3 views

Uploaded by roger

Rational Function Approximation for Feature Reduction in Hyperspectral Data

- Hyperspectral Imaging Special Lecture
- m15l36.pdf
- Program Semester Genap Kelas x
- HW#6 p13-14
- systems
- cbse-class-11-mathematics-sample-paper-sa1-2014-3.pdf
- 3 2packet
- diff eq
- directinversevariationequationscardsort
- Swelling Clay Mapping for Characterizing Expansive Soils
- Sample Math Flyer
- A 04430105
- maths2-a em new
- Chain Code and Holistic Features Based OCR System for Printed Devanagari Script Using ANN and SVM
- NDT of Agri Prod Quality
- Chen, Huanting Pca 2014-07-31 Final Version
- Practice Test 03-Mathematical Aptitude
- Hands on Pre Print
- tmp4D19
- Mathscont Fren

You are on page 1of 11

reduction in hyperspectral data

To cite this article: S. Abolfazl Hosseini & Hassan Ghassemian (2016) Rational function

approximation for feature reduction in hyperspectral data, Remote Sensing Letters, 7:2,

101-110, DOI: 10.1080/2150704X.2015.1101180

http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=trsl20

REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, 2016

VOL. 7, NO. 2, 101110

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2150704X.2015.1101180

in hyperspectral data

S. Abolfazl Hosseini and Hassan Ghassemian

Faculty of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

In this letter, we propose a feature extracting technique by using Received 23 May 2015

rational function curve tting. A unique rational function curve is Accepted 19 September

developed to t the spectral signature of each pixel in a hyper- 2015

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

denominator of the tted curve are considered as new extracted

features. The main contribution of this letter is utilization of curve-

tting ability in order to classify and compress hyperspectral data.

In other words, naturally dierent curves can be discriminated

when they are approximated by rational functions with equal

form, but dierent amounts of coecients. This rational function

curve tting feature extraction method provides better classica-

tion results compared to some common feature extraction algo-

rithms when a maximum likelihood classier is used. The method

also has the ability of lossy data compression since the original

data can be reconstructed using the tted curves. In addition, the

proposed algorithm has the possibility to be applied to all pixels of

image individually, independently and simultaneously, unlike

methods like principal component analysis which need to know

all data points to compute the transformation matrix before trans-

forming data points to new feature space.

1. Introduction

Hyperspectral (HS) data sometimes called imaging spectroscopy (Ben-Dor et al. 2009)

contain hundreds of spatially co-registered images in the form of image cubes; each image

corresponds to a specic narrow spectral band usually in the wavelength range of

4002500 nm. For an N bands HS data set, the intensities measured for each pixel by the

HS sensor can be considered as the elements of an N-dimensional vector. The plot of the

sequence of intensity values corresponding to the reectance amounts of its ground surface

in adjacent wavelengths intervals (y = [y1, y2. . . yN]T, where T denotes vector transpose) as a

function of band numbers (x = [1, 2,. . ., N]T) is named as spectral signature (SS) of pixel. In

supervised classication of this type of data, some theoretical and practical problems like

Hughes phenomenon appear due to their high between bands correlation and high

dimensional spaces specications (Landgrebe 2002). There are four strategies to reduce

this phenomenon eect in HS images classication: semi-supervised classication

(Marconcini, Camps-Valls, and Bruzzone 2009; Shahshahani and Landgrebe 1994),

2015 Taylor & Francis

102 S. A. HOSSEINI AND H. GHASSEMIAN

2010; Mirzapour and Ghassemian 2015), using classiers like support vector machine which

are less sensitive to the training sample size (Melgani and Bruzzone 2004) and feature

reduction (extraction/selection) (Landgrebe 2002).

The main goal of feature reduction is to nd a transformation that maps data to a

lower dimensional space, preserving essential discriminative information. Principal com-

ponent analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) (Landgrebe 2002), non-

parametric weighted feature extraction (NWFE) (Kuo and Landgrebe 2004), wavelet

transform (Pu and Gong 2004) and maximum margin projection (MMP) (Xiaofei, Deng,

and Jiawei 2008) are examples of feature extraction (FE) techniques for data redundancy

reduction in remotely sensed data. Non-linear extensions of PCA (KPCA) have been

proposed by using kernel trick (Yanfeng, Ying, and Ye 2008). Kernel Fisher discriminant

analysis (Mika et al. 1999) and generalized discriminant analysis (Baudat and Anouar

2000) have been developed independently as kernel-based non-linear extensions of

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

LDA. Also, optimal selection of spectral bands has been extensively discussed in the

literature (Landgrebe 2002). The features produced by feature reduction step are fed to

the classier. The maximum likelihood classier (MLC) is a widely used parametric

classier in HS data classication (Pal and Mather 2003).

Despite simple structure and relatively good results, many statistical analysis-based

methods like PCA and LDA have some deciencies when they are used in HS image

classication. For example, these methods do not consider the geometric aspects of SSs

and the ordinance of original features which is a rich source of information. For each

pixel of an HS image, we have a vector of measured quantities corresponding to

reectance in consecutive wavelengths. Therefore, the ordinance of measurements

might have some useful information. In other words, SS as a curve has some useful

information. Hosseini and Ghassemian (2012, 2013) introduced an FE technique based

on the fractal nature of SS that inherently depends on the ordinance of samples. Run

and King (1999) and Tsai and Philpot (1998) proposed a method for nding absorption

points of spectra based on derivative spectra. Since derivative computation is very

sensitive to noise, they have used a smoothing preprocessing step. Other disadvantage

of many FE methods is that they cannot be applied pixel by pixel, and rst we need to

know all data points to compute transformation matrix before transforming data to new

space and producing new features. The main contribution of this letter is to introduce an

FE method which regards the geometrical nature of the SSs and the ordinance informa-

tion existing in the SS that yields improvement of classication results. Indeed, we try to

t a rational function with polynomial numerator and denominator to the SS of each

pixel. Then the coecients of these polynomials are considered as new feature vectors

and are fed to an MLC. Although the concept of curve tting has already been used in

HS data processing in applications such as spectra smoothing (Run and King 1999; Tsai

and Philpot 1998), the novelty of the proposed framework is the use of the coecients

of the tted curves (not the amounts of the tted curves themselves) as the reduced

features in the new space, and using these reduced features in data classication and

compression. Results are compared to PCA, LDA, NWFE and MMP as four basic and

classic FE methods with relatively good performance for HS data classication. Unlike

these methods, our proposed method is applied pixel by pixel. Therefore, a parallel

REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 103

invertible, it could be used as a lossy compression method for HS data, too.

Curve tting is a traditional approach to nd the mathematical relationship between

observed values and independent variables. Also, it can be used in order to noise reduc-

tion and data smoothing (Run and King 1999; Tsai and Philpot 1998), and data inter-

polation/extrapolation (Acevedo et al. 2004). The aim of curve tting is to nd a function f

() in a prespecied class of functions for the data {(, I)}, where = 1, 2,. . .,N, and I is a

function of the independent variable , which minimizes the residual (the distance

between the data samples and f()) under the weight (w = [w1, . . . , wN]T (Fang and

Gossard 1995).

Some of tting criteria to perform linear or non-linear ttings are least squares (LS),

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

least absolute residuals and bisquare tting. In the LS method, f() is found by minimiz-

ing the following weighted mean squared error:

1X N

w f I 2 (1)

N 1

There are dierent curve-tting models like polynomial, linear, spline, etc. In this

letter, a method for tting a curve using rational functions is utilized in order to extract

new features for classication and compression purposes. Therefore, it is important that f

() has fewer parameters than the number of data samples.

Consider a function f and the two integers L 0 and M 0, the rational function

approximant of order (L, M) for f is dened as ^f

, !

X

L X

M

^f

L;M

f cjM1

j

1 cj

j

(2)

j0 j1

For the same model, dissimilarities of curves yield dierences in the coecients of the

tted curves. Therefore, it seems that these coecients could be used as discriminating

features for the curves. For example, in Figure 1(a) two dierent families of curves are

plotted, and the distributions of their rational function approximants coecients are

demonstrated in Figure 1(b)(f). In this curve-tting problem, we tted a rational func-

tion with L = 0 and M = 4 to both families of curves. Therefore, each curve can be

expressed with its own ve coecients. As can be seen, the histograms of some

coecients completely separate the two families. This fact can be considered as a

motivation for using the coecients of the rational function tted curves of the SSs as

discriminating features in HS data classication tasks.

The SS of any pixel in an HS image is dened as the plot of its measured intensities in

dierent wavelengths as a function of wavelengths or band numbers. It means that each

SS contains samples of an unknown function f() in N consecutive points. We show that

104 S. A. HOSSEINI AND H. GHASSEMIAN

Figure 1. Two families of curves and the histograms of the coecients of their corresponding Pad

approximants: (a) the curves families (family 1: solid blue lines, and family 2: dotted red lines); (b)

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

and denominator can be developed through an LS method with uniform weights in

Equation (1). Then, we utilize the coecients of these polynomials as new features for

MLC. Also, these features can be used for reproducing the original data.

To provide equal condition for all HS images, the variable is considered in the form

/N as normalized band number. The rational approximant of f(/N) for the pixel located

at (x,y) is given by

X L j , XM j !

^

fx;y cjM1 1 cj (3)

N j0

N j1

N

1X N

2

E f^ = N f = N (4)

N 1

with respect to the coecients and setting them to zero. A sucient but not necessary

condition for solving this system is to nd c such that

X

L j X

M j

cjM1 N f =N cj N f = N ; 1; ::; N (5)

j0 j1

which can be rewritten in matrix form as

ANML1 cML11 bN1 (6)

( j )

f N N j 1; :::; M

where ANML1 aj , aj j and bNx1

j M 1; :::; M L 1

f N1 ; f N2 ; ::::; f NN t . N

REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 105

not square, so we use MoorePenrose pseudo inverse of A and nd c such that the

norm of Ac-b be minimized. The above procedure must be performed for all pixels

of the HS data set, and the vectors c replace the original data and new image cube

is developed. Therefore, the third dimension of data is changed to M + L + 1,

achieving to resize data for a rate of N/(M + L + 1). The procedure can be

performed for all pixels, simultaneously.

This rational function curve-tting feature extraction (RFCF-FE) method is an

unsupervised FE method. The new features are applied to MLCs and results are

compared to PCA as a traditional unsupervised FE method and LDA and NWFE as

two supervised FE methods and MMP as an unsupervised manifold-based algo-

rithm. As demonstrated in the following section, the RFCF-FE method results are

more accurate than its competing methods for both urban and agricultural data

sets. Also, it can be used as a coding algorithm for HS data compression.

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

4. Experimental results

4.1. HS data sets

The rst data set used in our experiments is a mixed forest/agricultural 145 145

pixels image from Indian Pine Site (IPS) in Indiana. It is captured by AVIRIS sensor.

The spatial resolution of this data set is 20 m. The image contains 220 reectance

bands in the wavelengths from 400 to 2500 nm with 10 nm resolution. After

removing water absorption bands, N = 200 bands were left. The scene contains

16 dierent land covers, and detailed information can be found in Universidad-del-

Pais-Vasco (2015).

The other data set was gathered over the urban area of the University of Pavia

(UP) by ROSIS sensor. It is 610 340 pixels, with the spatial resolution of 1.3 m, in

115 reectance bands in the range of 430860 nm. Discarding some noisy bands

yields N = 103 bands nally. This scene contains nine dierent land cover

(Universidad-del-Pais-Vasco 2015). Band 18 of these data sets in shown in Figures

2(a) and 3(a), respectively.

Figure 2. Comparing the original and the reconstructed image of IPS (band 18): (a) original data; (b)

obtained using the RFCF-FE method; (c) obtained using inverse PCA.

106 S. A. HOSSEINI AND H. GHASSEMIAN

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

Figure 3. Comparing the original and the reconstructed image of UP (band 18): (a) Original data; (b)

obtained using the RFCF-FE method; (c) obtained using inverse PCA.

The proposed FE method has been applied to both HS data sets IPS and UP, and

the extracted features have been fed into an MLC. The classication results have

been compared to those of PCA, NWFE, MMP and LDA features. For a given number

of features, D, the parameter L changes in the range of 0 to D 1. Then M is

selected regarding the constraint: M + L + 1 = D. For each value of D, the values of

L and M producing best results have been selected for comparison to the compet-

ing methods with the same dimensions. Since 10% of the whole data volume with

a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 50 samples per class is used for training the

classier, D changes in the range 2 D 14. Figures 2(b) and 3(b) show the images

of 18th band of input data sets, reconstructed from extracted features by the RFCF-

FE method (L = 0, M = 13 for IPS and L = 12, M = 1 for UP, as two typical amounts

of M and L). Reconstruction process has been performed using Equation (4) for

= 1, 2,. . ., N (note that shows the index of the wavelength, not the wavelength

value). Also, Figures 2(c) and 3(c) demonstrate reconstruction of the same band

using inverse PCA. Examples of real SSs and their rational tted curves of two

sample pixels of these two data sets are plotted in Figure 4, where (L, M) are equal

to (0, 13) and (12, 1) for IPS and UP, respectively.

The above discussions about Figures 24 show that the RFCF-FE method has high

ability to preserve spatial and spectral characteristics of the data. Also, it can be seen

that by applying this method for IPS data some spatial domain smoothing occurred

without destroying the edges of the regions. However, in a few points as illustrated in

Figure 4, there may be a large dierence between the original and the tted curve; our

REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 107

Figure 4. Spectral signature of a typical pixel and its approximation: (a) IPS data, image coordi-

nate = (50, 20), Land cover = corn; (b) UP data, image coordinate (70, 70), Land cover = self-blocking

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

bricks.

results show that these exceptional points do not have a severe impact on the classica-

tion performance. This is because (1) these exceptional points in each SS are rare, if any;

(2) the locations of these points are not the same for dierent SSs, i.e. this phenomenon

does not destroy any specic band completely; and (3) for each SS, the coecients of

the corresponding tted curve are used as the features, not the curve itself.

Figure 5 demonstrates the accuracy assessment measures for IPS and UP data sets.

The optimum values of L (and so M) parameters of the RFCF-FE method dier for

dierent values of D and dierent iterations of the algorithm, but in most cases the

best classication results have occurred when values of L are 0, 1, D 2 and D 1. Note

that despite the other methods the maximum number of extracted features in the LDA

method is equal to Nc 1, where Nc is the number of classes.

The superiority of the RFCF-FE method compared to the other methods is appar-

ent from Figure 5. As can be seen, all measures (average accuracy, average validity,

overall accuracy and kappa statistics) have been dramatically improved by the RFCF-

FE algorithm in comparison to the other methods. The only exception is for the MMP

method in the UP case at D = 12, 13 and 14. This improvement in IPS is more than in

UP because IPS data contain agricultural scene with less details and larger ground

instantaneous eld of view in contrast to the urban scene of UP. Therefore, our

method outperforms PCA, NWFE and LDA for agricultural scenes as well as urban

ones and loses out to MMP by a few points for the urban data set.

Table 1 contains the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) values for reconstructed images

from PCA and the proposed method for IPS and UP, respectively, when D varies from 3 to 15.

PSNR for the proposed method corresponds to the values of L and M that yields to the

best result. These optimum values of L and M have been shown in these tables. The

superiority of the proposed method with respect to the PCA-based compressing method is

apparent from these tables. As demonstrated in Table 1, in most cases for the UP data set, the

best result is obtained when M = 0. It implies that Maclaurin series has a better performance

in these cases. PSNR is calculated using 10 log10 (S/N), where S is the energy of original signal

and N is the energy of dierence between the original and decompressed signal.

108 S. A. HOSSEINI AND H. GHASSEMIAN

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

Figure 5. Comparison of the RFCF-FE method with those of PCA, NWFE, MMP and LDA in terms of

common accuracy measures. (a)(d) For IPS data, and (e)(h) for UP data. Reference ground truth

maps are available in Universidad-del-Pais-Vasco.

REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 109

Table 1. Comparing PSNR of the proposed method and inverse PCA for IPS and UP data sets.

Compression rate IPS Compression rate UP

(N/D) Best(L,M) PSNR IPCA PSNR (N/D) Best(L,M) PSNR IPCA PSNR

200/3 (0, 2) 34.95 24.39 103/3 (2, 0) 31.85 29.76

200/4 (0, 3) 27.42 25.74 103/4 (3, 0) 20.25 16.44

200/5 (0, 4) 58.70 24.20 103/5 (2, 2) 32.92 23.54

200/6 (0, 5) 29.63 23.28 103/6 (5, 0) 21.35 16.17

200/7 (4, 2) 24.17 24.46 103/7 (5, 1) 25.29 19.27

200/8 (0, 7) 22.78 25.13 103/8 (2, 5) 24.06 19.52

200/9 (6, 2) 55.11 25.21 103/9 (1, 7) 43.77 22.52

200/10 (2, 7) 34.38 25.90 103/10 (2, 7) 38.98 21.77

200/11 (6, 4) 28.46 27.03 103/11 (6, 4) 68.19 22.74

200/12 (8, 3) 28.17 28.99 103/12 (11, 0) 34.11 23.65

200/13 (5, 7) 31.47 29.43 103/13 (12, 0) 27.86 22.91

200/14 (2, 11) 41.01 31.47 103/14 (13, 0) 26.05 24.08

200/15 (10, 4) 42.38 30.14 103/15 (14, 0) 35.47 23.98

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

5. Conclusion

A new FE method for HS data is proposed using rational function curve tting. The main

motivation for using the curve-tting approach for HS data FE is the utilization of the

information that exists in the sequence of original features (ordinance of reectance

coecients in SS) that are neglected by competing methods. The coecients of SSs

approximants are calculated through analytical operations. These extracted features are

then fed into an ML classier. The size of the training samples is selected as 10% of total

data volume with a minimum of 15 and maximum of 50 samples for each class. The

classication performance is compared to PCA as a traditional unsupervised FE method

and LDA and NWFE as two supervised FE methods and MMP as an unsupervised manifold-

based algorithm. The results show the superiority of the proposed method. Also, it has

been shown that this technique has satisfactory results for signal visualization and signal

representation, and can be considered as a good coding algorithm for lossy compression

of HS data. The proposed method can be applied pixel by pixel and does not need to

transform whole data to a new space simultaneously. In addition, this method is a novel

approach which can be used as a powerful base for developing more ecient FE methods.

Disclosure statement

No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.

Funding

This work was supported by Iran communication research center [grant number 18133/500 T by

Identication code: 90-01-03].

References

Acevedo, J. C., H. Haneishi, M. Yamaguchi, N. Ohyamaa, and J. Baez. 2004. CIE-XYZ Fitting by

Multispectral Images and Mean Square Error Minimization with a Linear Interpolation Function.

Revista Mexicana De Fsica 50 (6): 601607.

Baudat, G., and F. Anouar. 2000. Generalized Discriminant Analysis Using a Kernel Approach.

Neural Computation 12 (10): 23852404. doi:10.1162/089976600300014980.

110 S. A. HOSSEINI AND H. GHASSEMIAN

Ben-Dor, E., S. Chabrillat, J. Dematt, G. Taylor, J. Hill, M. Whiting, and S. Sommer. 2009. Using

Imaging Spectroscopy to Study Soil Properties. Remote Sensing of Environment 113: S38S55.

doi:10.1016/j.rse.2008.09.019.

Camps-Valls, G., N. Shervashidze, and K. M. Borgwardt. 2010. Spatio-Spectral Remote Sensing

Image Classication With Graph Kernels. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 7 (4): 741

745. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2010.2046618.

Fang, L., and D. C. Gossard. 1995. Multidimensional Curve Fitting to Unorganized Data Points by

Nonlinear Minimization. Computer-Aided Design 27 (1): 4858. doi:10.1016/0010-4485(95)

90752-2.

Hosseini, A., and H. Ghassemian. 2012. Classication of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Images by

Using Fractal Dimension of Spectral Response Curve. In 2012 20th Iranian Conference on

Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 14521457. Tehran: IEEE.

Hosseini, A., and H. Ghassemian. 2013. A New Hyperspectral Image Classication Approach Using

Fractal Dimension of Spectral Response Curve. In 2013 21st Iranian Conference on Electrical

Engineering (ICEE), 16. Mashad: IEEE.

Kuo, B.-C., and D. A. Landgrebe. 2004. Nonparametric Weighted Feature Extraction for

Downloaded by [Wuhan University] at 05:04 12 November 2015

doi:10.1109/TGRS.2004.825578.

Landgrebe, D. 2002. Hyperspectral Image Data Analysis as a High Dimensional Signal Processing

Problem. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 19 (1): 1728. doi:10.1109/79.974718.

Marconcini, M., G. Camps-Valls, and L. Bruzzone. 2009. A Composite Semisupervised SVM for

Classication of Hyperspectral Images. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 6 (2): 234

238. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2008.2009324.

Melgani, F., and L. Bruzzone. 2004. Classication of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Images with

Support Vector Machines. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 42 (8): 1778

1790. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2004.831865.

Mika, S., G. Ratsch, J. Weston, B. Scholkopf, and K. Muller. 1999. Fisher Discriminant Analysis with

Kernels. In Neural Networks for Signal Processing IX, 1999. Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE Signal

Processing Society Workshop, 4148. Madison, WI: IEEE.

Mirzapour, F., and H. Ghassemian. 2015. Improving Hyperspectral Image Classication by

Combining Spectral, Texture, and Shape Features. International Journal of Remote Sensing 36

(4): 10701096. doi:10.1080/01431161.2015.1007251.

Pal, M., and P. M. Mather. 2003. An Assessment of the Eectiveness of Decision Tree Methods for

Land Cover Classication. Remote Sensing of Environment 86 (4): 554565. doi:10.1016/S0034-

4257(03)00132-9.

Pu, R., and P. Gong. 2004. Wavelet Transform Applied to EO-1 Hyperspectral Data for Forest LAI

and Crown Closure Mapping. Remote Sensing of Environment 91 (2): 212224. doi:10.1016/j.

rse.2004.03.006.

Run, C., and R. King. 1999. The Analysis of Hyperspectral Data Using Savitzky-Golay Filtering-

Theoretical Basis (Part 1). In IEEE 1999 International Proceedings on Geoscience and Remote

Sensing Symposium, Hamburg, 756758. IEEE. doi:10.1109/IGARSS.1999.774430.

Shahshahani, B. M., and D. A. Landgrebe. 1994. The Eect of Unlabeled Samples in Reducing the

Small Sample Size Problem and Mitigating the Hughes Phenomenon. IEEE Transactions on

Geoscience and Remote Sensing 32 (5): 10871095. doi:10.1109/36.312897.

Tsai, F., and W. Philpot. 1998. Derivative Analysis of Hyperspectral Data. Remote Sensing of

Environment 66 (1): 4151. doi:10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00032-7.

Universidad-del-Pais-Vasco. 2015. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Scenes. http://www.ehu.es/

ccwintco/index.php?title=Hyperspectral_Remote_Sensing_Scenes

Xiaofei, H., C. Deng, and H. Jiawei. 2008. Learning a Maximum Margin Subspace for Image

Retrieval. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 20 (2): 189201. doi:10.1109/

TKDE.2007.190692.

Yanfeng, G., L. Ying, and Z. Ye. 2008. A Selective KPCA Algorithm Based on High-Order Statistics

for Anomaly Detection in Hyperspectral Imagery. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 5

(1): 4347. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2007.907304.

- Hyperspectral Imaging Special LectureUploaded byYessica Rosas
- m15l36.pdfUploaded byPradip Gupta
- Program Semester Genap Kelas xUploaded byPurwanti Wahyuningsih
- HW#6 p13-14Uploaded byrussell_mahmood
- systemsUploaded byapi-309941503
- cbse-class-11-mathematics-sample-paper-sa1-2014-3.pdfUploaded bycerla
- 3 2packetUploaded byapi-327561261
- diff eqUploaded byTin Montoya
- directinversevariationequationscardsortUploaded byapi-269457568
- Swelling Clay Mapping for Characterizing Expansive SoilsUploaded byNadim527
- Sample Math FlyerUploaded bySalman Haroon
- A 04430105Uploaded byIOSRJEN : hard copy, certificates, Call for Papers 2013, publishing of journal
- maths2-a em newUploaded byapi-142567765
- Chain Code and Holistic Features Based OCR System for Printed Devanagari Script Using ANN and SVMUploaded byAdam Hansen
- NDT of Agri Prod QualityUploaded byHafiz M Tahir
- Chen, Huanting Pca 2014-07-31 Final VersionUploaded byUlises Araya
- Practice Test 03-Mathematical AptitudeUploaded byMegha Gupta
- Hands on Pre PrintUploaded byVigneshwari Mahamuni
- tmp4D19Uploaded byFrontiers
- Mathscont FrenUploaded bynangaayissi
- Mathematics with Word y Excel Microsoft 2007Uploaded byMatematicas con Word y Excel
- LINEAR ALGEBRA.pptxUploaded byaishahsarif
- Social_science_simulation_-_origins__prospects__purposesUploaded byapi-19665181
- Dynamics 17-92 17-93 SolutionUploaded bypearldrummer992
- Thermal analysis on various fin profilesUploaded bySidd Sal
- EMG ClassificationUploaded byOscar De Silva
- frarcUploaded byKang Uci
- 01. B.E. ECE Final Req 17 3rd SemUploaded bykishwarjahan
- Spreadsheet Learning ReflectionUploaded byGarnet
- syllabus_351_sum2017Uploaded byranv

- The Future of Geospatial IntelligenceUploaded byroger
- A Novel Anomaly Detection Method Incorporating Target Information Derived From Hyperspectral ImageryUploaded byroger
- Estimating Leaf Area Index of Maize Using Airborne Full-waveform Lidar DataUploaded byroger
- Parcel Based Change DetectionUploaded byroger
- The Australian Approach to Geospatial Capabilities Positioning Earth Observation Infrastructure and Analytics Issues Trends and PerspectivesUploaded byroger
- 爱情阴谋论Uploaded byroger

- LyricsUploaded byAeryll Jasmin
- Bob Beck Lecture_Take Back Your PowerUploaded byprobiermalaus
- 8 Alcohols-2 and EthersUploaded byNova sounds - No copyright music
- RCFootingDesignWeb.xlsUploaded byDavid Shutte
- 25 Word PaintingUploaded byManorJD
- Administration of an Achievement TestUploaded bymanu sethi
- The Safe and the Archaeological Exhibition in the 20th CenturyUploaded byGeorgian National Museum
- 56265843 Linear B LexiconUploaded byMarcio André Silva
- Antigone ChanterUploaded byphilo_bureau2598
- sadx1050.pdfUploaded byJoseph Price
- Listening-Sample-Test-1-Answer-Key.pdfUploaded byKristine Monforte Coma Urita
- Sub n Up Octaver m EnUploaded byDionisis Korkolis
- Portable Computer w/ 3X 17-Inch LCDs - Chassis Plans MP3X17 DatasheetUploaded byPortable Computer Workstations
- electricity -diodes - presentationUploaded byapi-457702142
- Razors EdgeUploaded byelango881
- Inter-company Billing Process _ SAP BlogsUploaded byNikhil Ravi
- Ascaris y AscaridiasisUploaded byemmanueltobon0621
- Sustainability - Water WastewaterUploaded byJaime Chavez M
- Ref_119Uploaded byAKASH FERAG
- Green Hrm- Delivering High Performance Hr SystemsUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Chapter 2Uploaded byVannessa Shallomy
- Basic Concepts List of Useful Oracle Apps Articles 2Uploaded byMahidhar Koppula
- 2722.0-EMRI_2492-V1.38.pdfUploaded bysssfsfs
- reflection essayUploaded byapi-339972781
- British Physics Olympiads 2008Uploaded byYoussef Medhat
- Overview of LiteratureUploaded byAmeya Parab
- Ansys_RigidUploaded byAshok
- Lesson 5 - Levelling and ContouringUploaded byBryan
- Overview CO Master Data en DeUploaded byantares_38599
- 2 prepositions lesson planUploaded byapi-279690289