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connections. b. Free-body diagrams. c. Alternative free-body

diagram.

211

Equations of Motion Assuming:

force magnitude is . From figure 3.47B:

(3.122)

(3.123)

The spring is in compression, and the connecting-spring force

magnitude is . From figure 3.47C:

212

Steps for obtaining the correct differential equations of

motion:

whether the connecting spring forces are in tension or

compression.

displacement positions and their resultant reaction forces

(i.e., tension or compression).

governing equations of motion.

(3.124)

symmetric. A stiffness matrix that is not symmetric and cannot

be made symmetric by multiplying one or more of its rows by

constants indicates a system that is or can be dynamically

unstable. You have made a mistake, if in working through the

213

example problems, you arrive at a nonsymmetric stiffness

matrix. Also, for a neutrally-stable system, the diagonal entries

for the mass and stiffness matrices must be greater than zero.

following uncoupled equations result

using the same procedures of the preceding section.

214

Figure 3.48 a. Two-mass, linear vibration system with motion

of the left-hand support. b. Free-body diagram for assumed

motion .

excitation via . From the free-body diagram for assumed

motion ,

(3.125)

215

In matrix notation

(3.126)

and damper connections. b. Free-body diagram for

216

Connection with Dampers

and

.

center dampers, but compression is developed in the right

damper. The tension in damper 1 is , the tension in damper

2 is , and the compression in damper 3 is .

gives:

(3.128)

217

In Matrix format

(3.129)

motion for systems connected by dampers that held for spring

connections; namely,

and decide whether the connecting damper forces are in

tension or compression.

velocity conditions and their resultant damper forces (i.e.,

tension or compression).

governing equations of motion.

218

Base Excitation via Right-hand wall motion

right-hand support defined by . b. Free-body diagram

corresponding to assumed motion defined by and

.

219

Matrix Statement

Base excitation causes the additional forcing functions on the

right. The stiffness and damping matrices should always be

symmetric. If they are not, you have made a mistake.

(3.131)

220

Developing the Equations of Motion for a Double Pendulum

diagram for the double

pendulum of figure 3.25.

(3.131)

unknowns .

221

Simple -pendulum equations of motion,

(3.82)

(3.132)

(3.133a)

(3.133b)

222

(3.133c)

(3.134)

for the three unknowns .

(3.135)

Substituting for into the

second of Eq.(3.131) gives (with a lots of algebra) :

223

This the second of the two required differential equations. In

matrix format the model is

(3.137)

but it can be made symmetric; e.g., multiply the first equation

by l1 and the second equation by l2. As with the stiffness

matrix, the inertia matrix should be either symmetric, or capable

of being made symmetric. Also, correct diagonal entries are

positive.

that both 1 and 2 are small (i.e., , etc.)

and can be stated

224

We have symmetricized the inertia matrix and now have a

diagonal stiffness matrix. The inertia matrix couples these two

degrees of freedom.

225

Lecture 15. EIGENANALYSIS FOR 2DOF VIBRATION

EXAMPLES

considering the problem of developing a solution to the or

following homogeneous version of Eq.(3.124)

(3.141)

(3.139)

Solving for via Cramers rule gives:

, we guessed a solution of the form

. Substituting this guess netted

For Eq.(3.139) we will guess

nontrivial solution , = 0; i.e., the coefficient

matrix must be singular.

(3.140)

226 227

(3.145)

(3.142)

This is the characteristic equation. It is quadratic and defines

and defines the first natural frequency The

two natural frequencies versus the single natural

next root is the second eigenvalue and defines

frequency for the one-degree-of-freedom vibration examples.

the second natural frequency .

Numerical Example:

(3.143) Solving for the coefficients. Substituting the data of

Eq.(3.145) into Eq.(3.141) gives

For these data, the differential Eq.(3.139) becomes

(3.144)

with the solutions: there is only one independent equation for the two unknowns.

Hence, we can use either equation to solve for the ratios of the

228 229

two unknowns. Setting gives: Figure 3.52 illustrates the two eigenvectors.

(3.146)

negative) will yield an equally valid first eigenvector, since the Figure 3.52 Eigenvectors for the two-mass system of figure

vector is defined only in terms of the ratio of its components. 3.47, with the numerical values of Eq.(3.143).

In vibration problems, an eigenvector is also called a mode

shape. Consider the following coordinate transformation for Eq.(3.139)

(3.148a)

(3.148b)

The matrix of eigenvectors is

(3.147)

where the right vector is the vector of modal coordinates.

230 231

Substituting from Eqs.(3.148) into Eq.(3.124) gives The modal mass matrix is diagonal, with the first and

(3.149) second modal masses defined by .

Premultiplying Eq.(3.149) by the transpose of gives We want to normalize the eigenvectors with respect to the

mass matrix such that the modal mass matrix reduces to

(3.150) the identity matrix [ I ]. The modal-mass coefficient for the jth

mode is defined by . Dividing the jth

We can now show by substitution (for this example problem)

eigenvector by will yield an eigenvector with a modal

that

mass equal to 1, yielding

(3.148) (3.150)

where the modal mass matrix and modal stiffness and second eigenvectors by and

matrix are diagonal. Note , respectively, obtaining

(3.151)

(3.149) You may want to repeat calculations for this set of eigenvectors

to confirm that the modal mass matrix is now the identity

matrix. Proceeding with this normalized version of the

eigenvector matrix to verify that the modal stiffness matrix is

diagonal yields

232 233

Modal Units

Given that , and ,

the units for an entry in normalized eigenvector matrix is

. Hence, for the SI system, the eigenvector units are

; for the USA standard unit system, the units are

. From the coordinate transformation ,

The normalized matrix of eigenvectors yields a diagonalized the units for a modal coordinate is . For the SI

modal stiffness matrix [ Kq ]; moreover, the diagonal entries are

and USA standard systems, the appropriate units are,

the eigenvalues defined in Eq.(3.142); i.e.,

respectively, and . Looking at the first of

Eq.(3,154), a dimensional analysis yields

(3.152)

The resultant modal equations are:

confirming the correctness of these dimensions.

234 235

Lessons:

a. Vibration problems can have multiple degrees of

freedom.

can be coupled by either the stiffness (linear spring-mass

system) or inertia (double pendulum) matrices.

matrices should be symmetric and the diagonal elements

should be positive.

eigenvalue problem. The solution to the eigenvalue

problem yields eigenvalues, , which define the natural

frequencies , and eigenvectors that define the system

mode shapes.

that it diagonalizes the original inertia and stiffness matrices

as

matrix of eigenvalues.

236

Lecture 16. SOLVING FOR TRANSIENT MOTION

USING MODAL COORDINATES

Free Motion

With normalized eigenvectors, the matrix version of the modal

Eq.(3.125) is Adding particular solutions corresponding to

specific right-hand forcing functions, yield the complete

solution

(3.153)

= the modal force vector. Uncoupled, modal differential coordinate initial conditions.

equations: To obtain modal-coordinate initial conditions:

(3.154)

The homogeneous version of Eq.(3.154) Hence, the modal-coordinate initial conditions are defined by

237 238

For the prior example

(3.144)

(3.151)

with

(3.155b)

(3.145)

With these initial conditions, we can solve Eqs.(3.132) for any

specified modal force terms , obtaining a complete

Modal coordinate initial conditions: modal-coordinate solution defined by . From

Eq.(3.123a) the solution for the physical coordinates can then be

stated

of the modal solutions times their respective mode

239 240

shapes (or eigenvectors).

Figure 3.53 Solution from Eq.(3.157) for and for

Example. With , Eqs. (3.155)

gives , and:

1 1

0.5 0.5

q_1

q_2

0 0

-0.5 -0.5

-1

-1

0 10 20 30 40

0 10 20 30 40

t

t

1

1

0.5

x_1

0

x_2

0

-1

-0.5

-2

-1

0 10 20 30 40

0 10 20 30 40

(3.157) t

t

external forces) will result in combined motion at the two

natural frequencies. Note that the physical initial conditions are

correctly represented,

241 242

Modal Transient Example Problem 1. Free Undamped

Motion

( ii )

yielding

( ii )

wall. The right-hand spring will cushion the shock of the Starting from the instant of contact, the physical initial

collision. Before collision, the systems model is conditions are:

(i)

Solve for and the reaction forces

.

Once contact is established, the system looks like the model of

frame b and is governed by the matrix differential equations of

motion

243 244

Solution. Following the procedures of the preceding examples, conditions are zero. From , the modal-

the eigenvalues and natural frequencies are: velocity initial conditions are

(iv)

(v)

The matrix of normalized eigenvectors follows from . Hence, the modal solutions

as are:

is

245 246

q_1 versus time x_1 (m) versus time

10

0.8

8 0.7

0.6

6

0.5

0.4

q_1

x_1

0.3

2 0.2

0.1

0 0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-2

-0.2

t (seconds)

t (seconds)

0.8

0.6 0.4

0.4 0.35

0.2 0.3

q_2

0 0.25

-0.2 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.2

x_2

-0.4 0.15

-0.6 0.1

-0.8 0.05

-1 0

t (seconds) -0.05 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-0.1

t (seconds)

247 248

Do the numbers seem right? We can do a quick calculation to

f_s1=k_1 (x_1 - x_2 ) versus time see if the peak force and deflection seem to be reasonable.

7000

Suppose both bodies are combined, so that one body has a mass

of . Then a conservation of

6000

energy equation to find the peak deflection is

f_s1 = k_1 (x_1 - x_2 ) (N)

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-1000 The predicted peak deflection for is 0.35 m , which is on

t (seconds)

the order of magnitude for the estimate, but lower. We would

expect the correct number to be lower, because two masses with

f_s2 = k_2 x_2 versus time a spring between them will produce a lower collision force than

6000 a single rigid body with an equivalent mass.

5000

Note that the spring-mass system loses contact with the wall

4000 when changes sign at about . After this

f_s2 = k_2 x_2 (N)

3000 time, the right spring is disengaged, and the model becomes

2000

1000

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-1000

time (seconds)

249 250

Damping and Modal Damping Factors where A1 and A2 are complex coefficients. The solution can be

The SDOF harmonic oscillator equation of motion is stated

modeled by,

Assumed solution: Yh=Aest yields:

Since A 0, and ,

The matrix of real eigenvectors, based on a symmetric stiffness

(3.23) and mass matrices, will only diagonalize a damping

matrix that can be stated as a linear summation of and

For <1, the roots are ; i.e.,

(3.24)

For a damping matrix of this particular (and very unlikely)

form, the modal damping matrix is defined by

is called the damped natural frequency. The

homogeneous solution looks like

(3.25)

251 252

where and are the identity matrix and the diagonal Transient Modal Example Problem 2, Free-Motion with

matrix of eigenvectors, respectively. With this damping-matrix Modal Damping

format, an n-degree-of-freedom vibration problem will have

modal differential equations of the form:

lightly damped systems, damping is more often introduced

directly in the undamped modal equations via :

during contact the vibration model is now

differential equation, based on measurements or experience.

253 254

10% for each mode; i.e., . Hence

The modal differential equation model now looks like:

(3.27)

The transformation to obtain the physical coordinates remains

unchanged as

For the initial conditions , the constants A,

B are solved from , and from

The solution is

255 256

q_1 versus time

x_1 (m) versus time

9

8 0.7

7

0.6

6

0.5

5

0.4

q_1

x_1

3 0.3

2 0.2

1 0.1

0

0

-1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-0.1

t (seconds)

t (seconds)

x_2 versus time

0.6

0.35

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.25

0 0.2

q_2

x_2

-0.2 0.15

-0.4 0.1

-0.6 0.05

0

-0.8

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

t (seconds) -0.05

t (seconds)

257 258

4820 N.

f_s1 = k_1 (x_1 - x_2) versus time

5000

f_s1 = k_1 ( x_1 - x_2) (N)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-1000

t (seconds)

6000

5000

f_s2 = k_2 x_2 (N)

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

-1000

t (seconds)

Ad

ding damping reduces the peak force in spring 2 from 5363 N to

259 260

Lecture 17. MORE TRANSIENT MOTION USING c. Solve for two cycles of motion for the lowest natural

MODAL COORDINATES frequency.

Example

Equation of Motion from Free-body diagrams:

(1)

Matrix Format:

above the ground. In the middle, the assembly has just contacted

the ground. The subsequent positions of and are defined,

respectively, by and . At the time of contact,

, and Equations for Modal Coordinates using Modal damping to

. account for internal damping

Engineering-analysis tasks:

a. Draw free-body diagrams and derive the equations of motion.

261 262

Component modal differential equations:

(3)

coordinate initial conditions.

with solutions:

The modal-coordinate initial conditions are defined by

The particular solutions corresponding to Eq.(3)

are

263 264

A previous undamped model had the physical parameters: From,

(3)

yielding

conditions are zero. From , the modal-

velocity initial conditions are

The matrix of normalized eigenvectors is

265 266

Substituting into,

Further

nets

where

Similarly, the complete solution for is

267 268

The complete solution for satisfying the initial conditions

is

269

Lecture 18. FORCED HARMONIC MOTION FOR 2DOF

EXAMPLES.

2DOF model undamped case.

Assuming steady-state solutions of the form

, and solving for the unknowns

yields

(3.158)

(3.159)

with a harmonic-excitation force vector on the right hand side.

(3.151) the modal differential Eqs.(3.153) are

the ratio of the excitation frequency to the natural frequencies.

transformation as

are:

270 271

40

35

30

(3.160)

25

abs q_1

20

15

10

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

omega

50

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-50

phase q_1

-100

-150

-200

omega

272 273

50

30

40

30

abs x_1

25 20

10

20 0

-10 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

abs q_2

15 om e ga

50

10

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-50

5

-100

0 -150

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-200

omega om ega

50

50

0 40

30

abs x_2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

20

phase q_2

-50 10

0

-10 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-100

om e ga

50

-150

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

-50

-200 -100

omega

-150

Figur -200

om ega

coordinate solution of Eq.(3.159) Figure 3.58 Steady-state amplitudes and phase for the physical-

coordinate solution of Eq.(3.160).

274 275

(i) its contribution is primarily static; i.e., and

Amplitude for harmonic motion; =0.05

Fo sin(t) or Fo cos(t) , and .

12 =0.1

Amplitude factor (G)

10 =0.2

(ii) the static contribution (being proportional to ) is itself

8 =0.5

small.

6

2

degrees of freedom can frequently be modeled adequately with

a greatly-reduced-dimension model by dropping higher-order

0

modes.

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2

frequency ratio (r)

2DOF model Modal Damping

Modal Truncation. Note from Eq.(3.159) that

Think of a problem with many degrees of freedom with

harmonic excitation over a restricted frequency range . A ,the component modal differential equations are:

mode with a natural frequency well above the top excitation

frequency can be dropped from the model, because:

276 277

1 2

(3.32)

(3.33)

(3.36)

The phase is

between the solution Yp( t ) and the input excitation force

. The solution for Yop is (3.39)

(3.38)

where

278 279

The steady-state solutions are 10 1.4

9

1.2

8

7 1

abs q_2

abs q_1

0.8

5

0.6

4

3 0.4

2

0.2

1

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

om ega om ega

0 0

-20 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

-20

-40

where , , and

-40

-60

-60

-80

phase q_1

-80

phase q_2

-100

-100

-120

-120

-140

-140

-160

-160

-180

-180

-200

-200

om ega

om ega

Modal damping is seen to sharply reduce the peak amplitudes

and significantly shift the phase.

280 281

The physical solution is given below. Note the dramatic Direct (non Modal) Harmonic Solution

reduction in amplitudes due to 10% damping.

Substituting the assumed steady-state solution,

4.5 , into Eq.(3.158) yields

4

3.5

3

abs x_1

2.5

2

1.5 (3.161)

1

0.5

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

omega

5

Solving for the unknowns using Cramers rule gives

4

abs x_2

1

(3.162)

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

-1

omega

zero to find the eigenvalues and natural frequencies.

282 283

Forced Harmonic Response with Damping in Multi-Degree-

of-Freedom Systems.

(3.163)

Combining these equations gives,

where is an n-dimensional vector of physical coordinates,

and is an n-dimensional vector of physical forces. (3.165)

Assumed solution

a single matrix equation in the 2-n unknowns .

normally given in terms of amplitude and phase as defined by

where

(3.166)

Note that the phase angle defines the phase of the response with

respect to the input excitation vector that is driving the system at

. In general, with damping the eigenvalues and

Equating coefficients of on both sides of this eigenvectors are complex, and solutions based on eigen analysis

equation gives are significantly more complicated.

284 285

Lessons excitation frequency.

stiffness matrices, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are

real.

uncouple the symmetric stiffness and mass matrices yielding

uncoupled modal differential equations.

and .

calculated from the transformation as

and .

summation of the modal solutions times their eigenvectors.

a summation of the modal solutions times their eigenvectors.

vibration systems defined by symmetric stiffness and mass

matrices and general damping matrices. The solution is

obtained in terms of amplitudes and phase values at each

286 287

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