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Cc trang trong th loi Phn ng ha hc

Mc lc

1 Phn ng ha hc 1
1.1 Phn loi phn ng ha hc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Vn tc phn ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.1 Phn ng ta nhit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 Xem thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.4 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 Lin kt ngoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 n mn 3
2.1 n mn in ly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 c thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.4 Lin kt ngoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3 Phn ng BartonMcCombie 5
3.1 C ch phn ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2 Nhng thay i t phn ng ban u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2.1 ay i ngun hydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.2.2 Trialkyl borane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.3 ng dng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.4 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

4 Cht kh 7
4.1 mnh yu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2 Tm quan trng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.3 Mt s cht kh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.4 Xem thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.5 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.6 Lin kt ngoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.7 Ngun tham kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

5 Cht oxy ha 9
5.1 V d v qu trnh oxy ha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2 Cc ngha khc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

i
ii MC LC

5.3 Mi lin h vi gc t do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.4 Mt s cht oxy ha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.5 Xem thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.6 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

6 Chemiser Garten 12
6.1 Cch lm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.2 Cm hng nghin cu v s sng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
6.3 Lin kt ngoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

7 nh lut bo ton khi lng 13


7.1 Lch s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

8 Bn t 14
8.1 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

9 Fiser Assay 15
9.1 Xem thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
9.2 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

10 Gia cng (ha hc) 16


10.1 Xem thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
10.2 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

11 Gc t do 17
11.1 Cc phn ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.1.1 Bc khi u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.1.2 Buc truyn dn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.1.3 Bc kt thc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.2 Mi lin h vi cht oxy ha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.3 Tc hi vi sc khe c th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
11.4 Ch ng chng gc t do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
11.5 Tn vi gc t do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
11.6 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

12 La 19
12.1 Tnh cht ca la . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12.1.1 Phn ng chy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
12.1.2 Ngn la . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
12.1.3 Nhit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.2 Ha thch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
12.3 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
12.4 Lin kt ngoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
MC LC iii

13 Lu ha 23
13.1 Lch s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.2 Tin trnh ha hc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.3 ng dng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
13.4 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

14 Nng lng Gibbs 24


14.1 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

15 Nhit nhm 25
15.1 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

16 xy ha kh 26
16.1 Cht oxy ha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
16.2 Cht kh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
16.3 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

17 Phn ng Wrtz 27
17.1 Phn ng tng qut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
17.2 C ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
17.3 V d v iu kin phn ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
17.4 Hn ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

18 Phng trnh ha hc 28
18.1 Cc bc vit phng trnh ha hc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
18.2 ngha ca phng trnh ha hc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
18.3 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

19 Phn ng th 30
19.1 Ha v c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
19.2 Phn ng th i lc ht nhn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
19.3 Phn ng th i lc in t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
19.4 Phn ng th gc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
19.4.1 V d: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
19.5 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

20 Phn ng trao i 31
20.1 Phn ng gia axit v baz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
20.2 Phn ng gia axit v mui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
20.3 Phn ng gia baz v mui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
20.4 Phn ng gia mui v mui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
20.5 c thm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
20.6 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
iv MC LC

21 Phn ng trng hp 33
21.1 Phn loi phn ng trng hp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
21.1.1 Phn loi da vo thnh phn v cu trc polymer to thnh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
21.1.2 Phn loi da trn c ch ca qu trnh trng hp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
21.2 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

22 trnh thy phn ATP 34


22.1 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

23 y phn 35
23.1 Ion kim loi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
23.2 Ch thch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

24 Xc tc 36
24.1 Trong sn xut cng nghip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
24.2 Phn loi xc tc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
24.2.1 Xc tc ng th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
24.2.2 Xc tc d th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
24.3 Mt s thuyt v cht xc tc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
24.4 am kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
24.5 Sch tham kho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
24.6 Ngun, ngi ng gp, v giy php cho vn bn v hnh nh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
24.6.1 Vn bn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
24.6.2 Hnh nh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
24.6.3 Giy php ni dung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Chng 1

Phn ng ha hc

ng gi l cht tham gia (hay cht phn ng), cht mi


sinh ra l sn phm. Phn ng ha hc c ghi theo
phng trnh ch nh sau:

Tn cc cht tham gia phn ng Tn cc


sn phm

Nhng loi phn ng thng gp bao gm:

Phn ng ha hp: L phn ng ha hc trong


ch c mt cht mi (sn phm) c to thnh t
hai hay nhiu cht ban u.
Phn ng phn hy: L phn ng ha hc trong
mt cht sinh ra hai hay nhiu cht mi.
Phn ng oxi ha - kh: L phn ng ha hc
trong xy ra ng thi s oxi ha v s kh.
Phn ng gia hi Clorua hir trong cc b-se v amoniac Phn ng th: L phn ng ha hc trong
trong ng nghim to nn hp cht mi, amoni clorua nguyn t ca n cht thay th nguyn t ca
1 nguyn t khc trong hp cht.
Phn ng ha hc l mt qu trnh dn n bin i
mt tp hp cc ha cht ny thnh mt tp hp cc Ngoi ra cn c cc phn ng khc nh phn ng trao
ha cht khc. eo cch c in, cc phn ng ha i, phn ng ta nhit,phn ng trung ha,.
hc bao gm ton b cc chuyn i ch lin quan n
v tr ca cc electron trong vic hnh thnh v ph v
cc lin kt ha hc gia cc nguyn t, v khng c 1.2 Vn tc phn ng
s thay i no i vi nhn (khng c s thay i
cc nguyn t tham gia), v thng c th c m
t bng cc phng trnh ha hc. Ha hc ht nhn Vn tc phn ng c o bng s thay i theo thi
l mt ngnh con ca ha hc lin quan n cc phn gian ca nng hoc p sut ca mt cht phn ng
ng ha hc ca cc nguyn t phng x v khng bn, hoc mt cht sn phm.Vic phn tch vn tc phn
trong c s chuyn in t v chuyn i ht nhn ng ng vai tr quan trng trong nhiu lnh vc trong
u c th din ra. c vic nghin cu cn bng ha hc. Vn tc phn
ng ph thuc vo nhiu yu t:
Phn ng ha hc c th din ra tc thi, khng yu
cu cung cp nng lng ban u, hoc khng tc Nng ca cc cht tham gia phn ng
thi, yu cu nng lng ban u (di nhiu dng
nh nhit, nh sng hay nng lng in). Din tch tip xc gia cc cht tham gia phn ng
p sut
1.1 Phn loi phn ng ha hc Nng lng hot ha ca phn ng
Nhit
trnh bin i t cht ny thnh cht khc gi l
phn ng ha hc. Cht ban u, b bin i trong phn Cht xc tc

1
2 CHNG 1. PHN NG HA HC

1.2.1 Phn ng ta nhit


Phn ng ta nhit (exothermic) l phn ng c km
theo s gii phng nng lng di nhiu dng.

1.3 Xem thm


Phn ng trao i
Cn bng phn ng ha hc

Danh sch cc phn ng trong ha hc hu c

Phn ng phn vt cht

1.4 Tham kho

1.5 Lin kt ngoi


Phn ng ha hc ti T in bch khoa Vit Nam
Chng 2

n mn

sc mnh, ngoi hnh v kh nng thm cht lng v


cht kh.
Nhiu cu trc hp kim ch b n mn khi tip xc vi
m trong khng kh, nhng qu trnh ny c th b
nh hng mnh m bi vic tip xc vi cc cht nht
nh. n mn c th c tp trung ti mt v tr to
thnh l thng hoc vt nt, hoc n c th m rng
trn mt din tch rng hn hay n mn b mt theo
mi hng. Bi v n mn l mt qu trnh kim sot
khuch tn, n xy ra trn b mt tip xc. Kt qu l
cc phng php lm gim hot ng ca cc b mt
tip xc nh th ng ha v cromat ha, c th lm
tng sc khng n mn ca vt liu. Tuy nhin, mt
s c ch n mn kh nhn thy hn v kh d on
G st - v d quen thuc nht ca s n mn. hn.

2.1 n mn in ly

n mn kim loi.

n mn l s ph hy dn dn cc vt liu (thng l
kim loi) thng qua phn ng ha hc vi mi trng.
eo ngha ph bin nht, n mn c ngha l qu trnh
oxy ha in ha hc ca kim loi trong phn ng vi
cc cht oxy ha nh oxy. G st - s hnh thnh ca cc n mn in ly ca nhm. Mt tm hp kim nhm dy 5mm
oxit st - l mt v d ni ting ca n mn in ha. c kt ni vi mt h tr kt cu thp nh dy 10mm. n
y l loi tn thng thng to ra oxit hoc mui mn in ly xy ra trn cc tm nhm c tn cng vi tm
ca cc kim loi ban u. n mn cng c th xy ra thp. Tm nhm b n mn thng trong vng 2 nm.[1]
trong cc vt liu phi kim loi, chng hn nh gm
hoc cc polyme, mc d trong bi cnh ny, s xung n mn in ly xy ra khi hai kim loi khc nhau c
cp theo thi gian l t ph bin hn. n mn lm gim nhng tip xc vt l hoc in vi nhau v c t
cc tnh cht hu ch ca vt liu v kt cu bao gm chm trong mt cht in phn thng thng, hoc khi

3
4 CHNG 2. N MN

cc kim loi tng t cng c tip xc vi cht in


phn vi nng khc nhau. Trong mt cp kim loi
nh vy, kim loi hot ng hn (anode) b n mn vi
tc nhanh v cc kim loi t hot ng hn (cathode)
b n mn vi tc chm. Khi b nhng vo cht in
ly mt cch ring bit th mi kim loi b n mn tc
ca ring mnh. Loi kim loi s dng c d
dng xc nh bng cch da theo chui kim loi hot
ng. V d, km thng c s dng nh mt anode
hy sinh cho cc kt cu thp. n mn in ly l mi
quan tm ln i vi cc ngnh cng nghip hng hi
v bt c ni no c nc (cha mui) trong ng ng
hoc cc kt cu kim loi.
Cc yu t nh kch thc tng i ca anode, cc
loi kim loi, v cc iu kin hot ng (nhit ,
m, mn, v.v) nh hng n n mn in ly. T
l din tch b mt ca cc anode v cathode trc tip
nh hng n t l n mn ca vt liu. n mn in
ly thng c ngn nga bng cch s dng cc ant
hy sinh.

2.2 Tham kho


[1] Galvanic Corrosion. Corrosionclinic.com. Truy cp
2012-07-15.

2.3 c thm
Jones, Denny (1996). Principles and Prevention of
Corrosion (n bn 2). Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-359993-0.

2.4 Lin kt ngoi


Corrosion Prevention Association
NACE International -Professional society for
corrosion engineers (NACE)
Working Safely with Corrosive Chemicals

efcweb.org European Federation of Corrosion


Metal Corrosion Corrosion eory

Electrochemistry of corrosion
A 3.4-Mb pdf handbook Corrosion Prevention
and Control, 2006, 296 pages, US DoD
How do you remove and prevent ash rust on
stainless steel? Article about the preventions of
ash rust
Chng 3

Phn ng BartonMcCombie

Phn ng -oxyha Barton-McCombie l mt phn 3.2.1 Thay i ngun hydride


ng ha hc hu c trong mt nhm hydroxy trong
hp cht hu c b thay th bi mt nhm alkyl[1] [2] . Mt trong nhng hn ch ca phn ng l vic s
Phn ng c t theo tn ca nh ha hc ngi Anh dng hydride ca thic vn l mt cht c, tn
Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton (1918-1988) v Stuart km v rt kh tch khi hn hp phn ng. Mt
W. McCombie. trong nhng thay i c xut l vic s dng
anhydride tributyl ca thic lm ngun to gc t
S
S
do v poly(methylhydridesiloxane) (PMMS) lm ngun
R1
Cl
R
Bu SnH hydride [4] . Phenyl chlorothionoformate cng c th
R OH
3
R H
- HCl O R1 AIBN c dng to ra carbonyl sulde.

Phn ng -oxyha Barton-McCombie O H O O H


O H
O O O O
O O O O
H H (Bu3Sn)2O H
O O O
HO pyridine
O
PMHS
H
Cl
AIBN
CH2Cl2, RT
BuOH Benzene 76%
O S O S reux

Ph Ph Ph O SnBu3

3.1 C ch phn ng
S=C=O

C ch phn ng ca phn ng Barton-McCombie yu


cu mt cht xc tc to gc t do giai on khi mo
3.2.2 Trialkyl borane
v mt bc pht trin mch [3] .Ru 1 trc ht c
chuyn ha thnh xanthate 2. Mt cht phn ng khc
Phc cht trialkyl borane- nc cng c th c s
l tributyl thic hydride 3 phn hy, di tc ng ca
dng nh ngun cung cp nguyn t hydrogen [5]
AIBN 8 thnh gc t do tributyl thic 4. Gc t do ny
ko nhm xanthate ra khi 2 v to thnh gc alkyl MeO C X MeO C 2
MeO C
MeO C 2 2
t do 5; sn phm cn li xanthate tributyl ca thic HC S S
MeO C
HC 9 4
2
MeO C
HC
2

9 4
2

9 4

7. Lin kt gia lu hunh v thic rt bn v to nn O


O OH
O O
Me3B - H2O

O O O H Benzene

lc y ca phn ng. Gc alkyl t do 5, n lt mnh, S S

ly i mt nguyn t hydrogen t mt phn t tributyl


thic hydride mi, to thnh sn phm -oxi-ha 6 v
mt gc t do mi cho qu trnh pht trin mch.
Trong vng xc tc ny, phn ng c khi mo nh
O S qu trnh oxi-ha ca trialkylborane 3 trong khng kh
Bu Sn S 3 R1 R O R1
7
R OH
to nn gc t do methyl 4. Gc t do ny phn ng vi
2 1

xanthate 2 tao ra S-methyl-S-methyl dithiocarbonate


AIBN
9
Bu Sn 3 R
.

4
7 v gc t do trung gian 5. Gc t do 5 t hp vi
.
5
8 CN
hydrogen ly t (CH3 )3 B.H2 O 3 to nn alkan 6; sn
Bu Sn H

CN
H 3 R H
3
phm ph l acid diethyl borinic v mt gc t do
6
10
methyl mi.
C ch ca phn ng Barton-McCombie

3.3 ng dng
3.2 Nhng thay i t phn ng Mt trong nhng phin bn ci tin ca phn ng c
ban u s dng trong qu trnh tng hp ton phn hp cht
azadirachtin [6] :

5
6 CHNG 3. PHN NG BARTONMCCOMBIE

Mt phin bn khc ca phn ng s dng cht phn


ng imidazole 1,1'-thiocarbonyldiimidazole (TCDI),
trong qu trnh tng hp ton phn pallescensin B [7]

3.4 Tham kho


[1] Barton, D. H. R.; McCombie, S. W. (1975). A new method
for the deoxygenation of secondary alcohols (bng ting
Anh) (16). J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1. tr. 15741585.
doi:10.1039/P19750001574. Kim tra gi tr ngy thng
trong: |date= (tr gip)

[2] Crich, D.; intero, L. (1989). Radical chemistry


associated with the thiocarbonyl group (bng ting Anh)
(89). Chem. Rev. tr. 1413-1432. doi:10.1021/cr00097a001.
Kim tra gi tr ngy thng trong: |date= (tr gip)

[3] Forbes, J. E.; Zard, S. Z. Tetrahedron Le. 1989, 30, 4367.

[4] -D-Ribo-hexofuranose, 3-deoxy-1,2:5,6-bis-O-(1-


methylethylidene). Tormo, J.; Fu, G. C. Org. Syn., Coll.
Vol. 10, p.240 (2004); Vol. 78, p.239 (2002).

[5] Deoxygenation of Alcohols Employing Water as the


Hydrogen Atom Source David A. Spiegel, Kenneth B.
Wiberg, Laura N. Schacherer, Mahew R. Medeiros, and
John L. Wood J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 12513-12515.

[6] Synthesis of Azadirachtin: A Long but Successful Journey


Gemma E. Veitch, Edith Beckmann, Brenda J. Burke,
Alistair Boyer, Sarah L. Maslen, and Steven V. Ley
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007

[7] Wen-Cheng Liu; Chun-Chen Liao (1999). Article e


rst total synthesis of ()-pallescensin B (bng ting
Anh) (117). tr. 117118. Kim tra gi tr ngy thng
trong: |date= (tr gip)
Chng 4

Cht kh

Cht kh (hay tc nhn kh) l mt nguyn t ha hc ti bng trn th ngi cn phi bit th xi ha ca
hay mt hp cht trong cc phn ng xi ha kh c n, i du tr s nhn c c th kh v so snh
kh nng kh mt cht khc. thc hin iu n chng vi nhau. Kt qu nhn c s l Na, Cr, Cu v
tr thnh cht b xi ha, v v th n l cht cho in t Cl- ; Na s l cht kh mnh nht cn Cl- l cht kh
trong phn ng xi ha kh. Cht kh ng thi cng yu nht trong s 4 cht ny.
l cht b oxi Ha. V d, trong phn ng di y:
Mt s cht kh ph bin bao gm cc kim loi kim
v kim th nh kali, canxi, bari, natri hay magi, cng
2Mg(rn) + O2 2Mg2+ (rn) + 2O2- nh cc hp cht cha ion H- , nhng cht ny bao gm
NaH, LiAlH4 hay CaH2 .
Cht kh trong phn ng ny l magi. Magi cho hai
Cn lu rng, mt s nguyn t v hp cht c th l
in t ha tr v tr thnh mt ion, iu ny cho php
cht kh hay cht xi ha ty theo iu kin chng
n cng nh xy tr nn bn vng.
tham gia phn ng. V d, hir l cht kh khi phn
Cc cht kh nh vy cn phi c bo v tt trong ng vi cc nguyn t khng l kim loi nhng li l
khng kh do chng phn ng vi xy tng t nh cht xi ha khi phn ng vi mt s kim loi. V d,
phn ng trn. trong phn ng

2Li + H2 (kh)+ nhit cao -->2LiH


4.1 mnh yu
th hir ng vai tr ca cht xi ha do n nhn in
Mt cht kh mnh rt d dng mt (hay cho) cc in t do liti cung cp, v n lm cho liti b xi ha.
t. Ht nhn ca nguyn t thu ht cc in t qu o
Cc na ca phn ng 2Li0 -->2Li+1 + 2e- :::::
ca n. i vi cc nguyn t m nguyn t ca n c
H2 0 + 2e- --> 2H1
bn knh nguyn t tng i ln th khong cch t
ht nhn ti cc in t l ln hn v lc thu ht (hp Cn trong phn ng ny
dn) ca n l yu hn; do vy, cc nguyn t ny c xu
hng th hin tnh kh cao hn. Ngoi ra, cc nguyn H2 (kh) + F2 (kh) --> 2HF(kh)
t c m in thp, th kh nng ca nguyn t hay
phn t ca n trong vic thu ht cc in t lin kt
th hir ng vai tr ca cht kh do n cho i in
l yu hn v nng lng ion ha tng i thp ca
t duy nht ca mnh cho o, iu ny c ngha l n
chng cng l l do chng l cc tc nhn kh mnh
kh o.
hn. Tiu chun nh gi mt cht trong vic d hay
kh b xi ha/mt in t c gi l th xi ha. Bng Cc na ca phn ng H2 0 --> 2H+1 + 2e- :::::
di y ch ra mt s th kh, c th d dng hon F2 0 + 2e- --> 2F1
chuyn thnh th xi ha bng cch n gin l i
du trong gi tr ca n. Cc cht kh c th d dng
xp hng theo s tng ln (gim xung) trong th xi 4.2 Tm quan trng
ha ca chng. Mt cht kh l mnh hn khi n c
th xi ha c tr s ln hn v s l cht kh yu khi Cc cht kh v cc cht xi ha l cc cht c tc dng
n c th xi ha c tr s nh hn. Bng di y ch n mn in ha, l s xung cp ca cc kim loi do
ra th kh ca mt s cht kh iu kin 25 . Ngoi kt qu ca cc hot ng in ha. trnh ny cn
ra cng cn ghi nh l qu trnh xi ha l mt i in c 1 hay nhiu ion m nhn vai tr nhn in tch (ion
t cn qu trnh kh l thu in t. dng) v 1 hay nhiu ion m nhn vai tr cho in
V d nu mt ngi lit k Cu, Cl- , Na v Cr theo trt tch (ion m) c th xy ra. Ant l nguyn t mt
t gim dn xung ca tnh kh iu kin nh cp in t (cht kh), v vy qu trnh xi ha din ra ti

7
8 CHNG 4. CHT KH

ant, cn catt l nguyn t thu nhn in t (cht xi 4.7 Ngun tham kho
ha), v th qu trnh kh lun lun din ra ti catt.
s n mn in ha din ra khi c s chnh lch v th xi ha
xi ha. Khi iu ny xy ra, ant kim loi s bt u
b h hng dn i do c mt mch in khp kn xi ha kh
thng qua cht in phn.
Phn ng xi ha kh

Chemical Principles: e est for Insight, n


4.3 Mt s cht kh bn ln th 3. Peter Atkins v Lorea Jones trang.
76
Ion st ha tr +2

Hirua nhm liti (LiAlH4 )

Hir nguyn t

Ferrixyanua kali (K3 Fe(CN)6 )

Hn hng natri (Hn hng natri vi thy ngn


hay NaHg2 )

Borohirua natri (NaBH4 )

Ion thic ha tr +2

Cc hp cht sult (SO3 2 )

Hirazin (cht kh Wol-Kishner)

Hn hng km (ZnHg) (Cht kh Clemmensen)

hirua diisobutyl nhm (DIBAH)

Xc tc Lindlar

Axt oxalic (C2 H2 O4 )

4.4 Xem thm


Cht xi ha

m in

in ha hc

n mn

Cht in phn

4.5 Tham kho

4.6 Lin kt ngoi


Bng tng hp v cng ca cc cht kh
Chng 5

Cht oxy ha

OXIDIZER

5.1

Biu tng nguy him ha hc ca Lin minh chu u cho cc p phch cht oxy ha
cht oxy ha

cc nguyn t xy hoc
2. Mt cht thu cc in t trong mt phn ng oxy
ha kh.

nh ngha trn l d p dng cho nhng g m phn


ln mi ngi hay c c v n. N cng l ngha m
phn ln cc nh ha hc hu c hay s dng. Trong
c hai trng hp, cht xi ha b kh trong phn ng
ha hc.
Hiu mt cch n gin th:

Cht oxy ha b kh.


Cht kh b oxy ha.
Tt c cc nguyn t trong phn t u c th gn
cho mt s oxy ha. Gi tr ny b thay i khi c
mt cht oxy ha tc dng ln cht nn.

Nhn hng nguy him cho cc cht oxy ha Phn ng oxy ha kh din ra khi cc in t c
trao i.
Mt t oxy ha (hay tc nhn oxy ha) l:
ghi nh ch cn hiu rng: trnh oxy ha l mt
1. Mt hp cht ha hc c kh nng chuyn giao in t, qu trnh kh l thu in t.

9
10 CHNG 5. CHT OXY HA

5.1 V d v qu trnh oxy ha ca hng ha c nguy him chy nh l mt cht oxy


ha.
Phn ng to ra st (III) oxit:

4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2 O3


5.3 Mi lin h vi gc t do

Trong phng trnh trn, st (Fe) c s oxy ha ban


u bng 0 v bng 3+ sau phn ng. i vi xy (O)
th s oxy ha ca n ban u l 0 v gim xung 2- Cht oxy ha cng l mt cch gi khc ca gc t do.
. Cc thay i ny c th xem xt nh l hai na ca C th chng c chia lm hai bi ring vi mc tiu
phn ng din ra ng thi: nhn mnh, cp n cc hng khc nhau:

1. trnh oxy ha: Fe0 Fe3+ + 3e Cht oxy ha ni v cc phn ng oxy ha kh


ha hc ni chung xy ra trong mi trng
2. trnh kh: O2 + 4e 2 O2
Gc t do ni v cc phn ng oxy ha xy ra
trong c th gy ra cc loi bnh v nhiu tc hi
St (Fe) b oxy ha do s oxy ha ca n tng ln v n
trn c th
l cht kh do n cp cc in t cho xy (O). xy (O)
b kh do s ha tr ca n gim v n l cht oxy ha
do n nhn cc in t t st (Fe)
5.4 Mt s cht oxy ha
Superoxide, hydro peroxide (H2 O2 ) v hydroxyl
5.2 Cc ngha khc
Hypoclorit v cc hypohalit khc
Do qu trnh oxy ha l ph bin (cc cht n khi n
hay nhin liu khi chy, n mn in ha), nn thut It v cc halogen khc
ng cht oxy ha c nhiu ngha i khi khng trng Clorit, clorat, perclorat v cc hp cht tng t
nhau. ca cc halogen khc
eo mt nh ngha, cht oxy ha nhn cc in t t
Cc mui penmanganat
cht th. Trong ng cnh ny, cht oxy ha c gi
l tc nhn nhn in t. Mt cht oxy ha kinh in Nitrat xeri (IV) amoni v cc hp cht khc tng
l ion ferroxenium [Fe(C5 H5 )2 ]+ nhn in t to ra t ca xeri(IV).
Fe(C5 H5 )2 . S quan tm ln ca cc nh ha hc l cc
chi tit ca s kin chuyn giao in t, n c th miu Cc hp cht crom ha tr 6 nh cc axt
t nh l phm vi bn trong hay phm vi bn ngoi. cromic v dicromic cng trioxid crom,
Clorocromat pyridinium (PCC) v cc hp
Trong cch s dng thng thng khc, mt cht oxy cht cromat/dicromat.
ha chuyn giao cc nguyn t xy cho cht nn. Trong
ng cnh ny, cht oxy ha c th gi l thuc th Cc hp cht peroxid
oxy ha hay tc nhn chuyn giao xy-nguyn t.
V d [MnO4 ] permanganat, [CrO4 ]2 cromat, OsO4 uc th Tollen
tetroxid osmi, ClO4 perclorat. Lu rng cc cht ny Sulfoxid
u l cc dng oxid, v trn thc t l cc polyoxid.
Trong mt s trng hp, cc oxid ny cng c th Axt persulfuric
ng vai tr ca tc nhn nhn in t, nh trong minh
zn
ha v s chuyn ha ca [MnO4 ] thnh [MnO4 ]2 ,
manganat. Tetroxid osmi (OsO4 )
Mt nh ngha theo ng cnh ca hng ha c nguy Axt nitric
him chy v cc t oxy ha l cc cht, trong khi
chng c th khng nht thit phi d bt la, c th xt init (N2 O)
sinh ra xy - l nguyn nhn hay gp phn vo s chy
ca cc vt liu khc. (Australian Dangerous Goods
Code, n bn ln th 6). eo nh ngha ny th mt 5.5 Xem thm
s vt liu c phn loi nh l cht oxy ha theo ha
phn tch li khng c phn loi nh l cht oxy ha Cht kh
theo ng cnh ca hng ha c nguy him chy. Mt v
d l dicromat kali khng vt qua c th nghim xi ha cht hu c
5.6. THAM KHO 11

5.6 Tham kho


Chng 6

Chemischer Garten

phc tp vic ny nh hng n kh nng hiu


c quy trnh hnh thnh cc cu trc.
Cc loi mui thng dng to ra kt ta l phn,
CuSO4 , CrCl3 , NiSO4 , FeSO4 , FeCl3 v CoCl2 . Mi loi
mui s cho cu trc mu sc khc nhau.

6.2 Cm hng nghin cu v s


sng
D phn ng ny khng to ra s sng trong bnh
nhng n to cm hng cho nhiu thuyt nghin
cu s sng c bit l cc thuyt cc ming phun
thy nhit. Cc ming phun ny giu khong cht t
su bn trong b mt ca Tri t ra cc sui ngm,
c li v thnh hnh tng ng vi phn ng thng
l vi tng. Mt s nh khoa hc coi ming phun thy
nhit l ni m s sng bt u hnh thnh u tin
trn Tri t. Mt nghin cu thy rng cc cu trc
trng ging thc vt ny c kh nng pht in v nu
tht s nh th th phn ng ny c th c xem l
mt cc pin np in mt phn cho vic hnh thnh
s sng.
Kt ta trng rt ging vi mt loi rong

Chemiser Garten l mt loi phn ng ha hc to 6.3 Lin kt ngoi


ra kt ta rn c cu trc trng rt ging thc vt thy
sinh ang pht trin trong mt khong thi gian vi https://books.google.com.au/books?id=
pht n hng gi nhng thc t khng phi l vt th DxBKAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA186&hl=en#v=
sng. Phn ng ny c m t ghi li trong ti liu sm onepage&q&f=false
nht c tm thy hin ti do Johann Rudolf Glauber
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/
thc hin nm 1646.
150217122706.htm
http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/
6.1 Cch lm presspacs/2013/acs-presspac-march-20-2013/
chemical-gardens-could-hold-the-key-to-understanding-the-origin
html
to ra phn ng ny th ch vic mui kim loi
vo trong dung dch kim vic ny s to ra cc cu trc Lm th
hnh ng vi cc hnh dng v mu sc khc nhau do
s kt hp khc nhau ca nhng tnh cht nh p sut
thm thu, tc ng ca trng lc, phn ng v khuch
tn Rt kh xc nh tnh cht no ang tc ng
n vic to hnh ca cu trc trong chui phn ng

12
Chng 7

nh lut bo ton khi lng

nh lut bo ton khi lng hay nh lut


Lomonosov - Lavoisier l mt nh lut c bn trong
lnh vc ha hc, c pht biu nh sau: Trong phn
ng ha hc, tng khi lng cc cht tham gia phn
ng bng tng khi lng cc sn phm to thnh.

7.1 Lch s
nh lut bo ton khi lng c hai nh khoa hc
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov v Antoine Lavoisier
khm ph c lp vi nhau qua nhng th nghim c
cn o chnh xc, t pht hin ra nh lut bo ton
khi lng.

Nm 1748, nh ha hc ngi Nga Mikhail


Vasilyevich Lomonosov t ra nh .
Nm 1789, nh ha hc ngi Php Antoine
Lavoisier pht biu nh lut ny.

Khi cn nhng bnh nt kn ng bt kim loi trc


v sau khi nung, M.V.Lomonosov nhn thy rng khi
lng ca chng khng thay i, mc d nhng chuyn
ho ho hc xy ra vi kim loi trong bnh. Khi p
dng cc phng php nh lng nghin cu phn
ng ho hc, nm 1748 Lomonosov tm nh lut
quan trng ny. Lomonosov trnh by nh lut nh
sau: Tt c nhng bin i xy ra trong t nhin thc
cht l nu ly i bao nhiu vt th ny, th c by
nhiu c thm vo vt th khc. Nh vy, nu
y gim i bao nhiu vt cht, th s c tng y vt
cht tng ln ch khc.

13
Chng 8

Bn cht

Trong phn ng ho hc c s thay i lin kt gia


cc nguyn t, s thay i ny ch lin quan n cc
in t cn s nguyn t ca mi nguyn t c gi
nguyn v khi lng ca cc nguyn t khng i, v
th tng khi lng cc cht c bo ton. nh lut
ny i khi cn c gi l nh lut bo ton khi
lng ca cc cht, v cng mt a im trng lng
t l vi khi lng.
Lomonosov cng nhn thy rng bo ton nng lng
cng c gi tr i vi cc phn ng ha hc.

8.1 Tham kho

14
Chng 9

Fischer Assay

Fiser Assay l mt th nghim tiu chun xc nh FISCHER ASSAY - EQUIPMENT, PROCEDURES AND
lng sinh du t phin du, c dng nh gi PRODUCT BALANCE DETERMINATIONS (PDF).
hiu qu ca cc qu trnh chit tch du t phin. Argonne National Laboratory. Truy cp ngy 30 thng
Cho 100 gram mu phin du nghin n kch thc 11 nm 2009.
ht <2,38 mm vo mt bnh chng ct c cong bng
nhm nung n nhit 500 (930 ) vi tc tng
nhit 12 /pht (22 /pht), v gi nhit trn
trong khong thi gian 40 pht.[1] Hi du, kh v hi
nc t qu trnh chng ct c a qua mt bnh
ngng t v c lm lnh bng nc trong mt
ng nghim ly tm. Du sinh ra t cc qu trnh cng
ngh khc thng c tnh theo t l so vi du sinh
ra trong th nghim ny.
nghim Fischer Assay ban u c tin hnh trong
kin nhit thp trong qu trnh chng ct than ,
do Franz Joseph Emil Fischer v Hans Schrader nghin
cu.[2] nghim ny c pht trin ph hp vi vic
nh gi kh nng sinh du ca phin du nm 1949
bi K. E. Staneld v I. C. Frost.[3]

9.1 Xem thm


Fischer-Tropsch process

9.2 Tham kho


[1] Dyni, John R.. "Geology and resources of some world oil
shale deposits. Scientic Investigations Report 20055294"
(PDF). United States Department of the Interior; United
States Geological Survey. Truy cp ngy ngy 18 thng
8 nm 2008.

[2] Heistand, Robert N.. "e Fischer Assay, standard


method?" (PDF). Symposium on oil shale, tar sands,
and related materials production and utilization of
synfuels. Truy cp ngy ngy 18 thng 8 nm 2008.

[3] L. Goodfellow, C. E. Haberman and M. T. Atwood.


JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON OIL SHALE, TAR SANDS,
AND RELATED MATERIAL AND THE DIVISION OF
WATER, AIR, AND WASTE CHEMISTRY. AMERICAN
CHEMICAL SOCIETY PRESENTED BEFORE THE
DIVISION OF PETROLEUM CHEMISTRY, INC. SAN
FRANCISCO MEETING, April 2-5, 1968. MODIFIED

15
Chng 10

Gia cng (ha hc)

Trong ha hc, gia cng l thut ng ch mt lot nh ha tan cc mui magi v thu c cc
cc thao tc cn phi c c lp v tinh ch cc sn cht rn mu trng cha axt benzoic cha tinh
phm ca phn ng ha hc. khit.
ng thng, cc thao tc ny bao gm: 4. Axt benzoic c cht loi b dung dch lng
cha cc tp cht, b sung thm nc v hn hp
Chm dt phn ng kh hot tnh ca bt k c un si vi nhiu nc thm vo to ra
cht phn ng no nhng cha tham gia phn dung dch ng nht.
ng.
5. Dung dch c lm ngui chm dn xung ti
Loi b dung mi bng cch cho bay hi. nhit phng, sau c cho qua bnh cha
Tch ring hn hp phn ng thnh cc lp hu nc ti kt tinh axt benzoic.
c v/hoc lng bng chit lng-lng. 6. Cc tinh th axt benzoic ti kt tinh c thu thp
Tinh ch bng ghi sc k, chng ct hay ti kt trong phu Buchner v kh trong khng kh
tinh ha. to ra axt benzoic tinh khit.

V d, trong phn ng Grignard gia phenylmagi


brmua v ixt cacbon trong dng bng kh to ra 10.1 Xem thm
baz lin hp ca axt benzoic. Sn phm mong mun,
axt benzoic, thu c bng cch gia cng nh sau:[1] Ha hc lung

10.2 Tham kho


[1] Donald L. Pavia (2004). Introduction to Organic
Laboratory Techniques: A Small Scale Approach.
omson Brooks/Cole. tr. 312314. ISBN 0534408338.

1. Hn hp phn ng cha thuc th Grignard (R-


Mg-X) c lm m ti nhit phng trong bnh
cha nc cho bng kh d tha bay hi ht
2. Tc nhn Grignard cn li no c chm dt
bng b sung nc
3. Axt clohiric long c thm vo trong hn hp
phn ng proton ha cc mui benzoat, cng

16
Chng 11

Gc t do

Mt gc t do (Anh ng: free radical hoc radicals) l d to ra phn ng. N lun lun tm cch chim ot
mt phn t vi mt in t c thn / cha to thnh in t m n thiu t cc phn t khc, v ln lt
cp (unpaired electron) (Afzal & Armstrong, 2002). to ra mt chui nhng gc t do mi, gy ri lon cho
Nhng gc t do thiu ht electron to thnh b sinh hot bnh thng ca t bo. Cc khoa hc gia v
tm (octet) theo cu trc ca Lewis (Lewis Structure). chng nh nhng tn s khanh chuyn i ve vn, ph
V d: khi phn t Cl2 tch ra thnh hai nguyn t hoi hnh phc ca cc cuc hn nhn ang m p.
Cl. Mi nguyn t Cl s mang 7 electrons (valence Gc t do lun trong tnh trng n thn c m nn
electrons), 7 electrons to thnh 3 cp electrons, 1 thng xuyn nhm ng n nhng phn t hng
electron c thn (khi 2 n guyn t Cl kt hp, electron xm. Li dng lc hng xm l l cnh gic, chng
c thn s kt hp vi nhau lm mt cp electron). Mi s nhanh tay cp ly mt in t c i c cp
nguyn t Cl vi 7 electrons l mt gc t do. Electron y nh mt phn t bnh thng. ng nhin, khi
c thn c gi l electron s l (odd electron) hoc ny g phn t hng xm li tr thnh k c n, v
electron gc (radical electron). Nhng electron ny tip tc i rnh nhng phn t ln cn khc, gy ra
lun trong t th sn sng kt hp vi mt electron chui bi kch ko di.
t do ca mt nguyn t khc to mt lin kt.
ng thng, nhng nguyn t ny s c v vi
mt du chm (vd: Cl) i din cho electron l (odd 11.1.3 Bc kt thc
electron) cha to thnh cp (unpaired). Nhng gc t
do rt d to ra phn ng (reactive).[1] L khi nhng phn ng ph ph hu (side reaction
destroy) gc t do hoc lm chm hoc dng phn
ng.[1]
11.1 Cc phn ng
Gc t do lin tc c sn sinh trong chui phn ng 11.2 Mi lin h vi cht oxy ha
(Free-Radical Chain reaction) trong c th v cc tc
ng t bn ngoi. trnh chuyn ha ny c gi
gn trong ba bc chnh
Gc t do cng l mt cch gi khc Cht oxy ha. C
11.1.1 Bc khi u th chng c chia lm hai bi ring vi mc tiu nhn
mnh, cp n cc hng khc nhau:
Sn sinh gc t do. Phn ng tch phn t Cl2 thnh
hai gc t do l v d. Cht oxy ha ni v cc phn ng oxy ha kh
ha hc ni chung xy ra trong mi trng

11.1.2 Buc truyn dn Gc t do ni v cc phn ng oxy ha xy ra


trong c th gy ra cc loi bnh v nhiu tc hi
L nhng phn ng m nhng gc t do d phn ng trn c th
(reactive) ny phn ng vi mt phn t n nh khc
(stable molecule) to thnh sn phm (product) v
mt gc t do. Do tnh cht d phn ng (reactive), 11.3 Tc hi vi sc khe c th
nhng gc t do ny tip tc phn ng vi cc phn t
n nh khc cho n khi khng cn tc nhn (reactant) Gc t do c nhiu tc hi vi sc khe c th, n l
hoc nhng gc t do hon ton b ph hu (destroyed). ngun gc ca s lo ha v hn 100 bnh tt nguy
Do , n khng cn bng, y v tr nn rt bt n, him bao gm cc bnh v no, mt, da, h min dch,

17
18 CHNG 11. GC T DO

tim, mch mu, phi, thn, a c quan v khp. mc [2] Khoai lang tm v cuc chin chng gc t do. Bo
nng, gc t do gy nn nhiu bnh nguy him v Ph N nh ph H Ch Minh. Truy cp 22 thng 8
gy ung th do sau khi cp in t, gc t do lm nm 2014.
tn thng mng t bo, phn ng mnh vi cc phn
t protein, DNA v cc axit bo, dn n nhng bin
i gy tn hi, ri lon v lm cht t bo.
S lng ca gc t do tch ly theo tui v tc hi ngy
cng nghim trng. D vy, ngay t khi sinh ra, c th
con ngi phi i mt vi gc t do. Tui tc ngy
cng tng th s lng gc t do cng khng ngng sn
sinh, tn cng vo nhiu b phn ca c th. ng ch
, khi cuc sng cng thng cng l lc i qun gc
t do tha c gia tng nhanh chng, thc y s lo
ha v lm cc bnh l sm pht trin. c tnh, mi t
bo phi hng chu khong 10.000 gc t do tn cng
mi ngy. V vy, trong cuc i ca mt ngi sng
ti 70 tui, th c chng 17 tn gc t do c to ra.[2]

11.4 Ch ng chng gc t do
Cc chuyn gia y t cnh bo, trong x hi hin i con
ngi s chu nhiu p lc hn do gc t do sn sinh
nhanh hn v nhiu hn, to nn nhiu mi nguy cho
sc khe. V vy, cn ch ng i ph vi bnh tt do
gc t do gy ra cng sm cng tt, bng cch:

Gim yu t tng sinh gc t do: Gc t do khng


ch sinh ra t cc qu trnh chuyn ha trong c
th m cn hnh thnh di tc ng ca cc yu
t bn ngoi nh: mi trng nhim (khi bi,
nh nng, phng x), khi thuc l, ha cht,
nhim khun, thc phm V th, cn hn ch ti
a tc ng ca cc yu t ny.

B sung cht chng gc t do t thin nhin: Mt


ch dinh dng giu cc cht chng gc t do
c th gip c th tng kh nng phng v v
trung ha gc t do mt cch hu hiu. Trong
khu phn n hng ngy, nn tng cng cc tho
dc, tri cy v rau c v y l ngun cung
cp di do cc cht chng gc t do. Trong ,
Blueberry sinh trng Bc M c nhiu
nghin cu chng minh kh nng cht chng gc
t do mnh m.

11.5 Tn vi gc t do
Lipid peroxide v cc sn phm oxy ha ca n (Lipid
Oxidation Products - LOPs)

11.6 Tham kho


[1] Organic Chemistry. L. G. Wade. Jr. 8th edition. Pearson.
Illinois. 2013.
Chng 12

La

nhau.
La c th gy nn ha hon, c th gy ra thit hi do
vt cht b chy. La c nh hng quan trng n h
sinh thi trn ton cu. Tc ng tch cc ca la bao
gm kch thch sinh trng v duy tr cc h sinh thi
khc nhau. La c con ngi s dng nu n, to
ra nhit, nh sng, tn hiu, v lc y. Tc ng tiu
cc ca la bao gm lm nhim nc v khng kh,
lm xi mn t, v l mi nguy hi cho ngi v ti
sn.[3]

La
12.1 Tnh cht ca la

12.1.1 Phn ng chy

Th dn mi ly la

La l qu trnh oxy ha nhanh chng ca mt vt liu


trong phn ng chy, gii phng ra nhit, nh sng, v
cc sn phm phn ng khc.[1] Cc qu trnh xy ha
chm hn khng c bao gm trong nh ngha ny.
Ngn la l mt phn biu hin thy c (pht ra nh
sng) ca s chy. N to ra t cc phn ng ha hc
c s ta nhit cao (chy, phn ng oxy ha t duy tr) Tam gic la
din ra trong mi trng hp. Ngn la l mt trng
thi tn ti ca vt cht v c xp nh mt loi kh La (Chy) bt u khi mt cht d bt la v/hoc vt
plasma - b ion ha mt phn.[2] liu d chy, kt hp vi mt lng y mt cht
to ra la, phi cn v 3 yu t, l: cht chy, oxy ha nh kh oxy hoc mt hp cht giu oxy (mc
xy v ngun nhit. iu mt trong cc yu t trn d c cht oxy ha m khng c oxy), c tip xc vi
hoc cc yu t trn khng th s chy s khng mt ngun nhit hoc mi trng xung quanh c nhit
xy ra. Mi cht khc nhau c nhit bc chy khc trn im bt la ca nhin liu hoc hn hp cht

19
20 CHNG 12. LA

oxy ha. iu kin tip theo l qu trnh oxy ha phi 12.1.2 Ngn la
c th duy tr tc ca phn ng nhanh chng n
mc to ra mt phn ng dy chuyn. Ba iu kin
ny thng c gi l tam gic la. La khng th tn
ti m khng c tt c cc yu t trn theo ng t l.
V d, mt cht lng d chy s bt u chy ch khi
nhin liu v oxy kt hp theo ng t l. Mt s hn
hp gia nhin liu v oxy c th cn mt cht xc tc,
khng tham gia vo phn ng chy, nhng cho php
cc cht phn ng t chy d dng hn.
Khi t chy, mt phn ng dy chuyn phi din ra
theo ngn la c th duy tr nhit ca chnh n bng
cch pht nhit trong qu trnh chy v c th tip tc
chy, vi iu kin c mt ngun cung cp lin tc ca
cc cht xy ha v nhin liu.
Nu cht oxy ha l oxy t khng kh xung quanh, do
c lc hp dn, hoc do mt s lc tng t gy ra bi
gia tc l cn thit to ra i lu. i lu loi b tro
than v mang ngun cung cp oxy mi vo ngn la
la tip tc chy. Nu khng c lc hp dn, mt m
chy nhanh chng b dp tt v n s b cc tro than
v kh khng bt chy trong khng kh bao vy. V th
nn nguy c chy trong mt tu v tr l nh khi n
quay quanh qu o do qun tnh.[4][5] Tt nhin, iu
ny khng p dng nu oxy c cung cp cho ngn
la bi mt s quy trnh khc vi i lu nhit.
La c th c dp tt bng cch loi b bt k mt
trong cc yu t ca tam gic la. Hy chn mt ngn
la kh t t nhin, chng hn nh t mt bp ga.
Ngn la c th c dp tt bng cc cch sau y:

Tt ngun cung cp kh t, tc l loi b ngun


nhin liu;

Bao bc ngn la hon ton. iu ny dp tt la


v qu trnh t chy va tiu hy cht oxy ha
c sn (oxy trong khng kh) va to ra kh CO2
khng chy bao vy ngn la; Ngn la nn

Xt nc. Nc lm h nhit ngn la nhanh hn


so vi tc tng nhit ca ngn la (tng t, Mt ngn la l mt hn hp kh phn ng v cht rn,
thi mnh vo la s y sc nng ca kh t pht ra tia hng ngoi, v i khi tia cc tm c th
cch xa ngun nhin liu ca n), hoc nhn thy c. ang ph ca ngn la ph thuc
vo thnh phn ha hc ca vt liu chy v cc sn
phm phn ng trung gian. Trong nhiu trng hp,
Xt mt ha cht chng chy nh Halon vo ngn
chng hn nh vic t cht hu c, v d g, hoc
la. Cht ny lm gim tc ca cc phn ng
qu trnh t kh chy khng ht, cc ht rn c gi
ha hc lm ngng phn ng dy chuyn.
l b hng to ra mu -da cam quen thuc ca
ngn la. nh sng ny c mt quang ph lin tc.
Ngc li, ngn la c tng cng bng cch tng t chy hon ton kh ga to ra ngn la c mu
tc tng th ca qu trnh chy. Phng php lm xanh m do s pht bc x n bc sng do qu trnh
iu ny bao gm: cn bng u vo ca nhin liu v chuyn i in t khc nhau trong cc phn t b kch
cht oxy ha duy tr t l cn bng ha hc ca cc thch hnh thnh trong ngn la. ng l cc phn t
cht phn ng, tng nhin liu v cht oxy ha theo t oxy, nhng hydro t trong clo cng to ra mt ngn
l trn, tng nhit mi trng xung quanh nhit la, to thnh hydro clorua (HCl). Cc phn ng chy
ngn la c th duy tr qu trnh chy tt hn, hoc khc c th to ra ngn la, v d nh o v hydro v
cung cp mt cht xc tc to phn ng. hydrazine v nit tetroxide.
12.2. HA THCH 21

thnh mu xanh hn v phn ng chy t ra hiu qu


hn (mc d n c th b tt nu khng c di chuyn
u n, cn CO2 thi ra t qu trnh t chy khng
phn tn d dng trong mi trng khng trng lc,
nn n bao vy ngn la v c th dp tt phn ng
chy). C nhiu l gii cho s khc bit ny, trong
nhiu kh nng l nhit c phn phi ng u
n mc m mui than do nhin liu chy khng ht
khng hnh thnh v qu trnh t chy xy ra hon
ton.[7] Cc th nghim ca NASA cho thy ngn la
khuch tn trong mi trng trng lc thp cho php
mui than hon ton b oxy ha sch s khi b t chy.
N khc vi ngn la khuch tn trn Tri t, v mt
lot cc c ch khc nhau trong mi trng lc hp dn
thp khi so snh vi iu kin trng lc bnh thng.
Nhng khm ph ny c nhng ng dng tim nng
trong khoa hc ng dng v cng nghip, c bit l
lin quan n tnh hiu qu khi s dng nhin liu.[8]
Trong ng c t trong, ngi ta dng cc bin php
khc nhau loi tr phn ng chy khi ng c ang
chu k khc, chng kch n. Phng php ny ph
thuc ch yu vo c th ca nhin liu l du, g,
hay mt nhin liu nng lng cao nh nhin liu my
bay phn lc.

12.1.3 Nhit
Hnh nh ca mt ngn la chp vi tc m ng knh 1/4000
giy Mu sc ca ngn la theo nhit


nh sng ca mt ngn la rt phc tp. Bc x vt en
c pht ra t cc ht bi than, kh t, hoc nhin Vn c th nhn thy: 525 (980 )
liu, mc d cc ht b hng qu nh c coi l cc Ti: 700 (1,300 )
vt en hon ho. Ngoi ra cn c pht x photon do ti: 800 (1,500 )
cc nguyn t v phn t trong ngn la ht b kch
thch. Hu ht cc bc x c pht ra trong di quang va: 900 (1,700 )
ph c th nhn thy v hng ngoi. Mu sc ph thuc sng: 1,000 (1,800 )
vo nhit ca bc x vt en, v mu ca quang ph
ph thuc vo thnh phn ha hc. Mu sc ch o Cam
trong ngn la thay i theo nhit . Hnh nh ca
Sm: 1,100 (2,000 )
chy rng Canada l mt v d tuyt vi ca s thay
i ny. Gn mt t, ni m hu ht phn ng chy xy Sng: 1,200 (2,200 )
ra, ngn la l mu trng-mu sc nng nht c th cho
Trng
cc cht hu c ni chung, hoc mu vng. Trn khu
vc mu vng, mu sc chuyn sang mu cam, vi nhit Hi trng: 1,300 (2,400 )
thp hn, sau mu , vi nhit thp hn na.
Trn khu vc mu , phn ng chy khng cn xy Sng: 1,400 (2,600 )
ra, v cc ht carbon cha b chy ht to ra khi/mui Sng la: 1,500 (2,700 )
than mu en.
S phn b chung ca mt ngn la trong iu kin
trng lc bnh thng ph thuc vo s i lu, thng 12.2 Ha thch
thng khin b hng cha kp chy c xu hng bay
ln trn, chng hn nh mt ngn nn trong iu kin Ha thch chy c pht hin u tin vi s c mt
trng lc bnh thng, lm cho ngn la c mu vng. ca h thc vt trn cn vo Ordovic gia, 470 triu
trong mi trng m trng lc rt nh hoc bng nm v trc,[9] cho php s tch tc xy trong kh
0,[6] nh trong khng gian v tr, i lu khng cn quyn nh cha tng c trc , khi cc m cy mi
xy ra, ngn la s c dng hnh cu, c xu hng tr bm n ra ngoi dng cht thi. Khi hm long ny
22 CHNG 12. LA

vt trn 13%, n c th to ra cc m chy rng.[10] [13] Bowman, D. M. J. S.; et, al. (2009). Fire in
Chy rng c ghi nhn trong cc ha thch Silur the Earth system. Science 324 (5926): 481
mun, 420 triu nm v trc, t cc ha thch ca thc 4. Bibcode:2009Sci324..481B. PMID 19390038.
vt to than. [11][12]
Ngoi mt khong trng gy tranh doi:10.1126/science.1163886.
ci trong k Devon mun, than c bo tn nh cha [14] Retallack, Gregory J. (1997). Neogene expansion of
bao gi c trc .[12] Mc xy trong kh quyn c the North American prairie. PALAIOS 12 (4): 38090.
lin quan cht ch vi t l than: xy r rng l yu t doi:10.2307/3515337.
chnh gy ra chy rng rt nhiu.[13] m chy cng c
th bng pht khi c pht tn mnh v tr thnh thnh
phn ch yu ca nhiu h sinh thi vo khong 6 - 7 12.4 Lin kt ngoi
triu nm v trc;[14] vt liu mi la ny to cc m
chy kh lm cho la lan rng nhanh chng.[13] Nhng
Phng tin lin quan ti Fire ti Wikimedia Commons
m chy lan rng c th bt u mt qu trnh phn
hi tch cc, nh m chng to ra mt kh hu
m p hn, kh hn v d chy hn.[13]

12.3 Tham kho


[1] Glossary of Wildland Fire Terminology (PDF).
National Wildre Coordinating Group. ng 11 nm
2009. Truy cp ngy 18 thng 12 nm 2008.

[2] Helmenstine, Anne Marie. What is the State of Maer


of Fire or Flame? Is it a Liquid, Solid, or Gas?.
About.com. Truy cp ngy 21 thng 1 nm 2009.

[3] Lentile, et al., 319

[4] Ask Astronaut Greg Chamito: Light a Match!. Truy


cp 8 thng 2 nm 2015.

[5] How does re behave in zero gravity?. io9. Truy cp


8 thng 2 nm 2015.

[6] Spiral ames in microgravity, National Aeronautics and


Space Administration, 2000.

[7] CFM-1 experiment results, National Aeronautics and


Space Administration, April 2005.

[8] LSP-1 experiment results, National Aeronautics and


Space Administration, April 2005.

[9] Wellman, C. H.; Gray, J. (2000). e microfossil record


of early land plants. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol
Sci 355 (1398): 71731; discussion 7312. PMC 1692785.
PMID 10905606. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0612.

[10] Jones, Timothy P.; Chaloner, William G. (1991). Fossil


charcoal, its recognition and palaeoatmospheric
signicance. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
Palaeoecology 97 (12): 3950. doi:10.1016/0031-
0182(91)90180-Y.

[11] Glasspool, I.J.; Edwards, D.; Axe, L. (2004). Charcoal


in the Silurian as evidence for the earliest wildre.
Geology 32 (5): 381383. doi:10.1130/G20363.1.

[12] Sco, AC; Glasspool, IJ (2006). e diversication of


Paleozoic re systems and uctuations in atmospheric
oxygen concentration. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
103 (29): 108615. PMC 1544139. PMID 16832054.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0604090103.
Chng 13

Lu ha

Lu ha l qu trinh phn ng ha hc m qua cao


su chuyn t trng thi mch thng sang trng thi Dp cao su
khng gian 3 chiu. Ngay t bui u tin, ngi ta
dng lu hunh khu mch cao su nn gi l lu
ha. Ngoi lu hunh cn c th dng mt s cht 13.4 Tham kho
khc lu ha cao su nh selen (Se), peroxit, nha
lu ha,S lu ha lm cho cao su bn hn, dai
hn v a cao su tr thnh sn phm c ng dng
rng ri trong cuc sng.

13.1 Lch s

13.2 Tin trnh ha hc

13.3 ng dng

23
Chng 14

Nng lng Gibbs

Nng lng t do Gibbs (Gibbs free energy) l nng


lng vn c ca mt h thng, khi cn n c dng
thc hin cng di cc iu kin v p sut nht
nh. Khi nim v nng lng t do c ng Josiah
Willard Gibbs nu ra u tin nn k hiu l G. N l
nng lng ti a tim n trong h thng. Cc cht ha
hc u c cha nng lng t do. Khi xy ra phn ng
ha hc, c s bin i nng lng t do c k hiu
bng G.

14.1 Tham kho

24
Chng 15

Nhit nhm

Hn ng st bng phn ng nhit nhm

Nhit nhm l phn ng ha hc ta nhit trong


nhm v mt s kim loi mnh l cht kh nhit
cao. Tuy nhin nhm thng c s dng do nhit
ta ra cao. V d ni bt nht l phn ng nhit nhm
gia xt st III v nhm:

Fe2 O3 + 2 Al 2 Fe + Al2 O3
Gm: 2 phn Fe2 O3 v 8 phn Al

Mt s phn ng khc nh:

3Mn3 04 + 8 Al = 4 Al2 03 + 9 Mn
Cr2 03 + 2 Al = Al2 03 + 2 Cr
Phn ng ny ln u tin c s dng
kh xit kim loi m khng s dng cac
bon. Phn ng ny ta nhit rt cao: 2200 ,
nhng n c mt nng lng hot ha cao do
cc lin kt gia cc nguyn t trong cht rn
phi c ph v trc.

15.1 Tham kho

25
Chng 16

xy ha kh

Phn ng oxy ha kh hay dng ha bao gm tt c Cht kh trong ha hc rt a dng. Nhng nguyn
cc phn ng ha hc trong cc nguyn t c trng t kim loi in dng nh liti, natri, magi, st, km,
thi oxy ha thay i, phn ng oxy ha kh thng nhm l nhng tc nhn kh tt. Cc kim loi ny
lin quan n vic chuyn giao in t (electron) gia cho i in t mt cch d dng. Cc cht chuyn hydrit
cc i tng ha hc. nh NaBH4 v LiAlH4 c s dng rng ri trong ha
hc hu c[2][3] , ch yu trong vic kh cc hp cht
C qu trnh oxy ha kh n gin, chng hn nh qu
trnh oxy ha ca cacbon to ra kh cacbon dioxit (CO2 ) cacbonyl to ra ru. Mt phng php kh khc
kt hp vic s dng kh hydro (H2 ) vi nhng cht xc
hay s kh cacbon bng hydro sinh ra kh mtan (CH4 ),
hoc cng c th l mt qu trnh phc tp nh vic oxy tc paladi, bch kim hoc niken. Vic kh dng xc tc
ha glucoza (C6 H12 O6 ) trong c th ngi thng qua c s dng ch yu trong vic kh lin kt i hoc
mt lot qu trnh phc tp di chuyn cc in t. ba nguyn t cacbon.

ut ng oxy ha kh" xut pht t hai khi nim


lin quan n vic di chuyn cc in t: s kh v s 16.3 Tham kho
oxy ha[1] . N c th c gii thch mt cch n gin
nh sau: [1] Redox Reactions. wiley.com.

trnh oxy ha l s mt i cc in t hoc s [2] Hudlick, Milo (1996). Reductions in Organic


Chemistry. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical
tng trng thi oxy ha gy ra bi mt phn t,
Society. tr. 429. ISBN 0-8412-3344-6.
nguyn t, hoc ion.
[3] Hudlick, Milo (1990). Oxidations in Organic
trnh kh l s tng thm cc in t hoc s Chemistry. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical
gim trng thi oxy ha gy ra bi mt phn t, Society. tr. 456. ISBN 0-8412-1780-7.
nguyn t, hoc ion.

16.1 Cht oxy ha


Cht c kh nng oxy ha cc cht khc (lm cho chng
mt cc in t) c gi l cht oxy ha. Cc cht ny
loi b cc in t ca mt cht khc, nn c gi l
kh".
Cht oxy ha thng l cc cht ha hc c trng thi
oxy ha cao (v d nh H2 O2 , MnO4, CrO3 , Cr2 O27,
OsO4 NO3, SO24, ) hay cha cc nguyn t c m
in cao (nh O2 , F2 , Cl2 , Br2 ) nn d ly c cc in
t bng cch oxy ha cht khc.

16.2 Cht kh
Cht c kh nng kh cht khc (lm cho chng nhn
cc in t) c gi l cht kh. Chng chuyn in
t cho mt cht khc, v do t n b oxy ha.

26
Chng 17

Phn ng Wrtz

17.3 V d v iu kin phn ng


Do nhiu hn ch m phn ng ny t c s dng.
V d n phn ng vi rt nhiu nhm chc. Tuy nhin
phn ng ny kh hu ch trong vic ng vng nh.
V d nh bixiclo butan c iu ch bng 1-brom-3-
clo xiclo butan vi hiu sut 95%. Phn ng c hi
lu trong ioxan, trong nhit ny natri l cht lng.
Phn ng Wrtz l mt phn ng ha hc c nh
ha hc ngi Php Charles Adolphe Wrtz tm ra
vo nm 1855. Phn ng ny l mt trong nhng phn 17.4 Hn ch
ng thuc phng php lm tng mch cacbon ca cc
hidrocacbon thng dng iu ch cc ankan i Phn ng Wrtz c nhiu hn ch nh sau:
xng. Cht tham gia phn ng Wrtz l mt dn xut
mono halogen ca mt hidrocacbon no v natri. Dung Nhy cm vi nhiu nhm chc.
mi c s dng l ete khan.
Ch tng hp c nhng hidrocacbon i xng
Natri thng c dng trong phn ng ny. Tuy nhin cn i vi nhng hidrocabon khng i xng th
c th s dng nhng kim loi khc nh bc, km, st, sn phm thu c s l mt hn hp.
ng, hoc hn hp mangan v ng clorua.[1]
[1] March Advanced Organic Chemistry 5th edition p. 535

17.1 Phn ng tng qut

2RX +2 Na R-R +2 NaX

17.2 C ch

C ch ca phn ng Wrtz kh ging phn ng


Grignard. Mono halogen tc dng vi kim loi to gc
alkyl R v mui halogen.
RX + M R +
Gc alkyl tip theo s phn ng vi kim loi M to ra
cacbocation.
R + M R- M+
Sau cacbocation phn ng vi halogenua to mch
hidrocacbon mi c mch di hn
R- M+ + RX R-R + M+ X-

27
Chng 18

Phng trnh ha hc

Phng trnh ha hc l phng php biu din ngn i ch s trong nhng cng thc ha hc vit
gn phn ng ha hc bng cch dng cng thc ca ng. Vit h s cao bng k hiu, th d khng
tng cht thay cho tn ca cht. vit 4 Al .
Nu trong cng thc ha hc c nhm nguyn
t, th d nhm (OH), nhm (SO4 ) th coi c
18.1 Cc bc vit phng trnh nhm nh mt n v cn bng. Trc v sau
ha hc phn ng s nhm nguyn t phi bng nhau (tr
nhng phn ng trong c nhm nguyn t
khng gi nguyn sau phn ng, khi phi tnh
s nguyn t mi nguyn t).

V d: Lp phng trnh ha hc t phng trnh ch


sau: Natri cacbonat + Canxi hiroxit Canxi cacbonat
+ Natri hiroxit
S phn ng: N a2 CO3 + Ca(OH)2
CaCO3 + N aOH
S nguyn t Na cng nh s nhm (OH) bn tri u
l 2 v bn phi u l 1. Cn s nguyn t Ca v s
nhm (CO3 ) hai bn u bng nhau. Ch cn t
mt h s trc cng thc mt cht l vit c phng
trnh ha hc: N a2 CO3 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 +
2N aOH
Phng trnh ho hc

Phng trnh ha hc c biu din bng cch vit 18.2 ngha ca phng trnh ha
cng thc ca cc cht tham gia bn tri, cc cht sn
phm bn phi. hc
Phng trnh ha hc c vit bng ba bc:[1]
Phng trnh ha hc cho bit: T l v s nguyn t,
1. Vit s ca phn ng, gm cng thc ca cc s phn t gia cc cht trong phn ng. T l ny bng
cht tham gia v sn phm. VD: Al + O2 ng t l h s mi cht trong phng trnh.
Al2 O3 [2] V d: theo phng trnh ha hc 4Al + 3O2
2Al2 O3 :[3]
2. Cn bng s nguyn t ca mi nguyn t bng
cch t h s thch hp trc cng thc. VD: S nguyn t Al: S phn t O2 : S phn t Al2 O3 = 4:
4Al + 3O2 2Al2 O3 3: 2

3. Vit phng trnh ha hc. VD: 4Al + 3O2 Hiu l: c 4 nguyn t Al tc dng vi 3 phn t O2
2Al2 O3 to ra 2 phn t Al2 O3 .
ng ch quan tm n t l tng cp cht, th d:[3]
*Lu : C 4 nguyn t Al tc dng vi 3 phn t O2 .

Khng vit 6O trong phng trnh ha hc, v kh C 4 nguyn t Al phn ng to ra 2 phn t Al2 O3 .
oxi dng phn t O2 . Tc l khng c thay Hay c 2 nguyn t Al phn ng to ra 1 phn t Al2 O3 .

28
18.3. THAM KHO 29

18.3 Tham kho


[1] Sgk lp 8(tr.56)

[2] Sgk Ha lp 8(tr.56)

[3] Sgk lp 8(tr.57)


Chng 19

Phn ng th

Phn ng th trong ha hc c hiu theo ha v c Pht trin mch:


v ha hu c hi khc nhau mt cht.
Trong ha v c, n l phn ng ha hc, trong mt CH4 + Cl' -> CH3 ' + HCl
nguyn t c hot ng ha hc mnh hn ( cc CH3 ' + Cl2 -> CH3 Cl + Cl'
iu kin c th v nhit , p sut) s thay th cho
nguyn t c hot ng ha hc yu hn trong hp Tt mch:
cht ca nguyn t ny, theo phn ng sau:
Cl' + Cl' -> Cl2
A + BX -> AX + B
CH3 ' + Cl' -> CH-> CH3 -CH3
Trong ha hu c, phn ng th l phn ng ha hc,
trong mt nhm ca mt hp cht c thay bng C ch ny gii thch s to thnh sn phm ph etan
mt nhm khc. (CH3 -CH3 ) trong qu trnh clo ho metan.

19.1 Ha v c 19.5 Tham kho

19.2 Phn ng th i lc ht nhn

19.3 Phn ng th i lc in t

19.4 Phn ng th gc
Phn ng ny thng gp cc hydrocacbon no, c
k hiu l S (t ting Anh substitution ngha l th ).
Phn ng th halogen trong cc phn t ankan xy ra
theo c ch th gc (c ch SR). y l mt phn ng
dy chuyn. Mun khi mo phn ng, cn phi chiu
sng hoc thm cc cht d phn hu thnh gc t do
hot ng vo.

19.4.1 V d:
Xt qu trnh phn ng gia metan (CH4 ) v clo (Cl2 ),
phn ng xy ra theo c ch th gc, tri qua 3 giai
on: khi mo, pht trin mch, tt mch.
Khi mo:

Cl2 -> Cl' + Cl' (iu kin: nh sng khuch


tn)

30
Chng 20

Phn ng trao i

Phn ng trao i l mt loi phn ng ho hc, trong H2 SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 (kt
, cc cht trao i cho nhau thnh phn cu to ca ta) + 2 HCl
n. T s trao i ny, chng hnh thnh nn nhng 2 HNO3 + K2 S KNO3 + 2 H2 S
cht mi. (bay hi)
C th phn loi phn ng trao i theo thnh phn 6 HCl + Cu3 (PO4 )2 3 CuCl2 +
cc cht tham gia phn ng. 2 H3 PO4 (yu hn HCl)

20.1 Phn ng gia axit v baz 20.3 Phn ng gia baz v mui
L phn ng gia mt axit v mt baz to ra mui Phn ng tng qut:
v nc.
Baz + Mui Baz (mi) +
Phn ng tng qut: Mui(mi)

Axit + Baz Mui + Nc a mn c hai iu kin sau:

V d: Mui v baz (ban u) phi tan.


Mt trong 2 sn phm c kt ta.
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2 0
H2 SO4 + 2KOH K2 SO4 + 2H2 0 V d:

2 NaOH + CuSO4 Na2 SO4 +


20.2 Phn ng gia axit v mui Cu(OH)2 (kt ta)
Ba(OH)2 + Na2 SO4 BaSO4 (kt
Phn ng tng qut: ta) + 2 NaOH

Axt + Mui Axit (mi) + Mui


(mi) 20.4 Phn ng gia mui v mui
1. a mn mt trong 2 iu kin phn ng: Phn ng tng qut:

Axit mi yu hn hoc d bay hi hn axit Mui + Mui Mui (mi) +


ban u. Mui (mi)
Mui mi kt ta hoc axit mi yu hn hoc
d bay hi hn axit ban u. a mn c hai iu kin sau:

2. Axit (mi) phi yu hn axit c d mui mi kt ta. - Hai mui tham gia phn ng u tan.
3. Axit (mi) c th mnh hn Axit c nu mui (mi) - Sn phm c cht kt ta hoc c cht kh
l: CuS, HgS, Ag2 S, PbS. bay hi.

V d: V d:

31
32 CHNG 20. PHN NG TRAO I

BaCl2 + CuSO4 BaSO4 (kt


ta) + CuCl2
2 AgNO3 + CuCl2 2 AgCl (kt
ta) + Cu(NO3 )2

20.5 c thm
R. H. Grubbs (Ch bin), Handbook of Metathesis,
Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2003.

20.6 Tham kho


Chng 21

Phn ng trng hp

Phn ng trng hp l phn ng ha hc tng hp Phn ng trng hp tng bc


cc hp cht cao phn t
Phn ng trng hp tng bc (step polymerization) l
phn ng trng hp c mch polyme to thnh pht
trin theo tng bc. Trong qu trnh tng hp phn ng
c th xy ra gia bt k 2 phn t no.

Phn ng trng hp chui

Mt v d v phn ng trng hp Butadien Phn ng trng hp chui (chain polymerization) l


phn ng trng hp c mch polyme to thnh do
trung tm hot ng ca on mch ang monome
xung quanh. Phn ng ny lun cn phn ng khi
mo (initial reaction) gia monome v cht khi mo
21.1 Phn loi phn ng trng hp bt u pht trin mch.

21.1.1 Phn loi da vo thnh phn v


cu trc polymer to thnh 21.2 Tham kho

Phn ng trng hp

Phn ng trng hp (addition polymerization) hay cn


gi l phn ng trng hp chui' l phn ng to
thnh polymer c mt xch c bn cu to tng t vi
monomer tham gia phn ng.

Phn ng trng ngng

Phn ng trng ngng (condensation polymerization) l


phn ng to thnh polymer vi mt xch c bn c s
nguyn t t hn monomer v to ra cc sn phm ph
nh: nc, HCl.
Phn ng trng ngng, hay phn ng ng trng
ngng, l mt qu trnh nhiu phn t nh (monomer)
lin kt vi nhau thnh phn t ln (polymer cao phn
t) ng thi gii phng nhiu phn t nh nh H2O,
HCl, CO2.

21.1.2 Phn loi da trn c ch ca qu


trnh trng hp

33
Chng 22

Qu trnh thy phn ATP

y l qu trnh phn ng gy ra bi nng lng ha


hc m chng c cha ng v vn chuyn trong cc
lin kt phn t hu c c cha pht pho nng lng
cao trong cu trc ATP sau khi gii phng nng lng,
v d trong cc c, nhm to ra cc vn ng cho c th.
Sn phm ca qu trnh thy phn ATP s gii phng
ra ADP (Adenosine diphosphate), nguyn t pht pht
v c v (ortophosphate) (Pi). ADP sau c th tip
tc c thy phn v to ra nng lng, Adenosine
monophosphate (AMP) v cc orthophosphate khc
(Pi).
trnh thy phn ca nhm pht pht trong ATP
(Adenosine Triphosphate) s to ra mt lng nng
lng c khong 7kcal/mol. Nng lng cha trong
ATP c th dng thc hin cng t bo, nh co c,
vn chuyn cht qua mng t bo, tng hp cc phn
t hu c
Nng lng c thc hin quay vng trong t bo,
qua ATP. Mt phn t ATP ch tn ti vi giy th nng
lng ca n c chuyn lun sang phn t khc,
v ATP tr thnh ADP, phn t ADP mi c to
ra ny li nhanh chng c chuyn tr thnh ATP
do c ghp sng hnh vi cc phn ng gii phng
nng lng (tc cc phn ng phn gii glucid, lipid v
protein). Tuy phn t ATP cha nng lng trong cu
trc ca mnh, nhng chc nng ca n l vn chuyn
nng lng hn l kho cha nng lng. Tng nng
lng cha trong ton b cc phn t ATP mt t bo
cng ch dng cho t bo trong vi giy.

22.1 Tham kho

34
Chng 23

Thy phn

Hydrolysis Reaction

y phn thng ch s chia ct lin kt ha hc


bng vic thm nc. Khi mt carbohydrate b chia lm
thnh phn ca n l cc phn t ng bi s thy
phn (v d sucrose c chia lm glucose v fructose),
thut ng ny c gi l ng phn.

23.1 Ion kim loi


Ion kim loi l axit Lewis, trong dung dch nc
chng hnh thnh ion kim loi ngm nc, cng thc
M(H2 O)m+ .[1][2] Ion ngm nc qua thy phn, vi
mc t hay nhiu. Bc thy phn th nht c
phng trnh chung:

M(H2 O)m+ + H2 O M(H2 O)(OH)(m1)+ +


H3 O+

23.2 Ch thch
[1] Burgess, J. (1978). Metal ions in solution. New York: Ellis
Horwood.

[2] Richens, D. T. (1997). e chemistry of aqua ions:


synthesis, structure, and reactivity: a tour through the
periodic table of the elements. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-97058-
1.

35
Chng 24

Xc tc

gia nit v hyro qua tc dng xc tc b mt, nh


nit v hyro trong hn hp d to thnh amoniac.Nu
khng c cht xc tc th trong cng iu kin nhit
v p sut, phn ng tng hp amoniac s xy ra vi
tc rt chm, khng th tin hnh sn xut vi lng
ln.
Cht xc tc c th gip chn cc bc phn ng ph
hp vi con ng m ngi ta thit k, phn ng
s xy ra theo con ng thun li nht cho qu trnh
sn xut.
V d khi dng ru etylic lm nguyn liu th tu
thuc vic chn cht xc tc v iu kin phn ng
m ta c th nhn c cc sn phm phn ng khc
nhau. Nu chn bc lm cht xc tc v a nhit
ln n 550 , ru etylic s bin thnh axetalehyd;
Mt dng c lc kh ng dng s oxy ha nhit thp, trong
cht xc tc c s dng chuyn i cacbon monoxit nu dng nhm oxit lm xc tc v nhit 350
thnh cacbon dioxit t c hn nhit phng. N cng c ta s nhn c etylen; nu dng hn hp km oxit v
th dng loi b formaldehyde trong khng kh. crom (III) oxit lm cht xc tc v nhit 450 ta s
thu c butylen; nu dng axit sunfuric c lm xc
tc v gi nhit 130 - 140 ta s c ete etylic.
trnh xc tc l qu trnh lm thay i tc ca
mt phn ng ha hc ca mt hay nhiu cht phn Ngy nay cc nh khoa hc tm c cht xc tc
ng, nh vo s tham gia ca mt cht thm vo gi ch to thnh thit b xc tc ni vo ng x kh thi
l t xc tc.[1] Khng ging cc cht phn ng khc ca t. Khi kh x t qua thit b xc tc s c x
trong phn ng ha hc, mt cht xc tc khng b mt l, cc cht chy cn d tha s b oxi ho bin thnh
i trong qu trnh phn ng. Vi mt cht xc tc, cn cacbon ioxit v nc;nit oxit bin thnh kh nit.[2]
t nng lng gii phng hn t c trng thi
trung gian, nhng tng nng lng gii phng t cht
phn ng sang cht to thnh khng i, c th tng 24.2 Phn loi xc tc
tc phn ng ho hc ln nhiu ln, hng chc ln,
hng trm ln, nn rt ngn c thi gian, tng cao
Ty theo trng thi ca cc thnh phn trong phn
hiu sut sn xut.[1] Cht xc tc sinh hc (hay cn
ng m ngi ta chia cc phn ng xc tc ra lm xc
gi l Enzym) l protein y nhanh tc phn ng
tc ng th v xc tc d th. Mt loi xc tc c bit
ha hc.
khc l xc tc men. Xc tc men c th l xc tc
Cht xc tc vt l l cht c tc dng thay i tnh ng th hoc di th. Xc tc ng th thng gp l
cht vt l ca cht b tc dng. in hnh l cc cht xc tc axit - baz. Ngoi ra cn c xc tc nucleol,
bi trn hoc cht gy ng t. xc tc electrol, xc tc bng phc kim loi chuyn
tip hoc ion ca n

24.1 Trong sn xut cng nghip 24.2.1 Xc tc ng th


Trong cc nh my sn xut phn m ngi ta thng Xc tc ng th l xc tc trong cht xc tc cng
dng st lm cht xc tc tng vn tc phn ng pha vi cht phn ng.

36
24.3. MT S THUYT V CHT XC TC 37

Mt s v d v xc tc ng th: hot ng ca nhng vi sinh vt no , v d men


2SO2 + O2 2SO3 (pha kh) ru, nm hoc vi khun. Trong nhng trng hp ny
2S2 O32 + H2 O + 2H S4 O62 + 2H2 O (pha lng) nhng cht men do vi sinh vt to ra l nhng yu t
hot ng xc tc. cht men vn gi c tnh hot
ng v kh nng tc dng ca n khi ly n ra khi vi
sinh vt.[3]
Thuyt xc tc ng th

Shpitalsky trnh by nm im v thuyt xc tc ng 24.2.2 Xc tc d th


th:
Xc tc d th l xc tc trong cht xc tc khc
pha vi cht phn ng.Cht xc tc d th thng l
1. Cht xc tc tng tc vi cht phn ng hnh cht rn v phn ng xy ra trn b mt cht xc tc.
thnh sn phm trung gian km bn. ng gp nht l nhng h xc tc d th gm pha
2. S hnh thnh sn phm trung gian l phn ng rn v pha kh (cc cht tham gia phn ng v sn phm
thun nghch din ra nhanh. phn ng).
c im ca phn ng xc tc d th l phn ng din
3. Sn phm trung gian phn hy chm, khng
ra nhiu giai on, c hai c trng:
thun nghch hnh thnh sn phm cui gii
phng ra cht xc tc.
trnh xy ra lp n phn t trn b mt
4. Tc chung ca phn ng t l vi nng ca cht xc tc. c trng ny th hin ch trong
sn phm trung gian, ch khng t l vi nng xc tc d th th khuch tn v hp ph ng vai
cht phn ng. tr quan trng.

5. Nng cht xc tc trng thi t do nm cn Cht xc tc khng phi l nhng phn t, ion
bng vi nng sn phm trung gian. ring r m l mt t hp nhng nguyn t, ion.[3]

Xc tc axt-baz 24.3 Mt s thuyt v cht xc tc


Phn ng trong dung dch c bit i vi hp cht 1. uyt hp t trung gian: uyt hp cht
hu c c xc tc bng axit, baz rt nhiu. l trung gian l mt trong nhng thuyt u tin
phn ng c s tham gia ca nc, ancol, amin. Cc v xc tc do Clement v Desormes v Sabatir
phn ng c c trng axit nh thy phn, ancol ha, xut.eo thuyt ny, phn ng din ra di mt
amoniac ha, nhng phn ng c s tham gia ca nhm dng no qua s hnh thnh hp cht trung
cacbonyl nh andehyt, axit hu c v dn xut ca gian. T , gip cho chng ta suy ngh vic la
chng.[3] chn cht xc tc: phi chn cht xc tc no c
th tng tc vi cht phn ng.
Phn ng t xc tc 2. uyt hp t b mt: uyt hp cht b mt
c Boreskow, Temkin xut v pht trin.eo
Phn ng m tc n tng ln do tc dng chnh cht thuyt ny, c th xem qu trnh xc tc nh mt
phn ng, c th l cht u hoc sn phm, gi l phn tp hp nhng giai on lun phin, hnh thnh
ng t xc tc. Phn ng thy phn este ha, axt hu nhng hp cht v ph hy chng gii phng ra
c v ru, phn ng t cm ng. V d: sn phm. Tuy nhin, thuyt ny vn cn vn
CH3 COOC2 H5 + H2 O CH3 COOH + tn ti.
C2 H5 OH
3. uyt trung tm hot ng: Da trn quan im
y l phn ng xc tc axt. cho rng b mt cht rn l khng ng nht.
Taylor a ra gi thuyt rng cc phn ng xc
tc ch xy ra trn nhng im ring r ca b mt
Xc tc men gi l trung tm hot ng. uyt Taylor ch c
gi tr l thuyt nht nh.
Loi men (ferments, enzymes) cng c lm cht xc
tc (xc tc sinh ha).Men l cht xc tc c ngun 4. uyt a v: uyt a v v xc tc d th do
gc protein, ngha l nhng phn t c cu to t Balandin d tho nm 1929. uyt ny xut pht
amin axit v c cu trc khng gian xc nh ca mch t nguyn l tng ng v cu to gia s sp xp
polypeptit. Tc dng xc tc l nh cc qu trnh ln nguyn t b mt cht xc tc v trong phn t
men. l nhng qu trnh trong xy ra s thay cht phn ng v c s tng ng nng lng ca
i thnh phn ha hc cc cht gy ra do kt qu cc lin kt. eo thuyt ny:
38 CHNG 24. XC TC

(a) Trung tm hot ng ca cht xc tc l tp


hp ca mt s xc nh ca cc trung tm
hp ph c phn b trn b mt ph hp
vi cu to hnh hc ca nhng phn t b
chuyn ha.
(b) C s hnh thnh ca nhng phc a v
khi hp ph nhng phn t phn ng trn
nhng trung tm hot ng. Kt qu ny dn
n s phn b li cc lin kt, a n hnh
thnh sn phm phn ng.

5. uyt tp hp hot ng: uyt tp hp hot


ng do Kobosew d tho nm 1939. uyt ny
c xy dng trn quan im cho rng cht (vt)
mang hot tnh xc tc l nhng cht v nh hnh
(khng kt tinh) gm mt s nguyn t trn b
mt khng c hot tnh xc tc ca vt mang.Cho
ti nay, thuyt tp hp hot ng vn cha c
tha nhn.
6. uyt in t: Pissarshewski l ngi u tin
d tho thuyt in t v xc tc vo nm 1916.
uyt ny b lng qun n cui nm 1940 mi
c nhiu ngi ch li nht l Lin X trc
y. uyt in t da trn quan im cho rng
s hp ph nhng phn t cht phn ng trn cht
xc tc ph thuc vo s phn b cc mc nng
lng bn trong tinh th ca cht xc tc v trn
b mt ca chng.

Vic kho st mt s l thuyt v xc tc cho thy l


thuyt v xc tc d th cha c s thng nht v quan
im ngay c nhng vn c bn. Cc thuyt trn mi
c tnh cht nh hng ch i vi mt s phn ng.[3]

24.4 Tham kho


[1] http://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html

[2] http://csv.net.vn/index.php/vi/kien-thuc-hoa-hoc/
pho-bien-kien-thuc-hoa-hoc-vui/
1573-chatxuctacduoccoivangcuacnhh

[3] http://websrv1.ctu.edu.vn/coursewares/supham/
donghoahoc/ch9.htm

24.5 Sch tham kho


Nguyn nh Hu; Trn Kim anh, ng ha hc
v xc tc, Nh xut bn Gio dc, H Ni, 1991
Trn Sn, ng ha hc, i hc Cn , 1982
24.6. NGUN, NGI NG GP, V GIY PHP CHO VN BN V HNH NH 39

24.6 Ngun, ngi ng gp, v giy php cho vn bn v hnh nh


24.6.1 Vn bn
Phn ng ha hc Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A3n_%E1%BB%A9ng_h%C3%B3a_h%E1%BB%8Dc?oldid=
31421935 Ngi ng gp: i Nhi, Lu Ly, Newone, DHN-bot, Escarbot, JAnDbot, Vdduong, Squall282, Kimiroo, VolkovBot,
TXiKiBoT, YonaBot, BotMultichill, Kinhcan121, SieBot, Conbo, Loveless, Maianhvk, Idioma-bot, Qbot, Minbk, BodhisavaBot,
MelancholieBot, Luckas-bot, SilvonenBot, ArthurBot, Darkicebot, Xqbot, GhalyBot, Obersachsebot, TobeBot, Ti Duy, TjBot, TuHan-
Bot, EmausBot, ZroBot, ChuispastonBot, WikitanvirBot, Cheers!-bot, MerlIwBot, AlphamaBot, Addbot, OctraBot, Tuyenly1,
Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot, Luke smart brain v 14 ngi v danh
n mn Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%82n_m%C3%B2n?oldid=22451934 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot,
GHA-WDAS, Tuanminh01 v Mt ngi v danh
Phn ng BartonMcCombie Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A3n_%E1%BB%A9ng_Barton%E2%80%93McCombie?
oldid=22464416 Ngi ng gp: Lu Ly, Vdduong, TXiKiBoT, Qbot, Leyo, ToiyeuTTMC, Tranletuhan, angbao, TuHan-Bot, ZroBot,
Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot2, Addbot, Gaconnhanhnhen, itxongkhoiAWB v n bc
Cht kh Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%E1%BA%A5t_kh%E1%BB%AD?oldid=23309375 Ngi ng gp: Vng Ngn H,
Apple, Huyphuc1981 nb, Nguyenhuu221157, TuHan-Bot, Cheers!-bot, MerlIwBot, AlphamaBot, TuanminhBot v 2 ngi v danh
Cht oxy ha Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ch%E1%BA%A5t_oxy_h%C3%B3a?oldid=26579871 Ngi ng gp: Vng Ngn
H, Qbot, TuHan-Bot, Cheers!-bot, MerlIwBot, TuanUt, AlphamaBot, OctraBot, Gaconnhanhnhen, Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot,
Powerover, Oanhnguyen25 v 5 ngi v danh
Chemiser Garten Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemischer_Garten?oldid=21080342 Ngi ng gp: Tnt1984 v
AlphamaBot
nh lut bo ton khi lng Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%90%E1%BB%8Bnh_lu%E1%BA%ADt_b%E1%BA%A3o_to%
C3%A0n_kh%E1%BB%91i_l%C6%B0%E1%BB%A3ng?oldid=26825220 Ngi ng gp: Mekong Bluesman, aisk, Newone, DHN-bot,
Escarbot, ijs!bot, Kimiroo, VolkovBot, SieBot, Loveless, Chauchuoi10, OKBot, SpBot, MystBot, Nallimbot, Luckas-bot, SilvonenBot,
HerculeBot, Ptbotgourou, ArthurBot, Darkicebot, Xqbot, TobeBot, Earthandmoon, Tnt1984, EmausBot, Jspeed1310, FoxBot, Cheers!-
bot, F~viwiki, MerlIwBot, H, TuanUt, AlphamaBot, Hugopako, Earthshaker, Addbot, Gaconnhanhnhen, Nguyn Cao Khit,
uanmycuatoi, Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot, Trng Minh Khi, Mind292003 v 7 ngi v danh
Fiser Assay Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer_Assay?oldid=22100009 Ngi ng gp: Tranletuhan, TuHan-Bot,
EmausBot, ZroBot, Mjbmrbot, AlphamaBot, Addbot v TuanminhBot
Gia cng (ha hc) Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gia_c%C3%B4ng_(h%C3%B3a_h%E1%BB%8Dc)?oldid=16285785 Ngi ng
gp: Qbot, Song song, MystBot, Luckas-bot, Misskhue, TuHan-Bot, Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot v Addbot
Gc t do Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%E1%BB%91c_t%E1%BB%B1_do?oldid=23506867 Ngi ng gp: Dinhtuydzao,
Tnt1984, TuHan-Bot, EmausBot, Sayityourway2k9, Yduocizm, MerlIwBot, AlphamaBot, AlphamaBot2, Addbot, Tuanminh01,
TuanminhBot, Danielbulengoc, n bc AWB, Powerover v 4 ngi v danh
La Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%E1%BB%ADa?oldid=27628278 Ngi ng gp: Mekong Bluesman, Trung, Sz-iwbot,
Newone, DHN-bot, Bigland, Escarbot, aituan123, JAnDbot, anhTrung82, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, Synthebot, AlleborgoBot, SieBot,
PipepBot, Sa Long Cng, Idioma-bot, Qbot, Paris, OKBot, Alexbot, BodhisavaBot, MelancholieBot, MystBot, AlleinStein, Luckas-bot,
Pq, Eternal Dragon, ArthurBot, Porcupine, Xqbot, TobeBot, D'ohBot, Chaingwithme, Trn Nguyn Minh Huy, Hungda, LMQ2401,
Tnt1984, Saxi753, TuHan-Bot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Binh1994, FoxBot, Cheers!, Cheers!-bot, F~viwiki, MerlIwBot, AvocatoBot,
Greenpea vn, Alphama, Kolega2357, AlphamaBot, AlphamaBot2, Addbot, OctraBot, itxongkhoiAWB, GHA-WDAS, Tuanminh01,
TuanminhBot, Giomuathu, n bc AWB, Powerover, Cutehousemouse, anhKPF v 14 ngi v danh
Lu ha Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C6%B0u_h%C3%B3a?oldid=26767514 Ngi ng gp: Apple, Newone, Ngaidrc, Qbot,
Minbk, Luckas-bot, ArthurBot, TjBot, DixonDBot, EmausBot, ZroBot, ChuispastonBot, Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot, Hugopako, Addbot
v TuanminhBot
Nng lng Gibbs Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C4%83ng_l%C6%B0%E1%BB%A3ng_Gibbs?oldid=26349303 Ngi ng
gp: Mxn, Mekong Bluesman, Trung, Apple, JAnDbot, Squall282, EmausBot, Cheers!-bot, MerlIwBot, AlphamaBot, Addbot,
TuanminhBot, P.T. v Mt ngi v danh
Nhit nhm Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nhi%E1%BB%87t_nh%C3%B4m?oldid=26243431 Ngi ng gp: Cheers!-bot,
AlphamaBot, P.T. v 3 ngi v danh
xy ha kh Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%94xy_h%C3%B3a_kh%E1%BB%AD?oldid=31492438 Ngi ng gp: Mxn,
Duyt-ph, Khonghieugi123, Terranhero, Ledinhthang, Alphama, AlphamaBot, AlphamaBot2, Gaconnhanhnhen, Tuanminh01,
ManlyBoys, P.T., Hientrinh1732001 v 3 ngi v danh
Phn ng Wrtz Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A3n_%E1%BB%A9ng_W%C3%BCrtz?oldid=31108601 Ngi ng
gp: AlphamaBot, uanmycuatoi, itxongkhoiAWB, TuanminhBot, Trantrongnhan100YHbot v Phng Ngc nh
Phng trnh ha hc Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%C6%B0%C6%A1ng_tr%C3%ACnh_h%C3%B3a_h%E1%BB%8Dc?oldid=
26806381 Ngi ng gp: VolkovBot, Amirobot, Ledinhthang, KamikazeBot, Banhtrung1, Tnt1984, TuHan-Bot, EmausBot,
MerlIwBot, AlphamaBot, Hugopako, AlphamaBot2, Addbot, Gaconnhanhnhen, Nobitadian1239, Dat Em, Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot,
Leeedanghieu v 10 ngi v danh
Phn ng th Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A3n_%E1%BB%A9ng_th%E1%BA%BF?oldid=26555445 Ngi ng
gp: Vng Ngn H, Trung, Chobot, DHN-bot, JAnDbot, SieBot, Loveless, DragonBot, Qbot, Alexbot, Luckas-bot, SilvonenBot,
ArthurBot, Xqbot, SassoBot, Prenn, TuHan-Bot, ZroBot, , Cheers!-bot, DarafshBot, JYBot, Alphama, AlphamaBot,
Hugopako, Addbot, Gaconnhanhnhen, Arc Warden, Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot, Mai Ngc Xun v 13 ngi v danh
Phn ng trao i Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A3n_%E1%BB%A9ng_trao_%C4%91%E1%BB%95i?oldid=
26628050 Ngi ng gp: Robbot, Vng Ngn H, Casablanca1911, Apple, Minhan, VolkovBot, TXiKiBoT, Pham Ngoc Son,
BotMultichill, SieBot, Minbk, Luckas-bot, Amirobot, Eternal Dragon, Xqbot, TuHan-Bot, EmausBot, ZroBot, Jspeed1310, CNBH,
Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot, Addbot, Gaconnhanhnhen, Tuyenly1, Emlaba8, itxongkhoiAWB, Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot, L Nh
Bnh, ManlyBoys, P.T. v 26 ngi v danh
40 CHNG 24. XC TC

Phn ng trng hp Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph%E1%BA%A3n_%E1%BB%A9ng_tr%C3%B9ng_h%E1%BB%A3p?oldid=


22115406 Ngi ng gp: Chobot, aisk, Newone, ijs!bot, TXiKiBoT, Bd, SieBot, Loveless, Qbot, PixelBot, Minbk, Muro Bot, Luckas-
bot, ArthurBot, Rubinbot, TobeBot, TuHan-Bot, EmausBot, ChuispastonBot, WikitanvirBot, Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot, Hosychinh,
Addbot, L Minh Nht, TuanminhBot v 4 ngi v danh
trnh thy phn ATP Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qu%C3%A1_tr%C3%ACnh_th%E1%BB%A7y_ph%C3%A2n_ATP?
oldid=22164152 Ngi ng gp: Casablanca1911, DHN-bot, Baocong, TuHan-Bot, Cheers!-bot, AlphamaBot, Gaconnhanhnhen,
itxongkhoiAWB v TuanminhBot
y phn Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%E1%BB%A7y_ph%C3%A2n?oldid=26553750 Ngi ng gp: AlphamaBot4, P.T.
v Zaq4
Xc tc Ngun: https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/X%C3%BAc_t%C3%A1c?oldid=26341319 Ngi ng gp: Joke~viwiki, Squall282,
Cheers!-bot, TuanUt, Chelseabun, AlphamaBot, Mo mp, eHunwarrior, Tuanminh01, TuanminhBot, BlphamaBot v 3 ngi v
danh

24.6.2 Hnh nh
Tp_tin:1,3-Butadiene_Polymerization.PNG Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c6/1%2C3-Butadiene_
Polymerization.PNG Giy php: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Ngi ng gp: User:H Padleckas created this image le in November 2005 for use in
articles like Polybutadiene in Wikimedia - User:H Padleckas 02:17, 1 December 2005 UTC Ngh s u tin: User:H Padleckas
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BA%A3n.svg Giy php: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Ngi ng gp: File:Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Ngh s u tin: is le: Prenn
Tp_tin:AzadirachtinReactionSequence2.png Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/
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William915 using CommonsHelper. Ngh s u tin: V8rik ti Wikipedia Ting Anh
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Maern
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Commons by William915 using CommonsHelper. Ngh s u tin: V8rik ti Wikipedia Ting Anh
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php: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Ngi ng gp: Chuyn t en.wikipedia sang Commons by William915 using CommonsHelper. Ngh s u
tin: V8rik ti Wikipedia Ting Anh
Tp_tin:BartonMcCombieI.svg Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/BartonMcCombieI.svg Giy php:
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org/wiki/User_talk:Aloneinthewild' title='User talk:Aloneinthewild'>talk</a>)
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org/wiki/User_talk:Aloneinthewild' title='User talk:Aloneinthewild'>talk</a>)
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BartonMcCombieMechanism.svg Giy php: Public domain Ngi ng gp: Tc phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin:
Aloneinthewild (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Aloneinthewild' title='User talk:Aloneinthewild'>talk</a>)
Tp_tin:Benzoic_acid_synthesis.png Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Benzoic_acid_synthesis.png
Giy php: Public domain Ngi ng gp: ? Ngh s u tin: ?
Tp_tin:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2005-0711-504,_Berlin,_Vulkanisierungswerkstatt.jpg Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/6/62/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-2005-0711-504%2C_Berlin%2C_Vulkanisierungswerkstatt.jpg Giy php: CC
BY-SA 3.0 de Ngi ng gp: is image was provided to Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches
Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. e German Federal Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the
originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Ngh s u tin:
Krueger, Erich O.
Tp_tin:Candleburning.jpg Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Candleburning.jpg Giy php:
Aribution Ngi ng gp: http://www.sxc.hu/photo/148763 Ngh s u tin: Mahew Bowden www.digitallyrefreshing.com
Tp_tin:Chem_template.svg Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Chem_template.svg Giy php:
Public domain Ngi ng gp: own work inspired by <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chem_template.png'
class='image'><img alt='Chem template.png' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Chem_template.png'
width='48' height='48' class='thumbborder' data-le-width='48' data-le-height='48' /></a><a href='//commons.wikimedia.
org/wiki/File:Chem_template.svg' class='image'><img alt='Chem template.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/thumb/a/ac/Chem_template.svg/46px-Chem_template.svg.png' width='46' height='46' class='thumbborder'
srcset='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Chem_template.svg/69px-Chem_template.svg.png 1.5x,
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ac/Chem_template.svg/92px-Chem_template.svg.png 2x' data-le-
width='400' data-le-height='400' /></a> Ngh s u tin: Amada44
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domain Ngi ng gp: is version created by Pumbaa, using a proper partial circle and SVG geometry features. (Former versions
used to be slightly warped.) Ngh s u tin: SVG version was created by User:Grunt and cleaned up by 3247, based on the earlier
PNG version, created by Reidab.
Tp_tin:Cn_bng_PTHH.png Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/C%C3%A2n_b%E1%BA%B1ng_PTHH.
png Giy php: Public domain Ngi ng gp: Tc phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: Prenn
24.6. NGUN, NGI NG GP, V GIY PHP CHO VN BN V HNH NH 41

Tp_tin:Dangclass5_1.png Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Dangclass5_1.png Giy php: CC-BY-SA-


3.0 Ngi ng gp: ? Ngh s u tin: ?
Tp_tin:FLMM_-_Viet_Cong_sandals.jpg Ngun: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/FLMM_-_Viet_Cong_
sandals.jpg Giy php: CC BY-SA 3.0 Ngi ng gp: Photo by Joe Mabel Ngh s u tin: Joe Mabel
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Ngi ng gp: ? Ngh s u tin: ?
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Tc phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: Awesomoman
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phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: Fir0002
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domain Ngi ng gp: Tc phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: Gustavb
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0/08/Galvanic_corrosion_of_aluminum_and_steel_in_seawater.jpg Giy php: CC BY-SA 3.0 Ngi ng gp: Tc phm do chnh ngi
ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: Webcorr
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ng gp: ? Ngh s u tin: ?
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ammonia.jpg Giy php: Public domain Ngi ng gp: ? Ngh s u tin: ?
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ng gp: Tc phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: ester11
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gp: ? Ngh s u tin: ?
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php: CC BY-SA 4.0 Ngi ng gp: Tc phm do chnh ngi ti ln to ra Ngh s u tin: Rezedorada
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ti Wikipedia Ting Anh
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wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:MaChe' title='User talk:MaChe'>talk</a>)

24.6.3 Giy php ni dung


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