Princeton University
Fall 201112
Systems
I Memory
I Invertibility
I Causality
I Stability
I Time invariance
I Linearity
x(t) = cos(t + ).
x(t) = A cos(2ft + ).
cos(t) cos(t )
2T T 0 T 2T 2T T 0 T 2T
t t
e jt
2T T 0 T 2T
x(t) = e t
2 2
1 et 1 et
2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2
t t
x(t) = e t cos(t + )
et cos(t) et cos(t)
<0 >0
2T T 0 T 2T t 2T T 0 T 2T t
2T T 0 T 2T t 2T T 0 T 2T t
j
Left Half Plane Right Half Plane
<0 >0
Decreasing Increasing
Signals Signals
1
u(t)
2 1 0 1 2 t
2 2
t 1 u(t)et
1 e
2 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 1 2
t t
can be written as
x(t) = u(t) u(t 1).
1 1 1
u(t) u(t) u(t 1)
u(t 1)
1 0 1 2 t 1 0 1 2 t 1 0 1 2 t
1 if t 1/2
rect(t) =
0 otherwise.
1
rect(t)
t
1/2 0 1/2
2 r(t)
1
2 1 0 1 2 t
1
(t)
t
1 0 1
cos(t)
A
0
A
2T T 0 T 2T
1 rect(t)
1 1/2 0 1/2 1
A A rect(t/)
2T T 0 T 2T
2T T 0 T 2T
cos(t)
1
0
1
2T T 0 T 2T
2
A rect((t nT )/) cos(t)
n=2
A
0
A
2T T 0 T 2T
for example:
1/ 1/
t
t 2
(t)
1 0 1 t
t + 1 + (t)
1 0 1 t
provided f is continuous at t = 0
idea: acts over a time interval very small, over which f (t) f (0)
(t) is not really defined for any t, only its behavior in an integral.
Conceptually (t) = 0 for t 6= 0, infinite at t = 0, but this doesnt
make sense mathematically.
gn(t)
1
g2(t)
g1(t) t
1 0 1
gn(t)
f (t)
f (0)
t
1 0 1
Cuff (Lecture 2) ELE 301: Signals and Systems Fall 201112 24 / 70
Scaled impulses
(t) is an impulse at time T , with magnitude or strength
We have Z
(t)f (t) dt = f (0)
provided f is continuous at 0
ag replacements
2
t
0
(t)(t)
Hence
(t)(t) = (0)(t)
is a scaled impulse, with strength (0).
Z 1 Z 1 Z 0 Z 0+
(t) dt = 0, (t) dt = 1, (t) dt = 0, (t) dt = 1
0+ 0 1 1
example:
Z 3
f (t)(2 + (t + 1) 3(t 1) + 2(t + 3)) dt
2
Z 3 Z 3 Z 3
= 2 f (t) dt + f (t)(t + 1) dt 3 f (t)(t 1) dt
2 2 2
Z 3
+2 f (t)(t + 3)) dt
2
Z 3
= 2 f (t) dt + f (1) 3f (1)
2
t =0
i
+
1V +
1F
v(t)
i
+
IMAX 1F v(t)
dv (t)
i(t) = = Imax , v (0) = 0
dt
v(t) IMAX
1
i(t)
0 0
t t
Integral of a function with impulses has jump at each impulse, equal to the
magnitude of impulse
Z t
example: x(t) = 1 + (t 1) 2(t 2); define y (t) = x( ) d
0
1 x(t) y(t)
2 2
1 1
0 1 2 t 0 1 2 t
2
y 0 (t) = 1 + (t 1) 2(t 2)
y(t) 1 x(t)
2 2
1 1
0 1 2
0 1 2 t t
2
provided f 0 continuous at t = 0
0 is called doublet
0 , 00 , etc. are called higherorder impulses
Similar rules for higherorder impulses:
Z
(k) (t)f (t) dt = (1)k f (k) (0)
if f (k) continuous at t = 0
1/
t =
t =0
1/
Then
(t) (t ) f (0) f ()
Z
f (t) dt =
converges to f 0 (0) if 0
x y
S
x y x y x y
a a a
x d y
dt
Z t
Integrator: y (t) = x( ) d (a is often 0 or )
a
Common notation for integrator:
x Z y
x1 y
+
summing system: y (t) = x1 (t) + x2 (t)
x2
x1 + y
+
difference system: y (t) = x1 (t) x2 (t)
x2
x1 + y
multiplier system: y (t) = x1 (t)x2 (t)
x2
In general,
Block diagrams are a symbolic way to describe a connection of
systems.
We can just as well write out the equations relating the signals.
We can go back and forth between the system block diagram and the
system equations.
x +
+
Z y

Input to integrator is x ay , so
Z t
(x( ) ay ( )) d = y (t)
Another useful method: the input to an integrator is the derivative of its
output, so we have
x ay = y 0
(of course, same as above)
F (ax) = aF (x)
F (x + x) = F (x) + F (x)
x1
x y y
a F + F
x2
x1
F
x y y
F a +
x2
F
cos(2 f t)
x + y
x y
Delay by F
x y
F Delay by
y (t) My < ,
requested
speed error gas speed
+ + k H
x  e y
Car
The output y is
y = H(k(x y ))
Well see later that this system can become unstable if k is too large
(depending on H)
y = Fx
x = F INV y = F INV Fx
x y x
F F INV
Transmitter Receiver
Direct Path
Reflected Path
x(t) y(t)
x(t) y(t)
Input Output
We want to find a system F INV that takes the multipath corrupted signal
y and recovers x
A cos(ct)
Receiver
Transmitter
y = ax
integrator (a1 = 1, b0 = 1)
y0 = x
differentiator (a0 = 1, b1 = 1)
y = x0
y 0 + ay = x
i L R
+
x(t) +
C y(t)
x Li 0 Ri y = 0
Using i = Cy 0 ,
x LCy 00 RCy 0 y = 0
or
LCy 00 + RCy 0 + y = x
which is an LCCODE. This is a linear system.
Cuff (Lecture 2) ELE 301: Signals and Systems Fall 201112 65 / 70
Mechanical System
y Output
m (car height)
Damper
Springs k b (Shock Absorbers)
Input
x
(Road)
k b
my 00 + by 0 + ky = bx 0 + kx
x[n] + y[n]
+ Delay by T
