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Objectives:

-Analysis of flow in pipes and piping systems including pipes and piping system: pipes in series and

parallel

For incompressible flow, since there is no change of density with pressure, the steady flow energy

equation reduces to a form of Bernoullis equation with the addition of terms for energy losses due to

friction and separation

Example:

Water discharge from reservoir A through a 150mm diameter, 25m long, which rises to the highest point

at B, 2m above the free surface of the reservoir. The water then discharges to the atmosphere at point

C, 4m below point A. The pipe length L1 and L2 are 10 m and 15m respectively, with sharp edged

entrance and exit. The friction factor may be taken as 0.075. Compute (a) the mean velocity of the water

leaving the pipe at point C and (b) the pressure at point B

2m L1 L2

A

4m

Solution

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 2

ZA Zc 0.5

g 2g g 2g 2g 2gd

v2 4fL AC

ZA ZC 1 0.5

2g 2gd

V2 4X0.075x 25

4 1 0.5 solving V Vc 1.234m / s

2g 0.15

Apply the energy equation between point s A and B

PA VA2 P V2 V 2 4fL AB V 2

Z A B B Z B 0.5

g 2g g 2g 2g 2g

From continuity equation Q B Q C and sin ce the diameter is cons tan t VB VC

PB V2 V 2 4fL AB V 2

ZA ZB 0.5

g 2g 2g 2gd

PB 1.234 2 4 x 0.075x10

2 1 0.5

g 2 x 9.81 0.15

PB 35.99kN / mm 2

Question

A pipe 1800 metres long having a diameter of 200 mm connects two reservoirs the surface of water in

one being 30 metres below the other. The pipe crosses a ridge, whose summit is 7.5m above the upper

reservoir. Find the minimum depth of the pipe below the summit of the ridge, in order that the pressure

at the apex does not fall 7.5m below the atmosphere. F=0.008. The length of pipe from the upper

reservoir to the summit ridge is 300m. Find also the discharge to the lower reservoir in litres/s

The characteristics:

- Pipe of different diameters are connected end to end to form a pipe line

- Total loss of energy, pressure loss over the whole pipeline will be the sum of the losses for each

pipe together with any separation losses

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 3

Examples

Two reservoirs A and C as shown below are connected by a pipeline 150mm diameter over the first part

AB which is 15m long, and a 200mm diameter pipe for BC the remaining 30m length. The entrance and

exit are sharp-edged and the change in cross section at B is sudden. The friction factors for both pipes

are 0.015. The difference in level between point A and C is 15m. Compute (a) all the head losses that

occur, giving an expression for each and (b) total discharge in m3/s

L1=15m

d1=150mm L2=30m

d2=200mm

v1 15m

B

C

v2

A

Solution

i) Loss at entrance to pipe AB. This is a separation loss and since the entrance is sharp the

value of K is 0.5. Thus the loss of head at entry hentry =0.5v12/2g

4fL 2 v 22

iii) Loss of head due to friction in BC is hf2=

2gd 2

iv) Loss of head at exit in which K values is 1.0 gives hexit =(1.0v22)/2g

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 4

PA v 2A PB v 2B

ZA Z B h entry h f 1 h enl arg ement h f 2 h exit

g 2g g 2g

v12 4fL1 v12 v1 v 2

2

4fL 2 v 22 v 22

15 0.5 ...............................(1)

2g 2gd 1 2g 2gd 2 2g

But from continuity equation , Q1 Q 2

d 12 d 2

v1 2 v 2

4 4

2

d 0.2 2

v1 v 2 22 v 2 1.78v 2

d1 0.15 2

1.78v 2 2 4x 0.015x15x 1.78v 2

2

1.78v 2 v1 4x 0.015x30v 22 v 22

2

0.5 15

2g 2gx 0.15 2g 2gx 0.2 2g

1.584v 22 19.0v 22 0.608v 22 9v 22 v 22

15

2g 2g 2g 2g 2g

31.192v 22

15 v 2 3.072m / s

2g

x 0.2 2

the disch arg e, Q A 2 v 2 x 3.072 0.0965m 3 / s

4

Question

Water is discharged from a tank to another with 30 metres difference of water levels through a

pipe 1200m long. The diameter for the first 600m length of the pipe is 400mm and 250mm for

the remaining 600 m long. Find the discharge in litre per second through pipe taking into

consideration the frictional losses only. Assume the coefficient of friction as 0.009 for the both

pipes.

The characteristics:

- Connect two reservoir, the fluid can flow from one reservoir to the other through the two

routes

- The difference in head ,h to produce flow is the same for each pipe.

- The total volume rate of flow will be the sum of the flow in each pipe

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 5

Example

Two sharp ended pipes of diameter d1 = 50mm and d2=100mm, each of length L=100m are connected in

parallel between two reservoirs which have a difference of level h=10m.If the Darcy coefficient f=0.008

for each pipe, calculate (a) the rate of flow for each pipe (b) the diameter D if the single pipe 100m long

which would give the same flow if it was substituted for the original two pipes.

A

L1=150m

d1=50mm

12m

B

L2=150m

d2=75mm

Solution

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 6

PA v 2A P v2 v 2 4fLv12 v12

Z A B B Z B 0.5 1

g 2g g 2g 2g 2gd 1 2g

4fL v12

Z A Z B 1.5

d 1 2g

4 x 0.008x100 v12

10 1.5

0.05 2g

v1 1.731m / s

volume flow rate through pipe1 , Q1 x 0.05 2 x1.731 0.0034m 3 / s

4

For flow pipe 2

PA v 2A P v2 v 2 4fLv 22 v 22

Z A B B Z B 0.5 2

g 2g g 2g 2g 2gd 2 2g

4fL v 22

Z A Z B 1.5

d 2 2g

4 x 0.008x100 v 22

10 1.5

0.10 2g

v 2 2.42m / s

volume flow rate through pipe 2 , Q 2 x 0.10 2 x 2.42 0.0190m 3 / s

4

Re placing the two pipes by the equivalent sin gle pipe which will convey the same total flow

Q Q1 Q 2 0.0034 0.0190 0.0224m 3 / s

4Q 4 x 0.0224 0.02852

v

D 2

D 2 D2

Applyingthe steady flow energy equation between A and B

PA v 2A PB v 2B v 2 4fLv 2 v 2

ZA Z B 0.5

g 2g g 2g 2g 2gD 2g

4fL v 2

Z A Z B 1.5

D 2g

4 x 0.008x100 0.02852

2

10 1.5 x

D 2gD 4

trial n error method

D 107mm.

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 7

Question

A pipeline conveying water between reservoir A and B is 30.5cm diameter and 336 m long. The

difference of head between the two surfaces is 4.12m. Determine the flow rate if f=0.005. It is required

to increase the flow by 50% by duplicating a portion of the pipe. If the head and friction factor are

unchanged and minor losses are ignored, find the length of the second pipe which is same diameter as

the first.

The characteristics

- the flow from upper reservoir passes through a single pipe which then divides and two branch

pipes lead to two separate reservoirs with different surface levels

- the continuity requirement that the sum of the flows into the junction is equal to the sum of the

flow leaving the junction will be satisfied.

Q1=Q2+Q3

Example

Water flows from the reservoir A through a pipe of diameter d1=120mm an length L1=120m to a junction

at D, from which a pipe diameter d2=75mm and L2=60m leads to reservoir B in which the water level is

16m below that in reservoir A. A third pipe of diameter d3=60mm and L3=40m, leads from D to reservoir

C in which the water level is 24m below that in reservoir A. Taking f= 0.01 for all pipes and neglecting all

losses other than those due to friction, determine the volume rates of flow in each pipe

ZA

ZB

ZD

ZC

Datum

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 8

Solution

PA v 2A PB v 2B 4fL1 v12 4fL 2 v12

ZA ZB

g 2 g g 2g 2d 1 g 2gd 2

4fL1 v12 4fL 2 v 22

ZA ZB

2gd 1 2gd 2

4 x 0.01x120 v12 4 x 0.01x 60 22

16 2.0387 v12 1.6310 22

0.120 x 2g 0.075x 2g

for flow from A to C

PA v 2A PC v C2 4fL1 v12 4fL 3 v13

ZA Zc

g 2 g g 2g 2d 1 g 2gd 3

4fL1 v12 4fL 3 v 32

ZA ZC

2gd 1 2gd 3

4 x 0.01x120 v12 4 x 0.01x 40 32

24 2.0387 v12 1.3592 32

0.120 x 2g 0.060 x 2g

Flow through AD Flow through DB Flow through DC

Q1 Q 2 Q 3

2 2 2

d 1 v1 d 2 v 2 d 3 v 3

4 4 4

2 2

d d

v1 2 v 2 3 v 3

d1 d1

substituting numerical value

2 2

0.075 0.060

v1 v2 v3

0.120 0.120

v1 0.3906 v 2 0.2500 v 3 0

by solving u sin g trial n error method

v1 1.82m / s, v 2 2.381m / s, v 3 3.562m / s

Q1 0.0206m 3 / s, Q 2 0.0105m 3 / s, Q 3 0.0101m 3 / s

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 9

Question

Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe which is 225mm in diameter and 4 km long. The difference in

elevation between the surface of the reservoirs is 66m. At a distance of 1.6km from reservoir A , water is

drawn of at a rate of 42.5L/s. Assuming that f=0.009, determine the flow rate in the upper and lower

parts of the pipe.

Pipe network

The characteristics

Many pipe systems consist of numerous pipe connected in a complex manner with general entry

and withdrawal points such as used by municipal water distribution system.

Net head loss round any closed loop in the network must be zero

These pipes are interconnected so that the flow from a given input or to a given outlet may come

through several different routes.

Hardy Cross Method- system for calculating the value of the correction to be made, where each

loop or junction is considered in turn and corrected assuming that conditions in the remainder of

the network remain unaltered.

Correction to one element will affect conditions elsewhere and the required balance of head and

flows will not be reached as a result of the first correction.

Used when the heads at various points in the pipe network are unknown.

Fist an estimate is made of the flow rate for each pipe and the head is calculate for each pipe from

the difference of head between the junction at each end.

The procedures:

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 10

- With the assumed h values and the calculated K values, compute the Q values through the

Q

equation h=KQ2 for each pipe. The correction for the head can be obtained from

Q

2h

Example:

Figure below shows 3 reservoirs connected by three pipes. Assuming friction factor of 0.012 for all

pipes and neglecting separation losses, calculate the flow rate and velocity in each pipe.

A

EL=80m EL=70m

ZC L=5km

B

d=300mm

D

L=6km

d=400mm

L=6km

EL=30m

d=400mm

Datum

Solution

First trial

K Q

3.03d 5 head, h(m) K 2h

0.0704 5.454x10-3

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 11

h=

Q =-12.907m

Q

2h

Second trial

K Q

3.03d 5 head, h(m) 2h

K

h=

Q =0.594m

Q

2h

Third trial

K Q

3.03d 5 head, h(m) 2h

K

0 6.291x10-3

h=

Q =0m

Q

2h

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 12

Question

Figure below shows three reservoirs connected together at a common junction D. If the friction factor is

0.012 for all pipes and considering only the frictional losses, determine the discharge and velocity in

each pipe using the Quantity Balance Method. As a start assume that the head at junction D is 60m. Do

the iteration until second correction

AD 400 5.5

BD 300 5

CD 350 5.5

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