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Problem # 9.

2 An AISI 1045 steel built of d0=50 mm and h0= 50mm is cold- upset to a height of
h1= 10mm on a hydraulic press operating at v= 80 mm/s. The lubricant is mineral oil with EP
additive. Compute the press force and energy expenditure .

The flow stress components (k,n) and friction coefficient are material dependent and can be
obtained from table.

From table 8-2, for AISI 1045 Steel,

K= 950 MPa

n=0.12

from table 8-4, = 0.1 -0.2

For press force, we can directly use formula to calculate. However, the energy expenditure is the
area under the graph (forging force, F vs h) so, we need to calculate force at multiple height and
then plot the graph and calculate energy.

do= 50mm

ho= 50 mm

v= 80 m/s (constant speed)

0 2 502 50
Step 1: = 0 = = 98174.77 98175 3
4 4

98175 3
Step 2: 1 = = 10
= 9817.5 2 [Lets calculate the failure height to calculate
1
force]

41
1 = = 111.8mm

Step 3:
0 1 50 10
= = = 0.8
0 50
Step 4:
0 50
= ln = ln = 1.609
1 10
Step 5:
80
= = = 8.00
10
Step 6:
= = 950 (1.609)0.12 = 1006 /2

Step 7: If no friction, = = 1006 /2



For consideration of friction, we need to us Fig 9-6. We have to use value to find .

1 111.8
= = 11.18
1 10
So, from figure 9-6, =1.5 [for =0.1]
So, = = 1006 1.4 = 1408.4 /2 [1810 for =0.2]

Step 8:

= 1 = 1810 9817.5 = 17769675 ( = 0.2)


1408.4 9817.5 13826967 ( = 0.1)

Example # 9.3: For the same dimensions & material in example 9-2, re-compute the press force
if the material is hot-upset at 1000 without a lubricant.

-The steps from 1 to 5 are same. We need to use different equation in Step 6.

To calculate for hot working, T= 1000

Step 6:
157.24
= = 120 (8.00)0.13 = = 157.24 MPa [MPa= (N/2 ) 106 ]
2

[ C & m values can be founded from Table 8-2, C=120 MPa & m=0.13]

1 111.8
= = 11.18
1 10
Without lubrication, = , =3.0

So, = = 157.24 3.0 = 471.72 /2

Step 8:

= 1 = 471.72 9817.5 = 4631111.1 4631

Problem# A cylindrical workpiece is subjected to a cold upset forging operation. The starting
piece is 75mm in height and 50mm in diameter. It is reduced in the operation to a height of
36mm. The work material has a flow curve defined by K=350 MPa and n=0.17. Assume a
coefficient of friction of 0.1. Determine the force as the process begins at intermediate height of
62mm, 49mm and at the final height of 36mm.

0 2 502 75
Solution: Step 1: Volume of .., = 0 = = 147262.15 3
4 4

At the moment is made by upper die, h=75mm & Force, Pa=0

If we want to calculate force at the start of yielding, we can either assume the (say 0.002)
or may be we can assume height where yielding start.

Assuming = 0.002 [yielding strain]

= = 350 (0.002)0.17 = 121.686

Assuming that yield start at 74.9 mm,

0 75
= ln = ln = 0.001
1 74.9

, = = 350 (0.001)0.17 = 108.16 /2

147262.15 3
Step 2: 1 = = = 1966.11 2 [considering 1 = 74.9]
1 74.9

= =50.03

Step 4: (already calculated)


0 75
= ln = ln = 0.001
1 74.9

Step 6: (already calculated)

= 108.16 /2

Step 7:

1 50.03
= = 0.66
1 74.9

So, from figure 9-6, =1 [for =0.1]

So, = = 108.16 /2

Step 8:

, = 1 = 108.16 1966.11 = 212

At the intermediate height of 62 mm

Step 1:

= 147262.15 3

Step 2:

147262.15 3
1 = = = 2375.19 2 [considering 1 = 74.9]
1 62

41
1 = = 54.99 55

Step 4:
0 75
= ln = ln = 0.1903
1 62

Step 6:
= = 350 (0.1903)0.17 = 263.98 264

Step 7:

1 55
= = 0.887 0.89
1 62

So, from figure 9-6, =1 [for =0.1]

So, = = = 264 /2

Step 8:

, = 1 = 264 2365.19 = 624410.16 = 624

Similarly find for h=49mm & 36mm.

Problem 9-10# A small connecting rod is forged of AISI 1020 Steel at 12000 C. Calculate
the press force on a mechanical press which travels at 250 mm/s when the die contacts the
workpiece. The volume of the connecting rod is calculated as 28680 3 and 20% of the
starting material is expected to go into flash. In the finishing die, the expected area is
projected as 3500 2 exclusive of the area of flash land. The flash land width is 7.6mm
all around the 300mm circumference adding 300*7.6=2280 2 to the projected area.
Thus total area=3500+2280=5780 2 .

Solution:
28680 3
Step 2: = = 0.85780 2=6.2 mm [20% flash]

250 /
Step 5: = = = 40 1
6.2

Step 6: = = 50 400.17 = 93.6 /2

[from table 8-2 for AISI 1020 Steel at 12000 C C=50, m=0.17]
Step 7: From table 9-2, for complete forging with flash, = 8

Step 8: Forging force, = =93.6 8 5780 = 4328

[here we considered both flash, so didnt consider 20%]