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ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 1

ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES


Objectives:

-Analysis of flow in pipes and piping systems including pipes and piping system: pipes in series and
parallel

-Analysis of flow between reservoirs

- Analysis of flow in networks

Incompressible Flow through Pipes

For incompressible flow, since there is no change of density with pressure, the steady flow energy
equation reduces to a form of Bernoullis equation with the addition of terms for energy losses due to
friction and separation

Example:

Water discharge from reservoir A through a 150mm diameter, 25m long, which rises to the highest point
at B, 2m above the free surface of the reservoir. The water then discharges to the atmosphere at point
C, 4m below point A. The pipe length L1 and L2 are 10 m and 15m respectively, with sharp edged
entrance and exit. The friction factor may be taken as 0.075. Compute (a) the mean velocity of the water
leaving the pipe at point C and (b) the pressure at point B

2m L1 L2

A
4m

Solution

Using the steady flow energy equation between points A and C


ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 2

PA VA2 PC VC2 V 2 4fL AC V 2


ZA Zc 0.5
g 2g g 2g 2g 2gd
v2 4fL AC
ZA ZC 1 0.5
2g 2gd
V2 4X0.075x 25
4 1 0.5 solving V Vc 1.234m / s
2g 0.15
Apply the energy equation between point s A and B
PA VA2 P V2 V 2 4fL AB V 2
Z A B B Z B 0.5
g 2g g 2g 2g 2g
From continuity equation Q B Q C and sin ce the diameter is cons tan t VB VC
PB V2 V 2 4fL AB V 2
ZA ZB 0.5
g 2g 2g 2gd
PB 1.234 2 4 x 0.075x10
2 1 0.5
g 2 x 9.81 0.15
PB 35.99kN / mm 2

Question

A pipe 1800 metres long having a diameter of 200 mm connects two reservoirs the surface of water in
one being 30 metres below the other. The pipe crosses a ridge, whose summit is 7.5m above the upper
reservoir. Find the minimum depth of the pipe below the summit of the ridge, in order that the pressure
at the apex does not fall 7.5m below the atmosphere. F=0.008. The length of pipe from the upper
reservoir to the summit ridge is 300m. Find also the discharge to the lower reservoir in litres/s

Flow through Pipe in Series

The characteristics:

- Pipe of different diameters are connected end to end to form a pipe line

- Total loss of energy, pressure loss over the whole pipeline will be the sum of the losses for each
pipe together with any separation losses
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 3

Examples

Two reservoirs A and C as shown below are connected by a pipeline 150mm diameter over the first part
AB which is 15m long, and a 200mm diameter pipe for BC the remaining 30m length. The entrance and
exit are sharp-edged and the change in cross section at B is sudden. The friction factors for both pipes
are 0.015. The difference in level between point A and C is 15m. Compute (a) all the head losses that
occur, giving an expression for each and (b) total discharge in m3/s

L1=15m
d1=150mm L2=30m
d2=200mm
v1 15m

B
C
v2
A

Solution

a) The expressions for head losses are as follows;

i) Loss at entrance to pipe AB. This is a separation loss and since the entrance is sharp the
value of K is 0.5. Thus the loss of head at entry hentry =0.5v12/2g

ii) Loss of head due to friction in AB is hf = 4fL 1v12/2gd1

Loss of head due to sudden enlargement at point B is henlargement

4fL 2 v 22
iii) Loss of head due to friction in BC is hf2=
2gd 2

iv) Loss of head at exit in which K values is 1.0 gives hexit =(1.0v22)/2g

b) The energy equation between A and C is


ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 4

PA v 2A PB v 2B
ZA Z B h entry h f 1 h enl arg ement h f 2 h exit
g 2g g 2g
v12 4fL1 v12 v1 v 2
2
4fL 2 v 22 v 22
15 0.5 ...............................(1)
2g 2gd 1 2g 2gd 2 2g
But from continuity equation , Q1 Q 2
d 12 d 2
v1 2 v 2
4 4
2
d 0.2 2
v1 v 2 22 v 2 1.78v 2
d1 0.15 2

substituting v1 1.78v 2 int o eqn 1


1.78v 2 2 4x 0.015x15x 1.78v 2
2
1.78v 2 v1 4x 0.015x30v 22 v 22
2

0.5 15
2g 2gx 0.15 2g 2gx 0.2 2g
1.584v 22 19.0v 22 0.608v 22 9v 22 v 22
15
2g 2g 2g 2g 2g
31.192v 22
15 v 2 3.072m / s
2g
x 0.2 2
the disch arg e, Q A 2 v 2 x 3.072 0.0965m 3 / s
4

Question
Water is discharged from a tank to another with 30 metres difference of water levels through a
pipe 1200m long. The diameter for the first 600m length of the pipe is 400mm and 250mm for
the remaining 600 m long. Find the discharge in litre per second through pipe taking into
consideration the frictional losses only. Assume the coefficient of friction as 0.009 for the both
pipes.

Flow through in parallel

The characteristics:

- Connect two reservoir, the fluid can flow from one reservoir to the other through the two
routes

- The difference in head ,h to produce flow is the same for each pipe.

- The total volume rate of flow will be the sum of the flow in each pipe
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 5

Example

Two sharp ended pipes of diameter d1 = 50mm and d2=100mm, each of length L=100m are connected in
parallel between two reservoirs which have a difference of level h=10m.If the Darcy coefficient f=0.008
for each pipe, calculate (a) the rate of flow for each pipe (b) the diameter D if the single pipe 100m long
which would give the same flow if it was substituted for the original two pipes.

A
L1=150m
d1=50mm
12m

B
L2=150m
d2=75mm

Solution
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 6

for flow pipe


PA v 2A P v2 v 2 4fLv12 v12
Z A B B Z B 0.5 1
g 2g g 2g 2g 2gd 1 2g
4fL v12
Z A Z B 1.5
d 1 2g

4 x 0.008x100 v12
10 1.5
0.05 2g
v1 1.731m / s

volume flow rate through pipe1 , Q1 x 0.05 2 x1.731 0.0034m 3 / s
4
For flow pipe 2
PA v 2A P v2 v 2 4fLv 22 v 22
Z A B B Z B 0.5 2
g 2g g 2g 2g 2gd 2 2g
4fL v 22
Z A Z B 1.5
d 2 2g

4 x 0.008x100 v 22
10 1.5
0.10 2g
v 2 2.42m / s

volume flow rate through pipe 2 , Q 2 x 0.10 2 x 2.42 0.0190m 3 / s
4
Re placing the two pipes by the equivalent sin gle pipe which will convey the same total flow
Q Q1 Q 2 0.0034 0.0190 0.0224m 3 / s
4Q 4 x 0.0224 0.02852
v
D 2
D 2 D2
Applyingthe steady flow energy equation between A and B
PA v 2A PB v 2B v 2 4fLv 2 v 2
ZA Z B 0.5
g 2g g 2g 2g 2gD 2g
4fL v 2
Z A Z B 1.5
D 2g
4 x 0.008x100 0.02852
2
10 1.5 x
D 2gD 4
trial n error method
D 107mm.
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 7

Question

A pipeline conveying water between reservoir A and B is 30.5cm diameter and 336 m long. The
difference of head between the two surfaces is 4.12m. Determine the flow rate if f=0.005. It is required
to increase the flow by 50% by duplicating a portion of the pipe. If the head and friction factor are
unchanged and minor losses are ignored, find the length of the second pipe which is same diameter as
the first.

Incompressible Flow through Branching Pipes-the three Reservoir Problems

The characteristics

- the flow from upper reservoir passes through a single pipe which then divides and two branch
pipes lead to two separate reservoirs with different surface levels

- the continuity requirement that the sum of the flows into the junction is equal to the sum of the
flow leaving the junction will be satisfied.

Q1=Q2+Q3

Example

Water flows from the reservoir A through a pipe of diameter d1=120mm an length L1=120m to a junction
at D, from which a pipe diameter d2=75mm and L2=60m leads to reservoir B in which the water level is
16m below that in reservoir A. A third pipe of diameter d3=60mm and L3=40m, leads from D to reservoir
C in which the water level is 24m below that in reservoir A. Taking f= 0.01 for all pipes and neglecting all
losses other than those due to friction, determine the volume rates of flow in each pipe

ZA
ZB
ZD

ZC
Datum
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 8

Solution

for flow from A to B


PA v 2A PB v 2B 4fL1 v12 4fL 2 v12
ZA ZB
g 2 g g 2g 2d 1 g 2gd 2
4fL1 v12 4fL 2 v 22
ZA ZB
2gd 1 2gd 2
4 x 0.01x120 v12 4 x 0.01x 60 22
16 2.0387 v12 1.6310 22
0.120 x 2g 0.075x 2g
for flow from A to C
PA v 2A PC v C2 4fL1 v12 4fL 3 v13
ZA Zc
g 2 g g 2g 2d 1 g 2gd 3
4fL1 v12 4fL 3 v 32
ZA ZC
2gd 1 2gd 3
4 x 0.01x120 v12 4 x 0.01x 40 32
24 2.0387 v12 1.3592 32
0.120 x 2g 0.060 x 2g
Flow through AD Flow through DB Flow through DC
Q1 Q 2 Q 3

2 2 2
d 1 v1 d 2 v 2 d 3 v 3
4 4 4
2 2
d d
v1 2 v 2 3 v 3
d1 d1
substituting numerical value
2 2
0.075 0.060
v1 v2 v3
0.120 0.120
v1 0.3906 v 2 0.2500 v 3 0
by solving u sin g trial n error method
v1 1.82m / s, v 2 2.381m / s, v 3 3.562m / s
Q1 0.0206m 3 / s, Q 2 0.0105m 3 / s, Q 3 0.0101m 3 / s
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 9

Question

Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe which is 225mm in diameter and 4 km long. The difference in
elevation between the surface of the reservoirs is 66m. At a distance of 1.6km from reservoir A , water is
drawn of at a rate of 42.5L/s. Assuming that f=0.009, determine the flow rate in the upper and lower
parts of the pipe.

Pipe network

The characteristics

Many pipe systems consist of numerous pipe connected in a complex manner with general entry
and withdrawal points such as used by municipal water distribution system.

Net head loss round any closed loop in the network must be zero

These pipes are interconnected so that the flow from a given input or to a given outlet may come
through several different routes.

Hardy Cross Method- system for calculating the value of the correction to be made, where each
loop or junction is considered in turn and corrected assuming that conditions in the remainder of
the network remain unaltered.

Correction to one element will affect conditions elsewhere and the required balance of head and
flows will not be reached as a result of the first correction.

QUANTITY BALANCE METHOD

Used when the heads at various points in the pipe network are unknown.

Necessary to calculate the quantities flowing each pipe

Fist an estimate is made of the flow rate for each pipe and the head is calculate for each pipe from
the difference of head between the junction at each end.

The procedures:

- Assume the head at the junction

- Calculate the head loss between the reservoirs

- Calculate the value of K for each pipe


ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 10

- With the assumed h values and the calculated K values, compute the Q values through the
Q
equation h=KQ2 for each pipe. The correction for the head can be obtained from
Q

2h

Example:

Figure below shows 3 reservoirs connected by three pipes. Assuming friction factor of 0.012 for all
pipes and neglecting separation losses, calculate the flow rate and velocity in each pipe.
A
EL=80m EL=70m
ZC L=5km
B
d=300mm
D
L=6km

d=400mm

L=6km
EL=30m
d=400mm

Datum

Solution

For this example, the assumed head at a junction D is 50m

First trial

Pipe Length(m) Diameter(mm) fL Assume h Q


K Q
3.03d 5 head, h(m) K 2h

AD 6000 400 2320.545 30.0 0.01137 1.895x10-3

BD 5000 300 8148.963 20.0 0.0495 1.238x10-3

CD 6000 400 2320.545 -20.0 -0.0928 2.31x10-3

0.0704 5.454x10-3
ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 11

h=
Q =-12.907m
Q
2h
Second trial

Pipe Length(m) Diameter(mm) fL Assume h Q


K Q
3.03d 5 head, h(m) 2h
K

AD 6000 400 2320.545 17.093 0.0858 2.510x10-3

BD 5000 300 8148.963 7.093 0.0295 2.080x10-3

CD 6000 400 2320.545 -32.907 -0.1191 1.809x10-3

-3.8 x10-3 6.399x10-3

h=
Q =0.594m
Q
2h

Third trial

Pipe Length(m) Diameter(mm) fL Assume h Q


K Q
3.03d 5 head, h(m) 2h
K

AD 6000 400 2320.545 17.687 0.0873 2.4679 x10-3

BD 5000 300 8148.963 7.687 0.307 1.998 x10-3

CD 6000 400 2320.545 -32.313 -0.1180 1.823 x10-3

0 6.291x10-3

h=
Q =0m
Q
2h

Head at junction A=80-17.687=62.313m


ANALYSIS OF STEADY FLOW IN PIPELINES 12

Question

Figure below shows three reservoirs connected together at a common junction D. If the friction factor is
0.012 for all pipes and considering only the frictional losses, determine the discharge and velocity in
each pipe using the Quantity Balance Method. As a start assume that the head at junction D is 60m. Do
the iteration until second correction

Pipe Diameter (mm) Length (km)

AD 400 5.5

BD 300 5

CD 350 5.5