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INTRODUCTION

1.0 CONCRETE / REINFORCED CONCRETE

Concrete is a conglomerate artificial stone. It is made by mixing a paste of cement and water

with sand and crushed rock, gravel, or other inert material. The chemically active substance in the

mixture is the cement that unites physically and chemically with the water and, upon hardening,

binds the aggregates together to form a solid mass resembling stone. Sometimes one or more

admixtures are added to change certain characteristics of the concrete such as its workability,

durability and time of hardening.

Reinforced Concrete is a concrete in which reinforcement, other than provided for shrinkage or

temperature changes, is imbedded in such a manner that the two materials act together to resist

forces. Normally, the reinforcement provide the tensile strength that is lacking in the concrete.

great resistance to the actions of fire and water

very rigid

low-maintenance material

has a very long service life (due to solidification of the cement paste)

needs forms, falsework or shoring to hold concrete in place until it hardens sufficiently

low strength per unit of weight of concrete leads to heavy members ( very important

matter for long span members where dead weight has great effect on bending

moments).

low strength per unit of volume of concrete means members will be relatively large

(important consideration for tall buildings and long span members

properties vary wildly due to variations in its proportioning or mixing

placing and curing is not as carefully controlled as is the production of other material.

1) Cement. Of all the cements, normal Portland cement is by far the most extensively used in

building construction. It is made by mixing and the burning to incipient fusion two materials, on

composed principally of lime, other being clayey or argillaceous materials containing silica,

alumina and iron. After burning, the clinker is finely pulverized. As compared with natural

cement, Portland cement sets slower but is much stronger and more uniform in quality. In

specifying, it is customary to require that cement conforms to the Specifications for Portland

Cement ( ASTM C 150 )

1

Five types of cement fall into these categories:

a. Type I general purposes cement used when the concrete mixture is not subjected to

specific conditions.

b. Type II used when precautions against moderate sulfate attack are important and heat

of hydration maximums are specified.

c. Type III used where high strengths at an early period are required.

d. Type IV used when the rate and amount of heat generated must be minimized.

e. Type V used when the complete structure is exposed to serve sulfate action.

2) Aggregates. Aggregates must consist of clean, hard, strong, durable particles free from loam,

alkali, organic matter or other deleterious substances. These aggregates are the inert materials

like natural sand, crushed stone, pebbles, cinders, slags, etc

3) Water. Water used for mixing concrete must be clean and free from injurious amounts of oil, acid,

alkali, organic matter, or other deleterious substances. Water containing 5% or more common

salt should be avoided for use in concrete; sea water should never be used. Since only a certain

amount of water can combine with the cement, an excess quantity of water dilutes the paste and

produces a concrete of reduced strength, waterlightness and durability. Thus, it is measured

either in liters per bag of cement or per cubic meter of concrete added in the minimum quantity to

attain workability.

4) Admixtures. Admixtures include all materials other than the principal ingredients which are

added to concrete, grout or mortar immediate before or during mixing. They must be used when

a general purpose cement is specified and when the concrete mixture is going to be subjected to

specific conditions such as freeze-thaw action, surface scaling, bleeding, setting time variations

due to abnormally high or low outside temperatures, excessive heat of hydration, and poor

workability due to certain aggregate characteristics and lack of watertightness due to normal dry

shrinkage cracks that might develop.

5) Reinforcement. Steel bars for reinforcement in concrete are made from billet steel and rail

steel. The three grades of billet steel are structural, intermediate and hard. Structural grade steel

has allowable tensile unit stress of 124.11 MPa, while intermediate and hard grades may be

stressed to 137.9 MPa or 165.48 MPa. Although rail steel is somewhat similar in physical

qualities to hard steel, it is more brittle and more difficult to bend. The intermediate grade of billet

steel is the most commonly used steel for reinforcement.

One of the fundamental assumptions on which the design of reinforced concrete is based

is that the concrete and reinforcement act together as a unit. If plain bars are used, the

transmission of stresses depends on the adhesion between the steel and concrete. To provide for

a greater bond, reinforcing bars are made with lugs or corrugations and are known as deformed

bars.

Another type of reinforcement is wire mesh and expanded metals . It is used principally in

slabs. The use of wire mesh or expanded metal permits a uniform distribution of steel, whereas

individual bars require more care in placing and may require metal supports with spacing rods to

maintain a proper distribution.

2

1.2 CONCRETE PROPORTIONING AND MIXING

cement and water binds together fine and coarse particles of inert materials, known as aggregates, it

is readily seen that by varying proportions of the ingredients innumerable combinations are possible.

These various combinations result in concrete of different qualities. When the cement has hydrated,

the plastic mass changes to a material resembling stone. The period of hardening is called curing, in

which three things are required: time, favorable temperatures, and the continued presence of water.

To fulfill requirements, it is essential that the hardened concrete have, above all else, strength

and durability. In order that the concrete in its plastic form may be readily placed in the forms,

another essential quality is workability. When watertightness is required, concrete must be dense

and uniform in quality. Hence it is seen that in determining the various proportions of the mixture the

designer must have in mind the purpose for which the concrete is to be used and the exposure for

which it will be subjected. When these requirements have been filled, the following factors regulate

the quality of the concrete: suitable materials, correct proportions, proper methods of mixing and

placing, and adequate protection during curing.

a. Proportioning

The first step in determining the proportions of the various ingredients in concrete is to

establish the water-cement ratio. This depends primarily on the exposure to which the concrete will be

subjected and the strength desired. The next step is to decide on the most economical combination of

fine and coarse aggregates that will result in a concrete having a plasticity that is workable.

The general theory in establishing the proportions of the fine and coarse aggregates is that

the voids in the coarse aggregates should be filled with the cement paste and fine aggregate. The

voids in coarse aggregate depend on the kind of material and its size. In general, the voids average

slightly less than one half the volume, and it is customary to use about one half as much as the

volume of crushed stone. We express the proportions in the sequence: cement, sand and coarse

aggregate; for instance, the mix may be 1: 2: 4; 1: 2 : 5; 1: 3: 6.

Very often the fine and coarse aggregates are given as one figure, and a mix of 1: 2: 4 may

be expressed as 1: 6. The reason for this is that the sand should not always be one half the volume of

the crushed stone. The sum of fine and coarse aggregates in proportion to cement paste depends on

the consistency required. In general, stiffer mixes are more economical with respect to the cost of

materials, but if the mix is usually dry the cost of placing it in the forms is increased and care must be

taken to avoid honeycombing. When the proportion of fine aggregate is increased, a smoother

working concrete result, but this generally requires more cement paste and may not be economical.

When the concrete structure is of sufficient magnitude to warrant the expense involved,

another method of determining proportions may be used. These will involve class of work, required

strength, maximum water-cement ration, maximum sizes of aggregates, and slump range.

b. Water-Cement Ratio

It should be remembered that the plastic concrete should always be workable. It should be

neither too dry nor too wet. If it is too dry, it is difficult to place in the forms, it resists packing around

the reinforcement and the result is honeycombing. If the concrete is too wet, segregation of the

ingredients may result. To produce a workable concrete, more water must be used than is required to

combine chemically with the cement. Hence a certain amount of water is distributed with the paste,

which, upon evaporation, leaves minute voids. Thus it is seen that the water-cement ratio determines

3

the density of the cement paste, which, in turn, determine the strength, durability, and watertightness

of the hardened concrete.

c. Mixing

To produce a first quality concrete, the use of a mixing machine is essential. Thorough mixing

not only tends to produce a concrete of uniform quality, but longer periods of mixing also increase the

strength of the concrete, and a greater degree of workability is effected.

The strength and quality of the concrete depend principally on the length of time the concrete

remains in the mixer rather than on the speed of rotation. Concrete should never be mixed less than 1

minute, and a longer period is desirable when conditions permit. When concrete of superior quality is

desired for extreme exposure conditions or for watertightness, longer periods of mixing will be

advantageous.

d. Segregation

It is well to remember that concrete in its plastic condition is in reality a paste in which the

aggregates are mixed. Care should be exercised to prevent the particles of sand and stone from

being separated from the paste, for such separation produces an inferior concrete. Factors that must

be considered in preventing segregation of aggregates are transporting the concrete from the mixing

machine to the forms, dropping the concrete from too great a height, and tamping or spading.

Dropping the concrete more than 1 meter into the forms tends to permit the larger aggregate

to work its way to a lower level, thus preventing a uniform quality. When concrete is placed in the

forms by means of chutes, it is important that long flows be avoided, since there is a possibility that

the large aggregate will separate from the other materials in the mix.

e. Curing

Regardless of the care taken in proportioning, mixing, and placing, first-quality concrete can

be obtained only when due consideration and provision are made for curing. The hardening of

concrete is due to the chemical reaction between the water and cement. This hardening continues

indefinitely as long as moisture is present and the temperatures are favorable. The initial set does not

begin until two or three hours after the concrete has been mixed. During this interval moisture

evaporates, particularly on the exposed surfaces, unless provision is made to prevent the loss of

moisture the concrete will craze.

To prevent the loss of moisture during curing, several methods may be employed. These are

covering the concrete slab with burlap that is kept continuously wet, a 25mm layer of wet sand or

sawdust, a 150mm layer wet straw or hay and continuous sprinkling of exposed surfaces with water.

Also, forms should be allowed to remain for a long period as is practicable.

f. Tests

Concrete made of various proportions should be tested several weeks before the actual

construction of the building. The usual procedure is to test several combinations by using at least four

different water-cement ratios

The two most common tests of concrete are the slump test for determining the degree of

plasticity and the compression tests on cylinders of cured concrete to establish its strength.

(Types of Analysis and Design)

Before 1963 the working stress design (WSD) method was the principal one used where a

structural element of reinforced concrete was designed such that the resulting stresses from the

action of service loads (also called working loads) do not exceed certain specified allowable values.

Due to the effects of shrinkage, creep, tensile cracking and other factors it is rather difficult to perform

an accurate estimate of the stresses in reinforced concrete members under service load conditions.

The 1963 ACI Code gave equal coverage to the working stress design and strength design

methods. However, the 1971 Code was devoted almost exclusively to the strength design method.

The WSD method was now called the alternative design method. In fact, in the 1971 Code the WSD

method was transferred to the appendix. However, as late as 1980, the WSD method was still being

used in reinforced concrete design in the Philippines.

In the working stress design method, the actual working loads, called service loads, were

utilized and a member was designed based on an allowable compressive bending stress

generally equal to 0.45 f c and a compressive stress pattern that was assumed to vary linearly

from zero at the neutral axis to a maximum at the extreme fiber of the compression concrete. This

is stated as the stress is proportional to the strain. This is generally valid only up to a point called

the proportional limit.

The sections of the members of the structure are designed assuming straight line stress-

strain relationships ensuring that at service loads the stresses in the steel and the concrete do not

exceed the allowable working stresses. The allowable stresses are taken as fixed proportions of

the ultimate or yield strength of materials. The bending moments and forces that act on statically

indeterminate structures are calculated assuming linear-elastic behavior.

a. apparent simplicity of a linear stress-strain ( - ) diagram

b. linear analysis procedure

c. approximate allowable stresses

d. display satisfactory behavior at the service loads

e. adequate margin of safety against collapse

In the strength design method, the service loads are multiplied by a certain factors to

determine the load at which failure of the structural part is considered to be imminent. This load

near, or at, failure is called ultimate load, factored load or factored service load. The strength

provided by this method should not be less than the strength required to carry factored loads. The

strength of a specific reinforced concrete member is not necessarily the true ultimate strength

of the member, but is a value provided by the ACI Code. The general term strength design

applies whether beam strength, column strength, or other strength are under consideration. The

stress pattern assumed for strength design is such that predicted strengths are in substantial

agreement with test results.

The sections of the members of the structures are designed taking inelastic strains into

account to reach ultimate (maximum) strength when an ultimate load (sum of each service load

multiplied by its respective load factor) is applied to the structure. The bending moment and

forces are calculated taking some account of the redistribution of actions that may occur because

of the non-linear relationships that exist between the actions and deformations in the members at

high loads.

a. Sections behave inelastically at high loads; hence elastic theory cannot give a reliable

prediction of the ultimate strength of the members because inelastic strains are taken into

account. Also, under elastic theory, the exact load factor (ultimate load / service load) is

unknown and varies from structure to structure.

ultimateload

F .S .

serviceload

b. Allows more rational selection of the load factors.

c. The stress-strain ( - ) curve for concrete is nonlinear and is time dependent.

d. Utilizes reserves of strength resulting from a more efficient distribution of stresses by

inelastic strains.

e. Makes more efficient use of high strength reinforcement, and smaller beam depths can

be used without compression steel.

f. Allows the designer to assess the ductility of the structure in the post-elastic range.

Four basic assumptions are made when deriving a general theory for flexural strength of

reinforced concrete sections:

a. Plane sections before bending remains plane after bending.

b. The stress-strain ( - ) curve for the steel is known.

c. The tensile strength of the concrete may be neglected.

d. The stress-strain ( - ) curve for the concrete, defining the magnitude and distribution

of compression stress, is known.

In applying the WSD method, the basic assumptions are the following:

a. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending. Strains vary linearly from the

neutral axis.

b. Hookes law applies to both the steel and concrete, that is, within the elastic limit, stress

is directly proportional to the strain.

c. The tensile strength of concrete is negligible, and only the steel carries tension.

d. The concrete and steel are bonded perfectly and no slip occurs between them.

The assumptions made for the determination of the strength of sections with flexure and axial

load may be summarized as follows:

a. Plane sections before bending remain plane after bending.

b. The distribution of concrete stress may be taken to be a rectangle with mean stress of

0.85 f c' and a depth from the compressed edge of 1 c , where c is the neutral axis

depth.

c. Tensile strength of concrete may be neglected.

d. The concrete strain at the extreme compression fiber at the flexural strength of the

member may be taken as 0.003.

e. The stress in the steel at less than the yield strength may be taken as the steel strain

multiplied by the modulus of elasticity of 200,000 MPa. For strains higher than that at the

yield strength, the steel stress may be considered to remain at the yield strength.

The above concrete compressive strain and stress distribution may be used for beams and

nonrectangular compressed areas;

Under practical conditions concrete is seldom stressed in one direction only (uniaxial

stress), since in most structural situations the concrete is stressed simultaneously in a number

of directions. Nevertheless, an assumed uniaxial stress condition can be justified in many

cases.

1) Compressive Strength

The compressive strength of concrete (fc) is determined by testing to failure 28-

day-old 6-in. by 12-in. concrete cylinders at a specified rate of loading. For the 28-day

period the cylinders are usually kept under water or in a room with a constant

temperature and 100% humidity.

It will be noted that field conditions are not the same as those in the curing room,

and the 28-day strengths describe cannot be achieved in the field unless almost perfect

proportioning, mixture, vibration, and moisture conditions are present. The result is that

the same strength probably will not be obtained in the field with the same mixes. As a

result, Section 5.3 of the ACI Code requires that the compressive strengths used as a

basis for selecting the concrete proportions must exceed the specified 28-day strengths

by anywhere up to as much as 9.653 MPa (1400 psi), the actual amount depending on

the quality control records of the concrete plant.

The stress-strain curves in the figure represent the results obtained from

compression test of 28-day standard cylinders of varying strengths

the curves are almost linear up to about one-half of the compressive strength

peak of the curve is relatively sharp for higher-strength of concrete and flat

top for low-strength concrete

the strain at the maximum stress is approximately 0.002

after the maximum stress, concrete still carry stress

the slope of the linear curve is modulus of elasticity, E C

for concrete weighing from wc = 1500 kg / m3 to wc = 2500 kg / m3

1.5

EC wC (0.043) f c' (MPa)

for normal weight of concrete ( wc = 2400 kg/m3)

E C 4700 f c' (MPa)

where: Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete in compression (MPa)

wc = unit weight of concrete (kg/m3)

fc = 28 day compressive strength on concrete (MPa)

2) Tensile Strength

The tensile strength of concrete is generally less than 20% of the compressive

strength. Although it is normally neglected in design calculations, it is important property

that affects the sizes and extent of the cracks that occur

that has a reduction effect on members deflection

with equal concentrated loads at its one-third points

load is increased until failure occurs by cracking on the tensile face of the

beam. The modulus of rupture f r is then determined from the flexure

formula.

Mc 6 M

fr 2

I bh

The ACI Code (318M-01) provision for modulus of rupture for lightweight concrete

is:

Figure: Split-cylinder test for tensile strength

a cylinder is placed on its side in a tasting machine and a compressive load

is applied uniformly along the length of the cylinder with support supplied

along the bottom for the cylinders full length.

the cylinder will split in half from end to end when its tensile strength is

reached.

the method of test and the stresses induced along the loaded diameter is

based from the theory of elasticity.

the tensile stress across the diameter at splitting is found from the

relationship

2P

ft

hd

P = maximum compressive force

h = length of the cylinder

d = diameter of the cylinder

3) Poissons Ratio

usually range from 0.15 to 0.20.

In many structural situations concrete is subjected to direct and shear stresses acting in

a number of directions. Considering the equilibrium of the forces, any combined stress situation

can be reduced to three normal stresses acting on three mutually perpendicular planes. These

three normal stresses are the principal stresses, and the shear stresses acting on these planes

are zero.

A biaxial stress condition occurs if the principal stresses act only in two

directions: that is, the stresses act in one plane and the third principal stress is zero.

The strength and ductility of concrete are greatly increased under the conditions

of triaxial compression. The following relationship is for the strength of concrete cylinders

loaded axially to failure when subjected to confining fluid pressure.

'

where: f cc = axial compressive strength of confined specimen

f c' = uniaxial compressive strength of unconfined specimen

f l = lateral confining pressure

The creep deformation of concrete under constant axial compressive stress is illustrated

in the following figure. As the figure reveals, the creep proceeds at a decreasing rate with time.

If the load is removed, the elastic strain is immediately recovered. However, this recovered

elastic strain is less than the initial elastic strain because the elastic modulus increases with

age. The elastic recovery is followed by a creep recovery, which is a small proportion of the

total creep strain.

Figure: Typical creep curve for concrete with constant axial compressive stress

According to ACI Committee, for normal weight, sand lightweight and all lightweight

concrete, the creep coefficient C t (defined as the ratio of creep strain to initial elastic strain) at

any time may be written as

C t C u K t K a K h K th K s K f K e

K t time under load coefficient

K a age when loaded coefficient

10

K th minimum thickness of the member coefficient

K s slump of concrete coefficient

K f fines coefficient

K e air content coefficient

When concrete loses moisture by evaporation, it shrinks. Shrinkage strains are

independent of the stress conditions in the concrete. If restrained, shrinkage strains can cause

cracking of concrete and will generally cause the deflection of structural members to increase

with time.

A curve showing the increase in shrinkage strain with time appears in the following figure.

The shrinkage occurs at a decreasing rate with time. The final shrinkage strains vary greatly,

being generally in the range 0.0002 to 0.0006 but sometimes as much as 0.0010.

According to ACI Committee, for normal weight, sand lightweight and all lightweight

concrete, the unrestrained shrinkage strain at any time t is given by

sh shu S t S h S th S s S f S e S e

S t time of shrinkage coefficient

S h relative humidity coefficient

S th minimum thickness of member coefficient

S s slump of concrete coefficient

S f fines coefficient

S e air content coefficient

S c cement factor

11

The figure shown is a typical stress-strain curves for steel bars used in reinforced

concrete construction which was obtained from steel bars loaded monotonically in tension. The

curves exhibit an initial linear elastic portion, a yield plateau, a strain-hardening range in which

stress again increases with strain and finally a range in which the stress drops off until fracture

occurs.

The modulus of elasticity of the steel E s is given by the slope of the linear elastic

portion of the curve. Moreso, the stress at yield point (yield strength) is very important property

of steel reinforcement.

Sometimes yielding is accompanied by an abrupt decrease in stress, and the stress-

strain diagram has the shape appearing in the following figure.

In such a case the stresses at A and B are referred to as the upper and lower yield

strength respectively. The position of the upper yield point depends on the speed of testing, the

shape of the section and the form of specimen. The lower yield strength is usually considered

to be the true characteristic of the material.

For steels lacking a well-defined yield plateau, the yield strength taken as the stress

corresponding to a particular strain, as illustrated in the next figure. The length of the yield

plateau is generally a function of the strength of the steel. High-strength high-carbon steel

generally has a much shorter yield plateau than the lower-strength low-carbon steel.

12

Figure: Yield point on steel without well defined yield plateau

The stress-strain curves for steel in tension and compression are assumed to be

identical. In design it is necessary to idealize the shape of stress-strain curve.

Generally, the curve is simplified by idealizing it as two straight lines as in the figure (a)

below ignoring the upper yield strength and the increase in stress due to strain hardening. This

is the stress-strain curve for steel assumed by ACI code. If the plastic strain, which occurs at

near-constant stress after yielding, is much greater than the elastic extension at yield, this

assumed curve gives a very good accuracy. This simplification is particularly accurate for steel

having low yield strength.

More accurate idealizations usable for the stress-strain curve are given in figure (b) and

figure (c). Values for the stresses and strains at the onset of yield, strain hardening, and tensile

strength are necessary for the use of such idealizations.

Figure: Idealization for the stress-strain curve for steel in tension or compression.

(a)Elastic perfectly plastic approximation, (b) Trilinear approximate,(c) Complete curve

13

1.4.2.2 Repeated Stress Behavior

In the Figure of the typical stress-strain curve for steel reinforcement, the steel specimen

is loaded either in axial tension or in compression to failure in a single load run. If the load is

released before failure, the specimen will recover along s tress-strain path that is parallel to the

original elastic portion of the curve. If loaded again, the specimen will follow the same path up

to the original curve as in the following Figure below, with perhaps a small hysteresis and/or

strain-hardening effect. The virgin curve is then closely followed, as if unloading had not

occurred. Hence the monolithic stress-strain curve gives a good idealization for the envelope

curve for repeated loading of the same sign.

If reversed (tension-compression) axial loading is applied to a steel specimen in the yield

range, a stress-strain curve of the type is presented in the Figure below. The figure shows the

Bauschinger effect, in which under reversed loading the stress-strain curve becomes nonlinear

at a stress much lower than the initial yield strength. This steel behavior is strongly influenced

by previous strain history; time and temperature also have an effect. The unloading path follows

the initial elastic slope. The often-used elastic perfectly plastic idealization fro reversed loading

[Figure (b)] is only an approximation. Reversed loading curves are important when considering

the effects of high-intensity seismic loading on members.

Figure. (a) Bauschinger effect for steel under reversed loading. (b) Elastic perfectly

plastic idealization for steel under reversed loading

14

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