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- Computational Methods in Acoustics
- muffler design
- FSAE Muffler Design
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- Muffler Acoustics
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Author K.S. Andersen*

Dinex Emission Technology A/S

*Corresponding author: Fynsvej 39, DK-5500, Middelfart, Denmark, ksa@dinex.dk

Abstract: Exhaust noise must meet legislation equation in three dimensions for acoustic

targets, customer expectations and cost reduction pressure [1]

which call for design optimization of the exhaust ω2

systems in the design phase. One solution is to ∇2 p + k 2 p = 0 ,k = 2 (1)

c

use 3 dimensional linear pressure acoustics and

calculate the transfer matrix of the muffler. The

ω is the angular frequency, k is the wave

number, c is the speed of sound and p is the

transfer matrix is the basis for calculating either

acoustic pressure.

the insertion loss or transmission loss of a

The assumptions of linearity using a

muffler. The 3D simulations in Comsol of

frequency model is valid for sound pressure

different muffler configurations are verified by

measurements in a flow acoustic test rig using levels up to 150 dB re 20 µPa, and for exhaust

system lengths below 15 m, but nonlinearities

the two source method.

may still occur at local constrictions such as

perforated elements, due to high pulsating

Keywords: Muffler, Transfer Matrix,

Transmission Loss, Two Source Method. velocities [2]. In addition, a constant temperature

through out the system is also assumed. Finally,

the Mach number is set to zero, while the flow

1. Introduction induced losses are implemented through the

boundary conditions.

The noise from an exhaust system consists of

three components: Pulsation noise and flow

generated noise coming from the orifice of the 3. Methods

muffler outlet and shell noise coming from the

shell of the muffler. 3.1 The CAE Tools

Shell noise may be limited by using a stiffer

or damped shell, while flow generated noise, The available CAE tools for analyzing

such as turbulence and vortex shedding may be muffler performance includes 1D and 3D linear

limited by minimizing geometrical acoustic codes with and without mean flow,

discontinuities (edges, sharp bends etc.). where the 3D may be either BEM or FEM based

Minimizing pulsation noise, caused by the methods. Comsol Multiphysics offers a 3D

valves opening and closing inside the IC engine, linear acoustic code where the most important

effect of flow is included by altering the

is the focus of this paper and this is obtained by

designing the internal parts of the muffler in such boundary conditions, while the mean flow is not

a way that the most critical part of the frequency included.

spectrum is attenuated.

3.2 The Measurement Tools

sound pressure based insertion loss measurement

by means of ISO 11820 in a reverberation room

using real engines, transmission loss

Figure 1. Comsol Multiphysics simulation of the

measurement using the three microphone method

sound pressure level at a frequency of 100 Hz. [3] and transfer matrix measurements by means

of the 2-load or the 2-source method [4]. The 2-

source method was chosen as it offers the highest

2. Governing Equations

accuracy for comparison with the simulations.

The governing equation of the sound field in

a muffler is the linear time harmonic wave 4. Theory

4.1 The Plane Waves The sound pressure, pi, and volume velocity,

qi , on the inlet side of a muffler may be fully

The wave equation (1) for a single transferred to the outlet side (po, qo) by using the

dimension, e.g. the x-direction in a duct, is transfer matrix, T, which consists of the four

∂2 p ω2 elements, T11, T12, T21, T22,

+k2p =0 ,k = (2)

∂x 2 c2 pˆ i T11 T12 pˆ o (7)

=

The solution to the equation above may be qˆ i T21 T22 qˆ o

written in sine and cosine functions or in The two-port theory assumes a linear and

exponential functions as time invariant system, with continuity in sound

p ( x) = p + e − jkx + p − e jkx (3) pressure and volume velocity across transitions.

p(x) is a sum of two plane waves, one

travelling in the positive x-direction with qi qo

T11 T12

amplitude p+ and the other in the negative x- pi po

direction with amplitude p-. The plane wave T21 T22

decomposition is shown in the figure below.

Figure 3. The basic transfer matrix parameters.

+ − jkx

p e

One advantage of using transfer matrices to

p − e jkx describe a muffler is that you can connect

multiple sub mufflers to one final muffler by just

Figure 2. Plane wave decomposition in a duct. multiplying the matrices.

medium, the volume velocity is determined as

S

( p + e − jkx − p − e jkx ), (4) A plane wave is applied at the inlet side and

q( x) =

ρ 0c the muffler is terminated at both ends by an

where ρ0 is the density and S is the duct area. impedance match implemented by using the

radiation condition. It is assumed that the sound

4.2 The Plane Waves in Mean Flow field in the connecting ducts is only one

dimensional, which is true for [1]:

The wave equation changes a little when 1.84c (8)

f <

mean flow is included πD

∂2 p ∂p D is the duct diameter and f is the frequency.

2

( )

1 − M 2 + k 2 p − 2 jkM = 0, (5)

∂x ∂x

where M = u 0 c is the Mach number. p1 p2 p3 p4

T11 T12 Anechoic

wave numbers are changed Source termination

p( x) = p + e − jk + x + p − e jk− x (6) pi - T21 T22 po – = 0

k k

k+ = , k− =

1+ M 1− M

The mean flow is stretching the waves in the

x1 x2 x2 +L x3-L x3 x4

same direction as the flow direction, while it is

compressing the waves in the other direction. Figure 4. Parameters for extracting the transfer

matrix.

4.3 The Transfer Matrix

When the equation system is solved, the

When staying in the plane wave region for acoustic pressure at two specific points on the

the inlet and outlet of the muffler, the muffler inlet side (p1, p2) and on the outlet side (p3, p4) of

can be described by two port theory in form of the muffler are extracted for further calculations,

either the scattering matrix, or the transfer matrix where p2, and p3 has a numerical distance of L to

[4]. the muffler.

p1 = pi + ⋅ e − jkx1 + pi − ⋅ e jkx1 to use when comparing different methods and

designs. TL in decibels is defined as the

p2 = pi + ⋅ e − jkx 2

+ pi − ⋅ e jkx 2

(9)

difference between the incident sound power and

− jkx 3 jkx 3

p3 = po + ⋅ e + po − ⋅ e transmitted sound power, assuming a reflection

p4 = po + ⋅ e − jkx 4

+ po − ⋅ e jkx 4 free termination [3].

The left and right going pressure waves on p 2

TL = 10 log i + 2 (15)

the inlet side (pi-, pi+) and outlet side (po-, po+) of p

the muffler are. o+

( ) TL may also be calculated using the transfer

j p1 ⋅ e jkx2 − p2 ⋅ e jkx1

pi + = matrix elements [1].

2 sin k ( x1 − x2 ) 2

1 S ρc (16)

po + =

(

j p3 ⋅ e jkx4 − p4 ⋅ e jkx3 ) (10) TL = 10 log T11 + T12

4

+ T21 + T22

ρc S

2 sin k ( x3 − x4 )

(

j p2 ⋅ e − jkx1 − p1 ⋅ e− jkx2 ) IL depends on the source and is better to use

pi − =

2 sin k ( x1 − x2 ) when looking at individual practical solutions. IL

is defined as the difference between the radiated

po − =

(

j p4 ⋅ e − jkx3 − p3 ⋅ e − jkx4 ) sound power with a reference exhaust system (no

2 sin k ( x3 − x4 ) muffler) and the radiated sound power with a

The sound pressures (pi, po) and volume muffler system [3].

velocities (qi , qo) at the inlet and outlet plane of PL, which is a gas dynamic parameter,

the muffler are (see figure 3). depends only on the muffler and is defined as the

pi = pi + ⋅ e − jk ( x 2+ L ) + pi − ⋅ e jk ( x 2+L ) difference between the static pressure before the

pi + ⋅ e− jk ( x 2+ L ) − pi − ⋅ e jk ( x 2+ L ) muffler and the static pressure after the muffler.

qi = S (11) TL will in this paper be used to evaluate the

ρc performance of the muffler.

− jk ( x 3− L ) jk ( x 3− L )

p o = p o+ ⋅ e + p o− ⋅ e

− jk ( x 3− L )

− po− ⋅ e jk ( x 3− L )

p o+ ⋅ e 5. Numerical Model

qo = S

ρc

The boundary conditions inside the muffler

The transfer matrix is symmetric [1]

are solid walls, coupling boundary conditions

T11 = T22 , (12)

and perforated plates. The coupling boundary

and reciprocity requires the matrix determinant conditions are used to couple two connecting

to be equal to one [1] sub-domains, where sound will propagate

T11T22 − T12 T21 = 1 (13) unaffected, e.g. a duct connected to another duct.

By using the two specific properties of the The perforated plates are implemented as a

transfer matrix mentioned above, the four complex impedance, Z, where θ and χ are the

elements of the transfer matrix becomes real and imaginary part respectively [5].

po qo + p i qi p i2 − p o2 Z (18)

T11 = T12 = = θ '+ jχ '

pi qo + po qi p i qo + p o q i (14) ρc

q i2 − q o2 p q + p i qi 1 8µk

T21 = T22 = o o θ '= 1 +

t

+ θ f (19)

pi q o + po qi pi qo + po qi σ ρc d h

1 (20)

4.5 Performance Evaluation χ'= k (t + δ h )

σ

The flow resistivity, θf, and the Comsol

The acoustic performance of a muffler may parameter for the diameter of the hole, dh, are

be evaluated using either the transmission loss modified to account for flow induced losses. The

(TL) or the insertion loss (IL), while the flow modifications were done by comparing the real

performance is evaluated using the pressure loss and imaginary part of the impedance to the

(PL), also named the backpressure. model by T. Elnady [6]. The result were the

TL only depends on the muffler and not on

below parameters, where σ is the porosity of the

the source (inlet and outlet length and perforate and d is the actual diameter of the hole.

impedance) and is considered the best parameter

Table 1: Modified parts of the perforate impedance. The signal from the stepped sine generator

Comsol Dinex driving the loudspeakers, is used as reference for

Flow resistance θf =0 M the microphone transfer functions, using 100

θ f = 1.57 averages for enhancing the signal to noise ratio.

(bias flow) σ

Flow resistance θf =1

θ f = 0 .5

M

(grazing flow) σ 6.2 The Variable Standard Muffler

Hole diameter dh = d (

d h = 81000k ⋅ d )

1.5 −1

In order to verify the simulations, a variable

End correction d 1 standard muffler was constructed. Pictures of the

δh = h δh = d

4 4 basic three designs are shown below.

is either air or absorptive material described by

Delany and Bazley [5]. The flow resistivity, Rf,

of the absorptive material is estimated using the

formula by Bies and Hansen [5], leaving only the

apparent density σap and the average fiber

diameter, dav to be determined.

(21) Figure 7. The reflective muffler.

R f = 3.18 ⋅ 10 −9 ⋅ ρ ap

1.53

⋅ d av−2

6. Results

source method, consists of a centrifugal fan

feeding cold air into the muffler and 6

neodymium loudspeaker units for sufficient Figure 8. The absorptive muffler.

sound pressure level compared to flow generated

noise.

Microphones Microphones Centrifugal fan

Test object

Loudspeaker Loudspeaker

s

Figure 5. Layout of the flow acoustic

s test rig for

experimental validation.

Figure 9. The plug flow muffler.

Six flushmounted ¼” B&K microphones for

double frequency span are connected to the 6.2 The Reflective Muffler

analyzer.

The reflective muffler reflects the low

frequency sound waves when the length of the

expansion chambers or quarter wave resonators

equals a multiple of a quarter of a wavelength.

720 mm

300 mm

320 mm 97 mm

Figure 6. Picture of the flow acoustic test rig.

Figure 10. An expansion chamber with a resonator.

Transmission Loss slowed during motion in the absorptive material.

30

Calculated

The effect of grazing flow in the perforate is

25 Measured limited compared to that of the absorptive

Simulated material.

720 mm

Transmission Loss [dB]

20

15 300 mm

ooooooooooooo

10

97 mm

5

Figure 13. The absorptive muffler.

0

Transmission Loss

60

-5

0 500 1000 1500 2000 Measured

Frequency [Hz] Simulated

50

Figure 11. Transmission loss for a basic expansion

chamber. 40

well, besides a little offset in the peaks. This 20

parameters (lengths, temperatures, densities etc.).

A simple analytical calculation is also shown, 0

0 500 1000 1500 2000

and it does not capture the higher order modes. Frequency [Hz]

The first axisymmetric higher-order mode will Figure 14. Transmission loss for a pure absorption

start to propagate above 1400 Hz. muffler.

Transmission Loss

60

Measured The effect of the absorptive material (Rf = 5000

50

Simulated

Rayls/m) sets in above 100 Hz, and supplies a

constant growing transmission loss (figure 14).

Transmission Loss [dB]

which the simulation at first overestimates, then

30

underestimates the transmission loss. The Delany

20

& Bazley model may be inaccurate when used in

a sub domain as large as this. Additional tests

10 with smaller sub domains could clarify this.

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 6.4 The Plug Flow Muffler

Frequency [Hz]

Figure 12. Transmission loss for an expansion The plug flow muffler works at all frequencies

chamber with a 320 mm quarter-wave resonator. by dissipating sound energy when vortices at the

perforate interfere with the sound field. The flow

The measured and simulated transmission loss of in the perforate is now mainly bias flow in

an expansion chamber with a 320 mm quarter- opposition to grazing flow.

wave resonator also exhibits good correlation 720 mm

even though the peaks are also shifted a little.

300 mm

6.3 The Absorptive Muffler

ooooo

frequencies by dissipating sound energy when

Figure 15. The plug flow muffler.

the particle velocity of the sound waves is

smoothing of the peaks and dips, except for the

peak at 1350 Hz.

Transmission Loss

60

v = 30 m/s

v = 20 m/s

50 v = 10 m/s

v = 0 m/s

40

simulations. From left: Ø3 25.0%, Ø4 30.7%, Ø4 30

23.0%, Ø4 15.3%.

20

Transmission Loss

60

Measured

10

Simulated

50

0

Transmission Loss [dB]

40 Frequency [Hz]

30

flow muffler. Ø3 mm holes with 25 % porosity at

different flow speeds.

20

smoothing of the peaks and dips which is seen in

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000

figure 19.

Frequency [Hz] The flow in an automotive exhaust system is

Figure 17. Transmission loss for a plug flow muffler. pulsating (in opposition to a constant flow),

Ø3 mm holes with 25 % porosity at v = 0 m/s. hence the effect of the perforate increase in real

applications.

The simulation of the plug flow muffler (Ø3 mm The figure below shows that decreasing the

holes and 25 % porosity) without flow, shown in porosity has the same effect as increasing the

figure 17, captures the resonator effect at 800 Hz velocity, since they are both included as a real

due to the 80 mm extended inlet before the part of the impedance in the boundary condition

perforate section begins, though it for the perforate. Additional simulations and

underestimates the high frequency transmission measurements have shown that the diameter of

loss. the holes in the perforate may be varied between

3 mm and 12 mm without any significant

60

Transmission Loss influence.

Measured

Simulated

50 Transmission Loss

60

15.3 % porosity

Transmission Loss [dB]

40 23.0 % porosity

50

30.7 % porosity

Transmission Loss [dB]

30

40

20

30

10

20

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 10

Frequency [Hz]

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Ø3 mm holes with 25 % porosity at v = 30 m/s. Frequency [Hz]

When a flow speed of v = 30 m/s is added plug flow muffler Ø4 mm holes with different

(figure 18), the simulation captures the porosities at v = 30 m/s.

6.5 Simulation setup Finally the simulations will be used to

optimize production parameters such as minimal

Setting up a model takes about 20 minutes material consumption, simple construction,

from importing the CAD model to hitting the simple production and small.

solve button, while the solution time is 10

minutes when taking 100 frequency steps and 9. References

using 5 elements pr. wavelength and solving the

system using the PARDISO solver on a normal 1. A. D. Pierce, Acoustics – An Introduction to

desktop pc. Its Physical Principles and Applications, page

17, 317, 351, 353. Acoustical Society of

8. Conclusions America, (1989)

2. H. Bodén, M. Åbom, Modelling of Fluid

This paper shows how the transfer matrix Machines as Sources of Sound in Duct and Pipe

may be extracted using the complex wave Systems, Acta acustica, 3, p. 549-560 (1995)

amplitudes at two specific points on the inlet side 3. M. L. Munjal, Acoustics of Ducts and

and outlet side, while running only a single Mufflers, page 21, 55-59, 201-205. John Wiley

simulation at multiple frequencies. & Sons, Inc., (1987)

This method makes it possible to calculate 4. M. Åbom, Measurement of the Scattering-

the insertion loss in opposition to the direct matrix of Acoustical Two-ports, Mechanical

calculation of the transmission loss based on an Systems and Signal Processing, 5(2), 89-104

integration of the pressure across the inlet and (1991)

outlet of the muffler [5]. 5. COMSOL 3.4, Acoustic Module Model

The simulation results of the reflective Library, 74-89, 154-170. COMSOL AB (2007)

muffler and the plug flow muffler with perforate 6. T. Elnady, Modelling and characterization of

correlate well with the measurements, but work Perforates in Lined Ducts and Mufflers, doctoral

needs to be done in the field of absorption in dissertation. Dept. Aeronautical and Vehicle

order to trust the simulations of the absorptive Eng., Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

muffler. The model settings could be updated (2004)

using the measurements.

No frequency limitations, short setup time, 10. Acknowledgements

and easy redesign are among the advantages of

using 3D pressure acoustic simulation while the Mats Åbom and Hans Bodén at KTH for

down sides reads relatively long simulation time practical help during design of the flow rig.

compared to 1D acoustic codes and no “easy” Tamer Elnady at Ain Shams University for

pressure loss simulation. help with the experimental data analysis.

Still this approach is faster than using 1D gas Christian Svendsen at Danfoss Compressors

dynamic codes. GmbH for help with the automation of the

measurements.

8. Perspectives Mads Nygaard, Henrik Breiner Jensen, Mads

Juul Jacobsen and Carsten Thiel at Dinex

The confidence achieved in the simulation Emission Technology A/S for help with the

procedure makes it possible for Dinex to mainly construction of the flow rig.

use simulations in the early design phase. And finally Comsol support for continuously

Future work will involve simulation of helping with simulation problems.

pressure loss and mean flow distribution by

perhaps using impedance implementation of the

perforated elements.

The transfer matrices obtained will be of real

value, when the source impedance of a real

engine can be used together with the transfer

matrix to calculate the insertion loss, and later on

compared to direct measurements according to

ISO 11820.

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