T#j\, CrjT sV<sqT, s<] dTydD |uT $eT]+#sT. +<q #dTq |&jTdtjT sw n<\T s$#+<\T e{&T H&T
sV<sT> es& |d+V]+#Ty\, qyk\T, eTV\qT neT+> bdT\T nsdT #XsT. +<q sw+ Hu <ec |s+ eT<+c|\ dqT
$<d+d\ T, <y\j\ <>sZ @sT #dq eT<+ c|\qT seT+ |z& d+|T+ s|q 40 eT+~ eTV\T eT+psT #XsT. |uT d+eT Vd, bsX\\T
=\+#\, eT<+| dT|yT sTqT neT\T#j\, bZHsT. $T> d+|\T s|q 50 eT+~ bZHsT. e+ eTdyd s=s{ $< d+d\ }&>+ #dTHs
eT< V &+> |{+q eT+ eVsYqT ss|t nsdT #dq eTV\qT d+|PT| $&T<\ #XsT. |uT <TjT{sT. m\ eTT+<T q VMT\qT
# j \ & e +& # d +< q e{ & s T . ~. 24.07.2017 eTs eTV\ J$\ #\>+ #d eT] eT<+
se d+|T ue+> mjT+jTdt, |D |<\ d+|T +, nq+| s+ L&sT eT+&\ +<+ |z& c|\ dqT\T , qq mC b\d neT\T#d
m|t{jTT HjT\T +& |usY, H>sC, MsHs|, < s+ 100 eT+~ eTV\ mjT+jTdt |d T qT+& |>{ |P eTV\T \ mT= s> |]d
|&jTdtjT $jYT, eT, s$, m_ q>sY uw ~sT\T |<sq> jT\T<] VosT s\jT+ #sT <s H{ydTHs <sqT<+ e{&sT.
bZ eT d+|Tuy *bsT. se #|{+. se nXeT n< seT+ |z& $T{ duT \T dTC,
~. 10.07.2017 eV+#> n< / s<] CH +;, dTydD sw d V jT dTo\eT, l<$\ bT, |&jTdtjT n< / s<sT\T
nq+|s+ <+ |>o\ eTV d+|T+ s<] . eTD e{&T +<|<XqT eT<bq udsY, XKsY, qswt, seTD, s$ ~TsT\T bZHsT.
(|z&) <s+ qq mC b\d es+> 300 +<|<X> esT qq mC b\d, CrjT ~. 20.07.2017
eT+~ eTV\ c eT+~sY qT+& |<sq #d sV <sq T sV <sT> es&+ yqT sjT HjT\ s , < &$H +<+ |z&,
&.sY.z. s\jT+ #sT= <s #ksT. se <e+<, L&sT eT+&\ +<+ q& CsT |&jTdtjT <s+ 200 eT+~ eTV\ sY.&.z.
sw |<q s<] jT+. \, sw dVjT s~ .eTD, eT<+ c|\T y*XjT+f eTV\ | |uT X~ |dT |<sq> jT\T<] qq mCb\d,
nq+|s+ n<, s<] CH+;, dTydD\ m+ +< nseTeT+~. >& eT+ e eT<+c|\T, u c|\T myj\ +<q #|{sT.
$T{ duT\T bZHsT. |uT \T eT<e e+ @sT b]dTH s <s qT<+ se dT>+<e T n< eV+#> |> o\ eTV
u c|\T <T ! d+|Ps eT<bH (w<) |z& HjT\T e{&sT. d+|T + (|z&) s<] . eTD e{&T n~s
neT\T #j\ d+<s+> &e+& #XsT. |D |<\ seT+ nq+s+ L&sT k+&T <>Zs q b HjT\ n+&<+ &\ jT<# > bdT | e+&
d+|T+ MsHs|, q&yd s<] +&|usY, eT<+ c|\qT |z& ss\ T < +d+ #jT &+ ]+~. eT<+ c|\qT q&|dTHs, M] |+qy]|,
mjT+jTdt H>sC, c, sjTT&T, m|{t j T T HjT&T +<q |C d+|\ HjT\T bZHsT. d+| \| neT dT\THsTT+, <sq eTT #dT H s B
seTT, |&jTdtjT $jYT ~sT\T ~. 27.07.2017 re+> es+#\ sY.&.z. |dT eTT+<T ]q
~. 17.07.2017q : nq+|s+ , >T+\T eT+&\ +<+ <s\ eTV\qT <+ e{&sT.
b$T& eT+&\ +<+ |> o\ eTV d+|T+ |z& < s+ 60eT+~ eTV\ m C s\j seT+ dTo\eT, eTV<eeT, dT>+<eT,
(|z&) < s+ eT<bH es+> qq m C eTT&+#&+ ]+~. se n<s\T |&jTdtjT HjT\T qswt, d|t, sTeTwt ~sT\T
b\d s<T #j \ jT+.&.z. s\jT+ qT+& 150 eT+~ CH+;. bZ e{&sT.
eTV\ |<sq> myT.sY.z. s\jT+ #sT se m|t{jTT HjT\T dTswt, ~. 23.007.2017q
+<H se #|{+. nq+s+ VosY se+HjTT\T, q, |D |<\ d+|T+ HjT\T s , q+~=sY <+ |z& `
$q|+ deT]+#&eTT ]+~. MsHs| , sjTT&T bZ e{&sT. nq+s+ m C d] |&jTdtjT <seTT eT<bH es+> |D
seT+ |<q s<] dTydD HdsYy] $q| deT]+#&+ ]+~. |sM<T \ >T+& |<s q #d V osT s\jT+ #sT
bT $T{ duT\T nXeT, y+\, |<, |D ~. 28.07.2017 100 eT+~ eTV\ <s se #|{sT.
|<\ d+|T + MsHs, z|& sY seTw, mjT+jTdt w nq+| s+ , D eT+&\ +<+ |z& se n< dTC eV+#>, |z&
~sT\T bZ <sqT<+ e{&sT. <seTT qq mC b\d s<T #d eT<+ c|\T, n< s\T $jTeT, |&j T dtjT HjT&T ~ e{&sT.
u c|\qT myj\ |sM<T\ >T+& |<sH #d seT+ #;, es\, \ ~sT\T bZHsT.
~. 18.07.2017q : myT.sY.m. |d T #sT e+<eT+~ eTV\ <s #XsT. ~. 29.07.2017q
>s ~q eT+&\ +<+ |z& <s+ seT+ X+\, CH+;, dTydD mjT+jTdt pb& T +> , eT+& \ +< + | z &
70 eT+~ eTV\ qq mC b\d s<T #j\ HjT\T H>sC, q, sjTT&T, XeT, \<$ n< seTT eT<bH es+> s&T | us sTT+ sdq
k+& qT+& |<s q #d V osY |d T #sT <s (sTysTT 13e |J)
se #|{sT. se es&T |< n<
eV+#> |< q s<] dTydD, n< s\T CH +;,
sw dVjT s<] . eTD e{&T deeTT
eTV\| sE sE V\T, n#s\T, V\T
|]bTHjT e eT<+ eTT ]qy, V\
|uT Vq, M{ s~+#&+ |uT\T |Ts+ >
$|\+ #+<jT s|+#sT.
eTV\| eT]+ us y| qq mC
b\deT+<T #s, B | eTV ||T{+#\
<s qT< + e{&sT. seT+ mjT+jTdt, |D
|<\ d+|T +, z|& sY d+| \ HjT\T eT d+|T uy
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 13

|C es .mdt.{. s<T #j\ ]q sw d<dT


+< |uT+ pH 1e B qT+& |yX|{q
.mdt.{. |P]> |CesyT q < eJ bsy T +T duT \T
e& XuH BXsse nHsT. dsT \ de\ |qT (.mdt.{)
| d| (jT+.jT) q&yd b sw $T{ ~.
16.7.2017q $jTy& +<sT \ e< >\ k+
deTs j<T\ ueH sV+q d<dT e> bZ
jTq |d+ +#sT. jTq q |d+ > =qkd +<
|uT+ +eTT+<T rdTq H s<T #s @ $<yTq
|*\T sTTe< keq |\qT +<T\ >T]#d
|< |< s=s yT\T #d+< < _q+> .mdt.{.
e+&u<HsT. eq n+<s .mdt.{. es+#\HsT.
b sw n~s |~ y. k+ese n<q
]q d<dT b sw sesZ duT\T |. |k< .mdt.{. s=s ssTTr\T *d q es\| ssT. d<d T n< eV+q y. k+ese >sT
e{&T <X+ n esZ\ |\qT |qT\ |]~ us\T ydTHs q |]XeT\T, q q ybs\T e{&T sT\ ssTTr\T *dTHeT #|Tq|{
rdT e#+<T .mdt.{. |yX|{sHsT. .mdt.{. yTT+ > < |< |< c|+> e, VQ C +|\ #sD .mdt.{. sD+> s T \T L& qwb | <HsT.
sD+> |\ yT\T sT>TT+< +<+ #|Tq u\ dyT .mdt.{. #sHsT. .mdt.{. sD+> |{ |s |qT\ us+ <X |\| e+< < |P]>
e\ yde + <HsT. ||+ #+ @ <X+ ksTT q |]XeT\T eT|& ]\ b~ >+&|& T T+<HsT. =\+#\ &e+&T #XsT. d<d T $$< \ qT+&
.mdt.{. |qT $~dT H s ~ |\qT <#Te&yT qHsT. eq n esZ\ |\T .mdt.{. s<T =s <$T+#\ 100 eT+~ VsjsT.

sT L\ n|\qT s<T #j\, n |+\ TuT V\qT V]dT |uT ~yd ~He+ s|&+ |<
<s y\ <Xy| sTj\qT V+#+&.
eekjT+ d+=u+ |&+~ eekjT s+>+| sT j\ b>+ s{
H{ >D+\T |s+ 70 X+ s T \T | + >, |s+> 1e sT pH 6 qT+& E 18,19 & es =qk>*.
n e <jT+ J$dTHsT. <X Vs =sqT 2e s{ : 31/8 qT+& 6/9 es Vsq qT+& |+.Cu,
r]q s T \, L d XeT |* + $T>\+ <T . KsT\T Ve# |<X MT<T> lq>sY es
|sT>TTHsTT. <jT+ se&+ <T . n|\T y{ e&\ T 3e s{ : <D sc\T 16/9 qT+& 23/9 es \+>D
|]bTHsTT. |{ us bsy T +T 50 |> y~\T (V<su<) qT+& m.|. $jTy&, nq+|s+ MT<T>
H sT sD> e. eekjT+ p<+> e]+~. $TH&T, s, s es
4e s{ : 2/10 qT+& 18/11 es #+bsH qT+& 53e ||+# ~yd ~He+ ~. 09.08.2017q b\es+
sT |+ yd eTT+<T &e+&T eqT |#s+ q&TdT+~. eT+&\+, +|* >eT+ d| (jT+.jT) q&yd,
|+ # s>H esT <s\T |&bTHsTT. d sU+& es n\ us sT`L* d+|T+ $T{\ <s+ n\
eT<T <s\ sjT+ b\T+&> 350 |+ e\+ 5e s{ : 29/10 qT+& 5/11 es |eT u+> qT+& us us sT`L* d+|T+ dVjT s<] |.
24 s\ |+\ d eT<T<s\T |{dTHsT. n~ ]k, Cs+&, ;VsY, #rdt|T& lydt n<q du ]+~.
L& =q& |uT+ qT+& VMT <T. |{ sT 6e s{ : 6/11 qT+& 10/11 es nk+ qT+& Xq duqT <+ d| (jT+.jT) q&yd
u+\ qT+& 16`17% $T+ sTD\T eT+psT #jT&+ sc\T n esT #d b>+ +T+~. eT]jTT sw HjT\T <sT\ dTswt eT{&T nH
n s +<, sT d+|\ HjT\T eT+~ neTsMsT\T eT s\qT <sud k~+q #{\qT
<T. n~ e& sT sTD\| <s|& e\d edT+~. M{| esTdT V\qT V]+f ydT ~ydT\| |uT\T
<Xu\T> <e\T =qk>TTHsTT. nsTTH sT\ bZ+{sT. j sc\T b>+ @sT #ksTT. n+{
mjT+jTdt bZ $jTe++ #j\ {e\ ]q |P] yk\ |PqT+THjT $eT]+#sT.
n|\T |] y{ rs V\ b\&e\dedT+ ~. n\ us sT L* d+|T+ n<\T
\\ d+K n |+\ |+&+# n b+\ +< sesZ+ ssTT++~. 150 d+|\ u>keT+ y{ dTq e{&T ~yd b+ K d+|<qT
V\ b\&+ $#ss+. q&TdTq sT jqT V+#+& $jTe++ #jT+&. s=s{ d+d\ n|C|T eTs| ~ydT\qT nH
{e\ eTVsw, eT< |<X , s, s |<X , 12 e |J sTysTT $<\T> n_e~ #XeT #|=qT |uT ~yd
Vsq, |+CT, \+>D, +< |<X , $TH&T s +>+ e+ #XsT. d+<s+> m& yVH\T n& d+_+ ~Hy\qT ]| |uT |< \qT |#s+ #dT +THjT
{| re n+sjT+ @s&+~. +<q se $eT]+#sT.
bsT u|&TTHsTT. eT<|<X ePV+# $<+> |>o\ eTV d+|T+ &$H s<] s+
es{ <s\T |&be&+ s+>+ +<q ~+~. < + n< s\T $jTeT, dTC es\ eT{&sT. \ e{&T ~yd b+ eTV\T nH u<\T c\T
b\\T deTd |]cs bT|&+& pH H\ 6e seT+ m|t{jTT HjT&T eTJ<$Tj, |&TTq |uT\T n~s VMT\T e&yT e\qT
Bq \T\T ]| sT>TsT jTTe sT\qT bq |&j T dtjT HjT&T ~, m|{t j T T HjT&T | sYku neT\T #jT &+ < $eT]+#sT. |uT y< X\ eT+<T\T
|Tq~. B +<q s|+ rdTq~. nH ~sT\T bZ e{&sT. d+~ eT+ HDyTq y< n+~+#\ $eT]+#sT.
d+|\T @{ MT< e pH 6 qT+& pH 18,19 05.08.2017q |> o\ jTTeq d+|T + &$H s<] >TsT>T+
s , = | * eT+& \ +< + |k<s& e{&T ]qT |sT>TTq ssdqT
es sc\ >T+& & j sT q&|+~. n|\T Z + #*+~ bsTT @C d \qT m y j T & + e\
s<T #j \, n |+\ {u T <s \ T y\ & |z&`|&jTdtjTT <s+ 100 eT+~ eTV\ =+&s &y >T 20% eq ns d dTq |&b sTTq Xs+
4000 eT+~ E 18,19q $jTe++> bsyT+T |sM<T\>T+& |<sq #d VosT |dT #sT < $eT]+#sT. ]qT\qT $< <s+ #d <>
eTT+< T < s ]+~. u > k eT d + | \T \ d +<H se #|{sT. se eDeT b{ +& e+&+ d+ |<T\ <s d\qT m
<Xy|+> $$< sc\ sT j\T q&b\ n< eV+#>, .eTD e{&T sjT\deT sTe ydTHs $eT]+#sT.
ssTT+#sTT. $\jT+&e+ #dT q |{+ #TsT> eT<+ c|\ eT] seT+ eT+E<sT >eT |+#sTTr,
qe+sT 20 qT+& &X+ sT bsy T +T #*\+ dqT\T eT+psT #d eTV\ J$\ #\> \>&+ >eT |+#sTTr >eT+ |\T bZ eTT+<T>
e&TTHs, eT+ =s MTsT <s+ q&H ~yd neTsMsT\ y\T n]+#sT.
deyX\T eTTdes sT\T & qeTH bsyT+T nsTD<jT HjT&T q&T|\ eTTs&,
sV+#uTHsT. < eTT+<T sT>TTq s T j\qT <=] |]d<T. =|* eT+&\+ >e, |.y.jT. &$H HjT\T #\ |k< s&, >sL{
n sc\ mjT+jTdt #TsT> bZH\, yTT+ #+#T>&+ $\$&> eT<+ msTbsTT+<, |< \HsjTD, >s+ uTse, +|* >eT XK s<]
seT+ $jTe++ #j\ \+<sT ]q T+u\T HXqyT s&Tq |&TTH |{+#TH ys dT+& dTus&, sCs&, <TsZs&, ydt |d&+{ lyds&
mjT+jTdt +< sesZ+ ssTT++~. sH sT. seT+ sDeT, dTC, es\ , m|{t j T T d+<X\T #sT. nsTD<jT sT\T n~yd neTsMsT\|
HjT&T eTJ<MTjT, |&jTdtjTT ~ bZHsT. ~ydT\ deTd\| ^\qT \|+#sT.
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 14

T{ H\T>T |\qT |&>=f {jT Jmd #+!


k es d\T & |T&<, yD esZ\ <X\qT eTq b\ esZ\T <s+> rdTe. H{ `|. |k<
|\+ qT+ ed nesTT. nsTT b]X$T <sT
uqc\ =\eq+ e+{$. n+{ k es d\T n>syTq sc d+ 19% e+~. n_e~ #+~q
H&T sEe X+ ]eq <dTbTHsTT. Jmd |T&< <X\ |qT s& d+V u>\ eekjT eT |]XeT\ jsjT dsT\ <s ssTT+# d+<s +
#+ p 1 qT+ neT\T #jTqTqT y& |uT+ eTT+< d_&\ dV d+eeds\ ydTHsTT. eTq <X+ eTT |uT\ #*+#*q | |qT\ us\qT L&
|{++~. H|<+ 26.4.2017q dH 30 y\ e+ y| + esL neT\T #dTq d_&\qT C&ksT. n+<T ss{ |qT, d |qT e+{ | |qT\
bsTT+T <{+~. n~ neT\T e# 2 ys\T L& mydTHsTT. eTsy| |qT edqT res+ #dTHsT. us\qT d+ #sD n+eT+> yd~ keq |!
+& eTT+< ] 13.7.2017q 32 y\ bsTT+T <{+~. + esL #dq |qT ed d]be&+ <+ |&T #sD | |qT\qT L& | u]+q|{,
|`100 d L& n< y>+ <dT bTq~. n~ Jmd #+ dTHsT. n$ dsT\T < de\ $j>+ sTT$T& e+&e. |,
25.7.2017 H{ 10 y\ bsTT+T <{ k es{ #] 1965`66 qT+ 1990`91 eT< 25 @ J&| || \qT | sE |\T =qT>\T #d |s |qT\qT eT
= Ks\ #]+~. Jmd eP| k es{ T H&T |qT\ X+ dTesT |~qs X+ qT+ 15 X+ es *jT+&H #*dT+{sT. | sT |{\T, & MT<
s+\T ydTHsTT. usY eT\ |HsTT. d<o |]+~. < \+ s $\Te J&| 2.8 sT |]+~. #*dT+{sT. | |qT\qT HsT> d+|q esZ\ qT+
eT<T|<sT\ dV $<o d+k> eT<T|<sT\T (m|t) ] 1991 qT+ |{ es >&q eTs b 16 |uT ed #ksTT. n<q| $\TeqT <#Tq <=+>\
eTT+u k es{ y| L &TTHsT. q esb+, X+ qT+ 17 X+ es |qT\ s& |]+~. J&| qT+ d]+# | |qT\L, <=+>\ u~T q |\ CT\T
<y\D+ >T <Z \ e+{ kqTL\ ys\ T k es =+ H\T>Tqs sT |]+~. dT\u+> bs\ ns+ e& =f |s |qT\L m+ =+ & e+T+~. D+
eP| e+&=#T. , n++f $T+ Jmd #+ Cwt <VsD sTT<+. >eT+ ysTT ms\ k>T u$T zd& <X\L, +&jL eT< |qT\ b+~ >\
+~. B { & b]X$T, yD esZ\ Jmd e+<qT+<+. eekjT+ | eTs <jT eqsT\T &\qT |]o*<+.
#+ m+ |< es+> e|j>|&TT+< nseTeT+~. >eT+ eqT+<+. k\u+ d+ sT\+<s |+ nyT], q&, jTs|t <X\ L&q zd& du
> b dssD ] $<H\T <X |\ nH (e] nqT+<+)qT |+&dTHsqT+<+. @&~ >eT sC\ J&| |qT y{ 35 X n+#\ y> |qT\
<Tw*\qT n+~+#sTT. ne mT. > qe+sT 8 sT\+<] < $\Te yTT >eT J&| nqT+<+. |+|<\ d+ Jmd #{ dTHeT+THsT. eT] n<
H{ |< H s<T @&~ p 1 qT+ neT\T eq d> Tq ms @{ |{ #=q ysTT | e]<q+ 1965 <X\ yTT+ |qT s& | |qT\ y{ 65 qT+
Jmd #+ eTs mT! eTTK+> edT de\ #+ (Jmd >eT+ |+&+<qT+<+. n~ >eT y]<jT+ 70 X+ eT< e+~. |s |qT\ y{ 30 qT+ 35 X+
#+) <X |\ MT< sjTT< jTT<+ e+{~. B yTT+ (>eT J&|) neT+~. | |f& T |+ k e]<H eT< e+~. ~ eTq <X+ \+<T\T> e+~. | |qT\T
H\T>T eTTK \\THsTT. 1) <X |\ qT+ |qT edqT u$TdT> >eT b\H eed ed\T #d+<qT+<eTT. eT&+ e+T e+&> |s |qT\T s +&T e+T\ #=|q
eT]+ res+ #jT &+. 2) & |T&<, yD esZ\ 1965 >eT J&| ysTT | e]<q+ > >eT |qT\ eHsTT. n+f nyT], _H, bH, s\ n|{ CT\T
eT] |qT $TqVsTT+|\T, ssTTr\T, u\ e| #s\qT yTT+ ysTT k\T neT+~. |{ 8 k\ <q+ ]+#& u~ X$T esZ\ qT+ e+T |qT\qT
*+#&+. 3) + esL m+ =+ $T*eq deK deq+. | |f& T <q+ m$T<e e+T dT> edq ~. ed #dTHsT. n<q| $\TeqT <#Tq <=+>\ qT+
sD (|& s d sY) $< +d+ #jT &+. 4) q |T&T\ n~ 12.5 X+ deq+. Bqs+ >eT J&| |qT\ s+&T e+T\ |qT\qT ed\T #dTHsT. eTq b\\T
nd V]+#&+! H\T>T \\qT Jmd #+ X+ 12.5 X+> e+~. |s+ >eT+ > 50 @ CT\T ]+q y qT+ e+T ]+#& |\
HsysTdT+~. n+<T >T+&T H\T>T |\qT |&>=f |]q |qT edqT <+. qT+ s+&T e+T\ |qT\qT =\>=&TTHsT. <+<
y e+{ #$T~. 1965 qT+ H{ es >eT+ ms |f&T duy ns+ #dTy* e+~.
yTTq yCbsTT, q eTHVH d+>, H&T y& dssT <T\T <T | <q+ ~>T& |]+<qT+<+. ysTT VA +& H, bH _\T\T {H |&T eTq+
Jmd #+ e&+ seT ksTT eT e+T b\qT ms\ <T y\ | |]+~. b <ec |s+ dy |qT\T #*d T H +. 1996 esL usrjTT\ dy |qT
bw+#sTT. #+ e&+ Ms+<] u>keT+ e+~. <T y\ k\ <q+ dT> ed\eT+~. \+ *jT<T. eT&T s\ de\ <s MT< <T X+ dy |qTqT
H\T>T \\ >] y{ u$ <Tw* \ >] \TdT+<+. |f&T <H k <T\T {qs k\ dT qT eTHVH |uT+ yTT<{k] |yX|{+~. n~ H{ yTT+
nsTT |qT\ edqT res+ #d \+ y eTT+<T |+#sqT+<+. n+f ~>T& (J&|) dTesT 19 X |qT s& 0.7 X+ e+&~. sy @ \+ de\
+ esL neT\Teq |qT\ eed k<sD \D\qT dT |]+~. C b <ec <T y\ k\ |s>*. d+K eT&T qT+ e+<\ |]+~. dsY#] *| H&T
d+|+> |k$+#* e+~. @&Tqs y\ k\ >eT dT ed\eT+~. d\+> dy |qT <T X+ qT+ 15 X (n+f 3 s T) |]+~.
1951`52 H{ J&| (d\ Crj) |qT\ > ju @ >eT J&| ysTT | qT+ <T y\ | yTT+ |qT s& 0.7 X+ qT+ 14 X |]+~.
y{ dTesT @&T X+ e+~. n~ 1960`61 H{ dTesT (500% e~) |]+~. >eT |qT s& ysTT k\ dy |qT 2016`17 2,55,000 s\ |]+~.
=$T~ X #]+~. 1965`66 n~ |~qs X qT+ @&Tqs y\ k\ (750% e~) |]+~. nsTTH |> B MT< ss\ ddT\T L& |]>sTT. | \+
#]+~. qq ] $<H\T |yX|{q (1991) n~ d]b< >eT b\H eed #TTq~. |{ 12% $<o ~>TeTT\| dyT dT++ <T sT eyT |]+~.
n~ 15 X+ <{ bsTT+~. 2016 n~ dTesT 17 X qT+ 19% |]q dT edqT 25% < 30% |+#\ |<, eT< s> |\T $j+# de\ MT< |qT e+<\
#]+~. 2016 |e] +< |uT+ $&T<\ #dq ] sT = |qT\ #{ >eT b\H eed d m s T |s>& + >eTHs+. @&~H (2015`16 2,11,000
ds ]bsT J&| DyT |qT\ X 23 |+#\ e+T+~? H&T y& |uT + q Jmd #+ L& +{<. s\ qT+ 2016`17 2,55,000 s\) dy
d++~. | |qTH |s |qTH #sD | yj*. |qT 21 X+ |]+~. <y\D+, u+ e& sT, sTe
|qT\ |+|<\ eX >] us b\ esZ\T nsTT s+&+{ eT< =+ & e+T+~. <>dT\T, u+, J&| e~ sT e>s\T @{ 5 qT+ 10 X+ eT<
|< + |s+ |#s e<e\ kjT+ <X |\ bs\T s e> <jT|sT\ qT+ ed\T #d <jT |qT |sT>TTHsTT. , |\ >S&>=f dy |qT 21 X+
u~dTHsTT. d+|q |T&< <X\ L&q zd& (.{.) | $T*q | |qT\T |<q+> |T&< |]+~. sV n~ y]_e~ |s>$TdTq |qT\
L$T du sC\ d>T J&| ` |qT\ w 100:34 > ,yD esZ\ qT+ ed\T #j*qy. esY nsXd+ s& L& b\ esZ\ d+| e&+ <T. + nH
e+~. n+f J&| |qT\ y{ 34 X+> e+~. Xsy > + > |s+ e\+ XeT X <s eyT de+ $\Te sT =\>=f eed |qT\ #+> Jmd #sT.
e~ #+<TTq <X d>Tq w 100:21> (J&| dw+ #&TT+~. n+<T u>+ Ju \ s|+ X$T 1965 qT+ 1991 eT< s $\Te us<X J&|
|qT\T 21 X+) e+~. us <X+ e\+ 16`17 esZ\ #sTT+~. eTs u>+ u\ s|+ |T&< 2.8 s T |]+~. 1991 qT+ 2014 eT< 4.5 s T |]+~.
X+ eT< eyT e+<. eT<s>, $<e+T\T esZ \ # s T T +~. (BH esY n< q | $\Te < dTesT ju @ eTq J&| yTT+ 12.6 sT |]+~.
|#s ueT\ >TsTHsT. <=+*+#& XeT |\ + n |\Tk&T ) u\H b]X$T 1965 eTq J&| |qT\ s& 10.4 X+ e+&~. 2014
eTq bsT>T <Xq +><X J&| |qT\ y{ |T&< esZ+bT yD, ybs, ukeT (>+&T H{ n~ dTesT 17 X #]+~. ju @ \+
m$T~qs X+ e+~. bkH |H+&Tqs X+ e+~. s+T s|+) esZ\T |+|D #dT+{sTT. X$T esZ J&| |qT X+ 17 |]+~. H{ X+ MT< H{ X+
u{H |~qs X+ e+~. l\+ |<=+&Tqs X+ #]q Ju\ qT+ |uT\T ( e> <jT|qT 1.6 sT |]+~. |sT>T<\qT ju @ 12.6 sT
e+~. sH ~ 6 X+ +&Hwj 12 X+ d]j | ) k<sD+> |s |qT ed\T #ksTT. |T&<, |]q J&| nqsTT+#T+f dTesT 20 sT |qT s&
10.7% $TjTHsY (s) 4.9% $jT+ 14 X+ yD esZ\T ~q+> ssT |qT, | >sTTH, d |]+~. 1965 | e+< sbjT\ J&| MT< |~ sbjT\
#=|q eHsTT. + kB ns_j 5.3% eTH 2% |qT, d+|< |qT, | |qT e+{ | |qTqT |u T\ q\u |d \ |qT s& e+~. n~ H&T 17 sbjT\ |+#sT.
*_j 2.7% KsY 2.2% sH 6% eyT e+&+ #*ksTT. ({{, _s, n+u, <\T L& Vs+, s H{ | e+< sbjT\ J&| H&T 12.6 sT |] 1260
>eTHs+. $eTjT edT $j>+ d+<s + > u] +# |s |qT\T # sbjT\ J&| |]+~. y &{ 10.4 X+ |qT
m+ >=|> #TTq d+>|PsY L& 14 XyT e XyT e+{sTT.) n+<Te\, | |qT\T |<q+> ed ] e+f dTesT H&T 131 sbjT\ |qT s&
e+~. d b\q >\ | d+ 15.8% e+~. n<q| $\Te qT+ >, |s |qT\T |<q+> XeT sy*. 17 X |qT\ w |]+~. B e\ 1260
sbjT\ 17 X+ #=|q yTT+ 214 sbjT\ |qT
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 15
s& #]+~. > ju @ | e+< sbjT\ J&| eTTqT+<T es\ u$++<qT+<+. < d++> 33 esL neT\T s> bsTTH eT+ yT $TqVsTT+|\qT
1260 sbjT\ #] | 10 sbjT\ 40 |d \ kq+ X+ z{+> e+~. eTs 42 X+ z{+>qT sc\ qT+ b+< ydT\TuT (B s uw |qT m>y\+{sT)qT
214 sbjT\ |qT #]+~. n~ d]b< @&~ 23 d]+#T>* 75 X+ z{+> #] H>TZT+~. @ b es esZ\T $j+#TH$. qT+ < M\T+&<T.
X |+#\q ePV+ J&| #+ #sT. n+f |{ +<+ n~s+ eH d<sT b b* sw |uT\ |> + esL |qT\ |]~ s es esZ\qT n<q+>
|]q 214 sbjT\ <T\T 290 s\ ed \ n+& e+T+~. + < d+s | \ #+~q sw |uT \ Jmd # |]~ dT+~. y| ed #d |f
s+#THsT. eTs <s jTs|t <X\ dsdq #s n+& L& e+T+~. eTs 42 X+ b+<&+ +< w+ e<sT\T>, eTsy| | +H M\T |qT #*+ |<sT\T>
$<+> n+#\+#\T> J&| |qT\qT 35 X |+|<\ <T. n+{ >< T . +< w+ b Jmd ~>TeksTT es, ybs esZ\T essTT. n+<Td+
#d ePV+ e+~. n+<T s+q< Jmd #+! M{qT |<]+# n~s+ L& #+ s+#sT. H&T +|PsT, y{ |ssT, H\ eT&T ksT ]sYqT <K\T
s+&e \+ e<+. & b]X$T esZ\L, d;, ]`370\ <s |] sw |uT\qT nds #jT&+ e>s ejT |jk\qT u]+#* edT+~. =
yD esZ\L eT] ssTTr\qT *+# \+ #dq |sTdT+&+, L\&\T *dqy. s| Jmd n&+ |T=, |]dT\T esZ\ eTqT>& eTT|> essTT.
#$T~. 2008 ] d+u+ qT+ >&q =$T< & @@ ybs, es\| n~ |qT\ $~+| <s sw qT+ @{ 20 \\ #eTD (sesT) * e+&
ssT esZ\ dTesT 35 \\ sbjT\ |qT |uT\| e +>BdT=e# +<+ >T ePV \T | <TD<sT& Jmd |qT\ #*+| #+ ek&T.
ssTTr\qT eTq |uT\T *+#sTT. eT]= \\ |H M\T+~. >q #+ <s sw |uT\qT +<+ q 20 \\ u+ n |s=q<T. sesT n |s=q&+
u+ bsT u\qT e| #XsTT. eTs 10 \\ u+ \TueT\T> esTH M\Tq~. >eTHs+. B |s+ d> Tq H\ \ 67 y\ sesT
u\ e| be\T <T|THsTT. y] bsT u\ e|\ sc\ |qT\ n~s+ e+f, j sc\ |C #] |qT #*+ #*+<. sE d> Tq <Tqs y\ sesT
s u++> eed d+u+ |&TT+~. |*+> => e<e\ sD ydT\TuT neX\T+{sTT. \+>D $T+# L&<T . q eT+<T\ <TD+ L& sE <Tqs
& b]X$T, yD esZ\ sT # e& eT<T| |f |uT+ MT< \+>D <sT \\ eT+~ ;& ] esZ+ y\ |> sesT e+T+~. |> H&T <Tqs y\ sbjT\
neX+ u++> eed e+&+& bT+~. n+<T |< |qT ssTTr\ d+ e<$T+# neX\T+{sTT. |C e& $\Te s+& s <y\D+ e\ ~>C] 8 < 9 y\
H s<T <s |\T <#Tq \\ sbjT\ d+|<q T \e+ j sw |uT\T k b~, s neds\ sbjT\ < e+T+~. <y\D+ |s+ s
b<T| s|+ u++> eed #]+~. nsTT n~ k] |qT\ Z+| < s<T |PqTy* se#T. sesTqT 25 \\ T> 30 \\ T> m|{| &T Jmd
10 \\ bsT u\ e| d]bT+~. , s+s |&T +<+ MT< H{ j sw |uT \T | +#T>\e. es<T. eq ]w <TD+ sE 20 \\ y]
s=fwH >*q ds d+|< |uT ~ deTLs*. n~ osT, Ve# |<X , d +, s K+& sc\ |\ sesT #s bsTTH sqTq =~ d+es\ #sT T+~.
|qT\ <sH k<eTeT+~. eed |qT\ s& >=+>, s>TZ\T, VsT eds edTe\T. sc\ |qT\ \s es &T qT { es \T < |+|D< sT\ qT+,
<+q< Jmd #+. sj~s+ e+f j sw |uT\T y{ MT< |qT =qT>\T #d dsT\ sesT \qT < |f M\T+&<T.
s +& \ + u>+> eTs neds+ L& b\\ ssTTr*e>\e. <X+ ` |qT\ $<q+ <s & ] eed n~ k<+ <T. { es\T L&
e+~. & |T&< yD esZ\ qT+ H&T H&T edTe osTHH , s HH XT |qT s T #sT T+~. KyTq & \T +& dsT*esT. q VA
ed\eTq |qT\qT eT]+ Z+#*. n~ C |{ j sc\ u>[, ow, s u, ke |]d T \ , sks+T, <TD\T e>s\ eT+> |qT\ |]~
# +Z ~. byT y~ |s+ X+ n|< d+|q d++<+ +& +& =T&T |< |qT\ sjT s | < T . 20 \ \ y] ses T e T <
usrjTT\ d+|< 58 X+ eT+~ usrjTT\ d+|< deq+. $<q$T~. |&s*C HXq+ #jT&eT+f j sc\ s|+#Te& L& +|PsT, &{+>, ]sY <K\T
|s+ d+|q|sT \ qT+ | |qT\qT eT]+ |+#*. sTy |uT\ e# qw+ |<> be#T. , $_q |jT\qT eTTqT+<T q es esZ\T #|{* edT+~.
|&Tq =~ u>+ | |qT\qT L& #<+>H CT\T, eT\T, \T, >\ T, d+dT\ L&q <X |\T n sD\ e\ q es, ybs, b]X$T eed\T
s<T #jT pdTq ~. \ L& Jmd #+ Hsy s T dT +~. e+ eT nd\qT sT. sw ksTT &e+& MT< eT+> n+]ksTT. M{ kH & |T&< esZ\T
Jmd #{ >\ eT& \+ e<+. 1950 sw ksTT |C e<e\ sDeX\qT sT. ~ $TksTT. \s <TD\ kH yesT\T u #ksTT.
H{ us sC+> |H<T\ deK y<+ (|&s*+) L& bdC nqTL\ |]d *dT+~. n|&T b{ sD+> dsT\ |jT >T eed
{. n+<T u>+> sw |uT\ |qT\ ed H\Ze \+ e<eTT. qq |C+ $|e <]rdT+~. #sD dsT\T, de\ <s\T |] |\ Jeq
n~s\qT sC+>+ nqTeT++~. n+<T <+q <X CrjT sTy esZ, < sTy esZ XT eed us+> esTT+~.
n~sD+ L& sC+>+ e+~. <X+ ` $_q |qT\ ys T < + e+T+< us <X+ $$< $|e d+d\ T u$dTq = |qT\ #{ >\ H\T>T s\ \\qT |q
$<q+ nH~ sC+><yTq<. ~ |qT\ e]+#~ $wjT+ *d+<. <X d++<+ nyT], jTs|t $e]+#&yTq~. +<T H\Ze~ $<+dsyTq <Tw*\qT
<T. <X+ ` $_q uw\T ` $_q d+dT\T ` $_q e+{ |T& <X\ d+ >T |T&H n+sZ XT dT+~. q |]XeT\T, es, ybs\| ]> |qT <&
eT\T ` $_ q C T \T nH $< q+ + es L ysT<+ e+T+~. n~ |T& jTT ks jTeTyT. {~ eT+~ JeHb~ |Ts+> <rdT+~. \~ q
sC+><yTq<. |&T yTT<{k] <X+ ` jTeT+ |s+ eTq <X+ q es, b]X$T esZ\qT |]XeT\ eTdy <] rdT+~. <X+ {~ eT+~
|qT\ $<q+ nH qq n+X+ sC+><+> e]+~. bq |T H \ + & |T&< esZ e+T+~. + nd+|T{ ]\T s&Tq |&sT. \s es+ L&
qT+ sc \ | | | s b \ d + | \ k s TT esL y] + ydT\TuT e+~. n$ L& ke n+]dT+~. |*+> |#d ]\T, <>T\ Ju\T
~>CsTT+~. s n s+>\qT ] s+>yT XddT+~. ] #+ ~>Te bs\ + esL yTs eTqT>& >T Z sTT. n< <ec <>T\ qT+& ed #d <jT+
n+{ ] sj ~s\qT sTTq s ds~s\T k+# >*>sTT. C n+<T # u> (\s es \T, |qT L& >TZT+~. eTsy| edT de\ $eTjT+ L&
+< <K\T |&sTT. +< |uT+ eT]+ s+X {s |]XeT\T) |qT sV+> (Js {) $TqVsTT+#* >TZT+~. $eTjT+ <s \_+# |uT\ |qT\ s&
+B X> esTT+~. ~ u$wT bdC e+~. H{ |uT\T & |T&T\ MT< |qT\T Zd , >TZT+~. eTTK+> $d, $H< edT de\ $eTjT+ u>
<]rd+<T nqTL\ |]d *dT+~. q |T&T\T, es \ MT< |qT\qT |+#T bTHsTT. >TZT+~. n$ @ yTs Z n< <ec |qT\ s&
Jmd #+ |s+ H\T>T s\ |qT XT\ eZsD dV HjT d\ |s+ #*+#qs |qT #*+| \
]+~. yTT+ 1211 s\ edT de\qT j XT\ +< L& >TZT+~. n|&T |uT\T eT] sb\ =
qT+ | +#TH |jT \T esZ\T #d e#sTT. <s |qT\ >Ts, + $T*bsTTq <>esZ+ eT] |qT\
eZ] + |qT\ X\qT ss TT++~. M{ esT\T, #sT \ n$ yTs es{ \&T e#sTT. |&T y|
sj~s\T >\ Jmd qT #+ s++~. qse d+u yj* edT+~. bs de+ z re nX+
& ] eed n&T>T|&+ eTsy| k+
sC+> desD <s eq #+ n+{ >T] |<T. n~ nys+> |C||Tq <]rdT+~.
|]Cq+ eed |qT ed eed (Jmd) |y +#&+
sD+ e+~. Jmd sD #+ n+ s+X < +& jT++#+<T |\ eT< \, eT
e\ \s es\T, q |]XeT\ eTT| |<T.
yTq~. n+<T +< ] eT+ dV 29 sc\ ] b+rjT $<c\ V+< X\T s#>=&TTHsTT.
<T \+ @ ke eedHH 1) 2)
eT+T\T duT\T> e+{sT. 29 sc\ *d 66 X+ |+|D 3) ds|s 4) $j>+ nqT H\T>T <X\ L&q eTTqT+<T eT]+ s+X s|+ <] +#*q sC y<
z{+> y{ e+T+~. +< ] eT+ 33 X+ ] #+ e+T+~. | sbsTT < &\sT H\T>T eTT< y d $< + > bs d e C V +< X \ T
z{+> y{ e+T+~. 75 X+ z{+> \_d |qT <X\ #eTD neT+~. + esL H\T>T <X\q r]~<TTHsTT. sqTq \+ nys+> f~ bdC
XT\ esT\ neX+ e+T+~. \+>D <sT \\ $$< sb\ $$< |s |qT ed |jT e+~. |&T <] rdT+ ~. H{ <X+ ` |qT\ eed bddT <]
eT+~ ;& ]\THsT. ;&\| 28 X+ |qT Z+| |< q+> eT&e <X qT+ H\Ze <X dsT \T < de\T eTT+<&T>T. ~ eTTqT+<T <X+ eT+ `
y sw |uT+ Jmd <s |jT+#\qTq< #T\T es # |qT ed |jT +BeTeT+~. uw ` C ` <e&T ` d+d ` b `
}V+#T+<+. +<+ b nqT+< sc\ |uT \qT C , |+|D\ <>Zs #d |qT ed > ds| s =\< |u e+{ nH eTT+<&T>T\ =* n&T>T.
L& \+>D |uT + |++< L& ePV+#T+<+. kq+ #d |qT ed > n+eT+> | #*+#*. e # b \+f Jmd # + b d + ~X
( s +& V>H nqT=+&. nsTTH y<q d+ ePV<+) q es eed MT< us+ |&< T . nsTTH n$ HXq+ e& eT\eT\T| d+|Tq! B| k+# bs+ L& e\+
n sc\T @yTH 66 X+ z{+> \_dT+~. 75 sD\THsTT. |qT\ es \ k<q |]$T+ <T. n~ #sD
X+ z{+> s+& esT s>< T . ~ m+{ Vkd<yT q > |qT\ eed |s+ |uT |qT ed #d bd+| bsT. $X\ <w Jmd| $$< u~ esZ\
|CkeTy nseTeT+~. 29 sc\T @yTH |P |f esZ\ & ssT esZ\T, b]X$T esZ\T L& |\ dMT]+#*q u< |> o\, |CkeT, yeT|,
|\qT d+ <| sD s|eT~. e+&$. |&T ed #d |f sTe u< \T ~>Te ksTT , $|e X \ | e+~. |{ ybs, es , q b]X$T
y +< |uTyT |&T 5 X+ XT eq +BeTesTT. y] sVD us+ |sT>TT+~. |qT esZ\T kdTq j< +<q\ \|s#* e+~.
edT, de\| |qTqT 12 < 18 < 28 X+ XT $TqVsTT+|\T e+& rs*q dV HjT d\T + <X <eT sy\qT #|&eT +#T<+.
T*fH ` 4 q&yd 16

d.|.. (jT+.jT) q&yd +< $T{ duT&T, \+>D @Cq s<]


eT<T neT nsdTqT K+&+#+&
eT<T | |{q b s<V+, s dT\qT m yj*
d| (jT+.jT) q&y d +< $T{ duT &T, <=+>dT |{sT. n+ +& {& #+ +{ b
\+>D sw $T{ yT+sY, @C \ q s<] #{, s<V+ Hs Bs\+ usTT\T s+&
nC < H eT<T y<+ $T+ jT #j\ ybsT.
y[edT+&> eT<TqT n dVjT\T> eq V] Vs+ |sT ~ydT\ b&T ueTT\qT
> ss\ T |k<, X+se\qT ~. 25.07.2017q |uT + >T+Ee& esd eT<T HjT +
s >+. 9`30 \ bdT\T n<T| rdT sV d q&yd b <s+ b&T ueTT\ sD =s
b+ s*+#T=bjsT. nsdT\qT esd ~yd\ V\ =s +<q\T res+ #jT&+
eT<T bD |e<+ eq+<Tq y+H sT |uT ++|> e]+~. \+>D sw+ @s&
VsT |s\ \+>D sw eT+{ q&yd eTT+<T qT esZyT H esZeT |{+q .d.sY.
XDT\T |< mTq +<q #XsTT. |C+<q |* +> eTTKeT+ nj qT n_e~ ++ n+
eT<TqT 26e B s sT VsT|ssT. nsTT $sT#T|&TTH&T. n+<T u>yT eT<T nsdT.
\+>D |uT+, bdT &bsTyT+T L&\T eT<T ~sT\ neT nsdT\qT d| (jT+.jT)
eT<T| 20 dT\T HsTT+#sT. |> jTT<\T *Z q&yd +<|<X sw $T{ re+> K+&dTq~.
eH& |&T dT |{sT. |\+ #dT+&>H eT<T| |{q b, s<V+ dT\qT s<T #j\
sjTT<T\T> eq eT<TqT nsdT #dq bdT\T eT &e+& #dTH+.
e< eq jTT<, {\qT |{ eT<T e< <=]qT> y. k+ese, sw n~s |~
eT+<ksY sT\| \T\ d| (jT+.jT) q&yd, +.|. sw $T{

es+> z eTT+<T <s |uT qq mC $<H es+> |.z.& s ` <s


+>s&>&+ : |+\ TuT <s, s+> nq+| s+ : |uT qq m C $<H, Hwq ,
sTD\ e| d+ eT<|<X eT+<ksY dyT #dTq d{ V y\qT &H{| #jT &, ;sYqT V &+> |{ +
sT\| bX$+> \T\T s|& K+&d, <X+ ;#Y\ neTTH+<T q 470 J.z es+>
k>TTq s+> <e\ eT<T>qT .6`7`17q |z& nq+|s+ $T{ <s+ .10`7`17q
+>s&> &+ z s\jT+ eTT+<T @...m+.mdt nq+|s+ |sM<T\ u s rd k z |dt
$T{ <s+ <s ]+~. <s bZq eTT+<T |<mTq <s sV+#sT. 2 >+ bT kq
@...m+.mdt sh b< \T <s T \ dTs wt e{&T <s sh |< q s<] m+.\ bZ |d+ +#sT.
eT+<ksY sT>TsT sT\qT * #+|& K+&+#sT. |uT+ sC+> es+>, # d] _q+>
|Tq s <X+ 130 d+|\ sT d+|TsD eeV]dT+<, eTV\| V+d sDeTeTq eT<
deTqjT $T{ @s& <e q&T|+< #bsT. bVk+< \ $eT]+#sT. eT<+ <s edTq $jTy& eT& d<dT |.z.& sh n<s\T >+> uy
B sT\T, L\T |<mTq bZH\ |\T|#sT. keTT |uT\T q&|&+ d>TZ#, eT<+ eTsD\ dTVd, HjT\T y+\, Xse T, |<e bZ
+ <s s<] |.lydt, .m|t.{.jTT |uT Vq |{+#sT. s<] eTD, |d+ +#sT. eTV\ d+|T ue+> z.|.&.sY HjT\T
n<\T .$.seTD, |.z.& qsY n<s\T &.CH_, q>s s<] dTVd seTw, @...m+.mdt HjT\T w, sjTT&T, |D |<\
$.us, |.y. m HjT\T .bTs & ~sT \T bZ |d++#sT. s |C d+|q @...m+.mdt qT+& d+|T+ HjT\T MsHs| ~sT\T bZHsT.
|d++#sT. <s eTT+<T $eT ueH qT+& z H>sE, sjTT&T, w, |D |<\ d+|T + qT+& MsHs| , bsr|s+ : sh |uT qq mC b\d
z|&sY qT+& seTw, m|t{jTT qT+& seTT eT]jTT esd Vy\qT &H{| #d eT<+ <TD\
|dt es s rksT.
d.|. (m+.m) q&y d HjT\T +& |u sY bZ nqTeTT\T e& esd |.z.& $jTq>s+
bsr|s+ : eT< |<X eT+<ksY s +>+|
eT< T |{ + #sT. |z& HjTs yT& eT]jTeT, |~esZ+ bsr|s+ z yTyTTs+&+ deT]+#sT.
\T\ s s +> &e+& k<q <X+ 130 d+d\ T nX&eT, XeT\, es\eT, k$ ~sT \T se
*d n\ us sT d+|TsD deTqjT $T{ { |~es+Z n< , s<sT \T yT& }\+ bs,
HjT+ eV+#sT. |.seTD\ bT sesZduT\T eT]jTT nsTD<jT
@s]#sTT. $T{ sT\ sTD\qT, eekjT ]\ ` p 16q b$T& 150 eT+~, 17q >s~ H
sTD\qT s<T # j *, k$TH<H MTwH db sT\ |s + sh sesZ duTs\T mdt.jT\ ~sT\THsT.
70 eT+~ eT+&\ osT |dT\ eTT+<T |.z.& sh |z& $&T<\ #dq s| 3y\ |\T eTT~+
eekjT |+\+{ |T&T\T 50 X+ *| eT< T <s+ eTV\T eT<+ b\d s<T #j\, u\T |+|D #ksT.
<s |{ + #*. eekjT+ |f H`|{ <s \ T +Z #*, c|\qT myd , y{ sV\qT nsdT #j \ &e+& $jTy& : qq eT<+ b\d esd
eT< T <s \ +f e =q{ w~+#\H &e+& #d <s\T sV+#sT. <s se |z& $jTy& eT<+ es bs s#sD $T{
<X y| s+> $eTT j (cH eTT j) sh HjTs\T eTD, n<s\T CH;, s<] <s+ |\T se\T ]>sTT. pH 29q H
k+, p 18, 19 B\ & +sY eT+sY e< d+sY eT&> |<mTq <s sV+#sT. |>o\
kH <s sV++~. seT+ n\ us eTV d+|T+ sh n<s\T sY.>+>uy <sqT
sT`L d+|T+ (@...m+.mdt) u>k$T> e+~. <+ |d++#sT. uy|s+ ~s yd b+\
s+>+ & kdTq +<q eT<T *jTCd, u+Bc|\qT myj\ <s #XsT. p 4e Bq
s +> &e+&q T y+H |]w]+#\ |uT &e+& eT<+ e< |<sq #dTq eTV d+|\ HjTsqT
#d .19`7`17q @...m+.mdt $jTq>s+ bdT\T nsdT #d ysT ysT dwH\ s+~+#sT.
|~es+Z bsr|s+ z $q|+ n+<Cd + ~. nsdT\ |.y.& sh n<s\T >+> uy, q>s
|~esZ+ n<, s<sT\T $.w, |.eT*, n<, s<sT\T |.|<, .<TsZ ~sT\T nsdT njsT.
dV jT s<] _.seTT, b< \T C.d+V#\+, <s, s\ |.z.& qT+& dTC, \, C
X~] C.eTT\T ~sT\THsT. nq+q|s+ ~sT\T bZHsT.
Published by Y. Sambasiva Rao, Publisher, Printer and owner from H.No. 53-4-40/1, Ramanarsaaiah Bhavan, Kristurajapuram, VIJAYAWADA - 8, and Printed at Chaitanya Printers, Vijayawada - 2
Editor : Y. Sambasiva Rao, Phone : 9440019965, e-mail : cpimlndap14@gmail.com. cc web : www.cpimlnd.org