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Waveguides

A. Nassiri

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 1

Waveguides

Waveguides are used to transfer electromagnetic power efficiently from one point

in space to another.

Two-wire line

Microstrip line

Coaxial line y

x

z

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 2

Waveguides

In practice, the choice of structure is dictated by: (a) the desired operating frequency

band, (b) the amount of power to be transferred, and (c) the amount of transmission

losses that can be tolerated.

Coaxial cables are widely used to connect RF components. Their operation is practical

for frequencies below 3 GHz. Above that the losses are too excessive. For example, the

attenuation might be 3 dB per 100 m at 100 MHz, but 10 dB/100 m at 1 GHz, and 50

dB/100 m at 10 GHz. Their power rating is typically of the order of one kilowatt at 100

MHz, but only 200 W at 2 GHz, being limited primarily because of the heating of the

coaxial conductors and of the dielectric between the conductors (dielectric voltage

breakdown is usually a secondary factor.)

Another issue is the single-mode operation of the line. At higher frequencies, in order to

prevent higher modes from being launched, the diameters of the coaxial conductors

must be reduced, diminishing the amount of power that can be transmitted. Two-wire

lines are not used at microwave frequencies because they are not shielded and can

radiate. One typical use is for connecting indoor antennas to TV sets. Microstrip lines

are used widely in microwave integrated circuits.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 3

Waveguides

In a waveguide system, we are looking for solutions of Maxwells equations that are

propagating along the guiding direction (the z direction) and are confined in the near

vicinity of the guiding structure. Thus, the electric and magnetic fields are assumed to

have the form:

E (x , y , z ;t ) = E (x , y )e jt jz

H (x , y , z ;t ) = H (x , y )e jt jz

Where is the propagation wave number along the guide direction. The

corresponding wavelength, called the guide wavelength, is denoted by g=2/ .

The precise relationship between and depends on the type of waveguide structure

and the particular propagating mode. Because the fields are confined in the

transverse directions (the x, y directions,) they cannot be uniform (except in very

simple structures) and will have a non-trivial dependence on the transverse

coordinates x and y. Next, we derive the equations for the phasor amplitudes E (x, y)

and H (x, y).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 4

Waveguides

Because of the preferential role played by the guiding direction z, it proves convenient to

decompose Maxwells equations into components that are longitudinal, that is, along the z-

direction, and components that are transverse, along the x, y directions. Thus, we decompose:

E (x , y ) = xE x (x , y ) + yE y (x , y ) + zE z (x , y ) ET (x , y ) + zE z (x , y )

transverse longitudinal

= x x + y y + z z = T + z z = T jz

Where we made the replacement z -j because of the assumed z-dependence. Introducing

these decompositions into the source-free Maxwells equation we have:

E = jH (T jz ) (ET + zE z ) = j(H T + zH z )

H = jE (T jz ) (H T + zH z ) = j(ET + zE z )

E = 0 (T jz ) (ET + zE z ) = 0

H = 0 (T jz ) (H T + zH z ) = 0

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 5

Transverse and Longitudinal Components

2 2

(

E = xy + z E

2

)

2 2

= xy + 2 E

z

(

= xy + E

2 2

)

The wave equations E+ +k

2

xy

2 2

( ) E= 0

become now

xy H + 2 + k 2

2

( ) H= 0

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 6

Solution strategy

In fact, the 6 are NOT independent. This looks complicated!

Adopt a strategy of expressing the transverse fields (the Ex,Ey,

Hx,Hy components in terms of the longitudinal components Ez

and Hz only. If we can do this we only need find Ez and Hz from

the wave equations.Too easy eh!

The first step can be carried out directly from the two curl

equations from the original Maxwells eqns. Writing these out:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 7

First step

E z H z

+ E y = jH x (1) + H y = jE x (4 )

y y

E z H z

E x = jH y (2 ) H x = jE y (5)

x x

E y E x H y H x

+ = jH z (3) + = jE z (6 )

x y x y

All

replaced by -. All fields are functions of x and y only.

z

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 8

Result

longitudinal. E.g. From (1) and (5) eliminate Ey

E z H z

+ H x = jH x

y j x

longitudinal transverse

1 H z E z

H x = j

kc x

2 y

where k c2 = 2 + k 2

kc is an eigenvalue

(to be discussed)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 9

The other components

1 H z E z

H x = 2 j

kc x y So find solutions for

Ez and Hz and then use

1 H z E z these 4 eqns to find all

H y = 2 + j the transverse components

kc y x

1 E z H z

E x = 2 + j

kc x y We only need to find

Ez and Hz now!

1 E z H z

E y = 2 j

kc y x

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 10

Wave type classification

according to:

TEM: Ez = 0 Hz = 0

TE: Ez = 0 Hz 0

TM Ez 0 Hz = 0

Then we will infer the properties of TE waves.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 11

The TE modes of a parallel plate wave guide are preserved if

perfectly conducting walls are added perpendicularly to the electric

field.

E The added metal plate does not

disturb normal electric field and

H tangent magnetic field.

perfectly conducting walls are added perpendicularly to the

magnetic field.

H normal and the electric field

E cannot be tangent to a perfectly

conducting plate.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 12

TM waves (Hz=0)

xy E z + + k E z = 0

2

( 2 2

) j E z

Hx = 2

kc y

j E z

Longitudinal: 2nd order PDE for Hy = 2

Ez. we defer solution until we have

kc x

defined a geometry plus b/c. E z

Ex =

k 2

c x

Transverse solutions once

E z

Ez is found Ey =

kc2 y

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 13

Further Simplification

Et = E x x + E y y = 2 xy E z where xy = x + y

kc x y

Et = 2

xy E z

k c

Ex Ey

Z TM = = =

Hy H x j

z E

H=

Z TM

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 14

Eigenvalues

only for discrete values of kc. There may be an infinity of values

for kc, but solutions are not possible for all kc. Thus kc are

known as eigenvalues. Each eigenvalue will determine the

properties of a particular TM mode. The eigenvalues will be

geometry dependent.

value for kc, we now wish to determine the propagation

conditions for a particular mode.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 15

We have the following propagation vector components for the modes

in a rectangular wave guide

2 = 2 = x2 + 2y + z2

m n

x = ; y =

a a

2 2

2 2

z = = = 2 x2 2y

2

z

g

2 2

m n

z =

2 2

a a

At the cut-off, we have

2 2

m n

z = 0 = (2f c )

2 2

a a

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 16

Operating bandwidth

All waveguide systems are operated in a frequency range that ensures that only the lowest

mode can propagate. If several modes can propagate simultaneously, one has no control

over which modes will actually be carrying the transmitted signal. This may cause undue

amounts of dispersion, distortion, and erratic operation.

A mode with cutoff frequency c will propagate only if its frequency is c, or <

c. If < c, the wave will attenuate exponentially along the guide direction. This

follows from the , relationship

2 c2

2 = c2 + 2c 2 2 =

c2

If c, the wavenumber is real-valued and the wave will propagate. But if < c,

becomes imaginary, say, = -j, and the wave will attenuate in the z-direction, with

a penetration depth = 1/:

j z z

e =e

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 17

Operating bandwidth

If the frequency is greater than the cutoff frequencies of several modes, then all of

these modes can propagate. Conversely, if is less than all cutoff frequencies, then

none of the modes can propagate.

If we arrange the cutoff frequencies in increasing order, c1< c2 <c3 < , then, to

ensure single-mode operation, the frequency must be restricted to the interval c1

<<c2, so that only the lowest mode will propagate. This interval defines the

operating bandwidth of the guide.

This applies to all waveguide systems, not just hollow conducting waveguides. For

example, in coaxial cables the lowest mode is the TEM mode having no cutoff

frequency, c1 = 0. However, TE and TM modes with non-zero cutoff frequencies do

exist and place an upper limit on the usable bandwidth of the TEM mode. Similarly, in

optical fibers, the lowest mode has no cutoff, and the single-mode bandwidth is

determined by the next cutoff frequency.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 18

The cut-off frequencies for all modes are

2 2

1 m n

fc = +

2 a a

With cut-off wavelengths

2

c =

2 2

m n

+

a a

With indices

TE modes m=0,1,2,3, TM modes m=1,2,3,

n=0,1,2,3, n=1,2,3,

(but m=n=0 not allowed)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 19

Cut-off

ceases when = 0.

kc Cut-off

Or fc =

2 frequency

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 20

Write in terms of fc

This allows us to physically interpret the result.

2 2

k f 2

= kc = kc 2 c = kc 1 2

2 2 2

c fc

the definition from definition of fc of this result with

see slide 8/5. for an ionized gas.

see slide 7/12

2 = kc2 k 2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 21

Conditions for Propagation

1 f > fc is imaginary

with = j = j k 2 kc2

kc2

This says now that = jk 1 2

k

becomes j with

f c2

= k k 2 2

c = jk 1 2

this is a special case of

the result in the previous slide

f

cut-off then the wave is propagating with the form e-jz

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 22

Different wavelengths

2

g = = > This is the free space

f c2 wavelength

g for guide 1 2

f The free space

wavelength may

be written alternatively

Now if we introduce a cut-off wavelength 2

=

=v/fc where v is the corresponding velocity k

(=c, in air) in an unbounded 1 1 1

medium. We can derive: = 2 + 2

2

g c

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 23

Different wavelengths

2

g = = > This is the free space

f c2 wavelength

g for guide 1 2

f The free space

wavelength may

be written alternatively

Now if we introduce a cut-off wavelength 2

=

=v/fc where v is the corresponding velocity k

(=c, in air) in an unbounded 1 1 1

medium. We can derive: = 2 + 2

2

g c

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 24

Dispersion in waveguides

frequency i.e. waveguides are dispersive. Hence we expect the

phase velocity to also be a function of frequency. In fact:

v g

vp = = = v>v

f 2

1 c

2 This can be > c!

f

unbounded medium (fast wave) and is frequency dependent.

So we conclude waveguides are dispersive.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 25

Group velocity

1 f c2

vg = = v 1 2 = v<v

f g

So the group velocity is always less than in an unbounded

medium. And if the medium is free space then vgvp=v2=c2

which is also as previously discussed. Finally, recall that

the energy transport velocity is the group velocity.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 26

Dispersion in waveguides

frequency i.e. waveguides are dispersive. Hence we expect the

phase velocity to also be a function of frequency. In fact:

v g

vp = = = v>v

f 2

1 c

2 This can be > c!

f

unbounded medium (fast wave) and is frequency dependent.

So we conclude waveguides are dispersive.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 27

Wave Impedance

f c2

1 2 For f>fc Then the impedance is

f real and less than the surrounding

medium dielectric

In particular:

The factor k/ can be

f c2 shown to be:

k 1 2

f f c2 0

= = Z TM = 1 2 = = 377 (if air)

j f

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 28

Evanescent waves

2 f < fc is real

kc2 f c2

with = = k 1 2 = k 1 2

k f

We conclude that the propagation is of the form e-z i.e.

the wave is attenuating or is evanescent as it propagates in

the +z direction. This is happening for frequencies below

the cut-off frequency. At f=fc the wave is said to be cut-off.

Finally, note that there is no loss mechanism contributing

to the attenuation.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 29

Impedance for evanescent waves

f2

kc

Z TM =j 1 2

fc

and that no power flow occurs if the frequency is below cut-off.

Thus evanescent waves are associated with reactive power only.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 30

TE Waves

TE propagation, Ez = 0,Hz 0. We only give the parallel

results. 2 2

(

xy H z + + k H z = 0

2

)

( H t )TE = 2

xy H z

k c

j

Z TE = =

f c2

1 2

f

( )

E = Z TE z H

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 31

Dispersion

with frequency (for either TM or TE) and this determines the

dispersion characteristic.

f c2

= k 1 2 where v is the velocity in the unbounded medium

f

v This is more useful form

or alternatively = for plotting

c2

1 2

Note that vp>v

Equation of red plot vg<v

vpvg= v2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 32

Wave Impedance

Normalized ZTE/

wave impedance

1

Z (ohms)

Evanescent

here ZTM/

1

f/fc

Normalized frequency

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 33

Dispersion for Waveguide

Propagating TE and TM modes

TEM

slope=/

c

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 34

Rectangular waveguide

b

, a

X

a

b

Assume perfectly conducting walls and perfect dielectric filling the wave guide.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 35

TM waves

The wave equation to solve is then

2 2 2

2 + 2 + kc E z (x, y ) = 0

x y

Plus some boundary conditions on the walls of the

waveguide. The standard method of solving this PDE is to

use separation of variables. I.e..

E z (x, y ) = X (x )Y ( y )

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 36

Possible Solutions

equations. But this time we have full derivatives and we can

easily write solutions. d 2 X 2 d 2Y

2

+ kx X = 0

2

and 2

+ k yY = 0

dx dy

with k x2 + k y2 = kc2

Mathematics tells us that the solutions depend on the sign of kx2

kx2 kx Appropriate X(x)

0 0 A0x+B0

+ k A1sin kx+B1cos kx; C1ejkx +D1e-jkx

- jk A2sinh kx +B2cosh kx; C2ekx +D2e-kx

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 37

Boundary conditions

vanish on the walls of the guide :

E z (0, y ) = 0

left and right hand walls.

E z (a, y ) = 0

E z ( x,0 ) = 0

top and bottom walls.

E z ( x, b ) = 0

E z (x, y ) = ( A1 sin k x x + B1 cos k x x )(A2 sin k y y + B2 cos k y y )

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 38

Final solution

X(x) must be in the form sinkxx

Do not start from 0

Y(y) must be in the form sinkyy

m

kx =

a

with m, n integer and m, n = 1,2,3,.....

n

ky =

b This satisfies all the

boundary conditions

mx ny

E z (x, y ) = E0 sin sin

a b

We can only get discrete

m n

2 2

kc =

2

+ values of kc -eigenvalues!

a b

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 39

Mode numbers (m,n)

The m,n numbers will give different solutions for Ez (as well as

all the other transverse components. Each m,n combination will

correspond to a mode which will satisfy all boundary and wave

equations. Notice how the modes depend on the geometry (a,b)!

Thus each mode will specify a unique field distribution in the

guide. We now have a formula for the parameter kc once

we specify the mode numbers.

The concept of a mode is fundamental to many E/M problems.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 40

From previous formulas, we have directly upon using the value kc

2 2

1 m n

fc = +

2 a b

2 Note this!

c =

2 2

m n

+

a b

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 41

TE Modes

2 2 2

2 + 2 + kc H z (x, y ) = 0

x y

H z

E y = 0 at x = 0

x x =0

Boundary conditions

H z

Boundary E y = 0 at x = a for Hz (longitudinal)

conditions x x =0

are equivalently

expressed in terms of

H z Ex and Ey (transverse)

E x = 0 at y = 0

y y =0

H z

E x = 0 at y = b

y

y =0

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 42

TEmn Results

But this time we have that the TE dominant mode (ie. the

TE mode with the lowest cut-off frequency) is TE10 This

mode has an even lower cut-off frequency than TM11 and

is said to be the Dominant Mode for a rectangular

waveguide. m x n y

H z ( x, y ) = H 0 cos cos This is provided

a b

we label the large

( f c )TE10 = 1

=

v side a and associate

2a 2a this side with the

mode number m

(c )TE 10

= 2a

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 43

View of TE10 mode for waveguide.

H field

E field

TE10

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 44

For mono-mode (or single-mode) operation, only the fundamental TE10 mode

should be propagating over the frequency band of interest.

propagating mode. We have two possible modes to consider, TE01 and TE20.

1

f c (TE 01 ) =

2b

1

f c (TE 20 ) = = 2 f c (TE10 )

a

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 45

a 1

If b = f c (TE 01 ) = f c (TE 20 ) = 2 f c (TE10 ) =

2 a

Mono-mode Bandwidth

0 fc(TE10) fc(TE20) f

a

If a > b > f c (TE10 ) < f c (TE 01 ) < f c (TE 20 )

2

Mono-mode Bandwidth

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 46

a

If b < f c (TE 20 ) < f c (TE 01 )

2 Mono-mode Bandwidth

In practice , a safety margin of about 20% is considered, so that the useful

bandwidth is less than the maximum mono-mode bandwidth. This is

necessary to make sure that the first mode (TE10) is well above cut-off, and

the second mode (TE01 or TE20) is strongly evanescent.

Safety margin

Useful Bandwidth

0 f (TE ) f

fc(TE10) fc(TE20) c 01

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 47

If a=b (square wave guide) f c (TE10 ) = f c (TE 20 )

0 fc(TE10) fc(TE20) f

fc(TE01)

fc(TE02)

In the case of perfectly square wave guide, TEm0 and TE0n

modes with m=n are are degenerate with the same cut-off

frequency.

of the degenerate modes are the same.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 48

Example Design an air-filled rectangular wave guide for the following

operation conditions:

a. 10 GHz in the middle of the frequency band (single mode operation)

b. b=a/2

The fundamental mode is the TE10 with cut-off frequency

1 c 3 10 m / sec

8

f c (TE10 ) = = Hz

2a 2a 2a

For b=a/2, TE01 and TE20 have the same cut-off frequency

1 c c 2 c 3 108 m / sec

f c (TE 01 ) = = = = Hz

2b 2b 2 a a a

1 c 3 108 m / sec

f c (TE 20 ) = = Hz

a a a

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 49

The operation frequency can be expressed in terms of the cut-off frequencies

f c (TE10 ) f c (TE 01 )

f = f c (TE10 ) +

2

f c (TE10 ) + f c (TE 01 )

= = 10.0GHz

2

1 3 108

3 108

10.0 109 = +

2 2a a

a

a = 2.25cm b = = 1.125cm

2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 50

An example

the guide is 0.9 x 0.4 inches (waveguides come in standard sizes).

The cut-off frequency of the dominant mode:

m n

2 2

a b

(kc )TE = = 137.43

10

a

137.43 3 108

( f c )TE =

kc

= = 6.56GHz

10

2 0 0 2

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 51

An example

(kc )01 = 309.21 the ascending order of mode is 10, 20, 01,11

(kc )20 = 274.86

The next cuff-off frequency after TE10 will then be

274.86 3 108

( f c )TE = = 13.12GHz

20

2

the frequency range of 6.56<f <13.12GHz.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 52

An example

It is not good to operate too close to cut-off for the reason that

the wall losses increases very quickly as the frequency approaches

cut-off. A good guideline is to operate between 1.25fc and 1.9fc.

This then would restrict the single mode operation to 8.2 to 12.5

GHz.

f2

( )20 = k k = (kc )20

2

c

2

1 2

f c20

Specify an operating frequency f, half way in the original

range of TE10 i.e.. 9.84GHz.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 53

An example

2

9.84

( )20 = 274.86

1 = 181.8 (Real)

13.12

So = 181.8 Np / m

or in dB 181.8 x 8.7 = 1581 dB/m ie. TE 20 is very strongly evanescent.

2

f2

f c10 6.56

So = 153.64 rad/m

All further higher order modes will be cut-off with higher rates

of attenuation.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 54

Field Patterns

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 55

The simple arrangement below can be used to excite TE10 in a

rectangular wave guide.

antenna and it creates a maximum electric field in the middle of

the cross-section.

Closed end

TE01

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 56

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

wave guide, closed by two additional metal plates. We assume

again perfectly conducting walls and loss-less dielectric.

m

x = d

a

n

y =

b a

p

z =

d

b

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 57

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

standing waves in the z-direction which leads to the definition of

oscillation frequencies

2 2 2

1 m n p

fc = + +

2 a b d

into a very narrow pass-band behavior, since cut-off frequencies

of the wave guide are transformed into oscillation frequencies of

the resonator.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 58

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

In the wave guide, each mode is In the resonator, resonant modes can

associated with a band of frequencies only exist in correspondence of discrete

larger the cut-off frequency. resonance frequencies.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 59

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

TEmnp TMmnp

The values of the index corresponds to periodicity (number of sine or

cosine waves) in three direction. Using z-direction as the reference for

the definition of transverse electric or magnetic fields, the allowed

indices are

m = 0 ,1,2 ,3,... m = 0 ,1,2 ,3,...

TE n = 0 ,1,2 ,3,... TM n = 0 ,1,2 ,3,...

p = 0 ,1,2 ,3,... p = 0 ,1,2 ,3,...

With only one zero index m or n allowed

The mode with lowest resonance frequency is called dominant mode. In case

a d>b the dominant mode is the TE101.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 60

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

direction, it is possible to have the third index equal zero. This is because the

magnetic field is going to be parallel to the third set of plates, and it can

therefore be uniform in the third direction, with no periodicity.

The electric field components will have the following form that satisfies the

boundary conditions for perfectly conducting walls.

m n p

E x = Ex cos x sin y sin z

a b d

m n p

Ey = E y sin x cos y sin z

a b d

m n p

Ey = Ez sin x sin y cos z

a b d

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 61

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

The amplitudes of the electric field components also must satisfy the

divergence condition which, in absence of charge is

m n p

E = 0 E x + E y + E z = 0

a b d

The magnetic field intensities are obtained from Amperes law:

z E y y E z m n p

Hx = sin x cos y cos z

j a b d

x E z z E x m n p

Hy = cos x sin y cos z

j a b d

y E x x E y m n p

Hz = cos x cos y sin z

j a b d

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 62

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

Similar considerations for modes and indices can be made if the other axes

are used as a reference for the transverse field, leading to analogous

resonant field configurations.

When the input frequency resonates with the cavity, electromagnetic

radiation enters the resonator and a lowering in the output is detected. By

using carefully tuned cavities, this scheme can be used for frequency

measurements.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 63

Waveguide Cavity Resonator

The termination of the inner conductor of the cable acts like an elementary

dipole (left) or an elementary loop (right) antenna.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 64

Waveguides

Here are some standard air-filled rectangular waveguides with their naming

designations, inner side dimensions a, b in inches, cutoff frequencies in GHz,

minimum and maximum recommended operating frequencies in GHz, power

ratings, and attenuations in dB/m (the power ratings and attenuations are

representative over each operating band.) We have chosen one example from

each microwave band.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology RF Cavities and Components for Accelerators USPAS 2010 65

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