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Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

National Aerospace Laboratories

Centre for Electromagnetics (CEM) CSIR-NAL

The Computational Electromagnetics Laboratory (CEM Lab.) was founded in 1993 at the CSIR-National
Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR-NAL) to initiate the activities in the area of computational electromagnetics
for aerospace applications. CEM Lab was provided status of a seperate R&D centre as the Centre for
Electromagnetics (CEM), w.e.f. Jan 1 2013. CEM proposes to stimulate and nurture the low-volume,
high-value industries through Innovation Driven Technologies in the niche areas where it decidedly has

pioneering and leadership role.
Aircraft Antenna analysis
Radomes: EM design and analysis, Performance tuning, FSS design
Ray tracing and Surface modeling
Radar cross section (RCS) studies, Radar absorbing materials (RAM) & structures (RAS)
RCS Reduction, Active RCS Reduction
Phased antenna arrays, Conformal arrays, Conformal adaptive arrays

Adaptive/ Conformal
Metamaterials for Aerospace engineering applications
EM Characterization of Materials


Integrated antenna-radome analysis capability
Includes paints analysis and specifies fabrication
FSS-based radome designs Sandwich radome for Saras A/c nose cone radome
Maritime Patrol Radar
RCS/ Radome/ FSS

Monolithic/ sandwich (including honeycomb)

Variable thickness radome (VTR) design
Hybrid-VTR design for missile radomes
Multi-sector optimization radome design
Broadband radome for
Ground-based and airborne radomes (for aircraft, TU 142 A/c 13-m dia DWR radome
missiles, etc.)
High-temperature, high performance radomes
Stealth radomes
EM Measurements
& Characterization

Radome EM performance enhancement

Broadbanding techniques
In-house EM material characterization of High temperature radome
candidate radome materials
Nosecone hy-VTR
Centre for Electromagnetics (CEM)
Computational Techniques
0 High-frequency techniques GTD, UTD, PO, PTD

2-Layers Ray-tracing techniques, 3-D Ray tracing
Geodesic constant method (GCM)
EM analysis of curvatured structures
-30 All quadric and ogival surfaces
MM-GSM technique for FSS structures
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
FDTD method
Soft computing techniques for EM applications
Metamaterial design for aerospace applications

Radar Cross Section (RCS) Studies


RCS design studies of aerospace vehicles

Aircraft, missiles, hovering platforms 0

Low observables -10

RCS reduction, RAM, RAS Eq


Integrated RCS and IR signature reduction


0 30 60 90 120 150 180

Standards in CEM computation - Validation of code (left)

against a reference (right) precedes any prediction

Microwave Anechoic Chamber (NAL-MAC)

Adaptive/ Conformal

Certified to 60 dB down performance

Completely shielded chamber (10.5m x 7.3m x 3.1 m)
Antenna pattern characterization
EM charac. based on circular cavity resonator
Full scale radome test
RCS/ Radome/ FSS

Dielectric probe method Waveguide system


Experimental Microwave Facility (EMF)

EM characterization of materials
Dielectric Measurement System (DMS) Jaguar radome measurements

Permeability Measurement System (PMS)

Magnetic material measurements
EM Measurements

State-of-the-art accuracy and repeatability

& Characterization

High temp. material characterization

VSWR of antennas and radomes
Saras radome
Scattering parameter measurements charac. Operator room of NAL-MAC
Centre for Electromagnetics (CEM)

EMMA - Electromagnetic Materials Applications

Facility (CSIR National Facility)
An ISO-certified national facility
State-of-the-art character measurements of
different types of EM materials
Frequency range: 200 MHz -170 GHz
Wave Guide System (26 GHz -170 GHz)
For thin slabs
Dielectric Probe (200 MHz-50 GHz)
For solids and liquids
Free Space method (2 GHz- 40 GHz) zz EM charac. of solid sample

For large flat panels

Quasi-optic bench (75 GHz 110 GHz)
For thin substrates
Catering to diverse sectors such as aerospace,
strategic, communications, microwave photonics
R&D support to organizations, academia and
industries in national/ international arena Quasi optic bench EM charac. of liquid sample

Frequency Selective Surface (FSS)-based Facility

(CSIR National Facility)
An ISO-certified national facility
FSS design, analysis and simulation
FSS-based hardware development
Standard FSS panels FSS-based aerospace structures
For defense and strategic applications
Radome, RAS etc.

Adaptive/ Conformal
FSS performance characterization measurements
Operational frequency range 2 40 GHz
Proof-of-the-concept studies

FSS Measurement System Technologies Arrays

RCS/ Radome/ FSS

Adaptive Antenna Facility (CSIR National Facility)

An ISO-certified national facility
Adaptive design and simulation
Measurement Setup
Test-bed for adaptive algorithms
X-band 1616 phased array receiving module
Integrated adaptive array measurements:
Electronic beam scanning
EM Measurements
& Characterization

DoA, frequency, and power estimation

Gain control in desired direction
Interference signal suppression

Integrated Adaptive Antenna Measurement System

Centre for Electromagnetics (CEM)

Resources Book Chapters

EM Technology Databases Cavity Perturbation Techniques for
Radome Materials Measuring Dielectric Parameters of Water
Aircraft/ Cabin Materials and Other Allied Liquids, in Sensors
RAM Update, Wiley-VCH, Vol. 7, pp. 185-210,
Technology Assessment Studies 2000.
Radar Target Identification (RTI) Smart Antennas for Mobile Autonomous
Inflatable Radomes Systems: Adaptive Algorithms for
Signature Studies Acceleration, in Mobile Intelligent
Adaptive Arrays Autonomous Systems: Recent Advances,
Frequency Selective Surfaces Chapter 24, CRC Press, USA, 2012.
EM Material Charac. Techniques
Metamaterial Science & Technology
Certification Support
Reference: Cross-Indexed Bibliography Centre for Electromagnetics has extensive
Radome (40 years) experience with military & civil aerospace
RAM (40 years) certification procedures. Comprehensive
RCS studies (40 years) documentations (QTP, QTR, ATP, ATR etc.)
IR signature studies (40 years) are also prepared in consultation with the
Invisibility Cloaks customer and certification agencies such
Soft-computing techniques as CEMILAC, DGCA & CRI for the design

Books and development projects undertaken by

Radar Absorbing Materials: From Theory to CSIR-NAL.
Design and Characterization. Kluwer
Academic Publishers, Norwell, Boston, USA, EM Application Software Packages
(ISBN: 0792 397 533), 209 p., 1996. Aavrita: User-friendly radome design
Ray Tracing over Generalized Surfaces. and analysis package
(A Comprehensive Handbook) CSIR-NAL - RadAnt Code
Adaptive/ Conformal

Design and Development of Dual-band CSIR-NAL - Radome Broadbanding Code

Microstrip Antennas. Lambert Academic Radome S/W for
Publishing House, Germany, (ISBN: 978-3- Airborne/ ground-based
8484-1345-4), 152p., 2012. Narrowband/ broadband
Monolithic/ sandwich

FSS Radome Codes

Project Sponsors RCS package
Boeing, Seattle, USA RAM design and analysis package
DRDO-CABS, Bangalore GTD-based airborne antennas analysis
DRDO-DLRL, Hyderabad For aircraft, missiles, SLV, satellites
RCS/ Radome/ FSS

DRDO-DRDL, Hyderabad Antenna patterns, Mutual coupling,

DRDO-LRDE, Bangalore Antenna siting applications

GE India, Bangalore 3-D ray tracing

HAL, Bangalore Refined Ray Tracing Code
IAF HQ, New Delhi Phased Array Codes
IMD, New Delhi Pattern synthesis, RCS,
Indian Navy, New Delhi Active cancellation
ISRO, Bangalore
AR&DB, New Delhi International Collaboration
DST, New Delhi
EM Measurements
& Characterization

Boeing, Seattle, USA

For more information please contact:

Director, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, PB 1779, HAL Airport Road, Bangalore-560017, India.
Tel: +91-80-25086000, 25270584; Fax: +91-80-25260862; E-mail:;