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- Utilization of Bagasse Fly Ash Generated in the Sugar Industry for the Removal and Recovery of Phenol and P-Nitrophenol From Wastewater
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**Adsorption is one of the most widely applied techniques especially for environmental remediation.
**

Its kinetics are of great significance to evaluate the performance of a given adsorbent and gain

insight into the underlying mechanisms. When adsorption is concerned, thermodynamic and kinetic

aspects should be involved to know more details about its performance and mechanisms. From the

kinetic analysis, the solute uptake rate, which determines the residence time required for

completion of adsorption reaction, may be established. Generally speaking, adsorption kinetics is

the base to determine the performance of fixed-bed or any other flow-through systems. In the past

decades, several mathematical models have been proposed to describe adsorption data, which can

generally be classified as adsorption reaction models and adsorption diffusion models. Both models

are applied to describe the kinetic process of adsorption; however, they are quite different in

nature. Adsorption diffusion models are always constructed on the basis of three consecutive steps:

(1) diffusion across the liquid film surrounding the adsorbent particles, i.e., external diffusion or film

diffusion; (2) diffusion in the liquid contained in the pores and/or along the pore walls, which is so-

called internal diffusion or intra-particle diffusion; and (3) adsorption and desorption between the

adsorbate and active sites, i.e., mass action. However, adsorption reaction models originating from

chemical reaction kinetics are based on the whole process of adsorption without considering these

steps mentioned above. The graphic that described amount absorbed versus concentration in

isothermal conditions (Temperature constant) it is called Adsorption Isotherm. Several equations

have been proposed to try explained algebraically the functions. One of this is FREUNDLICH, known

as by FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM:

𝑆 = 𝑎 ∗ 𝑐 𝑛 (1)

𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑆 = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑎 + 𝑛𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑐 (2)

In addition, LANGMUIR ISOTHERM:

𝐾∗𝐶 𝑆

𝜃= = (3)

(1+𝐾∗𝐶) 𝑆0

1 1 1

= + (4)

𝑆 𝑆0 𝑆0 ∗ 𝐾 ∗ 𝐶

These equations are most famous. On these equations:

S: Amount absorbed or absorbated. 𝑆

0 : Absorbated above surfaced.

a, n, k1, k2: constants.

c: Absorbated concentration on equilibrium aqueous phased.

yields 𝑞𝑒 log ( ) = 𝑘𝑝1 𝑡 (6) 𝑞𝑒 −𝑞𝑡 Which can be rearranged to: 𝑝1 𝑘 𝑙𝑜𝑔(𝑞𝑒 − 𝑞𝑡 ) = 𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑞𝑒 − 2. respectively. The typical second-order rate equation in solution systems is 𝑑𝐶𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = −𝑘2 𝐶𝑡 2 (8) Eq (8) was integrated with the boundary conditions of Ct=0 at t=0 and Ct=Ct at t=t to yield 1 1 𝐶𝑡 = 𝑘2 𝑡 + 𝐶 (9) 0 Where 𝐶0 and Ct (mg/L) is the concentration of solute at equilibrium and at time t (min). the second-order rate equations were reasonably applied to describe adsorption reactions occurring in soil and soil minerals. it has been widely used to describe the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater in different fields. and mass action. which is believed to be the earliest model pertaining to the adsorption rate based on the adsorption capacity. It can be presented as follows: 𝑑𝑞 𝑡 = 𝑘𝑝1 (𝑞𝑒 − 𝑞𝑡 ) (5) 𝑑𝑡 Where qe and qt (mg/g) are the adsorption capacities at equilibrium and time t (min). respectively.At present. intraparticle diffusion. It is generally known that a typical liquid/solid adsorption involves film diffusion. adsorption diffusion models are mainly constructed to describe the process of film diffusion and/or intrapartical diffusion. Integrating Eq (5) with the boundary conditions of qt=0 at t=0 and qt=qt at t=t.303 𝑡 (7) To distinguish kinetic equations based on adsorption capacity from solution concentration. one of the processes should be the rate limiting step. Thus. the kinetic process of adsorption is always controlled by liquid film diffusion or intrapartical diffusion. In recent years. . In earlier years. Therefore.e. i. For physical adsorption.. kp1 (𝑚𝑖𝑛−1 ) is the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the kinetic model. such as the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by broad bean peels and the removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions using oil palm trunk fiber. mass action is a very rapid process and can be negligible for kinetic study. adsorption reaction models have been widely developed or employed to describe the kinetic process of adsorption. Lagergren (1898) presented a first-order rate equation to describe the kinetic process of liquid-solid phase adsorption of oxalic acid and malonic acid onto charcoal. Lagergren’s first order rate equation has been called pseudo-first-order. and k2 (L/(mg·min)) is the rate constant.

Eq (10). These new models . (1947) is 𝑞 𝐿𝑛 (1 − 𝑞𝑡 ) = −𝑅′𝑡 (13) 𝑒 3𝐷′𝑒 𝑅′ = 𝑟 (14) 0 ∆𝑟0 𝑘′ Where 𝑅′ (𝑚𝑖𝑛−1 ) is liquid film diffusion constant. The rate of solute 𝜕𝑞̅ accumulation in a solid particle clearly equals to 𝑉𝑝 = ( 𝜕𝑡 ) where 𝑞̅ represents the average solute concentration in the solid. Eq 𝑝 (11) can be written as 𝑑𝑞̅ = 𝑘𝑓 𝑆0 (𝐶 − 𝐶𝑖 ) (12) 𝑑𝑡 Eq (12) is called as “linear driving force” rate law. and more deliberate but complicated models will be proposed on the basis of adsorption mechanism and diffusion analysis. With the discussion above we can obtain 𝜕𝑞̅ 𝑉𝑝 = ( ) = 𝑘𝑓 𝐴𝑠 (𝐶 − 𝐶𝑖 ) (10) 𝜕𝑡 Where 𝐶𝑖 and C denote the concentration of solute at the particle/liquid interface and in the bulk of the liquid far from the surface. adsorption kinetic study still attracts considerable interest because of its particular significance in adsorbent evaluation and application. it equals to 𝑘𝑓 𝐴𝑠 (𝐶 − 𝐶𝑖 ). Today. Therefore. the rate of solute accumulation in the solid phase is equal to that of solute transfer across the liquid film according to the mass balance law. where kf represents the film mass transfer coefficient. Meanwhile. Film diffusion mass transfer rate equation The film diffusion mass transfer rate equation presented by Boyd et al. and 𝑉𝑝 the volume of the particle. 2. which is usually applied to describe the mass transfer through the liquid film. Then. 𝐷′𝑒 (cm2 /min) is effective liquid film diffusion coefficient. ∆𝑟0 (cm) is the thickness of liquid film. and k′ is 𝑞𝑡 equilibrium constant of adsorption. new effective softwares are required to solve such complex mathematical models. 𝑟0 (cm) is radius of adsorbent beads. A plot of 𝑙𝑛 (1 − ) ~𝑡 should be a straight line with a slope - 𝑞𝑒 R’ if the film diffusion is the rate limiting step. can be rearranged to 𝑑𝑞̅ 𝐴 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑘𝑓 𝑉𝑠 (𝐶 − 𝐶𝑖 ) (11) 𝑝 𝐴 The ratio 𝑉𝑠 that is the particle surface area per unit particle volume can be defined as S0. thus. Linear driving force rate law In liquid/solid adsorption systems. Then the corrected liquid film diffusion coefficient De l can be evaluated according to Eq (12). Meanwhile the rate of solute transfer across the liquid film is proportional to the surface area of the particle as and the concentration driving force(𝐶 − 𝐶𝑖 ).Liquid film diffusion model 1. The film diffusion mass transfer rate equation has been successfully applied to model several liquid/solid adsorption cases. respectively.

. and to help to gain insight in adsorption mechanism.are expected to describe the performance of a given adsorbent more accurately.

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