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Lecture 5

Waveguides

A. Nassiri

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Waveguides

Waveguides are used to transfer electromagnetic power efficiently from one point
in space to another.

Two-wire line
Microstrip line
Coaxial line y
x
z

Rectangular waveguide Dielectric waveguide

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Waveguides

In practice, the choice of structure is dictated by: (a) the desired operating frequency
band, (b) the amount of power to be transferred, and (c) the amount of transmission
losses that can be tolerated.

Coaxial cables are widely used to connect RF components. Their operation is practical
for frequencies below 3 GHz. Above that the losses are too excessive. For example, the
attenuation might be 3 dB per 100 m at 100 MHz, but 10 dB/100 m at 1 GHz, and 50
dB/100 m at 10 GHz. Their power rating is typically of the order of one kilowatt at 100
MHz, but only 200 W at 2 GHz, being limited primarily because of the heating of the
coaxial conductors and of the dielectric between the conductors (dielectric voltage
breakdown is usually a secondary factor.)

Another issue is the single-mode operation of the line. At higher frequencies, in order to
prevent higher modes from being launched, the diameters of the coaxial conductors
must be reduced, diminishing the amount of power that can be transmitted. Two-wire
lines are not used at microwave frequencies because they are not shielded and can
radiate. One typical use is for connecting indoor antennas to TV sets. Microstrip lines
are used widely in microwave integrated circuits.

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Waveguides

In a waveguide system, we are looking for solutions of Maxwells equations that are
propagating along the guiding direction (the z direction) and are confined in the near
vicinity of the guiding structure. Thus, the electric and magnetic fields are assumed to
have the form:

E (x , y , z ;t ) = E (x , y )e jt jz
H (x , y , z ;t ) = H (x , y )e jt jz
Where is the propagation wave number along the guide direction. The
corresponding wavelength, called the guide wavelength, is denoted by g=2/ .

The precise relationship between and depends on the type of waveguide structure
and the particular propagating mode. Because the fields are confined in the
transverse directions (the x, y directions,) they cannot be uniform (except in very
simple structures) and will have a non-trivial dependence on the transverse
coordinates x and y. Next, we derive the equations for the phasor amplitudes E (x, y)
and H (x, y).

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Waveguides

Because of the preferential role played by the guiding direction z, it proves convenient to
decompose Maxwells equations into components that are longitudinal, that is, along the z-
direction, and components that are transverse, along the x, y directions. Thus, we decompose:

E (x , y ) = xE x (x , y ) + yE y (x , y ) + zE z (x , y ) ET (x , y ) + zE z (x , y )


transverse longitudinal

In a similar fashion we may decompose the gradient operator:


= x x + y y + z z = T + z z = T jz
Where we made the replacement z -j because of the assumed z-dependence. Introducing
these decompositions into the source-free Maxwells equation we have:

E = jH (T jz ) (ET + zE z ) = j(H T + zH z )
H = jE (T jz ) (H T + zH z ) = j(ET + zE z )
E = 0 (T jz ) (ET + zE z ) = 0
H = 0 (T jz ) (H T + zH z ) = 0

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Transverse and Longitudinal Components


2 2
(
E = xy + z E
2
)
2 2
= xy + 2 E
z

(
= xy + E
2 2
)

The wave equations E+ +k
2
xy
2 2
( ) E= 0
become now

xy H + 2 + k 2
2
( ) H= 0

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Solution strategy

We still have (seemingly) six simultaneous equations to solve.


In fact, the 6 are NOT independent. This looks complicated!
Adopt a strategy of expressing the transverse fields (the Ex,Ey,
Hx,Hy components in terms of the longitudinal components Ez
and Hz only. If we can do this we only need find Ez and Hz from
the wave equations.Too easy eh!

The first step can be carried out directly from the two curl
equations from the original Maxwells eqns. Writing these out:

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First step

E z H z
+ E y = jH x (1) + H y = jE x (4 )
y y
E z H z
E x = jH y (2 ) H x = jE y (5)
x x
E y E x H y H x
+ = jH z (3) + = jE z (6 )
x y x y

All
replaced by -. All fields are functions of x and y only.
z

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Result

Now, manipulate to express the transverse in terms of the


longitudinal. E.g. From (1) and (5) eliminate Ey
E z H z
+ H x = jH x
y j x

longitudinal transverse
1 H z E z
H x = j
kc x
2 y

where k c2 = 2 + k 2
kc is an eigenvalue
(to be discussed)

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The other components

1 H z E z
H x = 2 j
kc x y So find solutions for
Ez and Hz and then use
1 H z E z these 4 eqns to find all
H y = 2 + j the transverse components
kc y x
1 E z H z
E x = 2 + j
kc x y We only need to find
Ez and Hz now!
1 E z H z
E y = 2 j
kc y x

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Wave type classification

It is convenient to to classify as to whether Ez or Hz exists


according to:

TEM: Ez = 0 Hz = 0
TE: Ez = 0 Hz 0
TM Ez 0 Hz = 0

We will first see how TM wave types propagate in waveguide


Then we will infer the properties of TE waves.

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The TE modes of a parallel plate wave guide are preserved if
perfectly conducting walls are added perpendicularly to the electric
field.
E The added metal plate does not
disturb normal electric field and
H tangent magnetic field.

On the other hand, TM modes of a parallel wave guide disappear if


perfectly conducting walls are added perpendicularly to the
magnetic field.

The magnetic field cannot be


H normal and the electric field
E cannot be tangent to a perfectly
conducting plate.

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TM waves (Hz=0)

xy E z + + k E z = 0
2
( 2 2
) j E z
Hx = 2
kc y
j E z
Longitudinal: 2nd order PDE for Hy = 2
Ez. we defer solution until we have
kc x
defined a geometry plus b/c. E z
Ex =
k 2
c x
Transverse solutions once
E z
Ez is found Ey =
kc2 y

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Further Simplification

The two E-components can be combined. If we use the notation:



Et = E x x + E y y = 2 xy E z where xy = x + y
kc x y


Et = 2
xy E z
k c

Ex Ey
Z TM = = =
Hy H x j

z E
H=
Z TM

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Eigenvalues

We will discover that in closed systems, solutions are possible


only for discrete values of kc. There may be an infinity of values
for kc, but solutions are not possible for all kc. Thus kc are
known as eigenvalues. Each eigenvalue will determine the
properties of a particular TM mode. The eigenvalues will be
geometry dependent.

Assume for the moment we have determined an appropriate


value for kc, we now wish to determine the propagation
conditions for a particular mode.

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We have the following propagation vector components for the modes
in a rectangular wave guide
2 = 2 = x2 + 2y + z2
m n
x = ; y =
a a
2 2
2 2
z = = = 2 x2 2y
2
z
g
2 2
m n
z =
2 2

a a
At the cut-off, we have
2 2
m n
z = 0 = (2f c )
2 2

a a
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Operating bandwidth

All waveguide systems are operated in a frequency range that ensures that only the lowest
mode can propagate. If several modes can propagate simultaneously, one has no control
over which modes will actually be carrying the transmitted signal. This may cause undue
amounts of dispersion, distortion, and erratic operation.

A mode with cutoff frequency c will propagate only if its frequency is c, or <
c. If < c, the wave will attenuate exponentially along the guide direction. This
follows from the , relationship

2 c2
2 = c2 + 2c 2 2 =
c2
If c, the wavenumber is real-valued and the wave will propagate. But if < c,
becomes imaginary, say, = -j, and the wave will attenuate in the z-direction, with
a penetration depth = 1/:

j z z
e =e

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Operating bandwidth

If the frequency is greater than the cutoff frequencies of several modes, then all of
these modes can propagate. Conversely, if is less than all cutoff frequencies, then
none of the modes can propagate.

If we arrange the cutoff frequencies in increasing order, c1< c2 <c3 < , then, to
ensure single-mode operation, the frequency must be restricted to the interval c1
<<c2, so that only the lowest mode will propagate. This interval defines the
operating bandwidth of the guide.

This applies to all waveguide systems, not just hollow conducting waveguides. For
example, in coaxial cables the lowest mode is the TEM mode having no cutoff
frequency, c1 = 0. However, TE and TM modes with non-zero cutoff frequencies do
exist and place an upper limit on the usable bandwidth of the TEM mode. Similarly, in
optical fibers, the lowest mode has no cutoff, and the single-mode bandwidth is
determined by the next cutoff frequency.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 18
The cut-off frequencies for all modes are
2 2
1 m n
fc = +
2 a a
With cut-off wavelengths
2
c =
2 2
m n
+
a a
With indices
TE modes m=0,1,2,3, TM modes m=1,2,3,
n=0,1,2,3, n=1,2,3,
(but m=n=0 not allowed)
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Cut-off

Since the wave propagates according to ez. Then propagation


ceases when = 0.

since = kc2 2 then = 0 implies c2 = kc2

kc Cut-off
Or fc =
2 frequency

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Write in terms of fc

It is usual, now to write in terms of the cut-off frequency.


This allows us to physically interpret the result.

2 2
k f 2
= kc = kc 2 c = kc 1 2
2 2 2

c fc

This part from Substitute for Recall similarity


the definition from definition of fc of this result with
see slide 8/5. for an ionized gas.
see slide 7/12

2 = kc2 k 2
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Conditions for Propagation

There are two possibilities here:

1 f > fc is imaginary
with = j = j k 2 kc2
kc2
This says now that = jk 1 2
k
becomes j with
f c2
= k k 2 2
c = jk 1 2
this is a special case of
the result in the previous slide
f

We conclude that if the operational frequency is above


cut-off then the wave is propagating with the form e-jz

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Different wavelengths

The corresponding wavelength inside the guide is

2
g = = > This is the free space
f c2 wavelength
g for guide 1 2
f The free space
wavelength may
be written alternatively
Now if we introduce a cut-off wavelength 2
=
=v/fc where v is the corresponding velocity k
(=c, in air) in an unbounded 1 1 1
medium. We can derive: = 2 + 2
2
g c

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 23
Different wavelengths

The corresponding wavelength inside the guide is

2
g = = > This is the free space
f c2 wavelength
g for guide 1 2
f The free space
wavelength may
be written alternatively
Now if we introduce a cut-off wavelength 2
=
=v/fc where v is the corresponding velocity k
(=c, in air) in an unbounded 1 1 1
medium. We can derive: = 2 + 2
2
g c

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Dispersion in waveguides

The previous relationship showed that was a function of


frequency i.e. waveguides are dispersive. Hence we expect the
phase velocity to also be a function of frequency. In fact:

v g
vp = = = v>v
f 2
1 c
2 This can be > c!
f

So, as expected the phase velocity is always higher than in an


unbounded medium (fast wave) and is frequency dependent.
So we conclude waveguides are dispersive.

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Group velocity

This is similar to as discussed previously.

1 f c2
vg = = v 1 2 = v<v
f g

So the group velocity is always less than in an unbounded
medium. And if the medium is free space then vgvp=v2=c2
which is also as previously discussed. Finally, recall that
the energy transport velocity is the group velocity.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 26
Dispersion in waveguides

The previous relationship showed that was a function of


frequency i.e. waveguides are dispersive. Hence we expect the
phase velocity to also be a function of frequency. In fact:

v g
vp = = = v>v
f 2
1 c
2 This can be > c!
f

So, as expected the phase velocity is always higher than in an


unbounded medium (fast wave) and is frequency dependent.
So we conclude waveguides are dispersive.

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Wave Impedance

Wave impedance can also be written in terms of the radical:

f c2
1 2 For f>fc Then the impedance is
f real and less than the surrounding
medium dielectric
In particular:
The factor k/ can be
f c2 shown to be:
k 1 2
f f c2 0
= = Z TM = 1 2 = = 377 (if air)
j f

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Evanescent waves

2 f < fc is real
kc2 f c2
with = = k 1 2 = k 1 2
k f
We conclude that the propagation is of the form e-z i.e.
the wave is attenuating or is evanescent as it propagates in
the +z direction. This is happening for frequencies below
the cut-off frequency. At f=fc the wave is said to be cut-off.
Finally, note that there is no loss mechanism contributing
to the attenuation.

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Impedance for evanescent waves

A similar derivation to that for the propagating case produces:

f2
kc
Z TM =j 1 2
fc

This says that for TM waves, the wave impedance is capacitive


and that no power flow occurs if the frequency is below cut-off.
Thus evanescent waves are associated with reactive power only.

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TE Waves

A completely parallel treatment can be made for the case of


TE propagation, Ez = 0,Hz 0. We only give the parallel
results. 2 2
(
xy H z + + k H z = 0
2
)

( H t )TE = 2
xy H z
k c

j
Z TE = =
f c2
1 2
f
( )

E = Z TE z H

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 31
Dispersion

For propagating modes ( =j), we may graph the variation of


with frequency (for either TM or TE) and this determines the
dispersion characteristic.
f c2
= k 1 2 where v is the velocity in the unbounded medium
f
v This is more useful form
or alternatively = for plotting
c2
1 2

Note that vp>v
Equation of red plot vg<v
vpvg= v2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 32
Wave Impedance

Normalized ZTE/
wave impedance
1
Z (ohms)
Evanescent
here ZTM/
1
f/fc
Normalized frequency

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 33
Dispersion for Waveguide


Propagating TE and TM modes

TEM
slope=/
c

Slope=phase velocity=vp Slope = group velocity = vg

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 34
Rectangular waveguide

b
, a
X
a
b

Assume perfectly conducting walls and perfect dielectric filling the wave guide.

Convention always says that a is the long side.

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TM waves

TM waves have Ez 0. We write Ez(x,y,z) as Ez(x,y)e-z.


The wave equation to solve is then
2 2 2
2 + 2 + kc E z (x, y ) = 0
x y
Plus some boundary conditions on the walls of the
waveguide. The standard method of solving this PDE is to
use separation of variables. I.e..

E z (x, y ) = X (x )Y ( y )

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Possible Solutions

If we substitute into the original equation we get two more


equations. But this time we have full derivatives and we can
easily write solutions. d 2 X 2 d 2Y
2
+ kx X = 0
2
and 2
+ k yY = 0
dx dy
with k x2 + k y2 = kc2
Mathematics tells us that the solutions depend on the sign of kx2
kx2 kx Appropriate X(x)
0 0 A0x+B0
+ k A1sin kx+B1cos kx; C1ejkx +D1e-jkx
- jk A2sinh kx +B2cosh kx; C2ekx +D2e-kx

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Boundary conditions

Boundary conditions say that the tangential components of Ez


vanish on the walls of the guide :
E z (0, y ) = 0
left and right hand walls.
E z (a, y ) = 0
E z ( x,0 ) = 0
top and bottom walls.
E z ( x, b ) = 0

We choose the sin/cos form (why?) and directly write:


E z (x, y ) = ( A1 sin k x x + B1 cos k x x )(A2 sin k y y + B2 cos k y y )

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 38
Final solution

Using the boundary conditions, we find:


X(x) must be in the form sinkxx
Do not start from 0
Y(y) must be in the form sinkyy
m
kx =
a
with m, n integer and m, n = 1,2,3,.....
n
ky =
b This satisfies all the
boundary conditions
mx ny
E z (x, y ) = E0 sin sin
a b
We can only get discrete
m n
2 2

kc =
2
+ values of kc -eigenvalues!
a b

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Mode numbers (m,n)

The m,n numbers will give different solutions for Ez (as well as
all the other transverse components. Each m,n combination will
correspond to a mode which will satisfy all boundary and wave
equations. Notice how the modes depend on the geometry (a,b)!

We usually refer to the modes as TMmn or TEmn eg TM2,3


Thus each mode will specify a unique field distribution in the
guide. We now have a formula for the parameter kc once
we specify the mode numbers.
The concept of a mode is fundamental to many E/M problems.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 40
From previous formulas, we have directly upon using the value kc
2 2
1 m n
fc = +
2 a b
2 Note this!
c =
2 2
m n
+
a b

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 41
TE Modes

For TE modes, we have Ez = 0, Hz 0 as before.


2 2 2
2 + 2 + kc H z (x, y ) = 0
x y
H z
E y = 0 at x = 0
x x =0
Boundary conditions
H z
Boundary E y = 0 at x = a for Hz (longitudinal)
conditions x x =0
are equivalently
expressed in terms of
H z Ex and Ey (transverse)
E x = 0 at y = 0
y y =0

H z
E x = 0 at y = b
y
y =0

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TEmn Results

The expressions for fc and c are identical to the TM case.


But this time we have that the TE dominant mode (ie. the
TE mode with the lowest cut-off frequency) is TE10 This
mode has an even lower cut-off frequency than TM11 and
is said to be the Dominant Mode for a rectangular
waveguide. m x n y
H z ( x, y ) = H 0 cos cos This is provided
a b
we label the large
( f c )TE10 = 1
=
v side a and associate
2a 2a this side with the
mode number m
(c )TE 10
= 2a

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View of TE10 mode for waveguide.

H field

E field

TE10

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For mono-mode (or single-mode) operation, only the fundamental TE10 mode
should be propagating over the frequency band of interest.

The mono-mode bandwidth depends on the cut-off frequency of the second


propagating mode. We have two possible modes to consider, TE01 and TE20.

1
f c (TE 01 ) =
2b
1
f c (TE 20 ) = = 2 f c (TE10 )
a

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 45
a 1
If b = f c (TE 01 ) = f c (TE 20 ) = 2 f c (TE10 ) =
2 a
Mono-mode Bandwidth

0 fc(TE10) fc(TE20) f

a
If a > b > f c (TE10 ) < f c (TE 01 ) < f c (TE 20 )
2
Mono-mode Bandwidth

0 fc(TE10) fc(TE01) fc(TE20) f

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 46
a
If b < f c (TE 20 ) < f c (TE 01 )
2 Mono-mode Bandwidth

0 fc(TE10) fc(TE20) fc(TE01) f


In practice , a safety margin of about 20% is considered, so that the useful
bandwidth is less than the maximum mono-mode bandwidth. This is
necessary to make sure that the first mode (TE10) is well above cut-off, and
the second mode (TE01 or TE20) is strongly evanescent.
Safety margin

Useful Bandwidth

0 f (TE ) f
fc(TE10) fc(TE20) c 01

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 47
If a=b (square wave guide) f c (TE10 ) = f c (TE 20 )

0 fc(TE10) fc(TE20) f
fc(TE01)
fc(TE02)
In the case of perfectly square wave guide, TEm0 and TE0n
modes with m=n are are degenerate with the same cut-off
frequency.

Except for orthogonal field orientation, all other properties


of the degenerate modes are the same.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 48
Example Design an air-filled rectangular wave guide for the following
operation conditions:
a. 10 GHz in the middle of the frequency band (single mode operation)
b. b=a/2
The fundamental mode is the TE10 with cut-off frequency
1 c 3 10 m / sec
8
f c (TE10 ) = = Hz
2a 2a 2a
For b=a/2, TE01 and TE20 have the same cut-off frequency

1 c c 2 c 3 108 m / sec
f c (TE 01 ) = = = = Hz
2b 2b 2 a a a
1 c 3 108 m / sec
f c (TE 20 ) = = Hz
a a a

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 49
The operation frequency can be expressed in terms of the cut-off frequencies

f c (TE10 ) f c (TE 01 )
f = f c (TE10 ) +
2
f c (TE10 ) + f c (TE 01 )
= = 10.0GHz
2
1 3 108
3 108
10.0 109 = +
2 2a a

a
a = 2.25cm b = = 1.125cm
2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 50
An example

We consider an air filled guide, so r=1. The internal size of


the guide is 0.9 x 0.4 inches (waveguides come in standard sizes).
The cut-off frequency of the dominant mode:

m n
2 2

kc = + a = 0.9 = 22.86mm; b = 0.4 = 10.16mm


a b

(kc )TE = = 137.43
10
a
137.43 3 108
( f c )TE =
kc
= = 6.56GHz
10
2 0 0 2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 51
An example

The next few modes are:

(kc )11 = 338.38


(kc )01 = 309.21 the ascending order of mode is 10, 20, 01,11
(kc )20 = 274.86
The next cuff-off frequency after TE10 will then be
274.86 3 108
( f c )TE = = 13.12GHz
20
2

So for single mode operation we must operate the guide within


the frequency range of 6.56<f <13.12GHz.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 52
An example

It is not good to operate too close to cut-off for the reason that
the wall losses increases very quickly as the frequency approaches
cut-off. A good guideline is to operate between 1.25fc and 1.9fc.
This then would restrict the single mode operation to 8.2 to 12.5
GHz.

The propagation coefficient for the next higher mode is:


f2
( )20 = k k = (kc )20
2
c
2
1 2
f c20
Specify an operating frequency f, half way in the original
range of TE10 i.e.. 9.84GHz.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 53
An example

2
9.84
( )20 = 274.86
1 = 181.8 (Real)
13.12
So = 181.8 Np / m
or in dB 181.8 x 8.7 = 1581 dB/m ie. TE 20 is very strongly evanescent.

In comparison for TE10:


2

( )10 = (kc )10 1 2 = 137.43 1 9.84 = 153.64 j (Imaginary)


f2
f c10 6.56
So = 153.64 rad/m
All further higher order modes will be cut-off with higher rates
of attenuation.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 54
Field Patterns

Field patterns for the TE10 mode in rectangular wave guide

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 55
The simple arrangement below can be used to excite TE10 in a
rectangular wave guide.

The inner conductor of the coaxial cable behaves like a dipole


antenna and it creates a maximum electric field in the middle of
the cross-section.

Closed end

TE01

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Waveguide Cavity Resonator

The cavity resonator is obtained from a section of rectangular


wave guide, closed by two additional metal plates. We assume
again perfectly conducting walls and loss-less dielectric.

m
x = d
a
n
y =
b a
p
z =
d
b

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 57
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

The addition of a new set of plates introduces a condition for


standing waves in the z-direction which leads to the definition of
oscillation frequencies

2 2 2
1 m n p
fc = + +
2 a b d

The high-pass behavior of the rectangular wave guide is modified


into a very narrow pass-band behavior, since cut-off frequencies
of the wave guide are transformed into oscillation frequencies of
the resonator.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 58
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

0 fc1 fc2 f 0 fc1 fc2 f

In the wave guide, each mode is In the resonator, resonant modes can
associated with a band of frequencies only exist in correspondence of discrete
larger the cut-off frequency. resonance frequencies.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 59
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

The cavity resonator will have modes indicated as

TEmnp TMmnp
The values of the index corresponds to periodicity (number of sine or
cosine waves) in three direction. Using z-direction as the reference for
the definition of transverse electric or magnetic fields, the allowed
indices are
m = 0 ,1,2 ,3,... m = 0 ,1,2 ,3,...

TE n = 0 ,1,2 ,3,... TM n = 0 ,1,2 ,3,...
p = 0 ,1,2 ,3,... p = 0 ,1,2 ,3,...

With only one zero index m or n allowed

The mode with lowest resonance frequency is called dominant mode. In case
a d>b the dominant mode is the TE101.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 60
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

Note that a TM cavity mode, with magnetic field transverse to the z-


direction, it is possible to have the third index equal zero. This is because the
magnetic field is going to be parallel to the third set of plates, and it can
therefore be uniform in the third direction, with no periodicity.
The electric field components will have the following form that satisfies the
boundary conditions for perfectly conducting walls.

m n p
E x = Ex cos x sin y sin z
a b d
m n p
Ey = E y sin x cos y sin z
a b d
m n p
Ey = Ez sin x sin y cos z
a b d

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 61
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

The amplitudes of the electric field components also must satisfy the
divergence condition which, in absence of charge is
m n p
E = 0 E x + E y + E z = 0
a b d
The magnetic field intensities are obtained from Amperes law:

z E y y E z m n p
Hx = sin x cos y cos z
j a b d
x E z z E x m n p
Hy = cos x sin y cos z
j a b d
y E x x E y m n p
Hz = cos x cos y sin z
j a b d

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 62
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

Similar considerations for modes and indices can be made if the other axes
are used as a reference for the transverse field, leading to analogous
resonant field configurations.

A cavity resonator can be coupled to a wave guide through a small opening.


When the input frequency resonates with the cavity, electromagnetic
radiation enters the resonator and a lowering in the output is detected. By
using carefully tuned cavities, this scheme can be used for frequency
measurements.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 63
Waveguide Cavity Resonator

Example of resonant cavity excited by using coaxial cables.


The termination of the inner conductor of the cable acts like an elementary
dipole (left) or an elementary loop (right) antenna.

Excitation with a dipole antenna Excitation with a loop antenna

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 64
Waveguides

Here are some standard air-filled rectangular waveguides with their naming
designations, inner side dimensions a, b in inches, cutoff frequencies in GHz,
minimum and maximum recommended operating frequencies in GHz, power
ratings, and attenuations in dB/m (the power ratings and attenuations are
representative over each operating band.) We have chosen one example from
each microwave band.

Characteristics of some standard air-filled rectangular waveguides.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 65