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Temperature Regulating Canine Harness Using Peltier Effect (Thermoelectric Effect)

I. Background of the Study

Canines in general may not be adequately acclimated to cold or summer heat. On the coldest
days, we find them seeking warmth or next to a heat vent. If exposed to the cold, it may take
only a few minutes for them to become dangerously chilled. Conversely, under the hot summer
sun, and under a hotter fur coat, they can suffer heatstroke, while the scorching pavement can
burn their paws. Hyperthermia is an elevation in body temperature that is above the generally
accepted normal range. Although normal values for canines vary slightly, it usually is accepted
that body temperatures above 103 F (39 C) are abnormal. Heat stroke, meanwhile, is a form of
non-fever hyperthermia that occurs when heat-dissipating mechanisms of the body cannot
accommodate excessive external heat. Typically associated with temperature of 106 F (41 C)
or higher without signs of inflammation, a heat stroke can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. [1]

Several climate-controlled clothing have been designed for human to keep them at regulated
temperature such as Smart Fabric that keeps people heated and cooled. In the Philippines, pets
are vulnerable to extreme weather. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four
ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production
systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases. [2]
A temperature regulated harness for canines will keep them cool in the summer days and
warm in colder days. The installation of Peltier module on the apparel will be used as the
temperature controller that either heats or cools.

II. Statement of the Problem and Objectives

Statement of the Problem


Canines are exposed to increasing effects of climate change. Different illnesses occur
when canines start to feel they cant adapt to the temperature in their surroundings. Common
health-risks for canines like heat stroke, cardiovascular diseases, presence of parasites like ticks,
fleas etc. became more apparent as the temperature in the environment changes.
General Objectives:
To design a harness that helps regulate canines body temperature.

Specific Objective:

1. To adapt Peltier effect (module) on a canines harness that can either be used for heating
or cooling purpose
2. To design an apparel that specifically addresses canines physiology
3. To contribute support on Philippine Animal Welfare Society, Animal Health and Welfare
(Bureau of Animal Industry),
4. To promote awareness of the effect of climate change on canines health.
III. Theoretical Framework
The temperature regulating harness will use a temperature sensor that will detect any
temperature changes in the environment. The temperature sensor will be controlled by the
Arduino as the microcontroller which sets the sensor into a range of temperature to shift from
heating to cooling and vice-versa. The project will use a type of technology called the Peltier
effect. The conversion from heat to electrical energy will take place here, after the Arduino sends
the signal to the peltier module. TEC1-12076 is the peltier module to be used because it has
lower voltage and current value than the other peltier modules and it is one of the standard
module used. Since the Peltier module is a dual-function, because it is both used for cooling and
heating process, the Peltier module will adjust the temperature as soon as the temperature sensor
detects the change in temperature of the environment, making it more convenient to use of the
harness. It will be generated by a low input voltage, which will operate both the cooling and
heating. The peltier module will be mounted on the fabric layers of the harness. A voltage is
applied across joined conductors to create an electric current. Once the voltage is applied, heat is
removed at one junction, then cooling occurs. The other junction will be the one to be deposited
heat. In this case, the harness in canines will be more useful especially in terms of temperature
control.
Temperature
Microcontroller Peltier Module
Sensor

Power
Supply

Fig. 1.1 Theoretical Framework of the Temperature Regulated Canine Harness Using Peltier
Module
IV. Conceptual Framework

INPUT: PROCESS:
-Programming a code OUTPUT:
Temperature for the sensors. -Temperature is
Sensor -Designing a circuit regulated to the
Arduino kit diagram for the flow of
heat-to-electrical harness
Peltier Module
energy

FEEDBACK:
-Series of tests
on different
temperature
levels

Fig. 1.2. Conceptual Framework of Temperature-Regulated Canine Harness Using Peltier Effect
V. Overview of the Literature Review
Other related topics in this project include the Thermoelectric Generated Shirts for
humans. It can harness the bodys heat to generate electricity that could power low-energy
wearable electronics. It comprises 16 thermopiles, which are the individual electronic
components responsible for converting heat into electricity that is mounted in the fabric layers
of shirt. The device is reported to produce an average power of 1mW when sitting in an office at
22C.
The Thermoelectric Footwear Heating System is designed and develop to be used in cold
weather conditions. The module that was used is CP60240 because it can produce an output of
0.6V and 20mA current at a temperature difference of 40C. The Negative Temperature
Coefficient System (NTC) temperature sensor is used to sense the temperature and the
temperature is controlled by an electronic circuit. The temperature range of the system is from
+15C and +50C. The microcontroller used is PIC18F2670 because of its low-power application
and low voltage input. Developed footwear heating system is tested against various temperature
conditions, and offer better results in the case of heating the illness feet.

Parameters Temperature Thermoelectric Thermoelectric


Regulated Harness Generated Shirt Footwear Heating
System

Module TEC1-12076 Hidden CP60240


thermoelectric
generator with 16
thermopiles

Material Bismuth Telluride ------ Copper, Aluminum,


Bronze

Sensors Heat Sensor Heat Sensor Temperature Sensor


Temperature Sensor

Microcontroller Arduino ------ PIC18F2670

Power Source Battery Battery Battery

VI. Future Works


The use of thermoelectric energy can be more innovative by using the canines body
heat to convert it into electrical energy. It will serve as the power source to operate the peltier
module. Through the use of body heat, it can also be the basis to set a range of temperature for
the canine to be more comfortable in using the harness. Also, the production from body heat to
electricity can also be used to operate the GPS tracker for more accurate results and more
efficient utilizing of the technology.

VII. References
[1] Heat Stroke and Hyperthermia in Dogs. Retrieved from
http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/cardiovascular/c_dg_heat_stroke?page=show

[2] Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia. Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/23285592_Climate_change_impacts_and_risks_for_an
imal_health_in_Asia

[3] How do Thermoelectric Modules Work


http://www.marlow.com/resources/general-faq/6-how-do-thermoelectric-coolers-tecs-work.html

[4] How Climate Change Affects Dogs Health


http://dogtime.com/dog-health/36709-climate-change-affects-dogs-health

[5] Shirt Capable of Converting Body Heat Into Electricity


https://www.theengineer.co.uk/issues/14-november-2011/shirt-capable-of-converting-body-heat-
into-electricity/

[6]Thermoelectric Generator Hidden in a Shirt with a Fabric Radiator


http://ect2011.physics.auth.gr/papers/E_11_O.pdf

[7]Thermo Electric Peltier Heating Shoes


https://courses.engr.illinois.edu/ece445/getfile.asp?id=6966

[8]Design and Construction of Thermoelectric Footwear Heating System for Illness Feet
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10916-005-6131-3