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2 An AISI 1045 steel built of d0=50 mm and h0= 50mm is cold- upset to a height of

h1= 10mm on a hydraulic press operating at v= 80 mm/s. The lubricant is mineral oil with EP

additive. Compute the press force and energy expenditure .

The flow stress components (k,n) and friction coefficient are material dependent and can be

obtained from table.

K= 950 MPa

n=0.12

For press force, we can directly use formula to calculate. However, the energy expenditure is the

area under the graph (forging force, F vs h) so, we need to calculate force at multiple height and

then plot the graph and calculate energy.

do= 50mm

ho= 50 mm

0 2 502 50

Step 1: = 0 = = 98174.77 98175 3

4 4

98175 3

Step 2: 1 = = 10

= 9817.5 2 [Lets calculate the failure height to calculate

1

force]

41

1 = = 111.8mm

Step 3:

0 1 50 10

= = = 0.8

0 50

Step 4:

0 50

= ln = ln = 1.609

1 10

Step 5:

80

= = = 8.00

10

Step 6:

= = 950 (1.609)0.12 = 1006 /2

For consideration of friction, we need to us Fig 9-6. We have to use value to find .

1 111.8

= = 11.18

1 10

So, from figure 9-6, =1.5 [for =0.1]

So, = = 1006 1.4 = 1408.4 /2 [1810 for =0.2]

Step 8:

1408.4 9817.5 13826967 ( = 0.1)

Example # 9.3: For the same dimensions & material in example 9-2, re-compute the press force

if the material is hot-upset at 1000 without a lubricant.

-The steps from 1 to 5 are same. We need to use different equation in Step 6.

Step 6:

157.24

= = 120 (8.00)0.13 = = 157.24 MPa [MPa= (N/2 ) 106 ]

2

[ C & m values can be founded from Table 8-2, C=120 MPa & m=0.13]

1 111.8

= = 11.18

1 10

Without lubrication, = , =3.0

Step 8:

Problem# A cylindrical workpiece is subjected to a cold upset forging operation. The starting

piece is 75mm in height and 50mm in diameter. It is reduced in the operation to a height of

36mm. The work material has a flow curve defined by K=350 MPa and n=0.17. Assume a

coefficient of friction of 0.1. Determine the force as the process begins at intermediate height of

62mm, 49mm and at the final height of 36mm.

0 2 502 75

Solution: Step 1: Volume of .., = 0 = = 147262.15 3

4 4

If we want to calculate force at the start of yielding, we can either assume the (say 0.002)

or may be we can assume height where yielding start.

0 75

= ln = ln = 0.001

1 74.9

147262.15 3

Step 2: 1 = = = 1966.11 2 [considering 1 = 74.9]

1 74.9

= =50.03

0 75

= ln = ln = 0.001

1 74.9

= 108.16 /2

Step 7:

1 50.03

= = 0.66

1 74.9

So, = = 108.16 /2

Step 8:

Step 1:

= 147262.15 3

Step 2:

147262.15 3

1 = = = 2375.19 2 [considering 1 = 74.9]

1 62

41

1 = = 54.99 55

Step 4:

0 75

= ln = ln = 0.1903

1 62

Step 6:

= = 350 (0.1903)0.17 = 263.98 264

Step 7:

1 55

= = 0.887 0.89

1 62

So, = = = 264 /2

Step 8:

Problem 9-10# A small connecting rod is forged of AISI 1020 Steel at 12000 C. Calculate

the press force on a mechanical press which travels at 250 mm/s when the die contacts the

workpiece. The volume of the connecting rod is calculated as 28680 3 and 20% of the

starting material is expected to go into flash. In the finishing die, the expected area is

projected as 3500 2 exclusive of the area of flash land. The flash land width is 7.6mm

all around the 300mm circumference adding 300*7.6=2280 2 to the projected area.

Thus total area=3500+2280=5780 2 .

Solution:

28680 3

Step 2: = = 0.85780 2=6.2 mm [20% flash]

250 /

Step 5: = = = 40 1

6.2

[from table 8-2 for AISI 1020 Steel at 12000 C C=50, m=0.17]

Step 7: From table 9-2, for complete forging with flash, = 8

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