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INTEEMEDIATE STATICS

BY
B. C. DAS. M.Sc.
PBOFESSOB OF MATHEMATICS, PBBSIDBNOY COLLBaB,
CALCUTTA (BETD.) ;

LBCTUBEB IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS, CALCUTTA UNIVBBSITY


AND
B, N. MUKHERJEE, M.A.
Premehand Roychand Scholar
HEAD OF THE DEPABTMENT OF MATHEMATICS,
SCOTTISH GHUBCH COLLEGE, CALCUTTA

EIGHTH EDITION

U. N>DHUR & SONS. PRIVATE LTD.


BOOKSELLERS & PUBLISHERS
15. BANKlM CHATTBRJEE STREET

CALCUTTA 1958.
I*M%a7kad hy
UPlitmEtAnATH
S'OT IT. 17. I>BUB it SONS, PbIVATB ZjTD.,
IS. Bankim Obatterjee Bt., Oaloatta IS

'FHntid by
TBXDXBWBS BASU, B.A.,
tbb k. p. basu ptq. wobsb,
IX, Mohandra O-oBaain laute, OidoTiftta 9
PREFACE

This book, as its name meant to be a


indicates, is

text-book for the Intermediate students, both Arts and


Science, of the Indian Universities and various Education
Boards. Regarding the subjeot-mrtler, we have tried to
make the exposition clear and qoncise, without going into
unnecessary details. Varied types of examples have been
worked out by way of illustrations in each chapter and
the examples set for exercise have been carefully selected
and properly graded.

Questions of the University of Calcutta and some other


Universities are given at the end, to give the students
an idea of the standard of the examination.

It is hoped that the book will meet the requirements


of those for whom it is intended and we shall deem our
labour amply rewarded if the book is found to be a suitable
text-book both by the teachers and the students.

Any criticisms, corrections and suggestions towards


improvement from teachers and students will be thankfully
received.

Calcutta B. 0. D.
June, 1947. } B. N. M.
CONTENTS
CHAP? PAGE

I. Introdnotion ... ... 1

II. Oomposibion and Besolation of Forces ... 8

III. Equilibrinm of Oonourrent Forces ... S3

IV. Parallel Forces ... ... 49

V. Momenb of a Force ... ... 60

VI. Couples ... ... 74

VII. Beduobion of Coplanar Forces in General 94

VIII. General Condibions of EcLuilibrium ... 108

IX. Friobion ... ... 132

Z. Centre of Graviby ... ... 155

XI. Work and Power ... ... 197

XII. Machines ... ... 204

Appendix ... ... 246


Calcutta Univenity Syllabus

for

Statics

Composition and Besolution of Forces in a plane.


Eqnilibrium of Ooplanar Forces acting at a point.
Moment of a Force.

Parallel Forces.
Couples.
Frictional Forces.
Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body under a system
of Coplanar Forces.
Centre of Gravity of a system of particles on a straight
line and in a plane.
Centre of Gravity of a homogeneous rod, triangle, para*
llelogram and circle.
Levers and systems of pulleys.
OHAPTEB I

INTRODUCTION

1*1. Definitions.

Matter is anything that occupies space and can~l)e~


perceived by our senses.

A body is a portion of matter limited in all directions,


having a definite shape and size, and occupying some
definite space.

A rigid body is one whose size and shape do not alter


when acted on by any forces whatsoever, so that the
different parts of it keep invariable positions with respect
to one another.

In nature there is no. body \vhioh is perfectly rigid, for however


hard a body may be, it will be deformed more or less when the acting
forces are snfiioiently large. But ordinary solid bodies like stone,
wood, iron etc. when acted on by finite forces yield so slightly, that
the deformation is not in general appreciable to the eye, and thus
for practical purposes they may be treated as rigid. In Statics and
Dynamics we are mainly concerned with such rigid bodies.

A force is that which changes, or tends to change, the


state of rest, or uniform motion of a body.

Statics deals with bodies at rest when acted on by


forces, or more properly, with the relations between the
forces which acting on a rigid body (or a system of bodies)
keep it at rest.

When a number of forces acting on a body keeps it at


rest, the forces are said to be in equUibrium.
in course of our subject
^ ^^raiiy benivided into three types :

(1) Forces of the nature of thrusts or tensions, iie. push


or pull applied through actual material contact, e,g. by
a rod or string etc

(2) Attraction or repulsion between two bodies, which


are of the nature of action at a distance, e.g. earths gravita-
tion etc.

(3)Forces like reaction or friction which are of a sort


of passive resistance, coming into existence only when
necessary, and adjusting themselves (within a certain range)
to be of such magnitude and direction as are just required
to maintain equilibrium.

I'S. On Some Special Forces,


'

(i) Weight,
Weight of a body is the force with which the earth
attracts the body. The direction of this force is vertical.

It is shown in Dynamios (Arts. 5'1 and 7'6) that the earth attracts
everybody to itself with a force which is proportional to the mass of
the body, i,e, the quantity of matter in a body.

The unit of mass in British (F. P. 8.) system is one (lb.),

whereas in 0. G. S. system it is one gramme (See Dynamios, Art. VS),

The amount of force exerted by the earth on a body of


mass one pound, i.e. the weight of one pound (briefly, 1 lb.
wt.) is usually used in Statics as the unit tor measurement
of magnitude of forces in F. P. S. system.

Similarly in 0. G. S. system, the unit used is the weight


of one gramme
Stnotly speaking, the force of attraction on the same body varies
slightly from place to place on the surface of the earth, which is nearly,

but not exactly, a sphere. Accordingly, the units above mentioned,


1 lb. wt. and 1 gm. wt., are not fixed. [ See Dynamics, 7*5 d 7'B ].
INTBODUGTION 3

Bat as in this Elsmantej^ Btatios we shall not have oooa^ons to


compare forces at different places on earth, we shall neglect this small
variation in the onits.

In practice, for brevity, we shall speak of a force measur-


ing 20IBs., or 50 gms though more accurate expressions
,

would he a force of 20 lbs. wt., or 50 gms. wt.

(ii) Reaction.

When one body rests in contact with another body,


pressing against it, it experiences a force at the point of
contact which is called the reaction^ exerted by the second
body on the first.*

For example, when a heavy body, (say a book), rests on a horizontal


table, the weight of the body which would cause it to fall down to the
earth has got its effect nullified due to the presence of the table, which
does not allow the body to penetrate through it. Thus the table exerts
a force on the body neutralising its weight. This is the reaction of the
table. As the weight of the body is vertically downwards, the reaction
of the table neutralising its effect must be upwards.

As another exaniple, when a ladder standing on a horizontal floor


is leaning against a vertical wall, it experiences forces of reaction at
its points of contact with the floor as well as with the wall. These
two reactions, along with the weight of tho ladder, keep the ladder at
rest.

Now it is a common
experience that if a body be placed
in contact with a very smooth surface (s.p. a highly
polished table), and is urged with any force to slide over it,
it experiences very little resistance tangentially, but the
surface, (assumed rigid), does*^ not allow the body to pene-
trate normally through it. The reaction on such a body
is therefore normal to the surface.

From Newtons third law of motion [ Dynamics^ 7'1 d 7*Ji ],


the second body also experiences an equal and opposite force exerted
by the first on it, which we may call aetim.
4 INTEBMEDIATE 8TATI08

In fact a perfectly smooth surface is one whose reaction


on any body in contact with it is alon>g the common normal
to the two surfaces at their point of contact.

^ The reaction of a rough surface however, on %ny body


pressing against it, is not necessarily along the common
normal. [ See 9'1 and
9'3 ]

(iii) Tension.

When a string employed to connect two bodies (or two


points of a material system) is stretched, for example, when
one extremity is tied to a fixed point, and at the other
a heavy weight is suspended, the fibres of the string become
subject to a certain pull throughout its length, which under-
goes by the name of tension, and which,
if increased beyond a certain limit, will

cause the string to break. This tension is


a force which at any point of the string P
is conceived to be acting in either of the
p
two opposite senses along the string.
For considexlng any small element PQ of the
string, this is stretched by forces set up in the
^ fibres pulling it at Q upwards, and at P down*
wards. Again, considering the element PB, this
p
is stretched by a force pulling it at P upwards
and at 22 downwards. Thus at P the tension acts
in either direction, downwards on the portion
above it, and upwards on the portion below it. Similar is the case
at every point.

If the string be light, the tension is the same throughout


its length, and is wncharkged even when a portion of the
string passes over a smooth surface, say a smooth peg,
or pulley.
For, considering the element PQ as before, as the string is of

negligiblewmght, the only forces under which this element is at rest


are the two tensions at its extremities Q and P which must accordingly
balance one another. Thus tension at Q is equal to that at P. Again
INTBODVCTlOmt 5

oorisidering the equilibrium of the element PS, the tension at P is


equal to that at S. Proceeding in this manner, the tension is the

same throughout the length of the string.

Again^when a portion of the string passes over a smooth pulley

( or a smooth surface ),
considering an element MN or which

is in contact with the surface, the reaction of the smooth surface is

along the normal, and this has no effect in the tangential direction.
Hence the only tangential forces, namely the tensions at the extre-
mities M and N must balance one another, and accordingly must be
equal and opposite. Thus the magnitude of the tension continues
to be the same throughout the string oven when it passes over smooth
surfaces as in Fig. (i) above.

however any point 0 of the string is knotted to other


If
strings (or toany other body) as in Fig. (ii), we must regard
its continuity as broken, and ihe tension mil not be the
same in the two portions on the two sides of the hnott though
for each separate portion it continues to have a constant
value throughout.

1*4. Geometrical representation of a force by


a straight line.

A force has a given magnitude, and acts at a particular


poiht of a body in a definite direction ; in other words, it
6 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

has a definite magnitude, direction} and point of applioatioUi


the two latter giving the line of action of the force.

Now a straight line has also a length and a direction,


and can be drawn through a particular point, thus having
a definite position. Thus a straight line drawn through the
point of application of a force can very aptly represent the
force completely in magnitude, direction and position, the
magnitude of the force being represented on a suitably
chosen scale by the length of the line drawn, the direction
of the line representing the direction of the force, the sense
being indicated by an arrow-head on the line, the extremity
of the line being at the point of application of the force.

A parallel line of equal length drawn anywhere with


an arrow-head indicating the sense will represent the same
force equally well in magnitude and direction, but not in
position.

Note. A quantity having magnitude and direction ( in a definite


sense) is a vector quantity, and such quantities are geometrically very
aptly represented both in magnitude and direction by straight lines
as explained above [ See Dynamics^ 2*2, p, 7, ] For the sake of con-

venience, a force represented in magnitude, direction and sense by AB


mil usually be denoted by AB or AB,

1*5. The principle of Transmissibility of a Force.

The effect of a force acting on a rigid body at any point


is unaltered if its point of application is transferred to any
other point on its line of action, provided the two points are
rigidly connected to ons another.

This principle follows as an immediate consequence of


the conditions of equllibrinm of two forces acting on
a body, which is more or less axiomatic, namely that two
equal forces acting along the same line on a rigid body in
opposite sense produce equilibrium and will have no effect
on the body. In fact equal forces are defined as such when
they satisfy the above condition.
INTRODUCTION 7

Thus P being
a force acting at A along AB on a rigid
body, if introduce two equal and opposite forces at B
we
each equal to P
along BA and AB
the two latter, being
in equilibrium, will
neutralise one
another and will
have no effect on
the original force.
Now Pat A, and
the opposite P
at B along the same line, produce equilibrium,
and we are left with a force P at B in the sense AB which
is thus equivalent to the original force P tA A. Hence
follows the principle of transmissibility of a force as enun-
ciated above.
OHAPTEB II

COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF FORCES

2'1. Resultant and ComiMinents.

If two or more forces act simultaneoiiBly on a rigid


body, and if a single force can be obtained whose effect on
the body is the same as the joint effect of the given forces
(f.s., produces exactly the same motion of the body), then

this single force is known as the resultant of the given


forces, and the given forces in their turn are called the
components of the single resultant force.

It follows from above that if on a body acted on by two


or moreforces a force equal and opposite to their resultant
is applied, the whole system is in equilibrium and the body
remains at rest.

Conversely, if a set of forces acting on a body be in


equilibrium, then each force is equal and opposite to the
resultant of the other forces.

2^2. Parallelogram of Forces.

If two forces acting at a point on a body be represented


in magnitude, direction and sense by the two adjacent sides

of a parallelogram drawn from an angular point, then their


resultant is represented
in magnitude, direction
and sense by the dia*
gonal of the paralklo^
gram drawn from that
point.

Thus if two forces


P and Q, acting on a body at a point A, be represented (on
a chosen scale) in magnitude, direction and sense by the
COMPOSITION AND BE80LUTI0N OF FORCES 9

two straight lines AB and AO, both drawn from A, and


the parallelogram ABGD be completed, wjith AB and AC
as adjacent sides, then the resultant force (say B) will be
represented in magnitude, direction and sense by the
diagoiml AD drawn /rom A.

Note. If both P and Q be towards represented by BA and CA,


the resultant will be represented by DA towards A If howeverP is
along AB and Q along Ci, the resultant will not be along AD or DA,
nor represented by it.

A formal theoretical proof of the above theorem is


reserved for a later consideration."^ Below we give an ex-
perimental verification of the principle.

Experimental Verification

Any weights P, Qt
three B
(of which no one should
exceed the the other two) are tied at the extremities
sum of
of three light flexible strings, the other extremities of
which are knotted at a ^
common point A, Two of these
strings are placed over two
smooth pegs, or two light smooth
pulleys (say L and If), fixed
against a vertical wall or black-
board, the knot being between
the pulleys, and the whole
system allowed to come to
is
the equilibrium position as in
the above figure.

Now at A there are tensions


acting along the three strings
which keep A at rest, and are
therefore in equilibrium. These
tensions being constant along
the respective strings, and
supporting the weights P, Q, B
at the other extremities,

Saa Appindix.
10 JNTEBMSJDTATE STATICS

have got; their magnitudes equal to P, Q and B respectively


along AL, AM and AB.
Now, on the black-board, along AL^ AM and AB, we
draw (on any chosen scale) straight lines AB, AC and
A^B to represent, in magnitude and direction^ the* forces
P, Q and B respectively. The parallelogram ABDO is
completed and the diagonal AD joined. It will be found
that AD and AE are in the same straight line and equal in
magnitude.

Since P, Q, and B
are in equilibrium, B
is equal and
opposite to the resultant of P
and Q. But B
is represented
by AE^ and iD
is found equal and opposite to it experi-
mentally, as stated above. Thus the resultant of and P
Q is represented by AD.
By P, Q and
altering B
in any manner (with the
restriction that no one is greater than the sum of the
other two), and repeating the experiment, the same result
will be verified in every case.

This proves the parallelogram law for finding the


resulliant of two forces acting at a point.

^*8. Ana^ca) expression for the resultant of


two given foi^es.

Let P and Q be two given forces acting at the point A


at an angle a, and let them be represented by AB and AO
respectively. Complete the paralletogram ABDC and join
the diagonal AD, which then, by parallelogram of forces,
repre^ts the restiltant B. Let CDAB^S^ which will give
ti%e dixection of the resultant, Now draw DB perpendic^ar
Q

COliPOSmOK AND BE80LUTI0N OS' NOROBS IS

upon AB, produced if neoeBsary, as in Fig. (i). Then in ih


right-angled triangle DSE,
DE * DB Bin DBE = sin o.
[ In Fig.sin DBE = Bin (180 - a) Bin o]
(ii),

AIbo AE AB + BE^P + Q coaa


[ In Fig. AE = AB - BE = AB - BD cob DBE
(ii),

P-Q COB (180* - a) P + Q COB o ]

ThuB, AD* = AE* + DE* gives


P* (P + Q COB a)* + (Q sin a)*

-P + 2P0oo8o + Q*.

Also tan 6
DE _ Q g flin

AE ~ P + Q COB o
Hence, R- VP*+2PQco 8+"Q*
and Oxtail
Q sin a
P+Q cos a
giving tb^ magnitude and direction of the resultant.

Coi\^. If a0 R*^P+Q and if aair RP Q,


Henoe the resultant of ttco given forces acting along the same line

is their alggbraic sum,

CoTn^ Two forces P and Q acting at a point being given in


magnitude, their greatest resultant is P+Q, when a^O, and the least
resultant is P-Q, when
Cor.^8, ^hen P Q, it is easily seen that
R2P cos ia and
Thus the resultant of two equal forces P, P at an angle a, is

2P cos ia,.in a direction bisecting the angle between them.

Cor.>4. If O-90*, P /P* + 0. 8*tan Q/P.

2*4. Breaking up a given force Into two e^po


nenta.
A given force may be resolved into two compepeak^
in an infinite number of ways, for by pTallelo(p^^
X2 INTWMMEDUTE STATICS
forees, it with the straight line representing the given
foroe as diagonal we construct any pa^lelogram, the two
adjacent sides of this parallelogram wul represent the two
component forces having the given forqe as their resultant.

Again, if we want the component ofs^given force, in


a given direction at any inclination to it, the^mponent is
not determinable, in as much as the direction of the other
component may be chosen to be anyone, and the parallelo-
gram constructed with the given force as diagonal.
however, with a given force, both the directions are
If
definitelymentioned in which we are required to break it
up into components, these components can be determined.

Let 00 represent the given foroe B, and and OX OY


two given directions
making angles a and P
respectively with 00,
on opposite sides of itt
along which we are to
find the components
ofB.
Complete the para-
llelogram OAOB with
diagonal 00, and sides
along OX and OF,
Then, by parallelogram
of forces, OA and OB
represent the required components P and Q, having B as
their resultant.

Now from triangle OAC, by Trigonometry,


OA ^ AO 00 ^

sin OOA " sin COA sin OAO"

sin p sin a
* sin (180^ - sin (a + P)

PmOA B sin g ^
QssOB B sin a
sin (a + P) sin IS + P)*
li mTMBMJSDJATE STATICS

maUcdllyf a force F along OX* ia identical with a force -JIT along OX.
Henoe, - J? oob B along OX^ may be P cos ^ along OX.
described as

Thus the resolved part of P along OX is mathematioally P oos 0,


and perpendicular to OX, it is P sin 0, whether 0 is obtuse or aoute or
of any magnitude,

Henoe any given force P


is mathematically equivalent
lo (and accordingly can be replaced, whenever needed, by)
two simultaneously acting resolved parts, one P cos 6 along
a direction OX
at an angle 0 to it, and another, sin 0 P
perpendicular to OX, whatever the This
angle 6 may be.
mode of replacing a given force by its two equivalent
resolved parts in two suitable perpendicular directions is
particularly useful in finding the resultant of several forces
simultaneously acting at a point, as is shown in article 2'7.

2*6, Theorem. The algebraic sum of the resolved parts

of any two forces acting at a point, along any direction,

is equal to the resolved part of their resuitant, in the same


direction.

Let OA and OB represent the two forces and Q P


acting at the point 0. Then 00, the diagonal of the
parallelogram OAOB, represents their resultant in B
magnitude and direction.

Let OX be a line drawn in any direction through 0


nd AL, BM and ON the perpendiculars drawn on it from
A, Band 0 respectively, so that OL, and OM
represent ON
ti^e resolved parts of P, Q and B
along OX, in magnitude
0aA sign. In Fig. (i) all t^ee are positive, and in Bg. (ii)
ie negi^ivh.
OOMP(^XTION AND BEBOLUTION OF F0S0E8 15

Now OB and AO being equal and parallel, their


projeotions OJIf and LN on OX are equal id magnitude*
Hence in Kg. (i). ON^OL^ LN~ OL + OM
and in Kg, (ii), ON~OL- NL-OL- MO
^OL-i-OM) = OL + OM.
Thus resolved part of the resultant B is equal to the
algebraic sum of the resolved parts of P and Q along OX.
Cor. By a repeated applioation of the above theorem, we can
easily extend the theorem as follows :

If any number of forces aci at a pointt tlie algebraic sum of their


resolved parts in any direction is equal to the resolved part of their
resultant in the same direction,

2'7. Resultant of several coplanar forces simul*


taneously acting at a point.
16 JNTEBMEDIATS 8TATI08

diiecfiioxis make angles a^, as, as, with any suitably


chosen direction OX in the plane, OT being perpendicular
to OX.
* We can replace the force Pi by its resolved parts
Pt Oos ai along OX, and Pi sin ai along OT, Similarly
Ps may be replaced by Ps cos as along OX, and Ps sin as
along OT, and so for each one of the given forces.


Now (represented by 00) being the resultant of the
given forces, and 6 the angle it makes with OX, its resolved
parts along OX
and OT being equal to the algebraic sum
of the resolved parts of the component forces along the
same two directions, we get

Rcos ePi coBCi+Ps cos Ca+Pa COS as+ s^-yCsay)


R sin 6*Pi sin Ci+Pa sin Ca+Pa sin aa+ sJSK (say)
Hence,
jB*=(i;z)*+(Jsr)*, or r-n/csjtFkw
and
ST
tane-^ or,
T
giving the magnitude and direction of the resultant
analytically.

Expressed in terms of Pt, Ps,...oi, ot,... etc., we have


2J* - SPj* + 2SPtP* 008 (oi ^og).

Note. If no soitable direction is apparent, we may take OZ along


the direction of one of the given forces, say P,, in which case ci^O
and Pi cos o,-Pi, and P, sin o,-0.

2*8. Graphieal method of construction of the resul-


tant of eoncurrent forces. (Force diagram).

Let the two given forces P and Q act at 0. In their


plane, draw a straight line AS parallel to P, on a snitably
ehosen scale, to represent P in magnitude, direction and
sense, and then, on the same scale, draw BO parallel to Q,
tonsiKtesent Q.
COMPOSITION AND BESOLTJTION OF FOBOF8 17

Two loToes

Thus, AB, BC
taken in order represent successively P
and (J, Then
the thitd side AO
(in opposite order) will
represent the magnitude, direction and sense of the resultant^
which will however act at 0.
In vector notation, AB+BC AC.
The proof iseasily seen to depend on the parallelogram
of forces, for, completing the parallelogram ABCD, AD,
which is equal and parallel to BO, represents
in magnitude, direction and sense.
Q equally well

Any number of forces

Let P, Q, P,... etc. be any number of given ooplanar


forces acting simultaneously at O.

In their plane, on any chosen seale^ draw successively


the lines AB, BOt OD,.^. etc. parallel to the diieetiMS
3
u memMEDIATE statics

Qt Sf 6to. to represent those forces in magnitude,


direotion and sense. Then
the last line to close up the
potvffon, in opposite sense (say AE, as in the above figure),
ftpnsents the tnoffnitude, direction and sense of the resultant,
whioh will however act at 0.
For, from the ease of two forces, resultant (St say) of
P and Q represented by AS
and BC is represented by AO.
Then the resultant of Bt and B, which are given by AO
and ODrespectively, is represented by and so on. AD ;

In vector notation, AB + BO + ^ + Wl^ AE.


2 9. The resultant of two forces represented in magnitude
by in.OA and n.OB, acting at 0 along OA and OB respec-
tively, is represented in magnitude and direction by
(m+n).OC, where 0 is a point on AB and that AC ; CB
" n : m, i.e., m.AO n.OB.

Let two forces act at 0 along OA and OB whose magni-


tudes are represented by mDA and n.OB respectively.
Join AS and let 0 be the point on it such that m.AO
" n.CS. Join 00.

Through 0 draw ZOT parallel to AOB, and complete


the parallelograms 00AZ and OOBY.
By
parallelogram of forces, the force represented by
OA oan be rwUeed by the components OZ and 00, and
hence a foiee rHcaebted by m.OA can be replaced by
COMPOSITim JUrJTJUJBgOJfgyWOJ i F0B0S8 19

the components m.UX inTOG. Btmtlarly the force


represented by n,OB can be replaced by its components
n,OY and n,OG.
Henpe the two given forces m.OA and n.OB are equiva-
component (m + n).OC, along 00, a component
lent to a total
m,OX along OX and one n.OF along OT. But since
m.OX^m.CA-n.CB^^n.OY in magnitude, the last two
components being equal and opposite along the same line,
balance one another.
Hence the final resultant is the single force represented
by lm + n).OC along 00.
Cor. 1. The resultant of two forces Oil and OB is
represented by 200, where 0 is the mid-point of AB.
Cor. 2. The resultant bf three forces represented by
OA, OB, 00 is800, where G is the centroid of the triangle
ABO.
2*10. Illustrative Examples.
Ex. 1. If the resultant of two forces acting on a particle be at right
angles to one of them, and its magnitude he one^third of the magnAtude
of the other, show that the ratio of the larger force to the smaller m
3 : 2 sl2. [U. P. 1944 ]

Let P and Q be the forces, and let the resultant he perpendicular


to P, its magnitude being iQ, as in the figure, where the diagonal of
the parallelogram with P and Q as adjacent sides represents the
resultant.

Ex. 2. Turn forces acting at a paint havegoi their resultant 10 when


acting at right angles, and their least resultant ie f *Bind their greaM
resultant, and also the reeiUtant when ^ey a4t at an angle dif
so INTJSBMEDUTE STATICS

Xiet P and Q be the forces, P being the greater.


Then, while acting perpendicularly, their resultant,
^/P + g10, or, P*+0*-100,
Also their least resultant,
P-g- 2 . P> + g-2P0=4.
Hence, PgB48.
Now the greatest resultant
-P+O- ^P* + Q^~+2PO
- ViW+96=14.
Also, when they act an angle 60"*, their resultant
B- Jp^ +'g' +2Pg cos 60*
VT6b+2 X48x4= ^148.

vBaf. 8. Forces P and Q, wTiosc resultant is P, act at a povnt 0. If


any transversal cut the lines of action of the forces P, Q, B at the points
M, N respectively, show that

c '
^

Let OA be drawn perpendicular from 0 on the transversal LMN.


Equating the algebraic sum of the resolved parts of P and Q along
4>A to that of their resultant JR, we get
P COB LOA+O COS JlfOAP eos KOA,
^ pOA.QOA^^qA^
COMPOSITION AND BE80LUTI0N OF FORCES SI

Alternative method :

p p
P along OL can be written as
-gj OL^m. OL, where

Similarly Q along OM can be written as n OM w^re .


Now the resultant of the forces represented by m,OL and n.OMia
lm+n},ON along ON, where N is a point on LM such that LN NM :

Bfi : m. Thus ON being the direction of the resultant, intersecting


LAfatN.
Jl-(m+n).Oy, or.

Ex. 4. Two forces P, Q act at a point along two straight lines making
an angle a with each others and R is their resultant* Two other
forces P\ O' acting along the same two lines have a resultant R\ Prove-
that if B be the angle between the lines of action of the resultants^ then

PB' cos {P0'+P'0) cos a+PP'+OQ',


and BP' sin 6*= {PQ* ^P*Q) sin a.

If ^ be the angle which the resultant B makes with the line of


action of P, resolving along and perpendicular to this line, and equating
the resolved part of the resultant to the algebraic sum of the resolved
parts of the components,

B cos P+ Q cos a, B sin Q sin a.

Similarly, 0' being the angle made by M with the same line,

B' cos ^'P' + O' cos a, B' sin sin a.

Now, cos d OOB (0*-0')*

BB' cos ^-BB' (cos 0 cos 0'+8in 0 sin 0') ^


(P+0coBa)(P'+(3'co3o)+(0sina)(0'Bin a) v
*
-PP'+(Pg'+P'0) cos o+QQ' (coBe+Bin 0)

- (PO'+rO) cos o+PP'+ QC',


Similarly, the second result follows.

Ex. b. SJiow that the resultant of two forces see B and sec C aotimg
along AB, AC respectively of any triangle ABC is a force (tan A+tan 0)
along AD, where D is the foot of the perpendicular from A on BC.
SS INTERMEDIATE STATICS

We note that the forces sec B and sec C along AB and AC can be
written as

sec B JD * j C
AC
along these lines.

cos B
^8^
DO^AC'^O
sec C secB

AC AB

s ec C
AC
AC is along AD, since D divides BC in the ratio

860 C .
soc B
See 2-9 ]
AC AB [

Also ' -<^B8ec B, sin B+seo 0. sin C


(tan B+tan C).

Hence the result.

Ex 6. ABODE ts a regular pentagon and forces acting at a point


are represented in magnitude and direction by the lines AB, AC, AD,
AE, BC, BD, BE, CD, CE, and DE. Prove that the magnitude of

their resultant is represented by iAEA^^BD, [ C. U, 1939 ]

We first of all see that forces


acting at a point and represented in
magnitude and direction by the lines
AB, BO, CD, DE are equivalent to

a single force represented by AE


t See 2^S ]. Written in vector
notation,

AB + BC + Oi> + J)B*AB.
Similarly, AO + AE,
Also AB+j5B*iB,
and BB + 2I)*bB,
As two forces represented by DE and ^ acting at a point cancel

COMPOSITION AND RESOLUTION OF FORCES 23

one another, and as the forces all act at one point, we gat by
combining the above,
^

Jb+bc+cd+ve+ac+ce+Id+be=3Ie+Sd.
Hence, adding two more forces represented by AE and BD, we get

iB + AC + Jb + AE + BC + BD + ^ + CD + CE + DE
-=4iI? + 2Bi).

Ex. 7. Forces of magnitude I, 2, 3, d, 5 respectively act at an


angular point of a regular hexagon towards the other angular points
taken in order ; find their resultant.

ABCDEF being a regular hexagon,


forces 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 act along ABt AC^
AD, AE, and AF,
In the regular hexagon, it is easily

seen from Geometry that Z^BAC


^CAD^^LDAE^l,EAF = G0, and
so AB and AE are perpendicular to

one another.
If 22 be the required resultant and
B the angle it makes with AB, we get
by equating the resolved parts of the
resultant along AB and AE to the algebraic sum of the resolved parts

of the components,

22 cos 3l + 2 cos 30+3 cos 60+4 cos 90 + 6 cos 120*

=l+3.-f+3.|+4. 0+5.(-|)- s/3;

and 22 sin 6=2 sin 30+8 sin 60*+4 sin 90+5 sin 120

B* -(^/3)* +(6+4 -76+40 M'S.

Also, tan B =
A 1 A
6+4 \/3

Hence 222 ^19+10 ^/S and

giving the magnitude and direction of the resultant.


94 imSJBMSDIATJB! BTATIQ8

Bk. 6. Assuming that ths paralUlogram law of forces is true so

far as the magnitude only of the resultant is concerned^ prove it for


direcBon,

Let OA and OB represent two foroee acting at 0 in magnitude and


direction, Complete the parallelogram OACB and join the diagonal
00, It it given that the resultant of OA and OB is represented in

magnitude only by 00* We are to show that the direction of the

resultant must be along 00.


Let OZ> be a force exactly equal and opposite to the unknown result-

ant of Oil and OB, so that OB is equal to 00 in magnitude, but we


do not as yet know the direction of OB. Complete the parallelogram
ODEA, and join the diagonal OE,
Now since OB is equal and opposite to the resultant of OA and OB,
the three forces OA, OB, OD acting at 0 are in equilibrium. Hence
OB is exactly equal and opposite to the resultant of Oil and OB.
But from the given oondition, the magnitude of this resultant is

given by the.diagonal OE. Hence OB must be equal to OB in

mgniiude.

Thus OBOBi^O. ABOBbOO. Hence the figure


Also
CEAO is a parall^gcam. EA is parallel to 00. But by
Therefore
ConstrootioD, AE Is paralld to OB. Henoe OB and 00 must be along

thA same straight line. Thus thp direction of the resultant of OA and
Ob, beiA| esaotly opposite to OB from eonstruetton, is along the

(JO*
00MP08XTI0N AND BBSOLVTIOUf OF F0S0X8 95

Examples on Chapter II

1. Show that the greater the angle between the lines


of action of two forces acting at a point, the less will
their resnltant.

2. Two unequal forces inclined at a oertaiti angle act
on a particle. Show that the resultant is nearer tlft greater
force.

8. The greatest and least resultants of two forces of


given magnitudes acting at a point are 16 lbs. wt. and 4 lbs.
wt. respectively. Find their resultant when th^-act at
an angle of 60'* with one another.
% The resultant of two forces P and SP, acting at
a point, is perpepdicular to P: Find the angle between the
forces.

Ji^^^nd the angle between twp^^qual forces P, when


their resultant is a third equal force*'^ . [ P. U. 1980 ]

__!^wo equal forces act on a particle find the angle ;

between them when the square of their resultant is equal to


three tin^s their product. ['P. U. 1933 ]

^ resultant of two forces acting at an angle of


45* iss/IOjbs. wt. ; one of the components being ^/2 lbs.
wT^ find the other.
Find the components of a force P along two
directions making angles of 45** and 60' with P on opposite
sides.

Two forces of magnitudes SP, 2P respectively have


a resultant B. If the first force is doubled, the magnitude
of the resultant is doubled. Find the an^e43r6tween the
forces* li) [ 0. tJ. 1932 ]

10. V Two forces given in magnitude and direction act on


a particle. Find the direction in which a third force of
given magnitude should act on it, so that the resultant of
the three may be the least possible in magnitude.

Two forees aet at a point and are snoh that if the


direetion of one is reversed, the dutootion of the rMaltant
) .

86 SSTEBUEDUTE STATICS

is torned thiongh a right angle. Prove that the two forces


must be egual in magnitude. C^}

>-r2. If the resultant of two equal forces inclined at


an angle 26 is twice as great as when they are inclined at
an angle 2^, prove that cos 6 2 cos C'**)

> If the resultant B


of two forces P and Q inclined
to one another at any given angle make an angle 6 with
the direction of P, show that the resultant of the forces
P+i! and Q acting at the same angle will make an angle
4e with the direction of P + B. ^

[ B. U. 1926,
'29 ; B. E. 1982 ]

If the resultant of the forces P and Q be equal to


that of the forces P + S and Q- S acting at the same angle
{S 9^ P), find the magnitude of the resultant, t *0

Two forces P and Q acting on a particle at an


angle o have a resultant (,2k + 1) Jp^ + Q*. When they ac t
at an angle 90* - a, the resultant becomes (2k - i) Vp* + 0*
prove that
tan o = ^ [ B. H. 17. 1946 ]

I6. Two forces P + 0, P-Q make an angle 2a with


one another, and their resultant makes an angle B with the
bisector of the angle between them. Show that
P tan e0 tan a. [ P. U. 1931 ]

Y?. The angle of inclination between two forces P and


0 is 9, If P and Q
be interchanged in position, show that
the resultant will be turned through an angle where Ct^)

1929
I - f Jq
tan
[ C. Cr. ]
I
18a Two forces P and Q act at an angle 6 and have
a resultant JB. each force is increased by JB, prove that
If
the new resultant makes with B
an angle whose tangent is
_ (P-0)Bma_ .

P + Q + B + (P + 0)cO8O*
. IP. U.1948: B.H. U.1943]
19.
COMPOSmON AND BE80LUTI0N OF F0B0E8 87

Two forces P aod Q acting respectively along two


different straight lines OA and have resultant perpendi- OB
cular to OA. It two forces P' and Q* acting respectively
along the same two straight lines have a resultant perpendi-
cular to OB, show that
PP'^QQ'.

20. Two forces and P Q acting respectively along the


straight lines OA and OBwhich are inclined at an angle
have a resultant B making an
a to one another (a 7^ n),
angle 6 with OA. If Q be changed to Q\ the resultant
changes to E' making an angle 0' with OA. Show that

^ sin (a^O)
B sin (a 6')

21 . The resultant of two forces P, Q acting at a certain


angle X, and that of P, B acting at the same angle is
is
also X. The resultant of Q, B (Q ^ B) acting at the same
angle is Y. Show that it P + Q + B^O, then X- Y. *

V^2. Two forces B


and S act at a point along two
straight lines inclined at an angle d, and is their resultant. F
Two other forces B' and S' acting along the same lines
have a resultant F'. If 4> be the angle between the lines of
action of F
and F\ prove that
(1 - cos ^)(1 + cos <f>)

^ - 2BB'S8' + -^s $)(! + oosj).

[ C. U. 1946 ]

23. Two forces P and Q acting at a point have got


a resultant B if Q be doubled, B is doubled. Again, if
;

Q be reversed in direction, then also B is doubled. Show


that P 0 B - ^2 ^/3
; ; Bombay^ 1934 ]
; :

24. If one of the two forces acting on a particle be


double that of the other, and if B be the angle between
the direction of the resultant and the greater force, show
that B > in.
INTERMEDIATE 8TATIG8

Id. Three forces P, B


in one plane act on a particle,
the angles between Q and B, B
and P and P and Q being
a, fit y respectively. Show that their resultant is equal to
{P* + 0* + jB* + 2QB cos a + 2BP cos P + 2PQ cos
[ Delhi, 1981 ]

26. Equal forces P act at a point parallel to the sides


BO, OA, AB of the triangle ABC. Prove that their resultant
is given by

P Vs - 2 cos il 2 cos S - 2 cos C.

27. Forces act through the angular points of a triangle


perpendicular to the opposite sides, and are proportional
to the cosines of the corresponding angles show that their ;

resultant is proportional to
JiX - 8 cos cos B cos 0).

28. Prove that any force in the plane of a triangle ABC


can be resolved into three components acting along the
sides of the triangle.

In particular if E, F are the feet of the perpendiculars


from B and C upon the opposite sides of the triangle ABC,
show that a force P acting along EF can be replaced by
P cos A, P cos B, P cos 0 acting along the sides of the
triangle. [ B. E. 1936 ]

29. Show bow a force given in magnitude and line of


action can be broken up into two equal components passing
through two given points, which are (i) on the same side,
(ii) on opposite sides of the line of action of the given
force.

80. Two given forces, which are not parallel, act at two
given points of a body. If they be turned through the
same angle in the same sense about their respective points
of application, prove that the resultant is constant in magni-
tude and passes through a fixed point.

Two forces P and Q act upon a particle, P is given


81.
in magnitude and direction, and Q in magnitude only.
Find the locus of the extremity of the resultant.
COiiFOaiTION AND BESOLUTION OF F0BGE8 29

S2. At B, C are three fixed points and P is a point


such that the resultant of forces of PA, PB always passes
through 0. Show that the locus of P is a straight line,

38i If the resultant of forces represented by lines drawn


from a point P to the vertices of a quadriateral be of const-
ant magnitude, show that the locus of P is a circle.

34. Forces are represented in magnitude, direction and


sense by the sides AB, AG of the triangle ABC, If their
resultant passes through the circum-centre of the triangle,
show that the triangle is either right-angled, or isosceles.

35. A, B, G are three points on the circumference of


a circle. Forces act along AB
and BC inversely proportional
to these lines in magnitude show that their resultant acts
;

along the tangent to the circle at B. [U, P. 1941 ]

^36. AB CD
denote any two equal and parallel
and
chorda of a circle ;P
a point on the circumference equi-
is
distant from A and B, Show that the resultant of forces
acting at P and represented by PA, PB, PC, PD is Constant.
[ C. U. 1943 3

^ 37. PQBS is Prove that the resultant


a quadrilateral.
of the forces completely represented by the lines PQ, QB,
PS, SB is represented in magnitude and direction by 2PP,
and that its line of action bisects QS. [ C. U, 1941 ]
(

38. If P be the ortho-centre and 0 the circum-centre of


a triangle ABC, show that the resultant of the forces repre-
sented by

(i) OA, OP, 00 is represented by OP


(ii) PA, PB, PG is represented by 2P0.
39. Three forces PA, PB, PG diverge from the point
P, and three forces AQ, BQ, OQ converge to the point Q,
Show that the resultant of the six forces is represented in
magnitude and direction by 8PQ.
40* If 0 be the oiroum-oentre of the triangle and ABO
if forces act along OA, OB, 00 respectively proportional to
80 INTEBJtEDIATE STATICS

SO, OA, AS, show that bbeir resnltant passes throogh the
in*oeDtre.

41. any point in the plane of the triangle ABC ;


0 is
D, E, F
are the middle points of the jides. Prove that
the resnltant of the forces OE, OF, DO
is represented
by OA.
42. Two chords AB, CD of a circle intersect at right
angles at P ;_Bhow that the resultant of the forces PA, PS,
PC, PDis 2PO, where 0 is the centre of the circle.

48. ASCDEF is a regular hexagon and 0 is any point.


Prove that the resultant of the forces represented by OA,
OB, 00, OD, OE, OF is 60G, where Q is the centre of the
oiroum-oircle of the hexagon.

44.Eight points are taken on the oiroumference of


a at equal distances, and from one of the points
circle
straight lines are drawn to the others. If these lines
represent forces acting on a particle at the point, show
that the direction of the resultant coincides with the
diameter through the point, and its magnitude is four times
the diameter.

45. Forces each equal to P act along the sides AB, OB,
AD, DC of the square ABOD find their resultant.
;

46. ABO is a triangle right-angled at A, and AD ib


perpendicular on BC. Show that the resultant of the

forces

acting along
acting along

AD,
AB and ^ acting along AC is

47. Show that the resultant of the forces OA tan A


and OB tan S acting along the sides OA and OB of the
triangle OAS is AB tan A tan B, acting in the direction of
the perpendicular from 0 on AS.
48. Two forces act along the sides OA, OB of a
triani^e ABO, their magnitudes being proportional to cos A,
cos B, Prove that their resultant is proportional to sin 0,
a&d its direction divides the angles 0 into two portions
iiOfS^A), i{0+A-B).
;

COMPOSITIOlt d!i MHOTifTTION OF FQBOES

49. P is a point in fflS phcn ^ trianlle ABC^ and


I is the in-centre. Show that the resultant of the forces
represented by PA sin A^ PB sin B, PC sin 0 along PA,
PB, PC respeotiTely is

4PJ. cos iA cos iB cos iC,


along PL
50. Four horizontal wires are attached to a telephone
post and exert the following tensions on it : 20 lbs. wt. N,
SO lbs. wt. E., 40 lbs. wt. S. W., and 50 lbs. wt. S. E.
Calculate the resultant pull on the post. '

61. Forces of 2, ^/3, 5, J3 and 2 lbs. wt. respectively


act at one of the angular points of a regular hexagon
towards the five others in order. Find the magnitude and
direction of the resultant.

Find the magnitude of the resultant of the forces


52.
7, 1,and 3 lbs. wt. acting from one angle of ^ regi^
1
pentagon towards the other angles taken in order.

63. ABCDEF
is a regular hexagon of side a, and at A
forces act, represented in magnitude and direction by AB,
2AC, 3AD, 4A^ 5AF show that the magnitude of the
resultant is J351a.
^
54. Three forces P, Q, B
meet at a point} and the
resultant of P
and Q is 7 lbs. wt. acting at an angle
cos*^ (H) with P. The resultant of and P
is also 7 lbs. B
wt. at an angle cos*^ ( v) with P, and that of Q and is B
s/l29 lbs. wt. at an angle tan^ I --^jwithP. Find
P, Q, B in magnitude and direction, it being given that
Q and B are on the same side of the line of action of P.
65. At any point of a parabola, forces represented in
magnitude and direction by the tangent and normal at the
point (up to their intersection with the axis), both towards
the axis, act. Show that the resultant passes through the
focus.

56. Assuming the parallelogram law of forces to be true


for direction only, prove it for magnitude*
sa INTEBJtEDIATB 8TATI08

Answers

uibi. vt. 4. 130*. 5. 120*. 6 . 60*.


a,

Y 91bB.wt. a
"
_2_p _s/L p . 120*.
^/3+l s/8+1

10. In the diieotion oppodw lo iiiat of the reBUltent of the given

foroei.

14. P*Q.
81. A oiroJe with centre at the extremity of P and radina equal to

the magnitude of Q.

46. 2P acting along DC. 60. 5721b8. wt.

51. 10 Iba. wt. towarda the oppoaite vertex. 62. s/7I Iba wt.

64. Pa>S Iba. wt., Q<=5 Iba. wt. at angle 60* with P,

Il>8 Iba. wt. at angle 120 with P.


OHAPTEB III

EQUILIBRIUM OF CONCURRENT FORCES


*1. Triangle ot forces.

If three forces, acting at a point, he such as can be


represented in magnitude, direction, and sense, (but not in
position) by the three sides of a triangle taken in order, then
the forces are in equilibrium.

Let the three forces P, Q, B acting at the point 0 be


represented in magnitude, direction and sense by the sides
BC, CA, AB in order respectively of the triangle ABO.
It is required to prove that they shall be in equilibrium.

Complete the parallelogram BO AD. Since BD is equal


and parallel to OA, the force Q which is represented by OA
can as well be represented in magnitude and direction
by PI>.

Now by parallelogram of forces, the two forces and P


Q, represented in magnitude, direction and sense by SO
and SD, have got a resultant represented in magnitude,
direction and sense by BA. This resultant of and Q P
acts however at 0, and being equal and opposite to B
Which is represented by AB^ balances the latter force.
8
84 INTEBUEDIATE STATICS

Henoe the three foioes are in eqnilibrinm.

In vector notation, AB+SC+CA^O, ^hen referring


to foiees acting at a point.
m

Note. The three forces, Id this case, though represented in magni-


tude and direction by the sides of a triangle, act at a poinf, and do not
actually act along the sides of the triangle. It will be seen in a later
chapter ( 6'd), that if three forces actually act along the sides of
a triangle m order, and are represented in magnitude by those sides,

they are not in equilibrium, but are equivalent to a couple.

3*2. Moditieation of the triangle of forces. ( Perpendi-


cular triangle offerees.)

If three forces acting at a point he such that their


magnitudes are proportional to the sides of a triangle and
their directions are perpendicular to the corresponding sides,

all inwards, or all outwards, then also the forces shall be in

equilibrium.

For in this case, if we rotate the triangle through one


right angle in its own plane in the proper sense, we get
a triangle whose sides in order are parallel to the given
forces, and will represent those forces in both magnitude
and direction. Accordingly the forces are in equilibrium.

Note. The result will also hold if in the above case, the directions
of the forces, instead of being perpendicular to the corresponding sides,
make any equal angles with them, measured the same way round.
The proof is exactly similar.

^8*8. The converse of the triangle of forces.

If three forces acting at a point be in equilibrium, they


can be represented in magnitude, direction and sense by the
three sides of a triangle, tahsn in order.

Let the three fotoea P, Q, B


acting at 0 be in eqnili-
brinm. Draw the tines BO, OA in Bnoeession, parallel to
ilQVILIBBIUM OW CONOJJBBENT E0BCE8 U
^ the directions of P and Q, to represent these forces respect*
ively in magnitude, direction and sense, on any chosen
scale. Complete the parallelogram BOAD, and join the
diagonal BA,

Then BD being equal and parallel to ^A, represents


Q as well in magnitude, direction and sense. Now P and
Q being represented by BO and BD, by parallelogram of

forces, their resultant is represented by BA, But since


P, Q, B
are in equilibrium, JR is equal and opposite to the
resultant of P and Q, and accordingly B
is represented in
magnitude, direction and sense by AB,

^
Thus we get a triangle ABO whose sides BO, OA, AB
taken in order, represent the forces P, Q, B in this case,
which proves the theorem.

Note. If we draw any other triangle with the eided parallel to the
lines of action of the gwen forces, this triangle will evidently be similar
to ABC, and accordingly having the corresponding sides proportional,
the three forces in this case may as well be represented in maynAtfude,
direction and sense by the sides of that triangle taken in order.

Cor. Three forces acting at a point being such that thn sum cf
any two is less than the third, they can never be in equiUbrinm, k>le

they cannot be represented by the sides of a triani^e.


86 INTBBiOBDIATE 8TATI08

'4. Lands Theorem.


V three foroes acting at a point he in eg^Uihriwn, then
each it proportional to the sine of the angle between the other
two.

Let the three foroes P. Q, It acting at 0 along the


lines OX, OT, OZ be in eqnilibrinm.

It is required to prove that

_P ^ Q ^
sin YOZ sin ZOX sin XOY
On any chosen scale cat off OA and OB along OX and
OY respeotively to represent the foroes P and Q in magni-
tude and direction. Complete the parallelogram OAOB and
join the diagonal 00. Then by parallelogram of forces, the
resultant of P and Q is represented by 00.

Now since P, Q, JB are in equilibrium, is equal and B


opposite to the resultant of P
and Q, and accordingly B
must be represented in magnitude and direction by 00, so
that COZ nwet be along the same straight line. Also* AC
being equal and parallel to OB, represents Q equally wril
in magnitude and direction.

Then in the triangle OAO,


OA AO 00
A

EQUILIBBIUM OF CONOUBBENT FOBCBB 87

But, sin 00 - sin OOB - sin (180 - YOB) - sin YOZ


sin 00 A - sin (180* - ZOX) - sin ZOZ

and sin OAO - sin (180* - X07)- sin XOT.


Also* Oil, AO, 00 tepresent P, Q, B respectively.

Thus
p g_ _ B
sinYOZ sin ZOX sin XOY
P Q_ _ B
sin iQ, B) sin (B, P) sin (P, Q)

AlternatiTely, since the concurrent forces are in equilibrium, the


algebraic sum of their resolved parts in any direction, being equal to

the resolved part of their resultant, is aero. Therefore, resolving per-


pendicular to OX and to OY respectively, Q sin XOY-R sin Z0^0,
and P sin YOX-B sin YOZ^O, Hence P/ sin YOZ B/sin XOY
- 9 / sin ZOX,
Note. The converse of Lami*a tlieotem is also true ;
for proof

see Appendix.

^ 3*6. Polygon of forces.

If any number of forces acting at a point be such that


they can be represented in magnitude^ direction and sense
by the sides of a closed polygon taken in order, then they
shall be in equilibrium.

Let (h fotOM P,Q, B,8, P acting at 0 be


in magnitnde, direction and sense by ttw tfdes AB, SO,
8

88 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

ODt DEt etc., iiaken in order, of the closed polygon ABODE.


Join the diagonals AO, AD.
The forces P and Q being represented by AB, BO, their
resultant (say JSi), is represented by AO. Again the
resultant {B 2 say) of iZi and B, which are represented by
AO, OD, is represented by ; AD
in other words, AD
represents the resultant of P, Q, B. Proceeding in this
manner, the resultant of the forces P, Q, B, 8 which are
repre^nted respectively by AB, BO, OD, DE is represented
b^ A-B [ See 2' ]. But the last force T is represented by
EA, and is thus equal and opposite to the resultant of
P, Q, B, 8. Both however acting at 0, balance one another.
Hence the given forces are in equilibrium.

Note. It is not neoefisary here that the forces acting at 0, (and


accordingly the polygon) should be coplanar. The result will be equally
true in all cases.

8*6. The converse of the polygon forces.

If any number of forces acting at a point be in equili-


brium, then they can be represented in magnitude, direction
and sense by the sides, taken in order, of a closed polygon.

Let a number of forces P, Q, B, 8 T acting at a point


,

0 be in equilibrium. We are to show that they can be


represented in magnitude, direction and sense by the sides
of a closed polygon.

Let us draw in succession the lines AB, BO, OD, DE,


joined end to end, parallel to, and in the sense of the forces
P, Q, B, S (all but one), of such lengths that they may
represent the corresponding forces on any chosen scale.
Join AE, closing up the polygon, and join the diagonals
^

AG, AD. Bee Fig., Art. 8*6 ]


[

Then since P and Q are represented by AB, BO, their


resultwt (Bi, say) is represented by AO. Similarly AD
represents the resultant (Ba, say) of Bi and B i^ot P,
Q, S* Proceeding in this manner, the last line AE (from
J;to B) represents the resultant of P, Q, S, S (all but the
EQUILIBRIUM OF CONOUMBENT FORCES 89

last, namely T). As the foroes are in equilibrium, T is


equal and opposite to the resultant of all the others, and
accordingly, from above, T is represented by EA.

Hence the forces are represented in succession by the


sides of the closed polygon ABODE taken in order.

Note. As polygons with their oorresponding sides parallel are


not necessarily similar, i.e., have not got their corresponding sides
proportional always, it follows that the forces in equilibrium acting
at 0 will not necessarily be represented by the sides of any polygon
drawn with its sides parallel to the forces. [ C/. Art* 3*B note ]

8*7. Analytical conditions of equilibrium of any


number of concurrent forces.

The two necessary and sufficient conditions that a system


of coplanar forces acting at a point may be in equilibrium

are that the algebraic sum of the resolved parts of the forces
in any two mutually perpendicular directions'^ may be
separately zero.

Let a system of coplanar forces Pi, Pg, Ps, act at


a point 0, and let and OX OY
be any two perpendicular
directions in their plane. Let oi, ug, os, be the angles
made by Pi, Pg, Ps with OX. Now JR being the
resultant of the system, and 9 the angle which it makes
with OX, since the algebraic sum of the resolved parts of
any system of concurrent forces is equal to that of the
resultant in the saxM direction, resolving along and OX OY
respectively, we g6f7
22 cos cos oi -EX (say)
and 22 sin 9 = EPx sin a^-EY (say).
Thus 22*(i?x) + (i;r)*.
Now if the given force system be in oquilibrum, 22 0,
and accordingly (Z) + being zero, each of EX and
EY must be separately zero. Hence the conditions EX^Q
or any two different directions.
40 IKTEBMEDTATE STATICS

and SF'"0 are necessary for equilibrium of the given


system.
Ag,ain,
if and SY^O, thenB* ^(EX)^ + (SY)^
* 0,and so the force system is in equilibrium. Thus the
conations are suffioienL
Thus the two necessary and sufficient analytical condi-
tions of equilibrium of the given system of concurrent
ooplanar forces are

JBX^SPi cosai^O and 17T=^Pi sinai^O.


8*8. Illustrative Examples.
Ex. 1. Three forces P, 0, R acting along OA, OB, OC are tn
equil^lfrtum. If 0 he the circum-centre of the triangle ABC, prove that

P Q _ R
^ JL ij-JL JEL

where a, 6, c are the lengths of the sides BC, CA and AB, [ C. U, 19S8]

0 being the oircum-oentre of tbe triangle ABC, Z.BOC at the


oentreaS at the olronmference*2ii, and eimilarly ^CO^a2B
and Z.^OB*2C.

Now since the forces P, Q, R along OA, OB, OC are in equilibrinm,

by Lamis theorem,
P_ _0 P
Bin BOC* Bin COA Sin AOB
*'*"
P
aio9i(in2B"siiiao'
^
EQUILIBBIUM OE CONOUBBENT F0BCE8 41

or,
2 BiXL A 008 A 2 Bin B oos B 2 Bin C cob G
Kow in the triangle ABC,
Bin ^ ^ Bin C 6*+c*-a
t and oos A etc.
a b c 26c

Hence, from above


p Q B
8*+a-6*>
\ 6c ) M oa i
1 \ 06 ;

Dividing the denominator thronghont by a6c, the result follows.

Ex, 2. A body of mass 10 lbs, is suspended by two strings, 7 and


24 incites long, their other ends being fastened to the extremities of a rod
of length 26 inches. If the rod be so held that the body hangs immediately
beloio its middle point, find the tensions of the strings, [ U, P, 1943 ]

AB is the rod of length 25 inches. OA and OB the strings of


lengths 7 and 24 inches by which the weight (10 lbs.) is suspended at
0, where GO is given to be verbioal, G being the mid-point of AB, If

CD be drawn parallel to AO, then D is the middle point of OB, and


G2)=}4G 3J inches.

Again since 26* 7* +24* identically, we


getAB*.40* + B0* and so Z.AOB*! rt.

Thus 0C^kAB*^12i inches.

Now, if Ti and T, be the required tensions


along OA and OB, since the three forces, T^,
and the vertical weight of 10 lbs. acting at
0 are in equilibrium, the triangle ODO, whose
sides are evidently parallel to the forces, is

a trhb&gle of force and its sides will accordingly


be proportional to the magnitudes of the forces.

Thus
^
CD "^OD
^ GG
.
Ti r, 10
81l2 "12** 10 lbs.
Hence ri-2| lbs. wt. and lbs wt..
42 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

AlternatiTely,
by Lami's theorem in this case,

10
^ I or * rc I

sin COB sin COA sin AOB sin CBO sin CAO sin 90^'

n ^ 10 .

25 26

Ex. 8. A smooth ring of weight W


can slide freely along a string
which has its ends attached to two fixed points. The ring is pulled
horizontally on one side with a force P. Find P, if in the equilibrium
position^ portions of the string are inclined at angles 0 and 0 to the

vertical.

Let T be the tension of the string, which must be same through-


out the string, as it passes through a smooth ring.

Now the ling at 0 is equilibrium under four forces, namely, the


tension P, T on the two sides along OA and OB, the weight vertically

downwards, and the horizontal force P.

Besolving horizontally and vertically for equilibrium, we get


P+^Tsin^-Psin ^0, or, Pr ( sin d-sin 0)
and TT PcoB 0-r COB d0, or, Tr*r (cos 0+oos 5).

JL d~sin sin \ (0-tp) cos i(d+0)


*
*
W "*co8 0+008 0**2 cos 4 (0+0) cos 4
tan 4(0-0).
/. PTr tan 4(^-0)*
MQUILIBBIUM OF OONCUBBENT F0BCE8 4S'

Examples on Chapter III

! Three forces of magnitudes 3, 5 and 7 lbs. wt. acting


on a particle keep it at rest. Find the angle between the
two smaller forces.
2. Can a particle be kept at rest by three forces whose
magnitudes are proportional to (i) 4, 6, 9 ; (ii) 4, 7, 9 ;

(iii) 4, 15, 9 ?

3. (i) Examine whether three forces whose magnitudes


are in the proportion 3:2:1, acting on a particle, can be
kept in equilibrium under any circumstances. [ C. U. 1943 ]
(ii) A light string suspended from a fixed point 0 has

attached to it three equal masses, one at its lowest point 0


and the other two at A and B, A being above B. If Ti,
T 2 Ts be the tensions of the parts OA, AB, BO 9 show that
,

Ti Ta : 2 1,
: : :

4. Three equal forces acting at a point are in equili-


brium ; show that they are equally inclined to one another,
and conversely*
6. Three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium ;
if
they are proportional to
(i) 1.1, (ii) JS + 1, ^/3-l, ^/6
find their inclinations to each other.
6. Find a point within (i) a triangle, (ii) a quadrilateral,
such that the forces represented by the lines joining it
to the angular points may be in equilibrum.

^7. ABC is a triangle ; D, E, F are the middle points


ofthe sides BC, CA, AB respectively. Show that the forces
acting on a particle and represented by the straight lines
AB, BE, CF
will maintain equilibrium* [ B. H. U, 1940 ]

Three forces in equilibrium act perpendicularly to


the sides of a triangle through any point in their plane
within the triangle. Show that the forces are proportional
to the corresponding side of the triangle.
^9. If P be any point in the plane of the triangle ABO,
and B, E, Pthe middle points of ij^ sides BO OA AB , ,

respectively, show that the forces AP$ BP, OP, PD, PE,
PT' are in equilibrium.
44 INTEBMEDIATE STATI08

lO. Three forces act in given directions at a point 0,


and are in equilibrium. If a circle is drawn through 0 to
out the lines of action of the forces in il, B, 0 respectively,
prove that the forces are proportional to the sides' of the
triangle ABO.
^ 11.
OA, OB, 00 are three straight lines of equal length
in one plane, and they are not all on the same side of
any straight line passing through 0. I'oroes P, Q, act B
respectively along these lines, such that

area
p
OBO
. _gOOA
area area
B
OAB
_ .

show that P, Q, B are in equilibrium.

Forces P, Q, B
acting along lA, IB, 10, where I
isthe in-oentre of the triangle ABO, are in equilibriun^
show that P <} B - cos iil : cos iP cos iO.
: : :

Foroes P, Q, B
acting along OA, OB, OC, where 0
is the oiroamoentre of the triangle ABO, are in equilibrium ;
show that
__ P
+ 0 * - o*) 6*
. Q _ i? .

o* (6* (c* + o* - &) " 0 * (a* + 6* - c*)


14. 0 the ciroamcentre of the triangle ABO, and
is
L, M, N are
the feet of the perpendiculars from A, B, 0
respectively on the opposite sides. If forces acting along
OA, OB, 00 are in equilibrium, show that they are propoi>9
tional to the sides of the triangle LMN.

As. Forces X, T
act along the sides AB, AD respectlTely
of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. If they are balanced by
a force Z
which acts along the diagonal OA from 0 to A.
show that X: T: Z^OD
: OB : BD.

IB. A transversal cuts the lines of action of three foroes


P, Q, B
which act at the point 0, and ate in equilibrium,
at the points A, B, 0 ; show that (with convention
regarding sign)

P Q B
0i.B0"0B.0A"00.AB*
EQUILIBRIUM OF CONOUBBENT FORCES 45

If forces represented in magnitude, direction, and


sense by {m - )0P, (n - Z) OQ, (Z - m) OB be snob that they
are in equilibrium, prove that P, Q, B
are collinear.

18. If four
forces acting along the sided of a quadri-
lateral are in equilibrium, prove that the quadrilateral is
a plane one.
19. (i) If one of the two intersecting forces be given in
magnitude and direction, and the other has its line of action
only given, prove that the least force which will produce
equilibrium is perpendicular to the second force.

(ii) A particle weighing 19 lbs. is supported by two

strings attached to it. If the direction of one string be at


30** to the vertical, find the direction
of the other in order
that its tension may be as small as possible ; find also the
magnitude of the tensions in the two strings in this case.

^
20, OD, OB, OF are drawn perpendiculars from the
circum-oentre 0 of the triangle ABO upon the sides BO, OA,
AB. Show that the six forces represented by AO, BO, CO,
OD, OB, OF
are in equilibrium.

21. Forces acting at a point are represented in magni-


tude, direction and sense by AB, 2BO, 20D, DA, DB
where ABCD is a square. Show that the forces are in
equilibrium.

%2. Forces acting at a point are represented in magni-


tude and direction by 2AB, SBC, 2CD, DA, OA and DB
where ABCD is a quadrilateral. Show that the forces are
in equilibrium. [ 0. 17. 1987 ]

^ 23. A, B, 0, X, Y, Z are six points in a plane, no t hree


of which are collinear. Show that forces BO% OA, AB,
acting X, r, Z respectively are in equilibrium with
forces ZY, XZ, ZX acting respectively at A, B, C.

1S4. Ooplanar forces whose magnitudes are proportional


to the sides of a'^olosed polygon act perpendicularly to those
sides at their middle points, all inwa^s or all outwards.
Prove that they are in equilibrium.
46 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

25. Five equal forces so act on a particle that the angles


between them in pairs in order are equal show that the ;

forces are in equilibrium.

26. the lines of action OAi, OAg,


If a transversal cuts
OAsf.OAn of the Pi, Ps, P8,Pn, which are in
forces
^equilibrium,
27. at the points Ai, A 2 AB,...An, then
,

A uniform plane lamina in the form of a rhombus,


'One of whose angles is 120^, is supported by two forces
applied at the centre in the directions of the diagonals so
*that one side of the rhombus is horizontal ; show that if
P and Q be the forces, and P be the greater, then P* 30.
Two light riogs slide on a smooth vertioal oircnlar
wire and a thin string passing throngh the rings has two
weights tied at its extremities. A third weight is attached
'to a point of the string between the rings, and the system is
in equilibrium with the rings resting i(t points distant 30
from the highest point of the circular wire. Find the rela*
-tion between the weights suspended.

Find also the pressure on the wire at one ring, if the


middle weight be 10 lbs.

29. A light string is fastened to two points A, D at the


same lerel, the length of the string exceeding the distance
AD, and particles of weights 2 lbs and 1 lb. are fastened to
dt at two points B and 0 respectively. If AB, BO, CD make
aagle a, p, V respectively with the horizontal, prove that

tan a 2 tan }' 3 tan p.

SO. A series of equal welgHts are knotted at different


points of a string, the two extremities of which are tied to
two fixed points. Prove that, in the equilibrium position,
the tangents of the inclinations to the horizontal of the
successive portions of the string are in A.'P.

SI. A string ABC has its extremities tied to two fixed


,
points A end B in the same horizontal line ; to a given
EQUILtBBimt OF CONOUBBBNT F0B0E8 47

point 0 in the string is knotted a given weight W. Prove


that the tension in the portion OA is

where a, b, c are the eidea and A the area of the triangle


ABO.
32. (i) Three smooth nails are stuck on a vertical wall so
as to form an equilateral triangle with its base horizontal.
A light string carrying two equal weights at Its extremities
passes on them. Find the pressures on the nails.
Six smooth pegs form a regular hexagon. A loop
(ii)

of string passesround the pegs, fitting tightly against them.


Prove that the pressure on each peg is the same.
38. If 22 be the pressure of a body of weight TT on an
inclined plane when the supporting force acts horizontally,
and 22' the pressure when the supporting force acts along
the plane, then 22B'= TT.

34. Two forces P, Q acting parallel to the length and


base of an inclined plane respectively, would each of them
singly support a weight W
on the plane ; prove that
1 - 1. Jl-
P* Q~W'
35. Two planes AB^ AO having a common height are
inclined to the horizon at angles a and respectively. Two
weights, one in each plane, are kept in equilibrium by
a string attached to the weights and passing over A. Show
that the weights are as AB
: aO.

86. A body is supported on a smooth plane inclined at


an angle a to the horizon by a force Pi acting along the
plane, and a horizontal force Pa* The inclination a, as also
each of the forces Pi and Pa being halved, the body is
still found to be at rest. Show that Pi Pa 2 cosia 1.
: :

87. A weight of 30 lbs. is supported by a string fastened


to a point on a smooth plane indined at an angle 15^ to the
horizon, and the string is only just strong enough to stipport
a weight of 15 lbs. The inclination of the idane to the
48 INTEBMEDtATS 8TATI08

horizon being gradually increased, find when the string


will break.

' 88. A
weight is supported on a smooth plane of inclina*
tion a to the horizon by a string inclined to the vertical at
an angle V. If the slope of the plane be increased to and
the slope of the string is unaltered, the tension of the string
is doubled to support the weight. Prove that

cot o-cot y**2 cot p. [ 0. U. 1945 ]

39* A smooth tube in the form of a parabola is placed


with and vertex downwards, and a heavy
its axis vertical
particle is placed within it show that the particle can be;

kept at rest by an outward force along an ordinate which


varies as the ordinate, and that the corresponding reaction
of the tube varies as the square root of its distance from
the focus of the parabola.

40. A small bead can slide on a smooth elliptic wire,


being acted on by forces towards the foci which are proper*
tional to the corresponding focal distances. Prove that the
only positions of equilibrium are the extremities of the axes.

Answers

1. 60*. 2. (i) Yes. (ii) Yes* (iii) No.

S. (i) Yes, when all the three forces act in the same line, the last
two being in the same sense, and the first one opposite.

5. (i) 186*, 136*, 90*. (ii) 76*, 166*, 120*.

6. (i) The point of intersection of the medians.

(ii) the mid-point of the line joining the middle points of any
pair of opposite sides.

19. (i) At right angles to the first string ; 5 iJS lbs. wt. and
6 lbs. wt.

28. The wdghts are equal ; 10 lbs. wt.


82. d) on the upper, and i7r( J8-* ^/3) on either of the loweii
87. When the inclination is 80*,
OHAPTEB IV
PARALLEL FORCES
4*1. In the previous chapters we have considered forces
acting on a particle i.e., forces which pass through a point.
We shall now consider forces acting on a rigid body. In
such cases, it is often necessary to find the resultant of two
forces which are parallel.

Two parallel forces are said to he like when they act


in the same sense and they are said to be unlike when they
act in^posite senses.

4'2. Kesultant of two like parallel forces.


Let two like parallel forces P, Q acting at points B
respectively of a rigid body be represented by the lines AX^
BY, Join AB,

At A apply a force of any magnitude F


along AB, At
B apply an equal and opposite force F
along SA, Since
these two forces bidanee each othee they will not a0eel
4
;

so INTERMEDIATE STATICS

the required resultant. Let these foroes be represented by


AD and BE.
Complete the parallelograms ADLX, let the BEMY
diagonalsAL, BM
be produced to meet at 0. Through 0
draw OC parallel to AX
or BY to meet AB in 0, and
draw EOQ parallel to AB.
are eaulyalenfc to

Bat the foroes P and F at A are equivalent to their


resultant, say Si, represented by the diagonal AL. Let
its point of application be transferred on its line of action
to 0. Then Bi at 0 oan be resolved into two component
forces, parallel to their original directions, one along F
00, parallel to and in the sense AB, and the other P
along CO.

Similarly, the forces Q and at F


are equivalent toB
their resultant, say B., represented by BM. Let its point
of application be also transferred to 0. Then B. at 0 oan
be resolved into two component forces, one along Off F
parallel to BA, and the other Q along 00.

Thus the given foroes are equivalent to two foroes P


and Q along Z^, and two more forces each equal to F,
acting in opposite directions 00 and Off. The first two
forces are equivalent to a single force (P+ Q) along 00, and
the last two foroes balance one another.

Hence the resultant B of two like parallel forces P and


Q is a (P + Q) acting through a point
like parallel force 0
in AB between the points of application of P and Q.
Position of the point 0 through which B acts.
Since A* AGO, ADL are similar,

40 ^AD AD^F
CO BL A^ P*
JM)~F.OO: M. (1)
PASALLSL VOnOBS SI

Again, since A* BOO, BEM are similar,


. m BE B^ F
CO" E~m B7'~ Q
Q.BO~F.OO. ...
( 2)

From (l) and (2), P.AC * Q BO. - (3)

...
(4)
CB P
i.e., 0 divides fehe line AB internally in the inverse ratio
of the forces.

Ws. Resultant of two unlike (unequal) parallel


forces.

Let tvro unlike unequal parallel forans P, Q {P> Q)


acting at joints A, B
vaspeetivete n( a xj|^ body be
represented by tbe lines AX, AM*
52 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

. At A apply a force of any magnitude F along AB,


At B apply an equal and opposite force F along BA.
Since these two forces balance each other, they will not
affect the resultant. Let these forces be represented by
ABt BE.
Complete the parallelograms ADLX, let their BEMY ;

diagonals AL, BM
when produced, meet at 0. ( Since the
given forces are not equal, the diagonals are not parallel,
and hence they always meet ).
Draw OC AX or BY
parallel to to meet BA produced
at C, and draw HOQ parallel to AB.
Now, the forces P at A and Q at B are equivalent to
forces P and F at A, and Q and F at B.

But the forces and P P


at A are equivalent to their
resultant, say Pi, represented by the diagonal Let its AL
point of application be transferred on its line of action to 0,
Then Pi at 0 can be resolved into two component forces
parallel to their original directions, one along 00 parallel F
to and in the sense AB, and the other P along OC.

Similarly, the forces Q and at P


are equivalent to B
their resultant, say P
2 . represented by BM. Let its point
of application be also transferred on its line of action to 0.
Then Ps at 0 can be resolved into two component forces,
one P
along OH, parallel to and in the sense BA, and the
other Q along CO.

Thus the given forces are equivalent to two forces, P


alqn^ 00 along 00, and two mof'e fOfces, each equal
Q
to P acttug in the opposite directions 00 and OH.

first two forces are equivalent to a single force


5'Oting along 00, and the last two forces balance one
mMiet.
Hence the resultant P
of the two unlike unequal parallel
forees P
and Q (P >
Q) is a parallel force (P- 0) acting in
the direction of the g^ter force, tbrongh a point 0, outside
(iCfikite of application of tbe loroeg.
PARALLEL FORCES 5S

Position of the point C where B acts.


Since A 004, A XL are similar,

QG AX AX P
ao^xl'^ad^f
P.AG^F.OC. ... (1)

Similarly, since MSB are similar,


A OOB,
gO^ME BY g
gb^eb^'be^f
Q.CB-=F,OG.
From (1) and (2), P.40 - Q.OB,
or.
40 ^ 9 ,

CB P
t.e., 0 divides 4B externally in the inverse ratio of the
forces.

Note. When the parallel forces P and Q are unlike and equals
A* 4DL, BEM being identically eqnal, f^DAL^f^EBM, Therefore
ALt BM are parallel and henoo they cannot meet at any finite
;

distance. Hence the geometrical construction for finding the resul-


tant fails in such a case. Thus we see that two equal unlike parallel
forces cannot be compounded into a single force in other words ;

there is no single force of which the effect on a body will he equivalent

to the joint effect of two equal and unlike parallel forces. Such a pair
of forces is said to constitute a couple [ sec Chap, VI ]. This case
accordingly is called a case of failure for finding the resultant of two
unlike parallel forces.
In' case of two like parallel forces however, they always have
a single resultant whether they are equal or unequal, for in this case
AL and BM{Fig,, Art. ] will never be parallel, as can be easily
seen.

4*4. Summing up.


If the parallel forees P and Q (whether like or unlike)
have a resultant B, then
)

4 INTBBUEDIATS STATICS

(t) B is parallel to P and Q in the sense of the greater


force

,
(tt) B^PQ ( algebraic snm of P and Q
,..A p no
(*)
Q-Oi'
It P >
Q, BC >
OA. Hence the resultant passes
nearer the greater force, dividing AB internally in case of
like, and externally in case of unlike forces.

{iv) Again, from the above ratio, we get

Hence it follows that if three parallel forces are in


equilibrium, one is equal and opposite to the resultant of the
other two, and each is proportional to the distance between
the other two.

(v) The position of the point 0 is independent of the


directions of P
and Q. This point is usually referred to
as the centre of the parallel forces P
and Q, whatever bo
their common direction.

4*5. Resultant of a system of parallel forces.

(i) When the forces are all like.

Let Pi, Pa, Pa, be a system of like parallel forces.


First find Bi of Pi and Pg. Then
the resultant is
a like parallel force, and is equal to Pi + Pa* Next obtain
the resultant iJa of and Pa*, then Ba^Bi + Ps*
Pi + Pa +P8f and Pa is a like parallel force. In this way
the final resultant B would be obtained, which will be a like
parallel force and
P = Pi + Pa +Pa +
(a) When the forces are not all like*

Divide the forces into two sets of like parallel forces and
let Pi, Ps be the resultants of the two sets, which are
obviously unlike parallel forces.
PABALLJEL F0B0E8 86

If i?i 7^ iSgi suppose i > Bs : then Si^Ba is the


required resultant, which is parallel to the system of forces,
and is equal to their algebraic sum.
If Bi and their lines of action are coincident, the
system in equilibrium ; but if their lines of action are not
is
coincident, they form a couple.

4*6. Illustrative Examples*


z. 1. Ttco men are carrying a straight unifcvm har 16 ft long
and weighing 160 Ihs. One man supports it at a distance of 2 ft from
one end, and the other man at a distance of B ft from the other end.
What weight does each man bear ? [ C, U, 1945 ]

Lot ABh^ the uniform bar 16 ft. long and O be its middle point,
so that its wt. 160 lbs. acts at O, [ because the weight of a uniform
bar acts at its middle point, see Art. 10*5, J

i 160 lbs.
Vo

Let the two men support the bar at C and D, so that AC ^2 ft,
and BD^B ft., and let P and Q be the downward pressure on their
shoulders. Then P, Q are the parallel components of the weight 160 lbs.
of the bar acting at O, Hence by ^rt. 4'2,

P+Q*160-(i) and P.COmQ.DO, i.e., 6P-6Q (2)

whence, P72ft,

Hence the men bear the weights of 72^ lbs. and 87t*t lbs. respec-
tively.

z. 2. Two men have to carry a block of stone of weight 311 lbs,

on a light plank. How mmt the block be placed so that one of the men
should bear the weight 205 lbs. more than the other ? [ 0. 1935 ]

Let AB be the plank and C the point on AB where the stone is


to be placed. Let TFi, ( TTi > TT. ) be the weights which the two
,

INTERMEDIATE STATICS

men at A and B have to bear. Then the weight of the etone acting at

C is the resultant of the parallel forces TTi, TT,.

o B

i i W,
Wi 311 lbs.

TTi + TTa^Sll; - (1)

and Wi, AO^W^, BC. ... (2)

Also, bj the condition of the problem,

Trx-TF, = 205. ... (8)

From (1) and (3), Trx258, 1^9-53.

, . AC TT, 53

Thus, the stone must be placed on the plank at a point dividing it

in the ratio 53 : 258.

Examples on Chapter IV

1. A horizontal rod AB which is 4 ft. long (whose


weight is negligible) rests on two props at its extremities ;

a body of mass 60 lbs. is snspended from a point C such


that AO = 1 ft. Show that the pressure at A is three times
that at B,

\J
* 2. The extremities of a straight bamboo pde 8 ft. long
rest on two smooth pegs P and Q in the same horizontal
line. heavy load hangs from a point B of the pole.
A
If PB^SBQ, and the pressure at Q be S25 lbs. more than
that at P, find fihe weight of the load. iO. U. 1941 ] ^

'
t.
A heavy nniform rod rests on two pegs in the same
horizontal line, 1 foot apart. If the pressure on the pegs
re in the retio 1 2, fi^ the distance of the pegs from the
:

middle point of the rod.


sA* A nniform set^saw plank, 16 ft. long, weighs 1 cwt.
PABALLML W0B0E3 57

Find the position of the support when two children weighing


44 lbs. and 68 lbs. respectively, sit at the two ends. .

[ P. U. 1946 ]

5. Two men,
one stronger than the other, have to
remove a block of stone weighing 300 lbs. with a light pole
whose length is 6 feet the weaker man cannot carry more
;

than 100 lbs. Where must the stone be fastened to the pole
BO as just to allow him his full share of weight ? .

[ B. E. Allahabad ]

6. A light horizontal plank of length 8 ft., on which is


placed a load of 32 lbs. at a point 1 foot from one end, rests
on supports at its ends. If the load be removed from its
position and placed at the middle of the plank, find by how
much the pressure on each support is altered.
*
7. Ifthe position of the resultant of two like parallel
forces P Q is unaltered, when the positions of P and
and
Q are interchanged, show that P = Q,

8. Two P and Q act at given points


like parallel forces
of a body be changed to P/Q, show that the line of
; if Q
action of the resultant is the same as it would be if the
forces were simply interchanged.

9. A man carries a bundle at the end of a stick which


is placed horizontally over his shoulder if the distance;

between his hand and his shoulder be changed, how does


the pressure on his shoulder change ?

A man oarrie|^ a bundle at the end of a stick 6 ft.
10.
long,which is placed on his shoulder. What should be the
distance between his hand and^ shoulder, in order that the
pressure on the shoulder may be three times the weight of
the bundle ?

11. Show sum of the resolved parts


that the algebraic
of a pair of parallel forces, (not forming a couple), aloxg
any line in their plane is equal to the resolved part of tbi4r
resultant along the same line.

'48/(1) Show that the moUaufe of ibtoe oqiul iSa


88 INTXStUBmATS BTJFIOS

parallel forces aoMng at the axigiilar points of a triangle


passes through the centroid of the triangle.

(ii) Three equal like parallel forces act at the mid*

points of the sides of a triangle ; show that their resultant


passes through the centroid of the triangle.

* 18. Three like parallel forces P, Q, act at the angular B


points of a triangle. If their resultant passes through the
centroid of the triangle, whatever be the common direction
of the forces, then

P-O-B. .

i4. Three like parallel forces P, Q, B


act at the vertices
A, B,0 of the triangle ABO, and are respectively propor-
tional to a, b, 0 . Show that their resultant passes through
the in-centre of the triangle. .

16. A force P acts along AO, where 0 is the circum-


centre of the triangle ABO. Show that the parallel
gl^ponents of P acting at B and 0 are in the ratio
em 2P : sin 20. .

Tluree like parallel forces P, Q, act at the vertices B


of the triangle ABO. If their resultant passes through the
circum-centre in all oases, whatever be the common direction
of the forces, show that
P Q
sin 2A sin2B sin 20
ABO isa triangle, and 0 any point within ii ; like
parallel forces act at A, B, 0, which are proportional to
the areas BOO, OOA, AOB respectively. Show thoit the
resultant acts at 0.
^18. A line AB is divided into two parts at 0. The
resultant of two like parallel forces P and Q acting through
the mid-points of AO and OB passes through 0. If P and
Q he interchanged in position, show that their resultant
will pass through the mid-point of AB. . -

/ 18. The resultant of two parallel forces P, Q at A, B,


mts at 0 when like, and at B when unlike, Pmve ii

INKralkl forces whose magnitudes are equal to these resihltant


PARALLEL FORCES

iotee$, act simnltaneously at C, D, then A, B \7 ill be the


points at which their resultant will act in the two cases of
like and unlike directions.

* 20. If the magnitudes of two unlike parallel forces P, Q


(P '> Q) be increased by the same amount, show that the^
line of action of the resultant will move further off from P.

P, Q are like parallel forces. If P is moved parallel


to itselfthrough a distance ar, show that the resultant of P,
Q moves through a distance Pxl{P + Q).
</22. If the two like parallel forces P and
Q acting on
a rigid body at A and B be interchanged in position, show
that the point of application of the resultant will be
displaced along AB through a distance d where

iP>Q) [C,U.1964]

.
Ss. There are two like parallel forces P, Q. If two
equal and unlike parallel forces S, S having their lines of
action parallel to those of P and Q and distant b from one
another be introduced anywhere in the plane, show that
the resultant is displaced through a distance bS/iP + Q).
^
24. Ithe resultant of two like parallel forces P, Q passes
through a point 0 ; when P is increased by and Q by S, B
the resultant still passes through 0, and also when Q, B
replace P, Q respectively ; show that

Aaswera
1 660 lbs. 8. 1 incbee, 8 inches. 4. fi ftomlhe heavier child.
S. 4 ft from the weaker man. 6. 12 lbs.

I. The ptesBure varies invendy as


and shoalder.
we distance between ^ hand
18. 2 ft
OHAPTBB V
MOMENT OF A FORCE
6*1. Foroes acting on a particle can produce a motion
of translation only but forces acting upon a rigid body
;

may produce either a motion of translation or of rotation


or of translation and rotation both. The case of rotation
introduces the idea of the turning ejBfect or moment of
a force which is defined as follows :

Def. The moment of a force about a point is the


product of the force and the perpendicular distance of the
point from the line of action of the force.

Thus, if P be a force, and p the length of the perpen-


dicular ON drawn from a point 0 upon AB, the line of
action of the force, then the moment of P about 0
is ON i,e. Pp,

Note. It is clear from above that if the lino of action of P passes


through 0, its moment about that point is zero.

5*2. Physical significance of a Moment.

Let a body be capable of turning in a plane about


a point ; for instance, let a plane lamina resting on a smooth
horizontal table be pinned at 0, about which it can turn.
Lei a force P be applied in its plane at a point say with
MOMENT OF A FORCE 61

the help of a etring, ooe extremity of which is tied at A.


Now if it be pulled in a direction which when produced
passes through 0, it is common experience that the lam||^
does not move. If however the force be applied in a
different direcbion, say LA^ as in the figure, we can see that
the body will turn about 0 in an anti-clockwise direction.

If instead, a force Q be applied at in a direction BM, as


in the figure, the lamina will turn about 0 in a clockwise
direction. both the forces be applied simultaneously, the
If
direction of rotation about 0 due to a joint effect of these
will depend not simply on the magnitudes of P and Q, but
also on the distances OL and OM
of their lines of action
from the point 0. It will be experimentally observed that
if P.OL Q,OM, the body will not turn at all* On the other
hand, it will rotate anti-clockwise or clockwise according
as P.OL or Q,OM is the greater.

Thus it is experimentally found that the magnitude of


the tendency of rotation about 0 due to a force depends on
the moment of the force about the point, and not on the
magnitude of the force only. The moment of a force about
a point, therefore^ is a fitting measure of the tendency of
rotation of the body about the point caused by the application
of the force*

6*8. Sign ot a moment.


As mentioned above, the moment of a force about a point
in a body represents the tendency of rotetiosn of the body
es INTEBMEDIATS STATICS

ftbout tihe point due to the application of the force on it.


Now, as already pointed out, on account of the situation
of the point with respect to the line of action of the force,
in some cases, the application of the force may cause the
body to rotate anti-clockwise (as in the case of P
along LA)
and in other oases (as in the case of 0 along BM), the rota-
tion may be clockwise. The moments of the forces in the
two oases about 0 are to be regarded as of opposite signs.

Although either direction of rotation may be chosen as


positive, the usual convention is to regard UAs momBAJn
case of anti-dockivm^i6nd$ncy of rotsAim as positiv$jt and -
lit case of dockwisa tethdency of rotation^ th inQinent is^
hegativeX
y

^4. Graphical representation of a Moment.

0 a

Let the force P


be represented in magnitude, direction
and line by AB. Let 0 be any point, and p the
of action
length of the perpendicular from 0 upon AB or AB
ON
produced. Join OA, OB. The moment of P about 0 is
Pp i.e, 0JV=2A04B. Thus the magnitude of the
moment of a force about a point is represented by twice the
area of the triangle formed by joining the point to the
extremities of the line representing the force.

When proper sign is given to this expression as explain^


in the previous article, we get the moment completely in
magnitude and sign.

5'5. Unit of Moment


The moment of a unit force about a point at a unit
perpendicular distance from the line of acttCli ot the force
MOMSltU OF A FORCE

isdefined as the unit for the measurement of m6ments. If


the unit of force be a pound weight, and unit of distance be
one foot, the unit of moment is a foot-pound. Similarly if
the unit of force be a gramme weight, and unit of distance
be one centimetre, the unit of moment is a centimetre-
gramme.

Varignons Theorem.

The algebraic sum of the moments of two forces^ about any


point in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant
about that point.

There are two cates to be considered.

Case (1). When the forces meet at a point

Let the two forces P and Q act at a point 4 [ as shown


in figures (i) and (ii) ] along AX and AT respectively, and let
0 be any point in their plane.

Fig. 0) Fig. (ii)

Draw 00 parallel to P to meet the line of action of Q


in 0. Now choose scale so that the length AC may
represent the^ magnitude of and on the same scale let
AB represent 'P.
Oomplete the parallelogram ABDO, and join 4D, 04,
and OB. Then AD represents the resultant of P and Q.
Which do not form a ocapk.
64 INTEBMEDJATE 8TATI08

Now in either figure, the moments of P, Q and B about


0 are represented by 2AOAB, ZAOAC^ and 2AOAD
respectively.

*In fig. (i), where 0 lies outside the ABAO, the moments
of P and Q about 0
are both of the same sign, (positive in
this figure ), and their algebraic sum is represented by
2A0AB + 2 AO AO = 2ADAB + 2A0A0
= 2 AC AD + 2 A040 2A0AD
*= moment of B.

Infig. (ii), where 0 lies within the A.BAO, the moment

of Pbeing positive and that of Q bping negative, their


algebraic sum is equal to

2A0AB - 2AA0C = 2ADAB -2AA0C


= 2ACAD-2AA0C
^2A0AD
moment of B.

^ Case (11). When the forces are parallel.

Fig. (i) Fig. (ii)

Let P, Q be two like parallel forces, and let 0 be any


point in their plane.

Through 0 draw a line perpendicular to the lines of


action of the forces P
and Q to meet them in A^ B
respectively. Then by Art. 4*2, their resultant is the like
pai^llel force B P
+ Q, acting though 0 on AB, such that
P.AO^Q.BO.
MOMENT OF A FOBOE

In fig. (i)i the algebraic sum of the moments of P and Q


about 0 is
B.OA + Q.OB
= PiOG-AG) + Q(OC + GB)
-(P + Q)O0-P.AG + Q.GB
= (P + Q) 00=5.00
= moment of B about 0.
In fig. (ii), where 0 is within AB, the algebraic sum of
the moments of P and Q about 0
= -P.OA + Q.OB
= -P. (OG + AG) + Q{BG-GG)
= - (P + g) 00 - P.AG + Q.BG
= -(P + 0) 00= -5.00
= moment of 5 about 0
( taking into account its sign as in the figure )

Note. If the parallel forces arc unlike and unequal, the theorem
can be proved exactly in the same way.

Cor. It easily follows from above that the algebraic sum of the
moments of any two forces about any point on the line of action of
their resultant is zero, and conversely, if the algebraic sum of the
moments of any two coplanar forces (which are not in equilibrium)
about any point in their plane is zero, their resultant passes through
that point.

5'7. Generalised theorem of Moments.

If any number of coplanar forces acting on a rigid body


have a resultant, the algebraic sum of their moments about
any point in their plane is equal to the moment cf their
resultant, [ Extension of 7arignon*s Theorem ]

Let Pi, Ps, Ps,... be the forces acting in a plane, and


let 0
be the point in it about which the moments are tiAen.
Purther let the resultant of Pi and Pa be Pi, and tl^
5
INTERMEDIATE STATICS

resultant of Bi and Pa be ; then B2 is the resultant of


Pli P 2 Ps*

, Similarly, let the resultant of and Pa P4 be Ra and


so'on, till the final resultant is obtained. R
*

Now, by Art. 5 6 the algebraic sum of the moments of


,

Pi and Pa about 0 is equal to the moment of Pi about 0.


Again the algebraic sum of moments of Pi and Ps ix,,
of Pi, Pay Ps about 0 is equal to the moment of Pa about
0 ; and so on, till all the forces have been taken. If we
denote the perpendiculars from 0 on the lines of action of
the forces P 3 Pa. Ps, by pi, pa. Ps..** and if d be the
,

perpendicular distance from 0 of the line of action of the


final resultant P, then we have

SPp^Bd.
Cor. 1. It follows from above that if a system of coplanar forces
he in equilibrium, the algebraic sum of their moments about any point
in the plane is aero.

Cor. 2. If Olios on the line of action of be resultant, d~0 and


hence Hence, the algebraic sum of the moments of any
number of coplanar forces aJ>out any point in the line of action of their
resultant is aero.

Cor. 8. Again if 2Pp0, then Bd^0\ hence either d = 0, or 220.


Thus, if the algebraic mm of the moments of any number of coplanar
forces about any povnt in their plane be aero, either the resultant passes

through the point, or the forces are in equilibrium.

The above property enables us to determine the line of


action of the resultant of a number of coplanar forces by
determining the points through which the resultant passes.

5*8. Moment of a force about an axis.


So far we had confined ourselves to the consideration of
two* dimensional oases only, where forces are confined to
aci^ln one plane^ and the body capable of turning in the
same plane about some point in it. Now let us consider
MOMENT OF A FORCE m
the more general case of a solid body capable of |turning
about a fixed line as an axis (a door capable of turning about
the line of hinges being an example). A force aotiz]!^ on the
body at any point in any manner, it is seen that if the line
of action of the force passes through the axis of rotation,
or else is parallel to that axis, the body will not turn. On

the other hand if the line of action of the force does not
intersect the axis of rotation, nor is parallel to it, the body
^ill turn about the axis. The measure of the tendency of
rotation in this case necessitates the definition of the
moment of a force about a lino as follows :
When a force Pacts on a body in a direction perpendi-
cular to a line AB in the body, but not intersecting it,
^.e., when P acts in a plane perpendicular to AP, as in
Fig* (i)f the moment of the force P
about the line AB
is de^ed to be P.ON, where ON
is the perpendicular
distance between the line of action of P
and the lins AB
about which the moment is to be taken.

When P acts in any direction (not necessarily perpendi^


68 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

culsir to AB) as in Fig. the shortest distance


(ii), let ON be
between AB
and the If now P, assumed
line of action of P.
to be acting at on N
its line of action, be resolved into two
perpendicular components, one parallel to AB and the other
perpendicular to it, the moment of P about ilB is the
product of the resolved part of P perpendicular to A B and
the shortest distance ON
between AB and the line of
action of P in other words, the moment of P about AB
;

in this case is P sin 9 ON.

Note 1. The moment of P about AB is zero, if either (i) P is

parallel to AB^ or else (ii) if the line of action of P intersects AB,


Note 2. It mast be borne in mind that when in the two dimen-
sional case we speak of a body in the form of a lamina rotating about
a point in its plane, it really rotates about an axis perpendicular to the
plane through the point in question. Moment of a force about a point

in its plane in two dimensions is therefore nothing bat the particular


case of the moment about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the
force through the point.

Note 8. As in case of Yarignons theorem in two dimensions, we


can show in the general case of a solid body acted on by a system of
forces, that if a system of forces acting on a body have a resultanU the
algebraic sum of their moments about any line in the body is equal to
ihat of their resultant.
Hence if a sf^stem of forces, acting on a body generally, keeps it at
'rest, the algebraic sum of their moments about any line in the body is zero,

6*9. lUastrative Examples.


Ex. 1. Three forces P, Q, B act along the sides BQ, CA, AB of
.a triangle ABC, Their resultant lies in the line joining in-centre
umd centroid of the AABC* Show that

P _ q_ B
o {& -c)" 6 {c -o) "" c (a- 6)
Let J Q be the in-centre and centroid of AAPC and r the
iti4tadius Then the perpendiculars from J on the sides are each
equal to r Let GL, GM, G/N be the perps. from G and pi, Ps,
,tl^ petps, from A, B, C on BC, CA, AB then and ;
MOMENT OF A FORCE

9Pi=2A4BC.
Similarly, (?Jir-SA.y(?l^=iA.^*
\
Since the resaltant passes through. land G, hence the algebraic sum
of the moments of the forces about each of the two points Is tsero ;

P.r+(3.r+jB.r*0, i.e., P+0+P*0, ... (1)

and P.GL-Q.GM-k-B.QN-^0,

4.S., P.3 A. - +P.5A. '0,


Q 0 c

or, P.^ +(3.| +B,i-0,i.e., P.6c+0.<!a+Bl^6=0, (2)

From (1) and (2) by cross-multiplication, we get the required


result.

Ex. 2. A narrow uniform plank 20 fL long weighing 100 lbs, is

supported in a horizontal position on two posts, one 5 fL from one end,


and the other 8 ft, from the other end of the plank, A hoy weighing
60 lbs, walks on it starting ft om the latter post towards the corresponding
end. Find how far it is safe for him to walk. What are the reactions
of the posts when he is furthest from the starting point without upsetting
the plank ? [ C. U. 1933 \

V 60 lbs,

100 lbs.

Let AB be the plank placed upon two posts C and D, so that


AC ^5 ft. BD^S ft. The wt. of 100 lbs. of the plank acts at
and
the mid.point of AB then DG^2 ft. ;

Let P be the position of the boy between D and B, beyond which he


cannot walk safely without upsetting the plank, and let BF^x,
In this position as the plank is on the point of being upset about
D, the contact with the support at 0 is just broken and the reaction
at 0 is zero then. Now taking moment about D, we have

60.PD*100.(?D, i.e., 60(B100x 2. ,V!8ift-


70 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

For the position, as already remarked, reaction of the post C,is


zero and reaction of the point D balancing the resultant of the weights
nt O and P (which are like parallel forces) is equal to

100+60* 160 lbs. wt.

Ex. 3. One end of a stout rope of length 20 ft, is fixed to a vertical


ielegraph post standing on the ground, and a man pulls at the other end
with a given force. Find the point of the post at which the rope is to be

fixed in order that the man will have the best chance of over-turning
the post, C 0. V, 1944]

Let AB be the telegraph post, A being the base and C the point to
which the rope CD must bo fixed where D is the position of the man
on the ground.

Then CD* 20 ft.


From A draw AM perp, to CD and let Z.ADC^9. Let F be the
force acting along CD,
The moment of F about A
mFxAM^FxAD sin 9* Fx CD cos 5 sin
*Fx JCD sin 29
* 10 F, sm 29.

This is greatest when sin 29*1, i,e,, 29*90", i,e., 9*45".

Then 02? sin 46*- 20 X - 10 /2 ft.

Thus, the rope is to be fixed at a height of 10 ^J2 ft. from the


ground.
MOMENT OF A FORCE 71

Ex. 4. A round table of weight W stands on three lega,jof which the


upper ends are attached to its rim form an equilateral triangle.
so as to
Show that a body whose weight does not exceed W
may be placed any^
where on the table without the rish of toppling it over, [ 0* U. 2945 ]

LetABC be a circular table and let ^4, B, C be the upper ends of


the legs attached to the rim such that ABC is an equilateral triangle
and let A\B\ C' ho the points of contact of the legs with the floor.

Lot G be the centre of the table through which its weight W acts.
There is a chance of overturning if any weight is placed on the portion
of the table outside the triangle ABC, say in the portion BEC, and the
table will, if it turns at all in this case, turn about the line JB'C', and
when it is on the point of being overturned, A*
just loses contact with
the floor and the weight placed and the weight of the
table have equal
moments about B^C\ i.e., about BO. Now, the weight will clearly have
the greatest turning effect when placed farthest away from BC i,e,,
when placed at B, the mid-point of the arc BBC,
Since ABC is an equilateral triangle, AQDE (2) being the mid-point
of BO) is perp. to BO. Let X be the weight placed. Then tahing
moment about BO,
X,ED^W.QD. ( 1)
n INTERMEDIATE STATICS

Since from AGOD, QD^QC sin 30*-5GC-J(?i7,


QD^DE.
* from (l), X* TT,
i.e., the greatest value of X when the table just not overturns is W,
The same value of X would be obtained when placed in the portion
on the side of AB or AG, opposite to the triangle ABC,
Hence W is the greatest weight that can be placed anywhere on the
table without toppling it over.

It may be noted that if the weight be placed within the triangle


ABC, its moment about BC or CA or AB being of the same sign as
that of the weight of the table, there is no chance of the table being
overturned whatever the weight may be.

Examples on Chapter V
1. AB is a diameter of a circle and AG, AD are chords
at right angles to one another. Show that the moments of
the forces represented by AO, AD about B are equal.
2. Forces 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 lbs. wt. act respectively
along the sides AB, BC, CD etc. in order, of a regular
hexagon each of whose sides is ^/3 feet, 0 is the centre of
the hexagon and on AB an equilateral triangle O'AB is
drawn on the side opposite to the hexagon. Find the
algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about 0,
A and O'.

^A
50 ijw
uniform beam AB is 16 feet long and weighs
masses of 20 and 50 lbs. are suspended from A, B
;

respectively. At what point must the beam be supported


so that it may rest horizontally ?

4. A metre rule of negligible weight carries weights


^2, If, 100 gms. attached to marks 1, 2, 8, 100 o.m.
point about which it will balance.

iMasses of 1 lb., 2 lbs., 3 lbs., 4 lbs., and 5 lbs. are


from a uniform horizcutal rod AB, 10 ft. long,
a

MOMENT OF A FORCE 7B

weighing 3 lbs. and supported at its ends, at distances of


1 foot, 2 feet, 3 feet, 4 feet and 5 feet from A. find the
pressure on the supports.

long,
4 The horizontal roadway of a bridge AB is 36 ft.
weighs 5 tons and rests on two supports at its ends.
What is the pressure on each support when a lorry of
weight 3 tons starting from A is two-thirds of the way
across the bridge ?

7. Prove that if four forces acting along the sides of a


square are in equilibrium, they must be equal in magnitude.

8. (i) Show that the sum of the moments of the forces


represented in magnitude, direction, sense and line of action
by AD, BE, CF
where D, E, F
are the mid-points of the
sides BG, CA, AB of A
ABC, about each of the points A,
B, G is zero.
f^:E, F be points on the sides BO, CA, AB of
(ii) If
a ^tsitriye such that BD
ABG EA * FB, : DC-CE : AF :

prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces


represented by AD, BE, OF, about each of the points
A, B^G are equal.
Three forces P, Q, B
acting at the vertices A, B, C
respectively of a triangle, each perp. to the opposite side,
keep it in equilibrium. Prove that
P-.Q-.B-a-.i-.c.
If three forces P, Q, B
acting along the bisectors of
the angles of a triangle, at the angular points A, B,C
respectively, keep the triangle in equilibrium, show that

P Q ; : JS * cos M : cos 45 : cos 40.

^
/fi. Three forces acting along the medians of a triangle,
all from the vertices, are in equilibrium. Show that the
forces are proportional to the lengths of the medians.
12. Forces P, Q, B
act from the angular points of
a triangle ABG, perpendicular to the opposite sides. Prove
that if their resultant passes through the ciroum-centre
P (6 COB 0 - c cos B)^Q(c cos A^ cos 0)
+ B(a COB 5-6 cos
74 INTEBMBDIATE STATICS

X8. Ford^s LBOt m,CAt n,AB act along the sides of


a triangle ABC takenin order show that their resultant
;

pas^ses through the centroid of the triangle it l + m + n-0,

14, Three forces act along the sides of a triangle


16. in order.
taken If the sum of two of the forces be equal
in magnitude but opposite in sense to the third force, then
their resultant passes through the in-centre of the triangle.

each acting along a side of a cyclic


If four forces,
quadrilateral,be in equilibrium, show that each force is
proportional to the opposite side.

16. Three forces P, Q, B act in the same sense along


the sides BG, CA, AB of a triangle ABO show that if ;

their resultant passes through


(i) P cosec A-^Q cosec P + JJ cosec C = 0
the centroid,
(ii) the circum-centre,P cos 4 + Q cos B + B cos C 0
(iii) the ortho-centre, P sec + Q sec R+ E sec C *= 0.
17. Forces P, Q, B act along the sides PC, C4, JP of
the triangle ABC. If the line of action of their resultant
passes through the in-centre and circum-centre of the
triangle, prove that
P Q ^ B
cos P - cos 0 cos C - COB A cos A - cos P
[ 0. 17. 1939, ^45 ]

18. Three forces P, Q, B


act in the same sense along
the sides PC, CA, AB of the triangle ABO, If their result-
ant passes through
(i) the ortho-centre and centroid,
P ._Q
sin 2A sin (B - 0) sin 2P sin (0 - A)
B
sin 20 sin {A - P)
(ii) the ortho-centre and circum-centre,
P B
MOMENT OF A FOBCE 75

\P19. A uniform beam 10 ffe. long and weighihg 60 lbs.


rests on two props at equal distances from the ends. Find
the maximum value of this distance so that a masi weighing
10 stones may stand anywhere on the beam without upset-
ting it.

Eight of a plank, 24 feet long and weighing


feet
200 over the side of a quay. What least weight
lbs, project
proje
must be placed on the end of the plank so that a man
weighing 150 lbs. may be able to walk to the other end
without the plank tilting over ?

A
uniform rod of length 6 ft. and weight 2 lbs. rests
horizontally on two props at its extremities, each of which
will bear a maximum weight of 13 lbs. Find on what
part of the rod a weight of 16 lbs. can be placed without
breaking either support.
^ 22.V A non-uniform rod 16 inches long rests on two
pegs 9 inches apart, with its centre midway between them.
The greatest masses that can be suspended in succession
from the two ends without disturbing the equilibrium are
4 lbs. and 6 lbs. respectively. Find the weight of the rod
and the position of the point at which its weight acts.
-*^8. A uniform plank of length 2(i and weight is W
supported horizontally on two vertical props at a distance
h apart. The greatest weight that can be placed at the two
ends in succession without upsetting the plank are and
TTa respectively. Show that

y W+ Wi W + a

^24. A heavy carriage wheel of height and radius r,W


is tobe dragged over an obstacle of length h, by a hori-
zontal force P applied to the centre of the wheel. Show
that P must be slightly greater than

'
r-h
26. A man tries to uproot a tree with the help of^
a rope of length 80 feet,by fastening one extremity at some
74 JNTEBMSDIATB STATICS

/i.
rS* Fordds Zj5C, m.CA, n.AB act aloDg the sides of
a triangle ABG taken in order show that their resultant
;

parses through the centroid of the triangle if Z + w + 71 = 0.

14. Three forces act along the sides of a triangle


taken in order. If the sum of two of the forces be equal
in magnitude but opposite in sense to the third force, then
their resultant passes through the in-centre of the triangle.

^5. each acting along a side of a cyclic


If four forces,
quadrilateral,be in equilibrium, show that each force is
proportional to the opposite side.

^^6. Three forces P, Qt B act in the same sense along


^

the sides BG^ GA^ AB of a triangle ABG show that if ;

their resultant passes through


(i) the centroid, P cosec A + Q
cosec B + JB cosec C ~ 0
(ii) P cos 4 + Q cos S + B cos C? 0
the circum -centre,
(iii) the ortho-centre, P sec + Q sec B + B sec 0 0.
^ 17. Forces P, Q, B act along the sides BG, 04, AB of
the triangle ABG. If the line of action of their resultant
passes through the in-centre and circum-centre of the
triangle, prove that

P Q B
cos B - 008 0 cos 0 - COB 4 cos 4 - cos B
[ 0. U. 1939, '45 ]

18. Three forces P, Q, B


act in the same sense along
the sides BO, 04, 4B of the triangle ABG. If their result-
ant passes through
(i) the ortho-centre and centroid,
P JH
sin 24 sin (B - 0) sin 2B sin (0 - 4)
- B
sin 20 sin (4 - B)
(ii) the ortho-centre and circum-centre,
P Q B
MOMENT OF A FORCE 76

^9. A
nniform beam 10 fti. long and weighikig 60 lbs*
rests on two props
at equal distances from the endi. Find
the maximum value of this distance so that a man weighing
10 stones may stand anywhere on the beam without upset-
ting it.

Eight of a plank, 24 feet long and weighing


feet
200 over the side of a quay. What least weight
lbs. project
must be placed on the end of the plank so that a man
weighing 150 lbs. may be able to walk to the other end
without the plank tilting over ?

A uniform rod of length 6 ft. and weight 2 lbs. rests


horizontally on two props at its extremities, each of which
will bear a maximum weight of 13 lbs. Find on what
part of the rod a weight of 16 lbs. can bo placed without
breaking either support.

22. A non-uniform rod 16 inches long rests on two


pegs 9 inches apart, with its centre midway between them.
The greatest masses that can be suspended in succession
from the two ends without disturbing the equilibrium are
4 lbs. and 5 lbs. respectively. Find tbe weight of the rod
and the position of the point at which its weight acts.
A uniform plank of length 2a and weight is W
supported horizontally on two vertical props at a distance
b apart. The greatest weight that can be placed at the two
ends in succession without upsetting tbe plank are TF], and
TFg respectively. Show that
TTi . _ b
Tr+ TFx IF*
^24. A heavy carriage wheel of U(eight and radius r, W
IS tobe dragged over an obstacle of length h, by a hori-
zontal force P applied to the centre of the wheel. Show
that P must be slightly greater than

t-h
25. A man tries to uproot a tree with the help of
a rope ^ length 30 feet, by fastening one estremity at some
76 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

point of the vertical stem and pulling at the other end from
the ground. The least moment about the foot of the tree
necessary to uproot it is 1200 ft.-lbs. Find the least force
that the man has to apply.

26. A snfooth bamboo pole just stands vertically on


the ground, and a horizontal rope which is once wrapped at
its top has its two portions at right angles to one another.
The pole is kept in position by pulling it with a rope
attached at one-^third the height of the pole. If this latter
rope be inclined at an angle 45*^ with the horizon, prove
that the tension in it must be six times that of the rope
at the top.

27. If the moments of two given intersecting forces


29.
about a point in their plane be equal and of the same sense,
prove that the point must be on a certain straight line.

28. The magnitude of a force and also its moments (of


same sign) about two given points are given. Find its
the30.
line of action.

Forces are represented in magnitude, direction, line


of actionand sense by the perpendiculars drawn from the
angular points of a triangle to the opposite sides. If their
sum of moments about each of the angular points is zero,
show that the triangle is equilateral.
If three forces represented in magnitude and
direction by the bisectors of the angles of a triangle, all
acting from the vertices, be in equilibrium, the triangle must
be equilateral.

81. The sums of the moments of a system of forces


acting at a point about two given points are equal in
magnitude. Show that their resultant is parallel to a fixed
aim or passes through a fixed point.
line t

^32. Of four coplanar forces in equilibrium, one is given


completely, a second and a third, which are^not parallel,
have their lines of action given, while the fourth has its
ma|il|nde only given. Prove that the line of action of
tlLoijypb force must touch a fixed circle. [ 0. U. 193A 3
MOMENT OF A FOSCE 77

ABO is a right-angled triangle, the sides, J3C, CA,


ww.
AB being 13, 12 and 5 units of length respectively. The
moments of a force F
about A, B^O are,
f

(i) 0, 25 and 144 units of moment respectively ;


[ 0. U. 1936 ]

(ii) 0, - 25 and 144


units of moment respectively ;

find in each case the magnitude, direction and line of action


otF.
S4. ABO is an isosceles right-angled triangle v^hose
equal sides AB, AC are 4 ft. in length the moments of
;

a force about the points A, B, C are respectively 8, 8 and


16 units in the same sense find the magnitude and the
;

line of action of the force.

^ 85. Forces 1, 2, 4, 5 lbs. wt. act, all in the same sense,


along the sides of a square taken in order. Prove that
their resultant is parallel to a diagonal and find where it
cuts the side along which the first forces acts. [ G, U. 1937 ]

36. The moments of a force about the points (0, O),


- 46 and 249 foot-pounds. Find where
(10, 0), (0, 5) are 184,
the force meets the axis of x and find its components
parallel to the co-ordinate axes.

OX
and OY
are two straight lines at right anglei
and a force acting in their plane at 0 has moments an: Q
G' about the two points whose co-ordinates are [x, y) and
(a?', y) respectively with respect to the lines and OY OX
as axes of co-ordinates. If {xy - xy) is not zero, t)rove that
the tnagnitude B of the force and the angle B between its
line of action and OX
are given by

{sry'-x'v)*

and tan 6 - [ 0. U. 1946 ]

S8. Like parallel foroea P, Q, B act at the vertices of


a triangle ABC perpendicular to its plane. If the resultant
passes through
78 INTEBMEDIATB STATICS

(i) the in-oentre of the triangle,


P Q : : sin A : sin B : sin 0
(ii) the circum-centre of the triangle,
P Q Bsin2A
: : : sin 2B : sin 20
(iii) the ortho-oentre of the triangle,
P Q B^ tan A
: : : tan B : tan 0.

89. A square table stands on four legs placed at the


mid-points of its sides. If the total weight of the table and
legs be TT, find the greatest weight which can be put at
one of the corners of the table without upsetting it.
A circular table of weight TThas four legs spaced
40.
at equal distances round its edge. Show that the least
weight sufficient to overturn the table is ( \/2 + l) W.

Answers
2. 63, 63 and 81 It-lbs. respectively.

3. 6 ft. from B, 4 . 67th maik. 5. 7 lbs. wt. ; 11 lbs. wt.

6. 8} tons wt. at A, 4} tons wt. at B, 19. 1} ft. 20. 26 lbs.

21. Within a distance 1^ ft. from the middle point on either side.

22. 3} lbs., i inch from the mid-point. 25. 80 lbs. wt.

88. (i) i^13, acting along the tangent at A to the circum-circle oi

A ABC. (ii) E^13, acting along the perpendicular from A on BC.


84 . 2 units acting parallel to AB at a distance 4 ft. from it on the
opposite side of C.

35. Divides it externally in the ratio 2:8.


86. At a distance 8 ft. from the origin ; 18 lbs. wt. along (B-axis and
28 lbs. wt. along p-axis.

89 . IT.
CHAPTEB VI

COUPLES

6'1. We have seen in Chapter IV that the genera!


method of finding the resultant of two equal and unlike
parallel forces fails, there is no single force whose
effect isthe same as the joint effect of two equal and unlike
parallel forces. Hence such a pair of forces acting upon
a rigid body cannot produce a motion of translation.

Two equal and unlike parallel forces (whose lines of


action are not the same) are said to constitute a couple.

The arm of a couple is the


perpendicular distance between
the lines of action of the two
forces forming the couple.

The moment of a couple is


the product of either of the forces
forming the couplet and the
perpendicular distance between
their lines of action (i.e. the arm).

A couple, each of whose forces is P and whose arm is

Pt as in the above figure, is very often denoted by (P, p).

The whole effect of a couple acting on a rigid body


is to produce rotation without imparting to it any motion
of translation.

The moment of a couple is considered positive or negative


according as the couple tends to rotate the body in the anti*
clockwise or clockwise direction.

Examples of a couple are the forces applied to the key of


a clock in winding it up, or the forces applied by the hand
to the handle of a door in opening it.

Oouple is called by some writers Torque.


80 JNTEBMEDIATJE STATICS

6*2. Theorem.
The algebraic sum of the momenU of the two forces
forming a couple about any point in their plane ts constant
and equal to the moment of the couple.

Lei each of the two forces forming the couple be P and


0 be any point in their plane. Through 0 draw a line OAB
perpendicular to the lines of action of the forces meeting
them in A and P.

The algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about 0


P .OB- P .OA^P .{OB- OA)
^P.AB
which is constant (s.e., independent of the position of 0)
and which is equal to the moment of the couple.

Note, The moment of a couple can never be zero, for then the
two forces cancel each other,

6*8. Equflfbriam of two couples.

Tlieorom : If two couples^ whose mcments are equal and


opposite^ ^t in the earn plane r^on a rijfiA body, they
balance one another.

^^t (P, p) and (Q, q) be th^ given couples, so that


(l)
COUPLES 81

Case L When the forces forming the couples aife not all
parallel.

Let one of the forces P of one of the couples intersect


one of the forces Q of the other in A, and let the other two
forces meet in B.

Now, the sum of the moments about A ot P and Q


acting atB = Pp - Qg = 0 hy (1).

the resultant of P and Q at B passes through A,


and hence acts along BA from B to A. Similarly the
resultant of P and Q at il acts along AB, from A to B.

Since the two forces at A are respectively equal and


opposite to those St B
and since both pair act at the same
angls, their resultants must be equal in magnitude and
oiqiosite in sense ; and as they act tutmg AB
and BA, they
cancel ea^ other.

Thns the mraltant of idM Cawses fonnis| the two oouplas


and hence the two coiqpies balnttoe ohs Another,
is nil,
e
INTBBWSDIATB STATICS

Case II. When the forces forming the couple are al


parallel.

Draw a straight line perpendicular to the lines of action


of the forces, meeting them at A, 0, B, D.

Since the moments of the oonples are equal in magnitude,


we have
P.AB^Q.CD. (1)

Let the resultant (P+Q) of the like parallel forces


P atJB and Q at C act at 0 then ;

P.BO-0.00. (2)

Subtracting (2) from (1),

PUS-BO)-QiOD-CO),
i,a., P.AO^Q.DO.
[Qins the resultant (P+Q) of the like parallel fore*
P at and Q at D
also acts at 0.

Sboa these two resultants are equal in magnitude and


'^opposite in directions and iset at the same point, they ate in
equilibrium, and hence the two couples balance each other.
COUPLES sa

Equivalence ol two couples.


As a corollary to the above theorem we get the
jllowing :

Two couples in the same plane whose moments are equal


ind of the same sign^ are equivalent to one another.

For, by reversing the constituent forces of any couple.


Gill the forces will be in equilibrium.

It follows therefore, that a couple acting in any manner


in a plane can be replaced by any other couple in the same
plane, provided the moment of the latter is equal to that
of the former, and of the same sign. It is immaterial what
the direction of the constituent forces of the second couple
may be, or their magnitude, or the arm.

Thus a couple (P, p) may be replaced by a couple

in the same plane with its constituent forces each

equal to P, the arm being such that the moment remains


unaltered. Also one force P
may be taken to be acting in
Pp
any line and sense, the other at the distance being

on that side so as to make the sign of the moment same


as that of (P, p).

Similarly a couple (P, p) may be replaced by a couple


x] with a given arm x anywhere in the plane.

6*6, Couples in parallel Planes.

^The effect of a couple is not altered if it is transferred


a parallel plane^ provided its moment is unchanged in
%^nitude and sign.

Let AB
be the arm of the couple (P, p) and let be CD
a straight line equal and parallel to AB, lying in a plane
parallel to the plane of the couple.
84 INTEEMlBimATE STATICS

Join AD, BO and let 0 be their point of interseotloQ.


Then 0 is the middle point of both AD, BC,

' At each of the points C and D introduce two equal and


opposite forces, each
being equal and
parallel to P.

Now, like parallel


forces P at A and P
at D may be replaced
*

by their resultant 2P
acting at 0, along OE
parallel to them.

Again, like parallel


forces P
at P
and P
at 0 may be replaced
by their resultant 2P
acting at 0, along OF
parallel to them.

Being equal, oppo-


site and collinear, these two resultant forces balance, and
we are left with two unlike parallel forces, one acting P
at 0in the same sense and direction as at A, and the P
other, P
acting at D
in the sense and direction of at P. P
Thus, the given couple (P, p) with the arm is AP
equivalent to the couple (P, p) of the same moment in
a parallel plane, having its arm CD equal and parallel
to AB.
Now the couple (P, p) with arm CD can be replaced in
its plane by any other couple, provided the moment is
unchanged in magnitude and sign, as in Art. 6'4. Hence
a couple in any plane can be replaced by any other couple
In a parallel plane, provided its moment remains unchanged
in magnitude and sign.

Note. From above it is clear, that the effect of a couple remains


nnaltered so long as its moment remidns the same in magnitude and
sense, whatever be the magnitude of its constituent forces, the length
;:

COUPLES $5

of its arm, and its position ih any one of a set of parallel pfUmes in

[which it may be supposed to act.

A couple is therefore completely specified if we know (i) the


direction of the set of parallel planes, (ii) the magnitude of itsmoment
(
(iii) the sense in which it acts :

These three characterstics of a couple can be aptly represented by

I
a straight line drawn

(i) perpendicular to the set of parallel planes, to indicate the


I
direction

(ii) of a measured length to indicate the magnitude of the

I
moment
I
and (iii) in a definite sense, to indicate the sense of the moment.

A line so drawn to represent a couple is called the axis of the


Couple.

6*6. Resultant of coplanar couples.

Any number of coplanar couples acting on a body is

equivalent to a single couple whose moment is equal to the

algebraic sum of the moments of the couples.


66 INTEBMEDUTE STATICS

Let AB represent the arm p of the couple (P, p) whose


component forces P, P act along AX and BT.

The moment of the couple {Q, q) Q.q


^
P
p. Hence
the couple (Q, q) may be replaced by another couple whose
arm coincides with AB and whose component forces of

magnitude ^P act along AX and BT.


Similarly the couple (, r) may be replaced by another
couple whose arm coincides with AB and whose component
Bt
forces of magnitude - act along AX and BY,
P
Beplacing all the other couples in this way we get
a single couple with the arm each of whose component
forces

\ p p I

Hence the given system of couples is equivalent to


a single couplewhose moment

2^ + Qg + Br+
the algebraic sum of the moments
of the different couples.

Note. If the moment of any of the cottplesi say Nfute negatlTe,


as in the figura, oortespondiog component along AX |||^e negative
4.e., o^^ite to the sense of P them, and similarly for the component at
B, Hence the lesnltant single force along AX or BT is the algebraia
sum of these component forces.
6*7. Resultant of a couple and a force.

A fores and a oouple in the earn plane are equivalent to

a tingle foraet equal and parallel to the given single force.

Let F be the given force acting at 0 along OA and


CP p) the given oouple.
COUPLES 87

Beplace the given couple by another couple leaving its


forceseach equal to F. If x be the length of the arm of

this new couple, its moment the moment of the


original couple.

Hence

Place the couple such that one of its component forces


F acts at 0 along the line of action of the given force P, but
in the opposite sense i.e* acts along OB,

Now the two equal and opposite forces acting at 0


along the same line balance, and we are left with a single
force F at 0 which is in the direction of the originid force,
and at a distance Pp/F form it.
Thus a force F
and a couple of moment are equi- O
valent to a single parallel force P, displaced to a distance
OIF from- its original position.

Cor. A foree and' a eoupU aeiing in the savns plans cannot produce
c^uilihrwm.

6*8. Theorem. If three fofces acting upm a rigid


body be represented in magnitudef direction, sense and line
of action by the sides of a triangle, taken in order, they are
equivislent to a couple whose moment is equal to tmce the
area of the triangle.
:

88 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

Let three forces P, Q, B


acting upon a body be repre-
sented in magnitude, direction, line of action and sense by
the sides BO, OA, AB respectively of the triangle ABC.
Draw BAD parallel
to BO, and introduce
at A two equal and
opposite forces equal
to P, acting in the
directions and AD
AE. Draw perp. AN
to BO. The three
forces P
along AD, Q along CA, and B
along AB, acting
at A, and being represented in magnitude, direction and
sense by the sides of a triangle taken in order are in
equilibrium, by the triangle of forces.

We are thus left with forces P along AE and P along


BO, which form a couple of moment AN, i.e, BO AN,
i.e., equal to twice the area of the LABO.
AltematiTe method
The forces Q and B acting at A and represented by OA and AB are
equWalent.to a force acting at A represented in magnitude and direction
by CB, i.e., equivalent to a force P acting at A parallel and opposite
in sense to the given force P. Hence the three forces are equivalent to
a couple of moment PxAN, i,e., BCxAN, i.e., twice the area of
A ABC, where AlN is the perpendicular from A on BC.
6*9. Theorem. If a spstem of coplanar forces acting
upon a rigid body be represented in magnitude, direction,
senseand line of action by the sides of a polygon taken
in order, they are equivalent to a couple whose moment is

represented by twice the area of the polygon.

Let the forces be completely represented by the sides


AB, BO, CD, DE, EA of the polygon ABODE. Join AO
and AD.
Let us introduce in the body two pairs of equal and
opposite forces represented^ by AO, OA and AD, DA acting
along those lines. These do not affect the given system.
COUPLES

Now the fiiiiinii lllflllHl^lnllll(^ AB, BO,


GA of the AABO, actually acting along these lines, are '

equivalent to a couple of O
moment 2AAB0.
Similarly the forces repre-
sented by the sides of AACD
and AADE are respectively
equivalent to couples of mo-
ment 2AACD and 2AADE,
Now, these three couples are
equivalent to a single couple
whose moment is equal to fi{AABC-i- AACD + AADE)
B twice the area of the polygon ABODE.

6*10. Theorem. A force acting at any point A of a body


is equivalent toan equal and parallel force acting at any
other arbitrary point B of the body, together with a couple.
Let P be
a force
acting at A
along AX,
and B any arbitrary
point, and let p be the
distance of B from AX.
At B apply two equal
and opposite forces, each
equal and parallel to P,
along BO, BD. These two
forces will have no effect
on the body, and the three
P may now be
forces
regarded as P along AX
and P along BD forming a couple of moment Pp, and
a force P at P along BO, parallel to the original force and in
the same sense.
Note. The moment of the couple is equal to the moment of the
original force at A about B,

6*11. Theorem. If a system of coplanar forces reduces


to a coupUt the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces
;

90 INTEItMEDIATB STATICS

about any point in their plane is constant, and equal to the

moment of the couple.

Iieti P, Q, B,
8,... be a system of ooplanar foroes, and 0
any arbitrary point in their plane.
As in the previous article, we can replace the force P
by an equal and parallel force at O, together with a couple
whose moment is equal to the moment of P about 0.
Dealing with each of the other foroes in the same manner,
we get the given system of forces equivalent to a set of
concurrent forces at 0, together with a number of couples,
which latter can be compounded into a single couple, whose
moment being equal to the algebraic sum of the moments
of the couples, is ultimately equal to the algebraic sum of
the moments of the given foroes about 0. The concurrent
forces at 0 must in this case be in equilibrium, for other-
wise they would combine into a single resultant force,
which along with the couple would give us a single force
as our resultant, and not a couple.
Thus, when the given system of forces reduces to a couple,
the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about 0,
which is arbitrary, is always the same, namely, equal to
the moment of the resultant couple.

6*12. Illaetrative Example.


Ex. Pour forces are completely represented by the sides AB, BC,
CD, DA of a quadrilateral ABOD
show that they are eguiwalent to

a couple, consisting of two equal


forces throughB and D.
Forces AB and BC are equi-
valent to a force at B represented
in magnitude, direction and sense
hj AC.
Similarly, foroes OD and DA
are equivalent to a force at D
represented in magnitude, direc-
tion and sense by OA.

Thus the four forces are equivalent to two equal, parallel and unlike
foecet at B and P and hence they are equivalent to a oouple.
COUPLSB 91

Examples on Chapter VI
''
1. Eoroes equal to 8, 5, 3 aad S lbs. wt. respeotirely
aet along the sides of a square taken in order ; find their
resultant. [ 0. U. 1982 ]
''
2. Show that forces 3, 8, 7, 11 and 5 lbs. wt. acting
respectively along AB, BO, CD, and DA AO
of a rectangle
ABOD are equivalent to a couple, if AB
6 ft. and
BO = ft., and show that the moment of the couple is
79} ft.-lbs.

'
8. Forces of magnitudes 1, 3, 3, 4, 2 act respectively
6.
along the sides AB, SO, OD, DA and the diagonal AO of
the square ABOD. Show that their resultant is a couple,
and find its moment. [ 0. U. 1947 ]

4. Forces JP, 2P,-P, 2P act along the sides AB, BO,


OD, DA ABOD, and a force P ^/2 acts along
of the square
each of BD and CA. Show that the forces reduce to
a couple of moment 2aP, where a is the side of the square.

Unlike parallel forces each equal to 4 lbs. wt. act


along a pair of opposite sides of length 2 ft. of a rectangle.
Find the magnitude of the forces which, acting along the
other sides of length 6 inches, will form with these a system
in equilibrium.
6. Two couples with forces acting along the sides of
a parallelogram are in equilibrium find the ratio of the
;

forces of the couples.

7. Four forces acting along the sides of a parallelogram


are equivalent to a couple. Show that the forces along the
opposite sides ate equal in magnitude and opposite in
sense.
8. Three forces acting along the sides of a trianglt
taken in order, are equivalent to a couple. Show that thp:
are proportional to the sides of the triangle.

9. If the algebraic sam of the moments of two ^vei


ooplanar fones about any point in their plane ia a oonstac
(other than xero), show that the given f oroaa^(||fani a eom^e
C 0. f7. JMtl
93 INTERMEDIATE BTATIC8

10.Forces represented in magnitude and line of action


by the sides of two triangles, taken opposite ways round,
are in equilibrium, provided the triangles are of equal area.
11. Three forces proportional to the sides of a triangle
act perpendicular to these sides, all inwards. Show that
they are in equilibrium or they form a couple.
12. P and Q are like parallel forces. An unlike parallel
force P + Q acts in the same plane at perpendicular distances
a, b respectively from the forces and between them. Find
the moment of the resultant couple.
18. Find the resultant of a force of 7 lbs. wt. and a
couple in the same plane whose arm is 3^ ft. and whose
forces are each 4 lbs. wt.
14. Three parallel forces P, Q, acting at the angular B
points of a triangle ABC are in equilibrium when they are
perpendicular to the side BO. If their lines of action are
turned through a given angle in the same sense, show that
they are equivalent to a couple.
15.2), E, F divide the sides BO, OA, AB respectively
of an equilateral triangle ABC of side a in the ratio 5 1. :

Three forces each equal to P act E, F perpendicular


to the sides and outwards iroqH the triangle. Show that
they are equivalent to a couple 'of moment Pa.
[0.U.1943]
16* ABCDa rectaule such that AB^CD^a and
is
B0*^DA^b, Forces P ftt along AD aciOB and forces
Q act along AB and CD, Prove that perpendicular
distance between the resultant P, Q at A and
the resultant the forces P; Q
Pa-Qb

If three forcM^i Q* B
acting at the angular points
of a triangle ABC along the tangents to the circum-cirole
are equivalent to a couple, show that
P Q: ; J3 sin 2A : sin 2B ; sin 20.

[Upmm$ <tboui ths vertieea of triafigU formed by three

taMffemieare equal, ]
COUPLES

18. P and Qare two like parallel foroes.- If a couple,


each ofwhose forces is F, and whose arm is a, in the plane
of P and Q, is combined with them, show that the resultant
is displaced through a distance

Fa
P+ Q
10. The constituent forces of a couple of moment act 0
at A and B ;
if their lines of action are turned through
a right -angle, they form a couple of moment H. When
they both act at right angles to AB, show that they form
a couple of moment

20. ABCD and A'B'ffD' are any two ooplanar parallelo-


grams. If forces act along AA', B'B, CC', D'D represented
hy these respective lengths, show that they reduce to
a couple.

Answers
1. A couplo of moment Sa, where a is a side of the square.

3, 5a, where a is the side of the square.

6. lib. wt.

6. Proportional to the sides olthe parallelogram.

12 .

18. 7 lbs. wt. acting parallel to the given force 7 lbs. wt. and at
a distance 2 ft. from it.
CHAPTEB VII

REDUCTION OF COPLANAR FORCES IN GENERAL

7*1. Theorem I. Anv svstem of eoplaiwr forces acting


on a rigid body can be reduced ultimately to either a single
force, or a single couple, unless it is in equilibrium.

Let P, Q, B, 8, T,... etc. be a system of ooplanar forces


acting on a rigid body.

Take any three forces P, Q, B of the system. Q?he two


forcesP and Q can be combined into a single resultant by
parallelogram of forces if they meet, or by the method of
combining parallel forces when they are parallel, like or
snlike, excepting in the case when they form a couple. In
case P and Q form a couple, we can combine P and B into
a single force, unless P forms a couple with B also. Now
if P forms a couple with Q, as well as with B, Q and B
must be like parallel forces which can be combined into
a single force. In any ease therefore, the three forces can be
reduced to two.

With these two, take another force 8 of the system.


These three forces again, just as before, can be reduced to
two. Proceeding in this wi^y, when all the forces of the
system are exhausted, we get ultimately two forces. These
SEDUCTION OF OOPLANAB F0BCE8 IN OENEBAL 9

two, they are equal and opposite acting alon^ the same
if

line will produce equilibrium. Otherwise, if they are equal


and unlike parallel forces, they form a couple. In ease
they do not form a couple, we can finally combine them into
a single resultant.
7*2. Theorem II. Any system of coplanor /oreet acting
on a rigid body oan ultimately he reduoed to a single foroe
aoting at any arbitrarily ohosen point in the plane, together
with a oouple.
Also the resolved part in any direction of the single force
obtained above, is equal to the algebraic sum of the resolved
parts of the given forces in that direction,jand the moment of
the couple is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the
given forces aibout the chosen point.

Let P, Q, B, 8,... be a system of coplanar forces aoting


at A, B, 0, D,... etc. of a rigid body, and let 0 be any
arbitrary point in the plane.
Oonsider a foroe P
of the system. If we introduce at
0, two equal and opposite forces, each equal and parallel
to P, these two forces, balancing cme another, will not affect
the given system. Now the giren foroe P, along with the
equal and unlike parallel force P
at 0, form a oouple whose
moment is equal to Pp, where p is the perpendicular
distance from 0 on the line of action of P, and we get in
addition a foroe P aoting at 0, wUeh is equal and parallel
96 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

to the original force P


at A. Exactly in the same manner
the force Q at P
is equivalent to an equal and parallel force

Q at 0 in the same sense, together with a couple of


moment Qq^ which is equal to the moment of the given
force Q^tB about 0 and similarly for every force of the
;

system.
Thus the given system of forces is ultimately reduced to
a system of concurrent forces acting at 0, equal and parallel
to the original forces, together with a number of couples
whose moments are respectively equal to the moments of
the individual forces of the given system about 0, The
concurrent forces at 0 can ultimately be combined into
a single resultant force acting at 0, and the couples can be
combined into one single couple.
Also the resolved part of the single resultant in any
direction, is equal to the algebraic sum of the resolved parts
in the same direction of the constituent forces at 0, i.e of
,

the given forces which ate equal and parallel to them.

Again, the moment of the resultant couple, being equal


to the algebraic sum of the moments of the individual
couples, is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of
the given forces about 0.
Hence the theorem.

7*3. Analytical reduction of a system of coplanar


forces.

Let OX
and OY
be any two perpendicular lines which
are chosen as the axes of co-ordinates in the plane of
a given system of coplanar forces which consists of forces
Pi Psf Psf* etc., acting at the points Ai, Ab, Asi ... etc
whose co-ordinates are {xi, yi), (xbi ys)i (^a ys)!-* etc.
Let the direction of P^. make an angle ai with OX, and
let Xi, Ti be the resolved parts of Pi along OX and OY
respectively, so that Xi**Pi cos qx and Xi =Pi sin ci.

At 0, introduce a pair of equal and opposite forces


Xi, Xi acting in the line OX. and a pair of equal and
opposite forces Xi, Fi acting in the line OX. These forces,
;

REDUCTION OF OOPLANAR FORCES IN GENERAL 97

balancing one another, will have no effect on tl^e given


system.

Now the component force Xi at Ai, and the eqnal and


unlike parallel force Xi at 0, form a couple whose moment
is clearly equal to since its tendency of rotation

isclockwise. Similarly the component Fi at ili, and the


equal and unlike force 7i at 0 form a couple of moment
as is easily seen. Also there are left a force along
OX and a force Y along OY
at 0.

Thus the force Pi at A^ (.s., yi\ having the resolved


parts Xxi Yx parallel to the axes, is equivalent to the
components Xx and Yx along the axes at 0, together with
a single couple of moment (iCilTi -yiXi).

Exactly in the sanse manner, the force P at As can be


replaced by the resolved components Xg and Fg along the
axes at 0, together with a cormle of moment (ofg Fg - pgXg)
and similarly for every force of the system.

Oombining all the components along OX and OF


7
98 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

separately, and oombining all the couples, we ultimately


get the given system of forces reduced to :

a component force JBX(^SPx cos a^) along OX,


a component force SY sin aj along OF,
and a single couple of moment O^Six^ Fi -JfiXi).
The two components SX and SY along OX and OF will
give rise to a single resultant force B acting at 0 in a direc-
tion B with OX, where

B cos e-SX and B sin O-SY


so that B - ^/(SX)^+(S Y)^:
Thus the given system of coplanar forces is reduced to
a single resultant force B
at the origin 0 (which may be
chosen arbitrarily in the plane), together with a single
couple 0.

Note 1. From the results B cos B sin we see that

the resolved parts of the single resultant at 0 in any two perpendicular


directions are respeotively equal to the algebraic sum of the resolved
parts of the given forces along the same two directions.

Again, the moment of Pi acting at about 0, being equal to the


algebraic sum of the moments of its components Zi and Ti at
about 0, is easily seen to be Xi Fi - PiZi, Hence GsZ (xi Ti -
is the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces about 0, and
this also represents the moment of the resultant couple as already
mentioned.

Note2. The origin 0 is chosen arbitrarily to be any point in the


plane. Te given system may thus be reduced to a single force at any
point, together with a couple. For different points chosen, the single
fitree is always the same in magnitude and direction, for its resolved

part in any direction, being always equal to the algebraic sum of the
resolved parts of the given forces, will not depend on the origin chosen.
The couple however, having its magnitude equal to the algebraic sum
of the moments of the given forces about the chosen origin, mil be
different for different oases.
BEDUOTION OF OOPLANAB F0BCE6 IN GENERAL 99

Note 8. If RbO, the given sjetem of forces reduces to a couple


only, which in this case will be the same, whatever point is chosen as
origin.

If Q0 the given system reduces to a single remltani force


N at 0.
If R 0, G 0, then also, the single force and single couple can
be combined into a single resultant force, same in magnitude and
direction as B at 0, but shifted in position.
If R0, GaQ, the system win be in equilibrium,

7*4. Equation to the line of action of the resultant.


We have seen that the given system of forces can be reduced to
B acting at the origin 0, having components
a single force and 2F
along the axes, together with a couple G = Z (fCiFi -piXi). In case

these can be combined into a single resultant force, the magnitude


and direction of it same as those of B at 0. To get its
will be the
position, let x, y be the co-ordinates of any point on its line of action.
Then the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces about this
point, being equal to that of the resultant, must be zero. In other
words, the algebraic sum of the moments of the components ZX
along OX, ZT along OT, and of the couple G about the point x, y
must also be zero, for this set is equivalent to the given system.

Thus, pSX-opSr+G-O, or, tcSF-pIZ-G-O,


is the relation which must be satisfied by the co-ordinates
x, y of any
point on the line of action of the resultant, and thus represents the
equation to that line.
100 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

T6. nittstratiTe Examples*


Ex. 1. Forces 5, 2, 4, 5 lbs, wt act respectively along the sides AB
Bt CD, DA of a square. Find the magnitude of their resultant cmd
the points where its line of action meets AB and AD,

The resnltant of the two unlike parallel forces 5 lbs. wt. along DA
and 2 lbs. wt. along BC are equivalent to a foroe 5-*2e31bB. wt.
pandlel to DA along some line OE say, external to AB, but nearer AD,
along which the greater force acts. Bimilarlj the resultant of 4 lbs. wt.
along CD and 3 lbs. wt. along AB have a resultant 1 lb. wt. parallel
toCD along some line FO, Now the resultant of 8 lbs. wt. along OE
and 1 lb. wt. along FO which are mutually perpendicular will give
a resultant
D- tJW lbs. wt.
along some line TOX, meeting BA and AD, let us suppose, at X and
7 respectively. Let a be the side of the square ABCD, and let AX* x.
Then equating the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces
about X to the moment of the resultant, we get
2{a+)+4d-6a!*0,
or, as2iE, i.e., AX^^^AB,

Sinularly, assuming AT^y, and oonsidering moment about 7,


8p4'2a-4(p-*a)0.
whence "6a, 4r6XD.
^ Thqs the line of action of the resultant is obtained.
BEDUOTION OF OOPLANAR FORCES IN GENERAL 101

Ex. 2. Forces of magniiude 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 act in order along the


sides AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FA of a regular hexagon. Find their
resultant completely.

Let 0 be the centre of the regular hexagon. It is known from


Geometry that the opposite sides AB, ED and the diagonal FOO are
parallel, and similarly for other sets. Also the angles AOB, JOOC, etc.
are each equal to 60.
Now reducing each force to a parallel force at 0, together with
a couple, we get the given system of forces equivalent to forces 8, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8 along 00, OD, OE, OF, OA, OB respectively ; together with
a couple of moment j) (3+4+5 +6-- 7+8)* 882>, where jp is the perpendi-
cular from 0 on any side of the hexagon.
Oombining the forces at 0 in pairs we get the forces 3 along OJ^,
8 along OA and 8 along OB. Now 8 along OF and 8 along OB give
SxSxoos 60*3 along OA as resultant. Hence we ultimately get
a single resultant 6 along OA, together with a couple of moment Z8p,
The single iorce and the couple combine finally into a single force
equal and parallel to fi along OA, bat lifted from 0 towards the left

through a distance tSj where, considering moment about 0.

6Xjc*88i), OT,x*^-p,
Hence OM being perpendicular on EF, the resultant meets OM
produced at N^ where OB^ V-03f,
or^ ON : : 9.

Thus* th|(tmagnitade, direction and line of action of the resultant


are oomplebidy obtained.
103 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

Ex, 8. If a system of coplcmar forces reduces to a couple whose


moment is Q, and when each force is turned round its point of applica-
tion through a right anglct it reduces to a couple prove that when
each force is turned through an angle a, the system is equivalent to

a couple whose moment is

O COB a+H Bin a.

Let Pi acting at the point


(^ii ^i) a*t an angle 0x to the
sc-axis be any one force of the
system. The components parallel
to the axes are Pi cos and
Pi sin and the algebraic
sum of their moments about
0 is
aSiPj sin cos ^i.

Hence, since the system


reduces to a couple O, we must b; ave, 2Pi cob^ibO, 2Pi sin^iBO,
and G 2 ( 2 iJPi sin 8i -VlPi COB ,)

When each force is turned through an angle a, the system reduces


to a force component 2Pi cos (^i + a)

Bcos a 2Pi cos 01 sin a 2Pi sin ^i^O along Ox,

a force component 2Pi sin (0i+a)

BOOS a 2Pi sin 0i+Bin a 2Pi cos along Oy,

and a couple G'b 2 {xiPi sin (0i+a)-piPi cos (0x+a)}


B 00Ba 2 (cBiPi sin 01 -yiPi cos 0i)

+Bin a 2(aJiPi cos 01 +yiPi sin^J.


In other words, the system in the case reduces to a couple

O'mQooB o+sin a 2 (iP, cos di+PiPi sin 0i).

Now when a 90, we are given G' * S,

H2 (ciPi cos d^+ViPi sin 0i),


Thus G'b G cob sin a.
BEDVCTION OF COFLANAB FORCES JN GENERAL 103

Examples on Chapter VII

1. Prove that a force acting in the plane of the


triangle ABO can be replaced uniquely by three forces acting
along the sides of the triangle.

2. Show that a system of coplanar forces can be


reduced to

(i) two forces acting through two given points


(ii)two forces, one of which acts through a given
point, and the other along a given straight line
(iii) three forces acting along the sides of a given
triangle, in the same plane.
8. If two coplanar systems of forces have equal
algebraic sum of moments about each of three non-collinear
points, they are equivalent to each other.

4. The sum of the moments of a system of a coplanar


forces about each the plane
of three non-collinear points in
of the forces is the same (without being equal to zero).
Prove that the system is equivalent to a couple.

Hence show that three forces represented in magnitude,


direction sides of a triangle taken
and position by the three
in order are equivalent to a couple. [ 0. U. 1937 ]

5. The algebraic sum of moments of a system of


coplanar forces not in equilibrium, is zero about each of
two points A and B, Show that the algebraic sum of the
resolved parts of the force system in the direction perpendi-
cular to AB is zero.

6. Forces P, Q, B act along the sides BO, OA, AB of


the triangle ABO. If F be the magnitude of their resultant,
then

P* -P* + 0* + B* - 2QB cos A - 2BPoo8 B- 2Pg cos 0.


7. The momenta of a system of coplanar forces (not
in equilibrium) about three ooilinear points A, B, C in
104 INTMBUEDIJITE STATICS

their plane are Oj., Oa, Oa : prove that (with dne regard
to the sign)
Gi.B0 + Ga.CA + Ga.AB~0. LP.U.1989 ]

8. The moments of a force lying in the plane of the


triangle ABO about A, B, 0 are L, M, N
respectively. If
the force is the resultant of three forces P, Q, acting B
in the same sense along BO, OA, AB
respectively, then

PiQ.B-aL:bMicN.
9. Asystem of forces acts in the plane of an equilateral
triangle of side 2 units. The algebraic sum of the moments
of the forces about the three angular points are Oi, Ga, Gg.
Prove that the magnitude of their resultant is
[i ((?i* + O'.* + <?.* - GaGa - GaG^ - GM]^.
lOe The algebraic BUtn of the momenta of a system of
ooplanar forces about three non collinear points B, C
in their plane are L, M, N
respectively. Prove that their
resultant 12 is given by

B* - Sa* (L - MKL - N)
where a, h, o are the sides of the triangle ABO, and A its area.

11. Two systems of forces P, Q, B


and P', Q', B' act
along the sides BO, OA, AB of a triangle ABO prove that ;

their resultants will be parallel if

iQB' - Q'B) sin A + (BP' - B'P) sin B


+ {PQ' - P'Q) sin 0 0 [ Luchnow, ,1929 ]

12. Three forces each equal to P


act along the sides
of a triangle ABO
in order. Prove that the resultant is B
given by

B P(1 - 8 sin JA sin iB sin iO)^


and find the distance of its line of action from A. Examine
the ease when the triangle is equilateral.
18. Forces I.B0, m.OA, n.AB, where I, m, n are positive,
act along the sides BO, OA, AB
respectively of a triuigle
ABO, in the senses indicated by the order of the letters.
F ,

BEDUOTION OF COPLINAB F0B0E8 IN QENEBAL 106

Show that the line of action of their resultant divides BO,


CA, AB externally in the ratios : n, n m
I, I m* : :

What happens if Z w * n ?

14. ABO is an equilateral triangle ; forces of 4, 2 and


1 lb.wt. act along the sides AB, AO, BO respectively, in
the senses indicated by the order of the letters. Find the
magnitude, direction and the line of action of the resultant.
[P. U. 193^1
15. The algebraic sum of moments of a system of forces
about the three vertices A, B, C of an equilateral triangle
whose sides are 2 ft. long are + 10, + 20 and - 10 foot-
pounds. Find the magnitude of the resultant force, and the
points where its line of action intersects AB and AC.
16. Forces proportional to 1, 2, 3, 4 act along the sides
AB, BO, AD, DC respectively of a square ABOD, the length
of whose sides is 2 ft. Find the magnitude and the line of
action of the resultant. [ Bombay, 1934 ]

17. ABODE is a regular hexagon of which 0 is the


centre. Forces of magnitudes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 act along
AB, OB, OD, ED, EF, A Fin the senses indicated by the
order of the letters. Beduce the system to a force at 0 and
a couple, and find the point in AB through which the single
resultant passes. [ I. 0. S. 1938 ]

18. If six forces of relative magnitudes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and


6 act along the sides of a regular hexagon, taken in order,
show that the single equivalent force is of relative magni-
tude 6 and that it acts along a line parallel to the force 6,
at a distance from the centre of the hexagon Si times the
distance of a side from the centre. [ M. T. 1908 ]

19. Six ooplanar forces act on a body along the sides


AB, BO, OD, DE, EF, FA of a regular hexagon ABODEF,
in which AB is one foot long ; their magnitudes are 10, 20,
30, 40, P and Q lbs. wt. respectively. Find and Q so that P
the system reduces to a couple. [ P. U. 1930 ]

20 . ABO is an equilateral triangle and D, E, F are


the mid-points of the sides BO, OA, AB. Forces P, 2P
106 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

3P aot along BC, OA, AB and forces 4P, 5P, 6P act; along
FEt EDt DF. Find the line of action of the resultant.

21* Forces 1, 5 lbs. wt. act along the sides AB^


2, 4,
BO, CD, DA square ABCD and a force P acts at the
of a
centre of the square. If the five forces are equivalent to
a couple, find magnitude and direction of P.

22. Forces 1. 2, 3, 4, 6, 6 lbs. wt. act along the sides of


a regular hexagon, taken in order, and a force acts at the
centre of the hexagon. If the several forces are equivalent
to a couple, find the moment of the couple and the magni-
tude and the direction of the force at the centre.

23. ABOD is a quadrilateral in which the sides BO and


AD are parallel. If forces p,AB, q.BO, r,0D, sDA acting
along AB, BO, CD, DA
are equivalent to a couple, show
that
and (p-s) BO,
24. ABOD is a square whose side is 2 units in length.
Forces a, b, c, d act along the sides AB, BO, CD, DA,
taken in order, and forces p ^/2, g ^2 act along AO and BD
respectively. Show that if
p + g = 0 - a, and p^q-d-b,
the forces are equivalent to a couple of moment a + b + c + d.
[ Mad. 1940 ]

26. A force has moments 6 units, - 26 units and


36 units, about the origin, the point (8, 0) and the point
(0, 10) respectively. Find the magnitude and line of action
of the force.

20. Find the intercepts made on the rectangular axes


OX, OY bythe line of action of the resultant of a force of
7 units along OP, where the co-ordinates of P are (3, 4) and
a counter-clockwise couple of moment 21 units.

27. Forces 2, 4, 6, 8, 8 >/2 act along the sides AB, BO,


CD, DA and the diagonal BD of a square of side. 2 units, in
the senses indicated by the order of the letters. Taking
AB, AD as axes of x and y respectively, find the magnitude
of the resultant force, and the equation of its line of action.
BEDUOTION OF COPLANAB F0B0E8 IN OENEBAL 107

28. A system of coplanar forces Pi, Ps* Pat*- acting at


the points (xi,yi), {x2,Va), (^si are equivalent to
a couple. The components of Pi, Ps*-** parallel to the
axes are (Xi, Fi), (Xg. Fg),... etc. Prove that by turning
the forces about their respective points of application
through a certain common angle, the system can be reduced
to equilibrium.

Answers
12. 2PA/c22.

14. 8 lbs. wt. in a direction perpendicular to BC, dividing BC


internally in the ratio 1:2.
15. lbs. wt. through the mid-pt. of CA, intersecting BA
produced 2 ft. from At

16. 5 s/2 parallel to AC dividing AD Internally in the ratio 2 : 8.

17. Force at 0 is 2 s/5 perpendicular to EF; couple is -8p, where


p is the perpendicular distance from 0 on a side. The final single

resultant passes through the middle point of AB,


19. P -10 lbs. wt., 0-60 lbs. wt.
20. Parallel to CB, dividing DA in the ratio 1 : 5.

21. 3 s/2 lbs. wt. along AC,

22. a, where a is a side of the hexagon ; 6 parallel to the

force 2.

25. 6, in a direction joining the points (0,-2) to (|, 0).

26. 31,5. 27. 4s/I5;+3p=9.


CHAPTER VIII

EilUILIBRIUM OF COPLANAR FORCES IN GENERAL


8*1. Equilibriam of three coplanar"^ forces.

Theorem. If three coplanar forces acting on a rigid


body be in equilibrium, they must either all three meet at
a point, or else all must be parallel to one another.

Let; the three


coplanar forces P
Q, Bacting on
a rigid body, be in
equilibrium.

Let P and Q
meet at 0* Then
by parallelogram of
forces they can be
combined into a.

single resultant at 0,
Since P, Q, B are
I'ig. (i)
in equilibrium, B
must balance the resultant of P and Q, and thus must be
equal and opposite to it,
acting along the same
line. Thus B must pass
through 0. Hence P,
Q, Sall meet at 0.

If P and Q be
parallel (like or unlike),
their resultant is a
parallel force, and B,
balancing their resultant,
must be acting in the
same line in opposite ^^8* ^ -

sense. Hence P, Q, are B all three parallel to one another.

'See note 8.
EQUILIBRIUM OF COPLANAB FORCES IN GENERAL 109

Note 1. P and Q can never form a couple in this case, for then
Pt Of ^1 A couple and a
force) can never be in equilibrium.

Note 2. The above theorem gives a necessary condition, of equili-


brium of three ooplanar forces, but not sufficient. For sufficient condi-

tiouB, (i) when the three forces meet, they must also satisfy Lamis
theorem, or the converse of the trianglo of force (ii) when they are
all parallel, one being equal and opposite to the resultant of the other
two, their algebraic sum must be zero, and the moments of any two
about a point on the third must be equal and opposite.

Note 8 . If three forces acting on a rigid body he in eguilibrium,


they must automatically be coplanar ; for in this case the algebraic
sum moments about any line in space must be zero. We can
of their
first of all consider lines drawn through any point of P intersecting

Qf whereby it will be shown that each of them intersects P, so that


Q and B are ooplanar. Then P, balancing the resultant of Q and B,
must be in that plane.

8*2. Illustrative Examples.

Ex. 1. A heavy uniform rod of length a rests with one end against
a smooth vertical wall, the other end being tied
io a point of the wall by a string of length 1.

Prove that the rod may remain in equilibrium


at an angle $ to the wall, given by

[C.V.1941]

AB is the rod of length a, BO is the


string of length Z. The three forces which
keep the rod in equilibrium are, the weight
of the rod acting vertically downwards
through the middle point G, th'e tension
along the string BC, and the reaction of the
smooth wall at A which must be normal to
the wall and therefore horizcmtal. The
three forces in equilibrium, not being all
parallel, must meet at a point 0, as shown in the figure.
110 INTEBMEDIATB STATICS

Now 9 being the inolioation to the vertical at which the rod zeets^

from the figure,

AO^AQ sin j
ein 9, GO^AO cob - cos $

Also 00 being parallel to iC through the mid-point O of AB,


and AC'^200^aooB 0,

Hence, from the triangle ACO, CO* * AC* + AO,

*. (|)-(co8)* + 8iny.
^2
or, coB*0-l-d* sin* 3a* coB*^+a*.

...

Note. For the above equilibrium position to be poBsible, ooB*d


must be positive and not greater than unity. Hence, Z* > a* and
Z*-a* > 8a*, Z > a but > 2a.
Ex. 2. A uniform square lamina rests in equilibrium under gravity
in a vertical plane mth two of its sides in contact with smooth pegs in the
same horieontal line at a distance c apart. Show that the angle 0 made
by a side of the square with the horieontal in a non-symmetrical portion
of equilibrium is given by

c (sin 0+CO8 0)^a


where 2a is the length of a side of the square. [ C. U. 1946 ]

ABCD is the square lamina (of eide 2a) whose weight acts vertically

downwards along GO through its centre O. P and Q are the smooth


pegs whose reactions are normal to the edges APB and AQD. As these
are the only three forces which keep the lamina in equilibrium, they
meet at a point 0 as shown in the figure. GN being drawn perpendi-
cular to AB, Nia the mid-point of AB, AN^NG^a. PQ is
so that
horieontal and equal to c. Let 9 be the inclination of the side AB of
the square to the horizon.

Then APe cos d, OP* AQbc sin d.

Now from the Geometry of the figure, since GO is vertical, the


EQVILIBHWM OF COPLANAB FORCES IN GENERAL 111

horissontal distance of 0 from id the horisontal distance of 0


from At

ue, AN cos $ - ON sin 5 AP cos d - OP sin d,


or, a (cos d - sin d) c (cosd- sin* d),
whence c (cos d+sin d)a.
The other possibility, cos d-sin d-0, tan dl, or, djT
gives the symmetrical position of equilibrium.

Ex. 8. Show that the greatest inclination to the horison at which


a tmiform rod can rest partly mihin and partly wiihotU a fixed smooth
hemispherical howl placed with its rim horieontalt is sin' {i
AB represents the rod, O its middle point. The reaction of the
smooth bowl at A being along the normal AOD passes through the
centre 0 of the bowl. The reaction at C where the rod is in contact
with the rim is along the normal CD The
to the rod and the rim.
weight of the rod vertically downwards and the two through O
reaotions at A and C, keeping the rod in equilibrium, must meet at
a common point D. Let DO produced meet the bowl at E ; join AE,
112 INTSBMBDIATS BTATIC8

Now AO being along a diameter, and AOD a right angle, the point
D must be the extremity of the diameter. Henoe AED is also a right
an^le and so if 7 is horizontal.

Thtis $ being the inclination of the rod to the horizon,


B^LEAB^LACO^LOAC. i\'OA^OC]

Thas if a be the radius of the bowl, and I the length of the rod,
cos 2g
2a cos 2e"8iffifG cos ^coB e, or,
2 COB V
But part of the rod being out, I < AC,
or,
006 V
^ 2a cos or, 2 cos 20 < CO8*0.
B,

2 (1-2 Bin*0) < (l-8in*0).

Bin*0>|. sin0>^;
in other words, $ > sin"' (J iJB).

Ex. 4, P and P are attached to two strings AGP and


E^ual weights
BCP passing over a smooth peg C, AB is a heavy beam of weight W,
whose centre of gravity is a feet from A and b feet from B show that ;

AB is inclined to the horieon at an angle

The tod AB is in equilibrium under the two tensions along AC and


BOf and the weight W
vertically downwards through its centre of
EQUILIBRIUM OF OOPLANAB FOBCBS IN GENERAL 118

gravity G, Those three forces then must meet at a common point C7.
The tonsions in the strlngSt supporting the equal weights P at the other
ends, are equal. The resultant of
C
the two equal tensions balancing
the weight CG must
along CG,
ABC, Thus
bisect the angle
^l^C(?Z.PCa=90*-a (say).
Then
Tr= 2P cos (90 o) 2P sin a,

or, a^sm-I ^
Again! 6 being the required inclination of the rod to the horizon,
A.CGB 90-^. Hence ALOAG (C0-^)-(90-o) o-d and
Z.CPG(90 + d)-(90"-a) = a + d.
TST
sin ACG^ Bin CBG
DG'^GC BG"' Bin CAG Bin BCG

.
sin (tt+(?) sin (g+g)
sin (a d) cos a sin (o-d)
and as AQ = a and QB=^h (given),

^ <^~b^ coB g sin B


ei *
^ tan B cot a.
6 *8iii (a-^)' *
a+i^sin a cos

(a?)}-

Examples on Chapter VIII(a)


( Three forces in equilibrium. )

1. A heavy rod is saspended from a point 0 by two


strings OA and OB. Show that the plane OAB is vertical.
[ 0. U. 1925 ]

2. If a uniform heavy rod be supported by a string


fastened at its ends and passing over a smooth peg, show
that it can only rest in a horizontal or vertical position.

3. Show that impossible for a heavy rod to rest


it is
in equilibrium with ends on two smooth planes, one of
its
which is horizontal and the other indined to the horizontal
at any angle. l

8
116 INTEBUEDIATE BTATI08

18. A uniform rod AB is in equilibrium at an angle a


with the horizontal, with its upper end A resting against
a smooth peg, and its lower end B attached to a light cord
which is fastened to a point G on the same level as A. If
the cord is inclined to the horizontal at an angle P, then
tan P * 2 tan a + cot a.
19. A uniform rod of weight W
rests with its ends in
contact with two smooth planes, inclined at angles a and p
respectively to the horizon and intersecting in a horizontal
line. If 6 be the inclination of the rod to the vertical,
show that
2 cot 6oot /J - cot a.

Also find the reactions at the ends of the rod.


[ P. U. 1933 ]

20. A uniform rod of length 21 rests with its lower end


in contact with a smooth vertical wall. It is supported
by a string of length a, one end of which is fastened to
a point in the wall and the other end to a point in the rod
at a distance b from its lower end. If the inclination of
the string to the vertical be 0, show that

^ ^
aH(2b - if
21. A uniform rod whose weight is TFis supported by
two fine one attached to each end, which, aJter
strings
passing over small fixed smooth pulleys, carry weights TTi
and Wu respectively at the other ends. Show that the
rod is inclined to the horizon at an angle

22. A uniform bar of length a rests suspended by two


strings of lengths I and V fastened to the ends of the
bar and to two fixed points in *the same horizontal line at
a distance b apart. If the directions of the strings produced
meet at right angles, and if 7i and Tt be the tensions d
the strings, then
ri.of + W'
T, oT+W

EQmLlBRIJJM Off OOPLANAB ffOBCffS IN GENERAL 117

23. A piofeore of weight 6 lbs. is hung from Si nail by


a cord 5 feet long fastened to two rings 3 feet apart. Find
the tension in the cord.
24. A heavy equilateral triangle hun^ upon a smooth
peg by a string, the ends of which are attached to two of
26.
its angular points, rests with one of its sides vertical.
Show that the length of the string is twice the altitude of
the triangle.
A square of side 2a is placed with its plane vertical
between two smooth pegs which are in the same horizontal
line and at a distance d. Show that it will be in equili*
brium when the inclination of one of its edges to the horizon
is either
n
^
^
or i sin
. -1 a
^- d*

26. A uniform square lamina of aide 2a rests in a vertical
plane on two smooth pegs in a horizontal line. Show that
it the sum of the distances of the pegs from the lowest comer

is equal to a, there is equilibrium.

27. A beam whose centre of gravity divides it into two


portions a and b is placed inside a smooth sphere. Show
that if 9 be its inclination to the horizon in the position of
equilibrium, and 2a be the angle subtended by the beam At
the centre of the sphere,

tan d |-r" tan a. [ G. U, 1924 ]


0 ^a
[ The centre oj gravity of a body is the point at which its weight
may he assumed to acU ]
28. A rod of length { rests wholly inside a fixed smooth
hemispherical bowl of radius a placed with its axis vertical.
The centre of gravity of the rod divides its length in the
ratio m
: n. Show that the inclination of the rod to the
horizon is
(n-n)l

29. A smooth hemispherioal bowl of radios a is


fixed
placed with Us
axis vertical, and a oniform rod of length I
rests with one end inside the bowl, and the other projeoting

190 TNTEBMEDIATE STATICS

recombiniog, the given system of forces can be reduced


ultimately to a single resultant force JS at 0 together with
A couple G (See Art. 7' 2). Moreover, the resolved part of B
in any direction^ say OX, is equal to the algebraic sum of
the resolved parts of the given forces in that direction, and
the moment of the couple G
is equal to the algebraic sum
of the moments of the given forces about 0.

Now if the algebraic sum of the resolved parts of the


given forces in any two perpendicular directions and OX
OF, namely SX
and SY, be separately zero, these being
also the resolved parts of the resultant B in these direc-
tions, B * (rZ)* + (SY) 0. If in addition, the algebraic
sum of the moments of the given forces about 0 be zero,
we get G=0. Hence both B
and G being zero, the force
system is in equilibrium.

Thus the above three conditions being given, the force


system will be in equilibrium. Hence the conditions are
sufficient.

To prove that the conditions are necessary :

Let the given force system be in equilibrium. As


proved above, the given system is reducible to a single
force B at 0, together with the couple G. In this case
B and G must be separately zero, for a couple and a single
force can never produce equilibrium. Now the algebraic
sum of the moments of the given forces about 0, being
equal to the moment of G, must therefore be zero. Again
the algebraic sum of the resolved parts of the given forces
in any two perpendicular directions, being equal to the
resolved parts of B
in those directions, must be separately
zero, since B is zero here.

Thus the force system being in equilibrium, the three


above conditions follow as a necessary consequence.

Nfrte. Analytically, ii OE and 07 ba any two petpendionlac

dlreotians in the plane of a ey^tem of ooplanac fotees, and 27, 27, the
algebcale earn of the leadved parte of the ^ven forces along 07 and
:

EQUIIilBBICM OF COPLANAB FORCES IN GENERAL X21

OF respectively, and (?2(F-^X) be the algebraiq sum of the


moments of the given forces about 0, the conditions of equilibrlnm are
SX0, SY*0, GsS(*Y-yX)0.

(B) Another set of neoessary and sufficient conditions of

equilibrium of a given system of coplanar forces is that

(i), (n) (6 (Hi) the algebraic sum of the moments of


the given forces about any three non*oollinear points
in their plane should separately vanish.
Let a given system of coplanar forces acting on a rigid
body be such that the algebraic sum of the moments of
the forces about three non-collinear points A, J9, 0 in their
plane are separately zero.
Now we know that a given system of coplanar forces
can always be reduced either to a single force, or to a single
couple. In this case, the force system cannot reduce to
a couple, for then the moment of this couple, being equal to
the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces about
any point A, is zero, and so the couple vanishes. Again,
if the force system reduces to a single resultant force B,

its moment about A, being equal to the algebraic sum of


the moments of the given forces about that point, is zero.
Thus the resultant, if it be not zero, must pass through A.
Similarly, it will pass through B and G. Now A, B, 0
being not in the same straight line, the resultant, which
is in a definite direction, cannot pass through all three
simultaneously. Thus the resultant must vanish. Hence
the given system of forces, being neither reducible to a single
resultant, nor to a couple, must be in equilibrium.

Thus the three conditions above being given, they are


suficient to ensure equilibrium of the given system.

Conversely, if the given system be in equilibrium,


reducing it to a single force at any arbitrary point A together
with a couple, which must both be zero, we can conclude
that the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces
about A must vanish ; and similariy for B and 0. Thus
the conditions follow necessarily.
]

133 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

8*4. lUaBtrative Examples.


Bx. 1. Forces P, Q, R, 8 act along the sides AB, BC, CD, DA oj
tKe cyclic guadritateral ABCD, taken in order, where A and B are the
extremities of a diameter. If they are in equilibrium, prove that
u* p* + Q* +5 + 2P0S/P. [ 0 . u. ms ]

Hore tho reBuUant of P and Q acting at B at angle 180* -P


balances the resultant of R and 8 At D acting at an angle 180* - 1)
** the quadrilateral is cyclic. ]
[

Henoo P + 0* -2PQ cos BB* +S* +2BB cos B (i)

Again, for equilibrium of the whole system, taking moment


about B,

B.BO sin C+S.AB sin 4-0, or. - J< [


.* 4-180-0

Thus, since ACB is a right angle, for AB is diameter.


BO 8
oos B

Now from (i),

p*+ 0*+a ^-2J+s*-as*,

RP+Q*+8*+iPQStB.
Bs. % A gate 6 feet high dnd 8 feet wide weighs 118 lbs,, and is

wpporM hy two hinges, one foot from the bottom and top respectively.
EQUILIBRIUM OF OOPLANAB FORCES IN GENERAL 123

The lower hinge can only exert a horUontal reaction, Fvn^ the reacticme
at both hinges, if a hoy of w&ight 52 lbs, is sitting on the end of the gate,

[ C. U. m2 ]

Lot X, Y be tho horizontal and vertical components of reaction at


the upper hinge U, and X' the reaction of the lower hinge L, which is

given to be horizontal only. These reactions at the hinges, together


with the weight of tho gate at its centre Q, and tho weight of the boy at
tho end B of tho gate, keep it in equilibrium.

For equilibrium, resolving horizontally and vertically, we get


X'-X=0, or,Z'X
r-112-62*0, or, r=1641bs. wt.

Also, taking moment about the lower hinge, (since UL^^-2^i ft.,

ft., distance of 0 from the line AD is 4 ft. ),

X.4- 112.4-62 8*0,


whence X*216 lbs. wt.

Thus total reaction at Hie upper hinge


"* J^^Y* * x/216*+ 164* *271*2 lbs. wt. nearly.

The reaction at tho loww hingeiBX'X*216 lbs. wt.


*

Ex. 3. A ladder of weight 24 lbs, rests cn a smooth horizontal ground


leaning againit a smooSs itgutical wall at an inclination tan"" *2 with
the horizon and is prevegi/l$>* from slipping by a siring attached at its
124 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

lower end, and to the junction of the %oall and the floor. A boy of weight
7$ lbs. begins to ascend the ladder. If the string can bear a tension of

90 lbs. wt; how far along the ladder can the boy rise with safety 9

AB being tho ladder at an Inclination ^Btan*'2 to tho horizon,


T be tho tension in the string AO, when the boy rises a distance
let

AC^x along the ladder. Let AB^a, and let h! and B be tho reactions
at A and B, which, since the floor and wall are both smooth, arc
vertical and horizontal respectively.

Now for equilibrium, resolving horizontally, and taking moment


about A, we get

i.e. BmT,

and il.a sin 4*24 COS 4-72. cos 4=0,


.
^

whence, ^ r "61 r "


* 1

72 86 6

Now maximum value of T that the string can bear is 80 lbs. wt.
Hence the greatest possible value of xia consistent with equilibrium is
or the greatest value of x possible is }a.

Thus the boy can rise a distance | of the ladder with safety.
SQUILJBBIUM OF COPLANAB FOBOEB IN OBNEBAL 126

Ex. 4. A triangle formed of three rods i$ fixed in a horizontal


2m%tion, and a homogeneous smooth sphere rests on it ; show that the
leaction of each rod is proportional to length.

Lot Dt E, F be the pointB where q


tho sphere touches the rods BCt CA,
AB, The reactions of the rods on
the sphere being along the normals,
must pass through the centre 0 of

the sphere.
Let Bit B^, be these reactions.
Tho section of the sphere by the plane B
of tho triangle is a circle which
touches tho sides of the triangle ABO
at L, Et Ft and is accordingly the
m-circle of the triangle. Its centre
1 is at tho foot of the perpendicular
from tho centre 0 of tho sphere on
the plane ; thus 01 is vortical, and along this line the weight of tho
sphere acts.

Now DJ^EI^FIt SkTod so


^ which represent the tan-

gents of the angles OJDI, OEIt OFI are also equal. Thus DO, EO, FO
are inclined at the same angle ($ say) to tho horizon.
The reaction, Bn B^ along DO, EOi and FO, together with
the weight of the sphere are in equilibrium. Hence resolving horizon-
tally, the horizontal components of B^ B^ Bg which are evidently
along DJ, Elt and FI are in equilibrium.

Thus, by Lami*s theorem,

Bi COB 0 BgCOsB Bg cos 0


sin sin FJD^ sin DTE^
Now sin (180*-ii)-8ln A. { AEIFlt cycHe)
Bimilarly sin FJDsin B, sin DIF** sin 0,
Thus Bg ; B : Bs-sin ^ ; sis B : sin O,
^aibt e,

i.6., the reaction of the rods are proportional to their lengths.


126 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

Examples on Chapter Vlll(b)

^
1. A uniform beam whose weight is 200 lbs. and which
is 12 ft. long is hinged to a vertical wall. A string attached
to the other end keeps the beam horizontal and is fixed to
the wall 9 feet above it. A weight of 300 lbs. is hung from
this end. Find the tension of the string and the thrust
on the beam,
2. A ladder of length 21 and weight rests against W
a smooth vertical wall. Its lower end is in contact with
the floor which is smooth and is prevented from slipping
by a string of length a, connecting it with the junction of
the wall and the floor. If a person of weight stands 2W
on the rung of the ladder distant from its lower end,
determine the reactions at the two ends of the ladder,
and the tension of the string. [ 0. U. 1941 ]

3. A ladder resting on a smooth floor and against


a smooth vertical wall is prevented from slipping by a rope
tied to a point on it with its other extremity fixed at the
junction of the floor and the wall. If the centre of gravity
of the ladder divides it in the ratio m
n, and the ladder
:

and the rope be inclined at angles 9 and ^ respectively to


the horizon, show that the tension of the rope is
^ , - c os ^
m+ sin (6 - <t>)

where W is the weight of the ladder.

4. A
heavy rod of weight W
is hung from a point by
two equal strings, one attached to each extremity of the
rod. A weight w is suspended half-way between the mid-
point and one end of the rod. If Ti and T 2 be the tensions
in the strings, show that

r, 2W+W
5. A uniform beam of length 2a and weight rests W
with its ends on two smooth planes inclined at angles SO^
and 60^ respectively to the horizon. A ring of weight 2W
can slide along its length. Find the position of the ring
^hen the beam rests in a horinontal position.
EQUILIBRIUM OF OOBLANAR FORCES IN GENERAL 127

6. square lamina ABOD of weight


A is binged to W
A with its plane vertical. A weight
a vertical wall at is W
suspended from its corner G and it is supported with AO
horizontal by means of a horizontal string joining B to the
wall. Find the tension of the string and the reaction at
the hinge.

7. A door ft. high is hung from two hinges placed

9 inches from the top and the bottom. If the weight of the
door be 36 lbs. wt., and its G. G. is at a distance 21; ft. from
the line of hinges, show that the total force on each hinge
is 22ir lbs. wt., it being assumed that the weight of the door

is supported by each hinge.

8. A gate is supported by two hinges in such a way


that the action of the upper hinge is entirely horizontal.
The distance between the hinges is 3 ft., and the weight of
the gate, 60 lbs acts along a vertical line 3^ ft. from the
,

10.
line of the hinges. Find the force exerted by each hinge.
[ C. U. 1944 ]

9. Forces P, Q, iJ, S acting along AB, BO, OD^ DA


of a quadrilateral ABOD are in equilibrium ; show that
11. P ^B Q^S
ABy^GD"'BGxDA
Forces P, Q, B, act along the sides BO, OA, AB
of a triangle ABO and forces P\ Q\ B* act along AQ, BO,
CO, where O is the centroid of the triangle. If the six
forces are in equilibrium, show that
PP^ QQ' BB'
0 .

AO,BO BO.O A 00. AB

Forces P, Q, B
act along the sides BO, OA, of AB
the triangle ABO P\ Q\ B' act along OA, OB,
and forces
00, where 0 is the oircum-centre, in the senses indicated by
the order of the letters. If the six forces are in equilibrium,
show that
P cos A cos B + B cos 0*0
and 0.
a b c
las INTERMEDIATE 8TATI0S

12. Forces Pi, P|, Pa. P, Pa, Pa aloog the sides


of a regalar hexagon taken in order. Show that they will
be in equilibrium, if
5P* 0 and Pi " Pa Pa Pa * Pa "Pa*
18. Three uniform rods AB, BO, CD whose weights
are proportional to their lengths a, b, e are jointed at B
and 0, and are resting in a horizontal position on two smooth
pegs, the distance between which is x. Show that
C*
*
__ J. . I
2a + b 2c +b
14. A weight W
is attached to an endless string of
length I which hangs over two smooth pegs distant c apart
in a horizontal line. Prove that the pressure on each peg is

TF

16. A uniform rod of weight W is supported in equili-


brium by a string of length 1, attached to its ends and
passing over a smooth peg. If now a weight be sus- W
pended from one end of the rod, prove that the system
may be placed in equilibrium by sliding a length
IW
of the string over the peg.

16. Two uniform rods AB, AC each of length 2a, are


smoothly jointed at A and rest symmetrically in a vertical
plane on two smooth pegs in the same horizontal level at
a distance 2jE apart. Show that they are in equilibrium if
each rod makes with the vertical an angle sin'^ l/fjtia).
17. Two equal uniform heavy rods are connected at
one extremity by a thin string, and the system is placed
symmetrically in a vertical plane with the rods resting on
two smooth pegs in the same horizontal line. If a be the
leng|||l of each rod, b the distance between the pegs and
I (iC'b) is the len^h the connecting string, show that in
e^p^brium position, the inclination of each rod to the
'
^IgpxuHm is
EQUILIBBIUJif OF COPLANAB FOBCFS IN GFNEBAL 129

18* A triangular lamina of weight is supported by W


three vertioal strings attached to its angular points, so that
the plane of the triangle is horizontal. A particle of weight
W is placed on the triangle at its ortho-centre. Prove that
if 72, Ts be the tensions in the three strings, then
_ _
1 +3 cot B cot G 1 +3 cot G cot A 1 +3 cot A cob B
19. A circular lamina is hung up from three points
A, B, G on its rim by equal strings attached to a fixed
point. If Ti, T2 , Ts be the tensions in the strings, then

sin 2A sin 2B sin 2G


20. A heavy triangular lamina is suspended with its
plane horizontal from a fixed point by strings attached to
its corners show that the tension of each string is propor-
;

tional to its length.

Prove that the same result is true even if the plane


of the triangle is not horizontal.

21. A sphere rests on three smooth pegs, which lie in


a horizontal plane, and are at distances a, b, c from one
another. Prove that the pressures on the pegs are in the
ratios
a ' (6* + c* - a ) : 6* (c* + a* - 6 ) : o* (a* 4 &* - c*).
22. A light table stands on three equal vertioal legs and
a weight is placed at the in-centre of the triangle formed
by the points of intersection of the legs with the table.
Show that the pressures on the legs are proportional to the
lengths of the opposite sides of the triangle.

23. Two equal smooth spheres, each of weight and W


radius r, are jdaced within a thin hollow vertical cylinder
of radius a. ( <
2r), open at both ends, and resting on
a horizontal table. Prove that the least weight of the
cylinder so that it may not be upset, is
180 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

24. Twoequal uniform ladders of lengfeh I, freely jointed


at At are oemneebed by a horizontal rope PQ and rest onj
a smooth horizontal plane a man of weight
; W
olimbs
a distanee x up one of the ladders. If w be the weight of
each ladder, 26 = length of the rope, and AP = 4Q a, show
that the tension of the rope is

Wx -^wl b
2a

25. AB, BOt CDare three equal rods jointed at and B


The rods AB^
0 26. CD rest on two smooth pegs in the same
horizontal line, so that BG is horizontal. If a he the
inolination of ABand P that of the reaction at B to the
horizon, prove that
3 tan a tan 1.

27. An solid hemisphere of weight W


and radius a is
placed with its curved surface on a smooth horizontal table
and a string of length l{l< a)iB attached to a point on
its rim and to a point on the table ; show that the tension
of the string is

8
W.

Two smooth balls of the same material of radii a


and 6 are placed inside a hemispherical bowl of radiqs B ;

prove that the line joining the centres of the ball will be
horizontal if

(fl -h 6)(a* + 6*)


B a* -ah + 6*
28* Inside a fixed vertical ring of radius , there are
placed symmetrically two equal small rings of radius r, and
a third equal ring is plaeed symmetrically on them. Prove
that the rings will remain in contact, provided
^
B<f (1 + 2^7).
29. Two
uniform spheres of equal weight but unequal
connected by a cord of length I attached to
xadii a, 6 are
a point on each surface. They rest in contact, the string
equilibrium of COPLANAB F0B0E8 IN GENERAL 131

hanging over a smoobh peg. Show that the two portions of


the string make equal angles

-1
sin
o+6+ ?

with the vertical.

80. Two smooth spheres of radii a and b, of equal


density, are connected by a light string of length 2, the ends
of the string being attached to points on the surface of the
spheres. The string is slung over a smooth fixed peg and
the spheres hang freely in contact with one another. Show
that in the position of equilibrium, the peg divides the
length of the string in the ratio

Answers
1. 6664 lbs. wfc. ;
^8 lbs, Wt.

2. TonBions= reaction of the walls


aW
reaction of the floor *31^.

5. ia from the end on 30^ plane.


6. STT ; W (s/I3 making an angle tan* f with the horizon.
8. 70 lbs. wt., and 10 lbs. wt.
CHAPTER IX

FRICTION

9'L Hithertio we have considered examples of bodies


acted on by forces, which in some cases had been in contact
with other smooth bodies or surfaces. Such a surface, from
the very definition, can exert a reaction in the normal
direction only, and is incapable of exerting any force in the
tangential direction. A perfectly smooth body or surface
is however an ideal one, as is never to be met with in nature,
and all bodies or surfaces which are experienced by us are
more or less rough.

When a body is in contact with a rough surface (or


some other rough hody)^ and is acted on by external forces
whereby it is urged to slide over that surface^ it experiences

a tangential resistance at its point of contact, which is "known


as the force of friction between the body and the surface
(or between the two bodies).

As an us consider a book resting on


illustration, let
a rough horizontal table. Evidently, the reaction of the
table, which is vertically upwards, balances the weight of
the body. Now suppose we apply a horizontal pull on the
body by a string for instance, a string attached at one
;

extremity to the book, after passing over the table, has


a weight hanging from it at the other end. If the weight be
not sufficiently large, it is found that the book does not
move. This shows that the table (in addition to the vertical
reaction balancing the weight of the body), exerts a hori-
zontal force opposing the tension, and keeps the book in
equilibrium. This is the force of friction. If now the
hanging weight is increased a little, provided it does not
exo^ a certain limit, the body is still fouiid to remain at
rest. The
force of friction must accordingly have increased.
If the weight be diminished or remov^, the body con*
tinues to remain at rest, which shows that the frictional
FRICTION 183

force also dimimshes or disappears simul&aneously, or


otherwise the body would move in the opposite direction.
The direction of the horizontal pull may be altered and the
experiments repeated. The results in all cases will indicate
that the force of friction is a self-adjusting force, of the
nature of a passive resistance, appearing only wheO neces-
sary and being always (up to certain limit) just sufficient to
prevent motion, and in the requisite direction.

Now suppose the external force urging the body to slide


over the rough surface (the tension in the above case)
be gradually increased. A time comes when the urging
force is sufficiently large, and friction is no longer able
to keep the body in equilibrium, and the body begins to
move. There is thus a limit to which friction can rise.
The value of this limiting friction depends on the weight
of the body on the table, (or more generally, on the normal
reaction between the body and the rough surface), as can
be verified by placing different additional weights on the
book, and finding the limiting friction in each case by
increasing the tension and seeing when the body just
begins to move.
All these experiments performed suitably and repeated
under different circumstances ultimately lead to certain
laws satisfied by the force of friction which are given below.
For experiments, the students are referred to any book on
General Physics.
As we have already mentioned, perfectly smooth bodies
are never to be met with in nature. In fact friction plays
a very important part in our everyday life. If there were no
friction of the ground, walking would have been impossible.
Screws or nails would not stick to wood. Nothing would
rest on any slope, and would slide down. Ladders would
not rest on the ground leaning against a wall. Wheels and
carriages would not roll. No heat could be generated without
friction, and our everyday life practically would be upset.

9*2. The laws of Statteal Friction.

When a body rests in contact with a rough surface (or


another rough body), and is acted on by forces urging it
134 TNTEMMEDIATE STATtCS

to slide on tbe surface, the force of friction at the point of


contact satisfies the following laws.

Law I The direction of the force of friction is always


opposite to that in which the point of contact has the tendency
to slide.

Law II The magnitude of the force of friction is such


as would be just sufficient to prevent the sliding motion of the
point of contact^ subject to a certain maximum limit.

When the forces acting on the body urging the sliding


motion are sufficiently large, such that the limiting value
of the friction is reached, and the body is on the point of
sliding, the law satisfied by this limiting friction is as
follows :

Law III The magnitude of the limiting friction always


bears a constant ratio to the normal pressure between the
two bodies in contact^ and this ratio depends only on the
nature of roughness of the materials of which the bodies are
camposed, but not on the shape or extent of the surfaces in
contact.

The law of Dynamical Friction.


When a body in contact with a rough surface is acted on by forces
auoh that it actually ^didos on the surface, the force of friction at the
point of oontaot is in a direction opposite to that in which the point of
contact slides, and its magnitude boars a constant ratio to the nomuJ
prestuve between the bodies in oontaot.

In fact in this case the maximum amount of friction that can be


called into play between the bodies is exerted at point of contact.

9*S. Definitions.
*
Llmltlsff Equllibriam and Iiimiting FHeiion.

When a body in contadt with a rough surface (or another


rough bgdy) is acted on by forces^ and is in such a condition
FBICTION 136

that it is about to slide on the surface^ the force of friction


^at the point of contact having reached a maximum limit, the

body is said to be in limiting equilibrium, and the force of


friction then called into play is known as limiting friction.
Coeffieient of f rietion.

When a body in contact with another rough body or


surface is about to slide on it, the constant ratio which the
limiting friction bears to the normal reaction between the
two bodies in contact is defined as the coefficient of friction
between the bodies.

Thus in case of limiting equilibrium of a body on


a rough surface, if F be the limiting friction at the point of

contact, 22 the normal reaction between the bodies, then

^-, 1, or. F-,iR

where /i is a constant which represents the coefficient of


friction in this case.

Note. The value of /a is different for different pairs of bodies in


contact. Even if one of the pair of bodies in contact has got its rough-
ness altered, say by rubbing or otherwise, the value of h alters.

As far as is known, in no case m has been found to be greater


than unity.

The coefficient of dynamical friction, though very nearly equal to


the coefficient of statical friction, is strictly speaking, between the same
pair of bodies, slightly less than it, for experiments show that the
least tangential force necessary to start into motion a body, resting
on a rough surface, is slightly greater than that required to continue
the motion once started, though the normal pressure between the
bodies is the same in the two cases*

Angle of friction*

In case of limiting e^Ubrium of a body on a rough


swface^ the angle made by the resultant of the forces pf
186 INTERMEDIATE STATIC8

limiting friction and the normal reaction ( i.e., the reevXtaui


reaction of the rough surface) with the normal to the surface
at the point of contact is defined as the angle of friction.

Thus B being the


normal reaction, the limit-
ing friction is
where fi is the coeffi-
cient of friction, and
their resultant 8 making
an angle A with the
normal, A is defined as
the angle of friction.

Now from the figure


it is clear that

tan A
s'" B
Thus we may give another definition for the angle of
friction as follows :

The angle of friction is that angle of which the tangent


is equal to the coefficient of friction.

It may be noted that for a body in contact with


a rough surface, if represent the normal at the point
of contact, and if OL and OM
be drawn on either side of
ON making the same angle A with ON, then in case of
limiting equilibrium of the body, the direction of total
reaction of the surface (resultant of normal reaction, and
friction which is limiting) will be along OL or OM
according as the body is on the point of sliding one way or
the other*

In case of non-limiting equilibrium of the body, the


force of friction F
being less than /iB, where is the normal B
reaction, the angle 0 made by the resultant reaction with
the normal is given by

Thus 9
tan 6 *
< X.
^ ^ M.,< tan A*
FRICTION 187

Henoe in any case of equilibrium of the body on the rough

surface, the total reaction of the surface must be within


the angle LOM,
Accordingly, if the resultant of the external forces
acting on the body be outside the angle yertioally opposite
to LOM, the body can never be in equilibrium, for the
total reaction of the surface in the case cannot balance the
resultant of the external forces. On the other hand, if the
resultant of the external forces be within the said angle,
the force of friction will adjust itself so that the resultant
reaction will balance the resultant of the external forces and
will keep the body in equilibrium.

Cone of friction.

When a body is in contact with a rough surface, and


with the common normal at the point of contact as axis,

we describe a right circular cone whose semivertical angle


is X-tan^^gi, where (i is the coefficient of friction, this con^
is defined as the cone of friction.

Every generator of the


cone of friction, therefore,
makes an angle equal to
the angle of friction with
the normal.

If the body is capable


of sliding in any direction
on the surface, it is clear
that the resultant reaction
of the surface can never
have a direction outside
the cone of friction.
Accordingly, for equili-*
brium of the body it is
essential that the resultant of the external forces on
body should be within the vertically opposite cone.
188 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

9*4. RolUng of a body on a rough surface.


Lefe a body having a point in contact with a rough
surface be acted on by any system of external forces* If
this force system reduce to a single resultant through the
point of contact, then if this resultant force makes an angle
not exceeding the angle of friction with the produced direc-
tion of the normal at the point of contact, the total reaction
of the surface will adjust itself to neutralise the above
resultant, and the body will remain at rest otherwise the
;

body will slide.

however, the external force system acting on the


If,

body does not reduce to a single resultant through the


point of contact, the total reaction of the surface, by any
adjustment whatever, cannot keep the body in equilibrium.
In this case we can always reduce the external force system
into a single force acting at the point of contact, together
with a couple which does not vanish. Now if the total
reaction of the surface can balance the single resultant
(which will be the case when the resultant does not make
with the normal an angle greater than the angle of friction),
the point of contact will have no sliding motion, but the
couple will produce a turning effect on the body which
.will turn about the point of contact in other words, the
;

body will roll. This is the case of pure rolling.

If on the other hand, thsingle resultant make an angle


with the normal greater than the angle of friction, the point
of contact will slide, while the body will turn due to the
couple.

In^hecase of pure rolling, the force of friction at the


point of contact is, in general, less than the limiting friction.

If the body instead of having a point of contact with


a rough surface, has an area in common with it, then in
case where the external forces reduce to a single resultant
intersecting the area of contact, the body will either be in
equilibrium, or will slide, according as this single resultant
mi&es with the normal to the surface at its point of inter-
eSiCtioii, an angle, not exceeding, or exceeding the angle of
FRICTION 189

friction. If however the single resultant does not intersect


the area of contact, the body must topple.
In working out examples where a body with an area
m contact with a rough surface, and acted on by external
forces, has got the equilibrium broken, and it is not known
whether it will begin by rolling or by sliding, it is always
advisable to assume rolling first, and work out the magnitude
ofthe friction necessary to prevent the eliding motion. If
it isfound to exceed the limiting friction, then sliding will
take place before this rolling stage is reached. Otherwise
the body will roll, and the necessary friction, not exceeding
the limiting friction, will come into play to prevent sliding.

9*5. Equilibrium of a heavy body on a rough inclined


plane under any force.

Let a heavy body


of weight W
be placed
on a rough inclined
plane of inclination o
to the horizon, and be
acted on by a force P at
an angle 0 to the plane.
Let fi be the coefiicient
of friction.

Case I. Let the body be iust supported^ i.e-t just on the


point of slipping down.

If B be the normal reaction of the plane, the friction


in this case, which is limiting, is fiB up the plane.

Hence for equilibrium, resolving along and perpendicular


to the plane}

P cos 8 + W sin a
P sia 8 + B TF cos a,

whence, eliminating B,
P (cos 0 sin 8) * TT (sin c - /s cos a).
140 INTEBMSDIATJE STATICS

If A be the angle of friotion* so that ^tan A,

s in g " eos g tan A sin (a*


.we get p_
oos d - sin 0 tan A
^ ^ cos + (0
A)
A)

giving the necessary value of P


in the given direction just
to support the weight on the plane.

Case II. Let the body be on the point of sliding up.

In this case the limiting friction /lE is down the plane,


and hence the equations for equilibrium give

P cos 0 - juB = TF sin a


and P sin 6 + B * TT cos a,
g+ cos a
whence, P-W sin
cos d + ^ sin B
/I
wSisisL+A).
C08 {9 - A)

Alternative method.

Kg. 0) Kg. (ii)

In case I, the total reaction S of the inclined plane is


making an angle A with the normal to the right as in fig. (i),
when the body is in limiting equilibrium, about to Slide
down. Thus angle between P and S is 90 - 0 -.A, and that
between W
and S is 90 ~a + 90 + A. Now for equilibrium
of the three forces P. S and W, by Lamis theorem,
FRICTION U1

In oase II, when the body is on the point of sliding up,


A being on the opposite side as in fig. (ii), we get, as before
W whence P ** TT
sin (g + A)

Bin {90"- a + A) sin (180" - fit - A) -A)'

Cor. 1. If a^X, It is found that for case I, is

nogative or zero. In other words, no force is required to support the


body on the plane, which will rest of itself (in nou-limiting equilibrium
in case a < X). The maximum value of a for P not to be positive is \.
Thus the greatest inclination of the rough plane to the horieon so that
the body will rest on it without support is the angle of friction, and in
this extreme oaso the body will be in limiting equilibrium, just on the
point of slipping down.

Cor. 2. If a > X, and 0 0, the extreme values of P applied parallel


to the plane, when the body is on the point of slipping down, and when
it is on the point of slipping up, are respectively W sin (a X) sec X and
W sin (a+X) seo X. If P has any value between these, the body will
rest on the plane in nonJimiting equilibrium.

Cor. 8. In general, when a > X, the least force that will just
support the body on the plane is P*Tr sin (a-X), when applied in
a direction given by ~X, and the least force necessary to drag the
body up the plane is P^TT sin (a+X) applied in a direction given by
6>*X.

The last result can be put in the form, 'the best angle of traction
up a rough inclined plane is the angle of friction.'

^'6. Illustrative Examples.


Ex. 1 . A uniform ladder is in equilibrium with one end resting on
the giotmd and the other against a vertical wall ; if the ground and
wall be both rough, the coefficient of friction being fi and n' respectively,
and if the ladder be on the poirtt of slipping at both ends, show that the
inclinaiAxm of the ladder to the horiton is given by

tan $

C C. C. 2936; U. P. IW ; B. H. U. 2943 ]
USL INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

Let the length of the ladder be 2a. 22 and S denoting the


normal reaction of the ground and the wall, the limiting friction at

^eee points are fj.B and m>*S in directions shown in the figure.

Now for equilibrium, resoMng horizontally and vertically, and


taking moment about A, we got

S^fiB ... ... (i)

J2+/S-1F ... ... (ii)

and 5. 2a sin d+iu'fif. 2a cos d- TT. a cos d0 ... (iii)

From (i) and (ii),


5^^ TT
^

and then, from (iii),

as (tan 9 +m')- +(*' )

Ex* 2. A uniform b$am of length 2h rests in limiting


straight
eguilibrium^ in contact tcith a rough vertical wall of height h, with
one end on a rough horizontal plane and with the other end projecting
beyond the wall. If both the wall and the plane be equally roughs
prove that X, the angle of friction, is given by

sin 2XMn a sin 2a,

whore a is tka inclination of the beam to the horieon. [ 0. U. 1944 ]


FRICTION 143

AB is the beam, 0 its middle point, so that AQ^


CO is the wall s Hence AC h cosco a.
7i,

Thus QCh (coseo a - 1).

Now the equilibrium being limiting, the total reaction B at ^ is

along AD making an angle X with the vertical, and the total reaction
B' at C is along CD, making an angle X with the normal CE to the rod
at C. As the three forces B, li* and the weight W of the rod at O
are in equilibrium, they must meet at a common point 2), so that DO
is vertical, intersecting CE at E say.
Clearly, ^ADO\^ Z^ECD, Z.OBOa, and so /LEDC'^a-^X.

sin GDC DAG


Now OC GC ao
sin
ag"gd* aq' "sin GCD sin ADQ'

i js
h (coseo a -

-IK sin (a-X) sin(90*-o-A)


*
*
h 'sin (90*+ A] I sin X

sin (tt X) COB {o+X)^sin 2a sin 2X


01, (oosqoa--D- **
sin X COB Ai sin 2X

sin 2X coseo sin 2a, or, sin 2X"> sin a sin 2a.

Ex. 3. Tvto egual uniform ladders are joined at one end and stand
with the other ends on a rough horieontal plane* A man whose weight
is equal to that of one of the ladders ascends one of them* Prove that
.

144 INTEBMBDJATE STATICS

the other will slip first. Supposing that it slips when he has ascended
ajiistanee or, prove that the coefficient of friction is

(a+x) tan a/(2a+a),

a being the length of each ladder^ and a the angle which each makes
with the vertical.

Let i(f bo the position of the man on the ladder AB Ski any instant
when Bf B* the normal reactions of the ground, and F' the
frictions at the instant at D and C respectively.
Now considering the two ladders AD and AC as forming one
system, action and reaction at A on the two noturalise each other,
lienee, resolving horisontally and vertically and tidcing moment
about B for the equilibrium of the combined system, we get

F^F' - (i)

N+i?'3Tr " ... (ii)

JBf,2a sin a * TT, sin o + W,x sin a+ TT. ysin a. (iii)


I
Again, considering the equilibrium of the ladder AC separately,
taking moment about A whereby the unknown action at A of AB on
AC will not enter the equation, we get
Ji'.o bin TT. 2 sin a. (iv)

Sf-W, 2^. Md tbw from (U), JS- TT


FRICTION 145

Hence, from (i) and (iv),

a+* _ ^ , F* a+as
ThuB C .

B'-2S+5'
*tau a.

Now (4a ) (2a+a!)*>2 (a a?) ifl positive, for sa < a.

F F*
Hence
^^ all values of sb.

One when equal to the


of the ladders will slip either
^ or is

F*
coefficient of friction /a, and as is the greater, this will attain the

value /A first. Thus the other ladder AO will slip first, and the co-
efficient of friction is connected to x by the relation

Note. Initially, when g0, i.e., the man is on the lowest rung of
F F^
the first ladder, tan a, and gt^i tan a, and n must be > } tan a

in order that the ladders may not slip. Provided this is satisfied,
F
and
F' *
F*
being always >
F
^ ^ both increase with x, but gn will attain

the value /a first.

Ex. 4. A heanjy solid right ctrctdar cone is placed with its base on
a rough inclined plane^ the inclination of which is gradually increased ;

determine whether the initial modern of the cone will he one of hiding
or tumbling over,

[ The C.O. of a solid fight circular cone is on the axis at a height


one-fourth of the height of the vertex from the base, ]

The total reaction of the plane (resultant of normal reaction and


friction at all points of the base) must be a force, acting somewhere
on the base AB, Hence if the external force, namely t^ weight of
the cone, which acts vertically downwards through its centre of
gravity 6^, falls outside the base AB^ the total reaction of the plane
wiU not be able to balance the weight, and the cone will topple.
Hius assuming 4 to be the inelinatlcn of the inclined plane in the
10
146 INTEBMEDTATE BTATI08

marginal oase when the weight passes throng^ the aztiemity A of


the base, and the cone is on the point of tumbling over about A^ the
base will not slip before this stage is

reached provided the external force, i.e.,

the weight makes with normal to the


plane an angle, less than the angle of

friction X, i.e., provided /LAON*^B < X.


This requires

tan $ < tan X, or.


AN <M.
ON
Kow a being the semi-vertioal angle
of the cone,

^ AN AN .

Hence the cone will tumble if 4 tan a < m.

If 4 tan a > M, then before the contemplated position for tumbling


is reached, the base will slip.

Hence the initial motion of the cone will be one of slipping or


tumbling over according as
fi < or >4 tan a.
In case m < 4 tan a, the oone will slip when the inclination of the
plane to the horison, i. 0 ., If /li > 4 tan a, the cone will
tumble when ^^tan'^ (4 tan a).

Elk 5. Two weights P and Q(P> Q) are placed on a rough vnolimd


planet being connected by a airing passing over a small smooth
pulley on the plane, the parts of the string being parallel to the line of
greats^ slope* The inclinaiion of the plans to the horison is gradually
increased. Prove that the weights will begin to slip on the plane when
its inclination 9 to the horison is given by

where \ is the angle of frktien of the plane, assumed same with respect
to either weight,

9 bqiiig the inclination of the plane when P is on the point of


dipping down, and p denoting the coeffloient of ftioUon, if P be the
FBICTION U7

normal reaction on P, the friction ia fiB up the plane. If S be the


normal reaction on Q, ae Q on the point of moving npi the friction
fiS will act down the plane. Let T be the teneion of the string.

Now for equilibrium of P and Q, resolving along and perpendicular


to the plane in each oase
P sin ^'P+AiPi Poosd^B
Q sin T-fiSt Q cos dm 8,
From these,
P (sin oos ^)* Q (sin B+fi cos 9),

.. sin ^ (P-0)-/* oos 9 (P+0).

tan tan X.

Examples on Chapter IX
y
! A body of weight W
rests on a rough horizontal
plane, A being the oorresponding angle of friction. It is
desin^ to move the body on the plane by pulling it with
the help of a string. Find the best angle of traction, and
the least force necessary.

^2. A body of weight 4 lbs. rests in limiting equilibrinm


on an inclined plane whose slope is SO'. Find the oo
efficient of friction and the normal reaction.

[ B. S. Allahabad, 1998 , C. U. 1916 }


146 INTEBMELIATE STATIOB

5. How high oan a particle rest inside a hollow sphere

'of radius a, if the coefficient of friction be ?

[ P. U. 1929, '81, '39 ]

4.Prove that the horizontal force which will jnst


snstain a heavy particle on a rough inclined plane, will
sustain the same particle on a smooth plane whose inclina-
tion is less than that of the rough plane by the angle of
friction.

6. A weight 30 lbs.oan just rest on a rough inclined


plane when its inclination to the horizon is SO*. When the
inclination is increased to 60*. find the Ipast horizontal force
which will support it. I'h-i

Find also the least force along the plane, that will drag
it u^.

6. A body of mass 100 lbs. is placed on a rough inclined


plane,and is just supported by a force 40 lbs. wt. applied
along the plane. When this force is increased to 80 lbs. wt.,
the tody is on the point of sliding up. Find the coefficient
of friction. .

7. A
body of weight W
oan just be sustained on
a rough inclined plane by a force P, and just dragged up the
plane by a force Q, P and Q both acting up the line of the
greatest slope. Show that the coefficient of friction is

Q-P
V4Tr-{p+Qi*
8. The force P
acting along a rough inclined plane
just Buppwts a body on the idane, the angle of friction A being
less thaai' , the inclination of the plane to the horizon.
Show llihi the least force acting along the plane, which is
sufficient to drag the body up the plane is

J ain(a + A)
sin (a-- A)

The least force which will move a weight tv an


itolteed plane is P. Show that the least fotw, aeting
WBIOTION 149

parallel to the plane which will move the weight upwards


is , ^

(I being the coefficient of friction of the plane.


10. A body is resting on a rough inclined plane of
inclination a to the horizon, the angle of friction being
(A >
a). If P
and Q be the least forces which will respec-
tively drag the body up and down the plane, then
P ^ sin (A + g)^
Q sin (A - a)
"l. the force, which acting parallel to a rough plane
If
of inclination a to the horizon is just sufficient to draw
a weight up, be n times the force which will just let it be
on the point of sliding down, show that
. n+1
tan

12* Two rough particles connected by a light string rest


on an inclined plane, the string passing roimd a smooth
pulley on the plane, and the parts of the string being parallel
to the line of the greatest slope. If the weights and corres-
ponding coefficients of friction are TTi, and
respectively, show that the greatest inclination of the plane
consistent with equilibrium is

taii- [ Pmob, 1940 ]

18. A beam rests with one end on a horizontal ground


and the other against a rertioal wall. Prove that for equili-
brinm, there must be friction between the beam and ground,
and sued not be friction between the beam and the wall.
'^14. A uniform ladder rests with one end on the rough
horizontal ground and the other against a rough vertical
wall. The ooefQoients of friction at the lower and upper
ends are f and i lespeotively. Determine the angle which
the ladder makes with the ground when it is about to slip.
[0. U. 194$ 1
NtS. A uniform ladder rests in limiting eQuilibrium with
its lower end on a rough horizontal phme and ihs upper i
150 INTEBJUMDUTS STATICS

against a smooth wall. If 0 be the inclination of the ladder


to the vertical, prove that

tan 5 2iU

where is the coefficient of friction.

What happens if the ladder be non-uniform ?

A uniform ladder rests with its lower end on rough


horizontal ground and its upper end against a rough vertical
wall, the ground and the wall being equally rough, and the
angle of friction A. Show that the greatest inclination of
the ladder to the vertical is 2A.

17. A ladder, SO feet long, rests with one end against


a smooth vertical wall and with the other on the ground,
which is rough, the coefficient of friction being i find ;

how high a man whose weight is 4 times that of the ladder


can ascend before it begins to slip, the foot of the ladder
being 6 ft. from the wall. [ B. JET. U. 1946 ]

18. A uniform ladder rests inclined at 45^ to the vertical


with one end on rough horizontal ground, the coefficient
of friction being |, and the other end against a smooth
vertical wall. Show that a man whose weight is equal to
that of the ladder cannot ascend to the top.

What weight must be placed on the bottom of the ladder


to enable the man to ascend to the top ?
19. A man
weighing 140 lbs. climbs np a uniform
ladder 20 long and 70 lbs. in weight, which rests against
ft.

a rough vertical wall at an angle of 46. If the coefficient


of friction at each end of the ladder is 0*5, how far will the
man be able to climb up the ladder bdore it begins to
Blip?

Find also the greatest weight of a creature which can


dimb to the top. [ S. H. U. 1940 ]

to. A uniform ladder rests in limiting equilibrium with


one end <m a rough horizontal plane and the other against
a amooth vwtical wall. A man then ascends the ladder.
Show that, whatever his wdght, he cannot go more than
'

FSJCTION 151

half-way up. What happens if the horizontal plane also be


smooth ? Give reasons for your answer. [ 0. U. 1942 ]

A uniform ladder rests in limiting equilibrium with


one end against a rough vertical wall and the other on
a rough horizontal plane, the angles of friction being A and A'
respectively. Show that the inclination 0 of the ladder to
the horizon is given by
cos (a + AQ
tan 0 ^
[ 0. U. 1947 1
2 sin A' cos A

^2^ A uniform ladder of weight TT, inclined to the


horizon at 45^, rests with its upper extremity against a rough
vertical wall and its lower extremity on the ground. Prove
that the least horizontal force which will move the lower
end towards the wall is just greater than

where (a and [i are the coefficients of friction at the lower


and upper end respectively. [ 0. U. 1989 ]

28. A uniform ladder of weight w rests ^on a rough


horizontal ground and against a smooth vertical wall,
inclined at an angle a to the horizon. Prove that a man
of weight Wcan climb to the top of the ladder without the
ladder slipping if
2(3 -jtitan a\
tv 2fi tan a 1

(ibei^ the coefficient of the friction. [ 0. U. 1983 ]

Vfi. Two equal uniform rods AO, OB


are freely jointed
at 0 and rest in a vertical plane with the ends A and in B
contact with a rough horizontal plane. If the equilibrium
is limiting, and the coefficient of friction is fi, show that

[ 0. U. 1985 ]

26. Two equal ladders of weight are placed so asW


to leMt against each other at an angle 29, with their ends
testing on a rough horuontal floor, the ooefiSoient of
169 XNTEBMBDIATB STATIOS

frifition ot which with respect to either being //, where


tan 9 > >
jU 1 tan 9. If W' be the weight which placed on
(he top eanses the ladders to slip, show that
2/i
- tan 9
W'=-W tan B-/t

Explain the case when <i tan 9 or > tan 9.


26. A bar rests on two pegs and makes an angle a with
the horizontal. The centre of gravity is between the pegs
at distances <t, b from them. Prove that for e^nilibrinm

a+o
where fix, !* are the coefficients of friction at the pegs.
[ Agra, 1940 ]

27. A heavy uniform rod is placed over one and under


the other of two horizontal pegs, so that the rod lies in
a vertical plane ; shew that the length of the shortest rod
which will rest in such a position is
a (1 + tan a oot l).

where a is the distance between the pegs, a is the inclina-


tion to the horizon of the line joining them, and A is the
angle of friction.

28> A straight uniform beam is placed upon two rough


planes whose inclinations to the horizon are ax and a 9.
coefficients of friction tan Ai and tan A9. If 9 be the
inclination of the beam to the horizon in limiting equili-
brium,
2 tan 9 oot (o9 + A9)-oot (ai-Ai).
29. A heavy uniform rod rests in limiting equilibrium
within a fixed rough hollow sphere. If A be the angle of
friction, and 2a the angle subtended by the rod at the
centre of the sphesOt show that the inclination 9 of the rod
to the hotieon is ^yen by
i%* 1

'^tajt^9"tan(a-f A)-ten(a-A).
[P. U. 1984, 19481
FBIOTIOIT les

80. A thin uniform rod of length rests in limiting eqni-


librinm inside a rough vertical circular hoop of radius a.
Prove that the inclination of the rod to the horizontal is

oof

where / is the coefficient of friction.

31. A glass rod is balanced partly in and partly ont of


a cylindrical tumbler with the lower end resting against the
vertical side of the tumbler. If a and P are the greatest
and least angles which the rod can make with the verticali
prove that the angle of friction is

1 / Bina - 8in*f
Isin^a COB a + sinj8 cos pj

32c Prove that the least force, which applied to a uniform


heavy sphere of weight W
will maintain it in equilibrium
against a rough vertical wall, is W
cos A, provided A,
the angle of friction, is less than

33. A rectangular block of wood with a square base is


placed on a rough inclined plane with two sides of the base
horizontal, and the inclination of the plane to the horizon
is gradually increased. If fi be the coefficient of friction,
and a side of the base, find the greatest height of the block
so that it may slide down the plane before toppling.

84. A uniform solid circular cylinder is placed with its


plane base on a rough inclined plane and the inclination
of the plane to the horizon is gradually increased show ;

that the cylinder will topple over before it slides, if the ratio
of the diameter of the base of the cylinder to its height is
less than the coefficient of friction.

85. A solid right circular cone is placed with its base


on a rough inclined plane the inclination of which to the
horizon is gradually increased. If the angle of friction be
30^ find the angle of the cone when it is on the point of
both slipping and turning over simultaneously.
1S4 ISTEBMEmATE BTATIOS

Answdn
1. X, IT dn X. S. a is/S IbB. wt.

8. ^ (2- ^/3) above the lowest point.

6. 10 tjS lbs. wt. ; 20 ^/S lbs. wt.

6. J, 14. 45*. 16. If the o.g. divides the ladder


in the ratio m : n, tan (in+n)/m.

17, He can rise to the top without the ladder slipping.

18. { of the weight of the ladder. 10. 13 ft. ; 17} lbs.

25. If M > } tan B, the ladders cannot rest without being nega-
tive i.e., the top must be pulled upwards, in which case the ladders will
be in limiting equilibrium, the lower ends tending to slip outwards.

If M > tan Bf the ladders will be in non-limiting equilibrium whatever


positive value TT' may have, and to put them in limiting equilibrium
W* must be negative, i.s., the top must be pulled upwards, when the

lower ends will tend to approach each other.

85. COB* JJ#


"TjHAPfEK T
CENTRE OF GRAVITY
*
10 1. Centre of like parallel forces.
Let Pi, P21 Pa> be a set of like parallel forces acting
on a rigid body at Ai, As, As. respectively. Join AiAg

and divide it internally at Ci, snob that A^Oi CxAz :

P2 Pi. Then the resultant of Pi and P2 is a parallel


:

force Pi + Ps acting at Ci. Join GiA^y and divide it inter-


nally at C2 such that O1O2 O^As^Ps Pi + -Pa Then
: ^

the parallel force Pi + P2 + Ps acting at Cg, is the resultant


of Pi +Pa at Cl and Pa at As, of Pi at At, Pg at A^
and Pa at As. Next join OsAs, and divide it at Cs such
that OgCs OSA4-P4, : Pi + Pg+Pa- Proceeding in this
:

manner till all the forces are exhausted, we finally arrive


at a point 0 through which passes a force SP parallel to
the system, which is the resultant of all the given parallel
forces.

Now it is evident that tho positions of Ou Cg, Csi etc.,


depend only on the magnitudes of Pi, Pg, Pg, and on
the positions of the points Ax^ As, As$ wWe
they act,
but have nothing to do with the common direction of the
t INTEBMBIDUTE STATICS

^parallel forces. Hence the point C arrived at, through


'
which the final resultant ofthe parallel forces passes, is
fixed, whatever be the common direction of the parallel
forces, BO long as their magnitudes and points of application
remain unchanged. This fixed point C is defined as the
Centre of the given system of like parallel forces.

We may note that 0 being the point through which the


resultantHP always passes, whatever be the common direc-
P
tion of the given parallel forces Pi, 2 Ps,
it is a unique

'point, and will come out to be the same in whatever order


we proceed to combine the given forces in succession.
Analytical determination.

We shall confine ourselves to the case of a set of like


parallel forces acting in one plane*

Let Pi, Pat Ps, be a set of like parallel forces acting


at Ax, A*, At on a plane, and let {fiu Vi)> (ti V*),
(fix, y) be the oo*ordinate8 of At, A At refened
to e eet of wotutgolar axes on the plane.
CENTRE OF GRAVITY 157

The reeultant of Pi at ili and Ps at il 2 is Pi + Pi


acting at Ox on AxA^ such that 4i0i : Oi^^-Ps : Pi.
Let Sif ^1 he the co-ordinates of Ci. Then, iliLi, AgLa
and CiMx being perpendiculars upon OX, since these are
parallel lines,

AxOx
Ziri Jbfi ^1 a?i Pfl
JfiL.-OiJ, IT, - Si Pi

whence we get Si
- (i)
x^i -r jTa

Exactly in a similar manner, the a; co-ordinate (Sa say) of


whore the resultant Pi + Pa + Ps of Pi + Pa at Oa and
Ca,
Pa at acts, is given by

. (Pi + Pa) Si + PbXb _ Pi*i + PaX + PaiTa, /.\

(Pi + Pa) + P"a ^^PTkP;;


Proceeding in this manner, when all the forces are exhausted,
the centre of the parallel forces through which the final
resultant passes haring co-ordinate Si we get
>^ Piiri H-Paira + Paga + '^ .SPx
* Pi + Pa + Pa + JSP
and similarly

n ^iVi P.ya + PbVb + _ SPy


Pj+Pa+Ps + "-
10*2. Centre of mase.
Let a system of particles of masses mi, ma, ma,... be
A a, Aa,
placed at the points Ax,

Divide AxAa at Cfi in the inverse ratio of the masses


at its extremities, AxGx i CfxAa^ma :tnx Assume
the total mass mi +ma
collected at Gx. Divide ^lAa at Ga
in the inverse ratio of the masses at the extremities, suoh
that GxGa : GaAa^ma : (mi-l-ma), and assume the total
mass at the extremities, t.s., mi H-ma +ma
ooUeoted at Ga,
Piooeeding in this manner, when all the particles have been
exh austed, we arrive at a i^al point O
which is defined as
(mi)
m
A$
It 20 evident from the mode oi ooDatruotion, that the
point G ia identical with the centre oi a act of parallel
forces proportional to mi, mg, mg, etc, acting at At, Ag, A3,
etc., and hence, as proved in the previona article, the point
IB unique.

Again if the particles mi, mg, mg, etc. be in one plane,


and their co-ordinates referred to a set of rectangular axes
be (oJi, Vi), (ojj, 1^2)1 (ai Vs) otc , the co-ordinates (a?,
y say)
of the oente of mass Q, exactly as m the previous article,
will be given by

+ m2 + wis + jSm

_ ^ TOiv 1 + mgv 9 +_wj^y iii


^ ^my
^ mi + m 2 +TOs +
The symmetry of the forms of the co-ordinates also
shows thc^ the point O is unique, and will be arrived at
finally, in whatever order the masses may be combined
in suooessicm.

If instead of discreet particles, we have a finite body


of any shapei we may consider it as an agglomeration of
108 JNTEBUEDIATE BTATI08

the emtn of mass, or, centre qf inertia of the given system


efpartieUs.

A
(w)
As
It is evident from the mode of oonstruotion, that the
point O is identical with the centre of a set of parallel
forces proportional to mi, m,, ms, etc. acting at Ai, Aa, As,
etc., and hence, as proved in the previous article, the point
is unique.

Again if the particles mi, ms, ms, etc. he in one plane,


and their co-ordinates referred to a set of reotangnIw_azes
be {xt, Vi), (Bi Vs), (s. Va) etc., the co-ordinates Q, y say)
of the cento of mass O, exactly as in the previous article,
will be given by

"* Wi^i + msgs +m sa;s +


^ Smx
mi + ms + ms + * llm
+ mss +m B ys +
^ mi + ms + ms + * JSm
The symmetry of the forms of the co-osdinatea also
shows that the point G is unique, and will be arrived at
finally, in whatevw order the masses may be combined
in Booeession.

U instead of disereet particles, we have a finite body


of any shape, vra may consider it as an agglomeration of
OENTBE OF QBAVITT 159

an infinite number of infinitely small partioles, and define


itscentre of mass as above. It will be a definite point in
the body.

Centre ot Mean Position.

More be a set of points


generally, let there A^t
As,...ajid letmi, ms, ms,...b^ any set of numbers which
are associated with these points respectively. Now join
any two points AiA^ and divide it at Gj, in the inverse
ratio, of the numbers associated at the ends, such that
AxGi OxA^-m^ mi. Assume the number mi + ms to
: :

be associated to (?i. 7oin OxAg and divide it at 0^ such


that mi + ms, and suppose
: to be
associated with mi +m 2 +m8. Proceeding in this manner,
we finally arrive at a unique point O which is called the
centre of mean position of the given points for the system of
given multipliers.

If the points Ai, As,... etc. are coplanar, with co-ordi-


nates (iTi, i/i), Ve), etc., we get exactly as in the previous
article, the co-ordinates of O given by

Smx Smy
X ^
y
Sm Sm
Note. The centre of mean position is a more general
term which includes as special oases such things as the
centre of a set of parallel forces, and the centre of mass of
a system of partioles.

When the given multipliers are all unity (or equal), the
centre of mean
pesition is referred to as the centroid of
the given points. This also means that the centre of mass
of a body of uniform density is the same as the centroid
of the body.

10*8. Centre ot gravity.


We know the law of gravitation that every material
particle is attracted towards the centre of the earth with
a force which is proportional to the mass of the particle, and
this force, we caU its weight.
160 INTXBMXDUTE STATICS
Now given any material body, we oan consider it to be
an assemblage of partides each of which is acted on by
' earth's attraction, and all these forces passing throngh the

centre of the earth, they have got a single resnltant which


we call the weight of the body. If the body be held in
different positions, the positions of the line of action of this
weight relative to the body will be different. Now, in some
oases, the line of action of the^ weight passes always throngh
a fixed point in the body, however the body may be placed ;

for instance, in case of a spherical body, by symmetry,


the line of action of the resnltant weight always passes
throngh the centre of the sphere. In case snch a fixed point
is available in the body, it is called the centre of gravity of
the body.

Def. The centre of gravity of a body (or a system of


particles rigidly conected to one (mother) is that point fixed

in the body (or with respect to the system of particles), when


one such exists, through which the resultant weight of the
body or the system always passes, in whatever manner the
body may be placed.

It may be mentioned however, that strictly speaking,


in most oases snch a point does not exist ; in other words,
in a strict sense, the centre of gravity of a body does not
exist in all oases.

Now for
bodies of ordinary size which we have to deal
with in general, the radios of the earth is so large in com-
parison, that Uftes drawn from different points of the body
to the centre (A the earth may be taken to be practically
parallelt Thns the weights of different elements of which
the IxMV la composed oan be taken as like parallel forces,
the ownmon direction being the vertical at that point on
tire earths sorbce, and the magnitudes of the forces are
'pMIktrtional to the masses of the elements. If the body be
held in a different manner, the magnitudes as w^as
the points dL application of these paralldl forces remain
nnohuiged in the body, only the common direction, which is
sliU vertiod (m., the same in space) changes relative to Che
CENTBE OF QBAVITT 161

body. Hence tihere is a fixed point in the body through


which the resultant weight always passes, and this we call
the centre of gravity of the body. Strictly speaking, as
defined in the previous article, this point is the centre of
mass of the body. But on the above assumption, when the
body is of ordinary finite size, and therefore small compared
to the earth, the centre of gravity and the centre of mass
coincide.

It is clear from what has already been said that if we


proceed to find out the centre of gravity of a big body,
a mountain for instance, lines from different points of which
to the centre of the earth cannot be treated as parallel, the
body may not have a centre of gravity at all, and even if it
has, the centre of gravity will not in general be the same
as the centre of mass, which latter point will always exist.

In what follows, we shall always assume weights of


different elements of a body or a material system to be
parallel, and proceed to determine the centre of gravity,
which is identical with the centre of mass, and is always
available.

10*4. The centre o! gravity of a body is unique.

For if possible, let a body have two centres of gravity,


O and 0\ The weight of the body passes through both G
and 0\ by definition, in whatever manner the body may be
held. Now hold the body such that OG' is horizontal.
The weight, which is a vertical force, cannot now pass
through both G and Q' unless they coincide. Hence there
cannot be two distill Centres of gravity of the body.
11
169 nrPSBUBDIATS 8TATI08

10*6. Determination of centre of gravity In special


cases.

L A thin nnllorm rod.

A O' '
i P P' a

Let AB be a thin tmiform rod of any material, Q the


middle point of AB.
Consider two equal infinitesimal lengths PP' and QQ' of
the rod, equidistant from G, so that GP * GQ. Since the
rod is uniform, the weights of these two elements (which
can ultimately be treated as two particles equidistant from
are equal, both vertically downwards, and the resultant
of these two equal and like parallel forces, acts at the
middle point G.
Since AG - GB, the whole rod can be divided into pairs
of such equal infinitesimal elements equidistant from G,
and for each pair the resultant of the weights acts at G.
Hence the weight of the whole rod acts at G, and so G is
the centre of gravity.
Thut the O.G. of a thin uniform rod it at its middle
point.

II. FCnr rods forming a parallelogram.

R/t

/ \V
Let {Mir tbin uniform rods AB, BO, OD, DA of the same
material and thidmess form a parallelogram ASOD, Let
CXNTBB or GBATITT 168

P and Q AB and CD, and B and


be the middle points of
S those of AD and BO. PQ and B8 inteneeting at O, ve
easily seefrom Geometry that PQ and B8 bisect each other
at 0, and this is also the point of intersection of the
diagonals AO and BD of the parallelogram.

The O.G. of the rode AB and OD are at their middle


points P and Q, and at these points the weights of the
rods, which are eqnal, act. The resultant of these two equal
weights at P and Q, (which are like parallel forces, b^h
being vertical) passes through the mid-point of PQ, i.e.,
through Q. Similarly, the resultant of the weights of the
two equal rods AD
and BO also acts through O, the mid-
point of B8. Thus the resultant weight of the whole
system acts at O.

Thus the 0,0. of the system of four uniform rods forming


a parallelogram is at O, the point of intersection of the lines
joining the middle points of the opposite pair of sides. This
point is also the point of intersection of the diagonals.

III. Three rode formlog a triangle.

Let AB, BO, OA


be three thin uniform rods ot the same
material and thickness
(or pasts of a thin uniform wire)
forming a triangle ABO. Let D,B,Fbe the middle points
of SO, OA, AB lespectiyely.
The weights ot the uniform tods AS, AO act vertically
do^warda at th^ ptdnts and F E
respectively,
their magnitude* bdfain^iopartional to their lengths. The
m INTBSMEDLITS BTATIOB

reavlianii of these two weights which ate like parallel forces,


acts at a point X on EF, where
JFX^ wt. at Jg ^ length AO ^ WF ^ DF
XE *
wt. at F length AB SDE DE
Thus DX bisects the angle EDF.
Now the resultant of the weight of the rod BO acting
at its middle pointD, and the joint weight of AB and AC
acting at X, will act at some point on DX. Hence the
combined O.G. of the three rods is sitnated on the
line DX.
Similarly, combining the weight of AB, BO first, and
then considering the weight of AO, the combined O.G. of
the three rods is shown to be some point on which ET
bisects the angle DEF.
Thus the combined O.G. of the system of three rods
being a common point situated on both and ET, is DX
their point of intersection, i.e., the required 0.0. is the
in-emtre of the triangle DEF
formed by joining the middle
joints of the rods.

IV, A onltonn parallelogram lamina.

Ziet ABOD be a nniform thin plate or lamina in the


form of a parallelQgram.
Tiwogiiut the lapiin^ to be divided into an infinite
number of thin strips by Unes parallel to IB or OD, and
CENTBJB OF GBAVITT 165

let XT represent one snob This can be treated as


strip.^

a thin nniform rod whose O.G. middle point 0,


is at its
where its weight acts. Now if P and Q be the mid^points
of AB and CD, from Geometry, PQ bisects every line like
XT parallel to AB or OD, and so the middle point 0 of
XT is situated on PQ Similarly the C.G. of every other
strip lies on PQ. Hence the combined O.G. of the whole
lamina lies on PQ.

dividing the lamina into an infinite number of


Again,
thin strips parallel to AD
or BO, we can show exactly in
a similar way that the O.G. of the whole lamina also lies on
B8 joining the mid-points of and BO, AD
Hence the required C.G. of the lamina is the common
point of intersection of G
and PQ BS
joining the mid-points
of the opposite pair of sides, and from Geometry, this is
also the point of intersection of the diagonals of the parallelo-
gram.

V. A millonii elliptic lamina.

ACA' and BOB' be the majoe and minor axes of


a thin nniform elliptio plate.

Divide the lamina into an infinite ntunber cl thin


strips by lines paraJlel to the major axis* and let PQ be any
166 mrXBUEDtAXE STAXlOB

snob strip. This osn be treated as a thin rod whose G.G,


is at its middle point, which, since the ellipee is symme-
about its minor axis, lies on the minor axis. Simi-
trical
the O.G. of every strip parallel to AA! lies on the
lariy,
minor axis. Hence the O.G. of the whole lamina lies on the
minor axis.

Again, by dividing the lamina into strips parallel to the


minor axis, the O.G. of the whole lamina can be shown
to lie on the major axix as well.

Thus the required 0.0, of the elliptie lamina is the


common point of both the major and minor axes, i.e., the
centre of the ellipse.

Cor. By making the two axes equal, the ellipse


reduces to a circular plate, and we see exactly as before,
that the C.O. of a thin uniform circular plate is at its
centre.

VI. Bodlee havlBg an axia ot symmetry.

V'

mg.(i) S'lg. (ii)

Jf a metterial eydem be symmetrical about an axis OX,


as in Fig. (i), then corresponding to any dement P on one

side' of OX, there is an equal and similar element Q sitnated


symmetrioi^y on the .bther side of OX, so that PQ is

bissoted at ttidd angles by OX '

Now the O.G. d


these
two eqoat slmnents P.eoid Q is at the middle pdbit of PQ,
OMNTSE OF OBAYITT 107

lies on OZ.
i.e., As the whde body in this oase ean be
divided into pairs of snob equal elements symmetrioally
situated vritb respeot to OX, and for eaoh pair the O.G. is
on OX, the combined 0.0. of the whole body Ues on OX.

If a body in the form of a lamina, or a material system


in one plane, be symmetrical about two perpendicular axes,
say XOX and YOY' as in Pig (ii), the O.G. of the
system, as shown above, will lie on each of these axes, and
so must be the common point 0, which is also the centre
of symmetry of the system. Similarly for a solid body,
if it be symmetrical about thrM mutually intersecting per*

pendioular axes, and accordingly has a centre of symmetry,


this point is the O.G. of the body.

Tktis generally, if a uniform body or a material system


has a geometrical centre of symmetry, the C.O. of the body
or the system will be at this centre.

Examples of this we get in uniform circular or elliptic


lamina given above. Among other examples we may cite
the oases of (i) uniform square or rectangular plate,
(ii) uniform circular or elliptic ring, (iii) uniform sphere,

solid or hollow, (iv) rectangular pardllelopiped, (v) uniform


right circular cylinder solid or hollow, etc.

In all these oases the centre of gravity is at the


geometrical centre of the body, which in oase (v) is the
xpiddle point of its axis.

VlI.^aifonB Mangnlar luBlaa.

Let ABO be a unifonn triangular lamina, and D the E


middle points of the sides BO and AO respectively, and let
AD and BE intaraeot at O.
Divide the triangle into an indnifie number of thin stripe
by lines parallel to BO, and let PQ be any such strip. 3%iB
ean be treated ae a Idkin uniform rod iriiose 0.G, ia at its
168 INTEBMBDIATS 8TATI08

middle point. Now if 0 be the point of inteneotion of PQ


with the median AD, since POQ is parallel to EDO,
PO AO OQ
BD'" ad'" DO
But BD * DO. Hence PO *= OQ. Thus the mid-point of
the' strip PQ, which is its O.G., lies on AD. Similarly the

C.G. of every strip parallel to BO will lie on AD, and so


the O.G. of the entire lamina lies on the median AD.

Exactly in the same way, by dividing the lamina into


thin strips parallel to OA, we can show that the O.G. of the
entire lamina also lies on the median BE.
Thus the required O.Q. of the triangular lamina is
the common point of inUrsection of the medians, t.., the
centroid of the triangle.

Erom Geometry we easily see that O divides each of


the medians in the ratio 2 : 1, i.e., it is the point of triseo-
tion of the medians.^

^
lamina
'Cor. The centre of gravity of
is identical
a unifosm triangular
with thoA of any three equal particles
I at its vortices.

For, let tc, 10 , fo be the weights of any three eqnal


{^iflles plOlB^ at the vertices A, B, 0 xA the fetiangnlar
laiqjliio. Now the resnltant of the equal weit^ts to at B
ai^ieatCiB2coatI>, ihenu^dlepointoffiO. Again, the
CENTR8I OF GBAVITY 169

resultiant of 2w at D and A acts at a point O on AD,


where
AO OD *
: 2 : !

Thus the G.Q. of the three particles is at which is the O


points of triseotion of a median, and is thus exactly the
same as that of the uniform triangular lamina ABO.
Note. If W be the weight of the uniform triangular lamina, we
may replace it by equal weights iW, iW, iW at the vertices instead of
placing any three equal weights there, in which case not only the O.G
would be unaltered, but also the magnitude of the resultant weight.

The weight of a uniform triangular lamina is therefore statically


equivalent to that of three equal particles, each of one-tfnrd the total
weight, placed at the vertices,

10'6. Illustrative Examples.


Ex. 1. ABOD is a quadrilateral whose diagonals AC, BD intersect
at 0, If a point E be taken in BD, such that BE OD, show that the
C.O. of the triangle AEG is the same as that of the quadrilateral ABOD,

[ C, U. 1936 ]

Let F be the middle point of BD. Then rince OD, we have


BO*^ED, and accordingly F is the mid*poixit of OE as well. Let 0%
be the point of AF such Ukat AOi GtF2 1. Then Gi is the 0.0.
: :

of the triangle ABD, as well as that of the triangle AOE. Similarly


170 mrEBMEDlATE BTATIOS
being the point on CF euoh that OQ^ : Q^F^^ : 1, is the

O.G. of the triangle CBD as well COE. Let and


as that of be
the perpendicular distances from A and Con BD. Then the weights
of the triangles ABD and CBD, being in the ratio of their areas, are
as ipi.BD : ip,. BD^pi p,. Similarly, the ratio of the wdghts of
;

the triangles AOE and COE is also p^ :pa.

Now the whole quadrilateral ABCD is composed of the triangles


ABD and OBD whose weights act at Ci and 0^ and are in the ratio
of J?i : Hence dividing CiC, at O such that
Jpft. Oi G CC, ap^
: : p,,
O is the O.G. of the quadrilateral ABCD.
Again, the triangle AEG is composed of the triangles AOE and
COB whose weights also act at Gi and C, and are in the ratio pi pa* :

Hence the O.G. of the whole triangle AEC is exactly the same point
0 on CiCa where GiG GQ^^^^ :pi. :

Hence the result.

Ex. 2. A triangular lamina ABC hangs at resU one of the angles A


hevng sifppcrfed at a fixed point. Find the angle which the lower side

makes with the horison.

D being the mid-point of the lower side BC, the O.G. of the triangle
lies on AD. Now as the lamina hangs in equilibrium under the weight
acting vertically downwards through G, and the reaction at the point
of support A^ those two forces must be equal and.ppposite, acting in
the same straight line. Thus AQD must be v^cal.
If d\be the lequhed inclination of BC to the horisoUf the
CENTRE OF OBAVITT 111

BD-DO, . BinB^D Bin 042)


Now * AD AD rin4BDda^0D*
Bin (90^^g-B) Bin (90*-fg"0)
Bin B sin O
*

QOS (g + B) ^cos (g -*0)


'

Bin B Bin 0
COB B cot B-flin B'^qob B cot C+ein B,

tan 0i(ootB-oot 0). d*tan 5(oot B-cot 0).

Examples on Chapter X(a)

1. Show that the C.G. of a uniform triangular lamina


issituated at the same point as that of three equal particles
placed at the mid-points of its sides.

2. The sides of a uniform triangular lamina are 5, 6


and 7 inches respectively. Find the distances of its C.G.
from the shortest and longest sides.

8. The distances of the vertices of a uniform triangular


lamina from a straight line in its plane are Zi, z 99 Find
the distance of its C.G. from the line. [ C. U. IQA? ]

4. If a particle is placed at each vertex of a triangle,


the mass of each particle being proportional to the length
of the opposite side, prove that the centre of mass will be
the in-oentre of the triangle.

6. E, are the mid-points of the sides BO, OA, AB


F
of the triangle ABO. Masses mi, are placed at
A, B, 0 and masses Uu 1* 9 o.re placed at 2>, B, F.
,
If
the two systems have the same O.G., prove that
ma ^ mg ,

6. If three men support a heavy triangular board of


weight W
at its three comers, compare the weight supported
by each man.
7* A given weight is placed anywhere on a heavy
uniform triangular lamina ; show that the centre of gravity
of the system lies within a certain triangle. [ 0. 17 1927 ] .
;

in nrTXBMxmjsm

S.Sladiheloimfiof tlieCI0.o(lKiM)^ btee


1b fixed end (i) 'trhoM veiiieil 0:1^ Is ipwa,
vertex moves <m a given etzeis^t line*
w sdiAie

9. A tmifoim vrire ie beot into thA lorn el


Show that if ibs 0 G. odnmcles wi& ilaab of thAesea of bhe
tiimigle, the triaDgle ie egnUateral.

10.li the 0.0. of a gnadrilatezid lamina ooinoideB with


(i) that of four egnal iiartieleB placed at its angular points,
(ii) the point of intersection of the diagonals, show that
the gnadrilateral mast be a parallelogram.

11. A triangle of nniform rods of different densities has


its O.G. at

(i) the oiroom-oentra

(ii) the in-oentre

show that in the first case, the densities are iiroportional to


seo A, see S, seo 0, and in the second case, they are
proportional to ooseo* iA, ooseo* iB, coseo* iO.

12. Three rods of unequal length are joined together


to form a triangle ABO. If the masses are egnal, prove
that the G.G. coincides with that of the area. If the masses
of the sides a, b, e are proportional to b + e a, e+a~b,
a+b~c, prove that the O.G. is the in-oentre.
18. A nniform wire 24 inches long is bent into the shape
of a triangle ABO, the sides BO, OA, being as 3 4 6.AB : :

Particles of weights p, q, r are placed at A, B, 0 and it is


found that the G.G. is unchanged. Prove that.

p g r9 8
: : ; : 7.

14. A
thin uniform wire is bent into the form of a
triangle ABO
and heavy particles of weights P, Q, re S
placed at the angular points. Prove that if-the centre of
mass of the particles coincides with that of the wire, then
s..
omtVMB at GMnrr m
U. A kbin tmiform wixe it btnt into iriaa^ 4B0,
'Btoft that its 0>G. it tha tMta at that of tbtee wtightt

16.
*MOd at A, 0 ireq^ivoly, wbwo , h,

c are the leDHtht of the tides SO, OA, AS. C 0 fX 1948 ]

A win
bent into the fonn of a triangle
it
of Bidet (A lengths a, Store that the dietanoet of the
b, e.
17.of the whole triangle ficom the tides an at
O.G.

b+e .
e+a a+b^
[ P, U, 1940 ]
a '
b '
c

AS and AO are two nniform rods of lengths 2a and


9b respeotiTely. If /LBAG^9, prove that the distanoe
from A of the O.G. of the two rods is

(o* + 2tt V+ cos OH- 6*)*


[ 0. U, 1939 3
0 6

18. ABO is a triangular lamina ;


points D, E, P an
taken in BC, CA, AB snoh that

^ OE AF
do''ea''fb'
Prove that the O.G. of the triangle DBF is the same as
that of the triangle ABO.

19. to 6 + o, c + o, a+6 are jdaeed


MapnAB proportional
at the points A, B, C ot e triangular lamina, when o, 6, c
are the sides of the triangle. Show that their O.M. is at
the in-oentn of the triangle joining the mid-points of the
sides of the triangle ABO.

20. Three heavy particles an placed at the angles A, B,


0 e triangle, their weights being as a : 6 : c. ^ Show that
of
the distanoe of the O.G. of the particles firom A is

26e cos jA
a+b+6
176 INTEBMEDIATX 8TATI0S

10*7. Determination of centre of gravity in apeeial


casea (continued).

Vin. A nnilonn trapezimn lamina.

Let ABCD be a aniform lamina in the form of a trape-


zium, whose parallel sides AB and CD are of lengths
2a and 2b respectively.
Let h be the height of the trapezium, w the weight per
unit area of its surface, and let P
and Q be the mid-points
of AB and CD respectively.
The trapezium is composed of three triangles, DAP,
CPB and PCD whose weights are clearly idhto, iahw and
i.2bhw respectively.
So far as the weight of ADAP
is concerned, we can
replace it by three weights fabw each at D, A, P. Similarly
the other two triangles can be replaced by iahw at each
of C, P, B
and ibhw at each of P, C, D.
We thus get iahw + ihhw at each of D
and 0, iahw
at each of A and B, and (iahw + iahw + ibhw) at P.
The two equal weights at D and 0 give rise to a result-
ant ihw(a+2b) at Q, the mid-point of CD. Similarly the
two equal weights at A and B give a resultant iahw at P.
We thus finally get a weight ihw (a + 2b) at Q and a weight
ibw (2a + b) at P as equivalent to the weight of the given
lamina.
The required O.G. therefore is at a point O on PQ such
that PG G0-(o+2b)
: : (2o+b).
CENTRE OE GRAVJTr 177

IX. A imlform tottd tetrahedros.

Let ABOD be a uniform solid tetrahedron.


Let be E
imd and on
the middle point of the edge CD, Gfx
: Q,E.
BE and AE, snob that BG^ : GiB-=2 :
of the tnangnlar faces
Then and G* are the centroids
BCD and ACD respectively.
Divide the trapezium into infimtdy
by planes parallel to the face BCD, and let PQS
such slice which can be treated as a mifoirn
trian^
lamina. Now AB intersecting OB at L, since QLB is
parallel to CED,
OB'
OE~AE ED
L must be the mid-point
and as E it the mid-point of CD.
of OB.
evidently
Again, in the plane AEB. which
intersection of PL and. 4Gi,
and Jgi, if 0 bo the point of

la
178 INTEBMEDIATE BTATI08

sinoe PL is parallel to BE (as planes PQB and BOD are


parallel),

PO AO OL .

BQi." AGi." GtE'

so that
OL^GiE 1

Thus 0 is the centroid of the triangle PQB.


Hence the G.G. of the triangular slice lies on AG^. PQB
Similarly the O.G. of every slice parallel to will lie on BOD
AGi. Thus the O.G. of the whole tetrahedron lies on AG^.

Exactly in a similar way, by dividing the tetrahedron


into thin triangnlar slices by planes parallel to the face
AOD, it can be shown that the G.G. of the whole tetra-
hedron also lies on the line BGg.

Let AGi. and BGg, which both lie in the plane AEB,
intersect at G. Then G is the required O.G. of the tetra-
hedron.

Now AG, G,E = 2 : : 1 = : G^E,


GiG, is parallel to AB.
Thus AG GG^^BG GG,~AB GiG,
; : :

-BE:EGx3: 1.
Therefore the O.G. of the tetrahedron lies on the line
joining any angular point to the centroid of the opposite
triangular face, dividing it in the ratio 3:1.

Wemay note in the case that GG^ iAGi. Therefore


the distance of G from any face is i; of the distance of the
opposite vertex from the face.
Cor. The C.O. of a tetrahedron is' identioal with that of four eguai
partidee plaoed at its verHees.

Xho proof is left as an exeroise to the stndent.


OSNTRS OF GRAVITY 179

X. A unlfonn tolld pyvuiild oa any liMe.

Let 0 be the vertex, and ABODE the polygonal base


ofa uniform solid pyramid, and let 0^ be the centroid of
the base.

By dividing the pyramid into thin similar and similarly


Bibuated polygonal slioes by planes parallel to the base, as
in the previous article, it can be shown that the 0*G. of the
whole pyramid lies on OGi*

Qi to each of the angular points of the


Again, joining
base, the whole pyramid is divided into a number of tetra-
hedrons, for each of which the distance of O.G. from the
base is i of the distance of the vertex 0 from the base.
Hence the combined O.G. of the pyramid is also at the
same distance from the base.

Thus the O.G. of the pyramid is the point 0 on OOx,


the line joining the vertex to the centroid cf the base, at
a distance from the base equal to i of the distance of the
vertex from the base.

It follows that GiGiGiO, or, 00 ; ; 1.


180 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

XL A uniform solid eone of any base, and a uniform solid right


oirenlar eone.

The above result for the 0.6. of a pyramid is true, what-


ever be the number of sides of its polygonal base.

By making the number of sides infinitely large, the base


can ultimately be made to ooinoide with any dosed ourve,
and the pyramid reduces to a cone with any base.

A particular and important case is that of a right


circular cone. Thus we may state the results :

(i) The 0.0, of a uniform solid right cirpular cone is

on the axis at a height i of the height of the vertex from thi

circular base.

(a)The O.G. of a uniform solid cone with any olosec


base on the line joining the vertex to the centroid of thi
is
base, at a height i of the height of the vertex from the base

Thus 00 OOt 3
: : 1 in either case.

Xn. A hollow rl^t elrenlar eone withont base (fotmed of a thi


unllonn sheet).

By dividing the conical surface into an incite numbe


ol circular rings by planes parallel to the circular bass
since the O.Q. of each such ring is at its centre which lie
OEmSE OF QBAVIT7 181

on the axis of the cone, the O.G. of the whole hollbw cone
lies on the axis 00\

Again, di 7iding the conical surface into an infinite


number of triangular elements like OAB, OBO etc. with
common vertex at 0, and infini-
iiebimal arcs of the circular
base (which may be treated as
praciiically straight) as bases,
wo note that for each such
triangle the O.G., being at the
point of trisection of the median,
is at a height i of the height of
0 above the circular base of the
cone, and this is the same for
every such triangle. Hence for the
whole hollow cone, the height of
the O.G. is i of the height of 0
above the base.

Thus the G,G, of the hollow right circular com without


base, formed of a thin uniform sheet, is on the axis 00' at
a height i of the vertex above the circular base.

Thus 00 :
00' = 2 : 1.

Xin. Some other special eases.

We give below, without proof, the positions of the O.G.


in some other special cases for ready reference.

(i) A thin uniform cirenlar arc.


If a be the radius of the arc, 2a the
angle subtended by it at the centre, O
the O.G. is on the radius bisecting the

arc, at a distance a from the centre. ^


a Q
For a semi-cirenlar arc this becomes
183 INTEBMMDIATB STATI08

(ii) A nnitorm landna In the form of a aeetor of

a eirele.

If a be the radius and 2a be the


angle at the centre of the sector,
the O.Q. is on the radius bisecting

the sector, at a distance /*<**

the cmtre.
From a semicircniar lamina thie
becomes

(iii) A uniform solid hemisphere.


If a be the radios of hemisphere,
the O.G. is on the axis of the
hemisphere (t.e., radius perpendi-
cular to the plane base) at a
distance Sa from the cevAre.
(iy) A hemispherical surface
(formed of a thin uniform sheet).
The C.Q, is on the axis at a
distance ^a from the centre,
where a is the radius.

10*8. Analytical determination of C.G. for a system


of material particles.

Case I. When the particles are situated on a straight line.


*i ys
' *
* *
o G X
^t fOi,
10s, be the weights of a system of
Ws,
particles situatedon a straight line, and let their distances
(with proper sign) be St, t, n measured from any
fixed point cm the line chosen as origin.
CENTRE OF GRAVITT 188

Let X be the distance of their O.G., namely ff, from 0.


Now since the position of the O.G. is. the same however
the straight line containing the particles be held, let us
assume the line to be held in a horizontal position. The
resultant of the weights of the particles which' are all
vertically downwards is t(;i + this acts
at G. Hence equating the moment of the resultant about
0 to the algebraic sum of the moments of the components,

(tt?i + Wfi + tOa + '

) i *= WXx + tOa# + Wa^s + **

VM WsXfi + ^ JSwX
+ lUa + Wa +
If mi, ma, ma,... be the masses of the particles, as the
weights are proportional to the masses, we may also write
. Smx
Sm

Case II. When the particles are situated on a plane.

Let Wi, Wsi Wsf- be the weights of a sTstem of


particleson a plane, whose oo'ordinates referred to a set of
fixed reotangnlar axes on the plane are (xi, Vi), (x., y.),

(**.),...

Let iD he the oo<ordinates of their O.G., namely Q.


As the position of the O.G. on the plane is definite, how*
ever the plane may be held, let ns assnme the plane to be
placed horizontally. The resnltant of the weights' of the
164 INTERmmATE STATICS

particles,which are like parallel forces, being all vertically


downwards, is + + and this acts at 0,
Now equating the moment of the resultant about the
l/-azis to the algebraic sum of the moments of the
components,
+ W9+Ws + *) X^WiXi+U02Xtt+fOsXB +
(Wi,

- wiX i + WflT g + + >3gwx


or, X **
tOi + tt^a + Ws + *
I

-Sw
Similarly, considering moments about x^azis,
+ + _ swz,
f
+
w W2 tas + + Sw
If mi, m
2 ms, .. be the masses of the particles, the
,

weights being proportional to the masses, we may also


write
- Smx - Smy
Sm Sm
10*9. Given the weights and C.G. of two parts of
a body, to find the C.G. of the whole body.

Let TTi and Wa be the weights, and Gi and Og the


oorresponding oentres of gravity of the two parts consti-
tuting a body.
Join 0x09, and divide it internally at G
in the inverse
ratio of the weights acting at its extremities, so that
OxOlOGa^WaiWx:
Theresultant of the weights Wx and Wa, which ate
bcULvettioally downwards, and are therefore like parallel
foWlB Wx + W, acting at O.
OENTBB OF OBAYITT 180

Thus G is the point where the resultent weight of the


whole body acts, however the body, and aeoordingly the
line GiGa is placed.
Thns G is the required O.G.
It may be mentioned that if the distances of G^ and Ga
from some ohosenjtoint 0 on the line GiGi be Xx and (Eg
then the distance x ot G from 0 is given by
- WjXi+WaX,
* TTx + Wa
Note. When the parts are portions of a thin uniform sheet,
the weights may be taken propotional to their surface areas. If they
are parts of a uniform solid, the weights may be taken proportional
to their volumes. If parts of a uniform thin wire, the weights may be
taken proportional to the lengths.

10*10. Given the weights and C.G. of a whole body,


and also those of a part of it, to find the C.O. ot the
remaining part.

Let W be the whole weight and G the centre of gravity


of a body, and Wt the weight, and Gx the C.G. of a part
of it. Then the weight of the remaining part is Wi. W
Let its O.G. be at Ga.
Then W actingat G
being the resultant of Wi
acting
at Gx and W- Wx acting at Ga, which are like parallel
forces, Gx, G, Ga must be on the same straight line, Ga
being on the opposite side of G, with respect to Gx, and
GxG :GGa~(W-Wx): Wx,
GG, _
Wx
W-Wi GxG.
:

le INTERMEDIATE STATICS

This gives the position of Ogt the required O.G. of the


^remaing part.
Analytically, if Xi and x be the distances of Oi and O
measured from any suitably chosen point 0 on the line
joining them, the required distance X2 of from 0 is
given by

^ W^x^ + (W-_W^)x2 W, xr + (W-Wi)x2


""Tri + (TF-Tri)
" W
Wx-WxXx
x^
,
whence,

This result for determining x^, giving the position of G29


may be interpreted as follows

Assume W
acting at G and a negative weight Wt acting
at (?i, and use the analytical formula to find out [the
resultant O.G.

Note. The note given below the previous article applies here also.

10*11. llluBtrative Examples.


Ex. 1. distances of the angular points and the point of
The
intersection of the diagonals of a plane uniform quadrilateral lamma
from any line in its plane are a, 6, c, d and e ; show that the distance
of its C,Q, from the same line is

^(a+b+c+d'^e),
A

The quadrilateral is made up of the two triangles ABD and CBD


e

CENTBE OF GBAVITY 187

whose weights Wt ftnd are proportional to their areas, and thus


if AM and CN be perpendiculars from A and C on BD,
Wj_^iAM,BD AM AE (a*-s)oo8eo6l o
oosec

[ 6 being the angle made by ilBC with the given line ZY. ]

(i)
a-e e-e
Now the weight of the triangle ABD can be replaced by weights
il^ii iWit iWi at A, B and D, and similarly that of the triangle
CBD by weights iTTa, iTT#, iTTa at C, B, B.

Thus the weight of the quadrilateral is equivalent to those of


particles of weights iW^ iCTTi + Tr#), JTFa, KlTi + TFa] at A, B, C
and D respectively. Thus the distance of the required O.G. from the
given line XY is
a*i Wi+(h'd)\(Wx'^W^'c,\ W<i
1 .1 i<i-)+(b+d){a-e+e-e)+e (e-e) ^
.

3 (o s) + (e c)

^ 1 c*) c (g c)+(6+dKo""c)
*8* g-c
*=1 (g+c s+b+d)"" J (g+6+c+d s).
Ex. 2. ABCD is a uniform rectangular lamina in which AB^^a,
BC^b, and a > b. A triangular portion OBE is removed, where E is
a point in AB such that BE'^b,
Show that the distance of the C.G.
of the remainder from AB is
b(Ba-b)
3(2g-b)
and find also its distance from AD,
The whole wdght W of the

rectangle is gbv, where cr is the
^
surface density of the lamina, and the 0G. is at G whose distances
from AB and AD are ib and id respectively*
Again the weight TTt of the removed portion OBE is and its

O.G. is at Gx whose distances from AB and AD are easily seen t6 be


ib and (g-ib) respectively.
188 INTERMELIATS STATICS

Now asBaxniDg a whole weight W at O, and a negative weight Wj


at^Gi, the dietanoe of the required G.G., namely Gg, from is

given by
- aha,ib~ biha'^j b) b (8a b)
(a-J6) *3 (2a -6)
"*
abff-ib^a
Also the distance of Gg from AD is given by
. _ alxr.ia-ibV.fa-iW ia*-46(a-i6)_3a* -8a6+6V
a6<r-J6*<r (S-tW " 8(to-l>)
Ex. 8. A square hole punched out of a circular lamina,
is the

diagonal of the square being a radius of the circle* Shew that the

centre of gravity of the remainder is at a distance


_ a
8v-i
from the centre of the circle, where a is its diameter*
[ Allahabad, 1945 ; U. P* 1945 ]

ff being the surface density of the lamina, the weight of the


whole circle, is iira'o, (a being its diameter), and the C.G. is at the
centre G.

The square portion punched out having a diagonal - its side is

a
and its weight is therefore -la^s*, the O.G. being at Gg where
2 s/2
1
GGg. ja.

The weight of the remainder is therefore iira*0'-ia*<r, and if its

G.G. be at Gg, we get, since the resultant O.G. of the two weights at
Ox and Gg is at G,
|a*<r (3ir*l).GGj |^*tf.GGj

.
Shr-l 4{a-n 8*-4
OJSNTBE OF QBAVITY 189

Ex. 4. WnghU of 1, 2^ 8, 4, 5 a%& B lbs, aro placed at the an^gulcur

pointa of a regular hexagon of aide 12 inches, taken in order. Find the

distance of their C,0. from the centre of the hexagon,

A, B, C, D, E, F being the angular points of a regular hexagon


where the weights 1, 2, 6, 4 5, 6 lbs. are placed respectively, we know
from Geometry that the diagonals AD, BE, CF bisect each other at 0,
the centre of the hexagon, and that Oil, OB, 00 etc. are all equal,

each equal to the side of the hexagon* 12 inches.

Now wts. 1 lb. at Aand 1 lb. at D are equivalent to 2 lbs. wt. at 0.


Similarly 2 lbs. wt. at B and 2 lbs. wt. at E are equivalent to 4 lbs. wt.
at 0, and so also 8 lbs. wt. at C and 8 lbs. wt. at F are equivalent to

6 lbs. wt, at 0.

Thus the given system is equivalent to 12 lbs. wt. at 0, and 8 lbs.


wt. each at D, E and F, Again ODEF is a rhombus, and so DF and
OE bisect each other at 3, and so 8 lbs. wt, at F and 8 lbs. wt. at D
are equivalent to 6 lbs. Wt. at 3,

Thus ultimately, the given system is equivalent to 12 lbs. wt. at 0,


6 lbs. wt. at 3
and 8 lbs. wt. at E, and so the combined O.G. of the
system is on the line OE at a distance i from 0, where remembering
that OiZf *12 inches and OH* 6 inches,
- 12X0+6x6+8x12_79 inches.
12+6+8 "*21 8 1
Ex. 5. A pile of six rupees rests on a horieontal fablep weA each
rupee projects the same distance beyond one below it. Find Use greatest
190 JNTEBMEDUTB STATICS
poM>U korinmial distance between the centres of highest aeid lowest
rupees. [ p. 0. 2937 ]

Let r be the radius of a rupeei W Its weight, and let x be the


distance which each rupee projects beyond the one below it. Then
referred to he centre of the lowest rupee as origin, the horizontal
distances of the centres of the successive rupees above it are respectively
X, 2Xf Bx, 4a! and bx. Thus the hrizontal distance from 0 of the
combined G.G. of the five rupees above the lowest is
^_Wx+W,2x+W.Bx+W,4x+W.5x -3
*- ^
^
and in order that this system may be balanced by the reaction of the
lowest rupee, the combined O.G. of the upper five rupees must be
vertically above the surface of the lowest, not going beyond it. For
this, the condition is

8>r, or, >Jr.


Hence the greatest possible horizontal distance between the centres
of the highest and lowest rupees is the greatest value of 6x namely f r.
It may be noted that this condition also ensures that the combined
O.G. of any lesser number of rupees from the top will remain verti-

cally over the surface of the next lower rupee, and there is no chance
of overturning at any place.

Examples on Chapter X(b)


1. Paitioles whose masses are 1 lb., 2 lbs., 3 lbs., 4 lbs.,
and 6 lbs. are placed at the points (4, 0), (3, 4)> ( - 5, 4),
(0, - 6} and ( - 6, 0) respeotirely. Hnd the oo-ordinates of
their O.G.
2. Find the O.G. of a uniform senate plate ABCD of
weight 10 lbs. together with weights of 20, 30, 40, 50 lbs.
pla^ at its four oomers A, B, C, respeotirely. D
[o.u.ms]
CENTRE OF CRAVlTr 19X

S. If masses proportional to 1, 5, 3, 4, 9 and 6 are


placed at the vertices of a regular hexagon, taken in order,
show that the centre of mass is at the centre of the
hexagon.
4. Find the O.G. of particles of weights 3, 5, 7, 1, 6 and
11 lbs. placed successively at the angular points B,
C, B, F of a regular hexagon.

5. Find the O.M. seven equal particles placed at the


angular points of a regular octagon.

6. At each of n - 1 of the angular points of a regular


polygon of n sides, equal particles are placed. Show that
the distance of the O.G. from the oiroum-centre of the

polygon is
~^ , where r is the oircum-radius.
w 1
7. Find the C.M. of three equal rods each of length 2a
forming the consecutive sides of a square.

8. Find the O.M. of the perimeter of a quadrilateral


two of whose sides of lengths 6 inches and 14 inches are
parallel to one another, while the other sides are 8 inches
long.

9. Having given the positions of three particles A, B, C


and the positions of the O.G.s of B, C and C, A find the ;

O.G. of A, B.

10. Show that the O.G. of a quardrilateral is the same


as that of four particles of equal weights placed at the four
corners, together with a fifth particle of equal but negative
weight placed at the intersection of the diagonals.

11. ABOD a quadrilateral lamina whose diagonals


is
intersect at L and
; N
are points on the diagonals AO
and BD respectively such that AM^CL
and BN^^DL,
Show that the O.G. of the quadrilateral ABOD coincides
with that of the triangle LMN.

12. Prove that the centre of gravity of a uniform


triangular lamina of mass If, bordered with a thin uniform
nm of mass t, and loaded with a particle of mass im at the
in-oentre, is at the centroid of the triangleu
;

192 INTEBMEDIATE STAT108

13 A uniform rod, 18 inohes long, is bent so that the


Jiwo parts 8 and 10 inohes long respectively are at right
angles to one another. Find the distance between the O.M.
of the new shape and original.

14.A square ABCD is divided into four equal triangles


by diagonals which intersect in 0
its if the triangle OAB

be removed, find the centroid of the remaining portion


of the square.

15. The sides of a parallelogram A BOD are bisected, and


the points of bisection of the opposite sides joined. If these
lines meet at 0, and if the small parallelogram AO be
removed, find the 0.0 of the remainder.

16. 27, Et F
are the mid-points of the sides BO, OA,
AB of a triangle ABO. If the triangle DEF
is removed,
show that the G.O. of the remainder will coincide with that
of the whole triangle.
O is the 0.0. of the triangle ABO. If the triangle
17
OBO be removed, find the distance of the 0.0. of the
remainder from A.
18. From a uniform triangular lamina ABO, a portion
PBO is removed. Find the position of P so that it may be
the centre of gravity of the remainder.

19*In the triangle ABC, O is the point of intersection


of the medians AD, BE, OF. If the portion AFOE
is
removed, show that the 0.0. of the remainder is on atDO
a distance n DO
from D.
20. The middle points of two adjacent sides of a uniform
triangular lamina are joined and the lamina is out in two
along the joining line. Find the 0.0. of the larger portion.
[ 0. U. m2 ]

21. ABOD a trapezium in which AB and OD are


is
parallel and of lengths a and b respectively. Prove that
the distance of the 0.0. of ABCD from thq side AB is
h
3 a+6
h being the height of the trapezium. [ 0. U. 1944 ]
CENTRE OF QBAVItT 198

22. From a ABOt a portion ADE, where DE is


triangle
removed. If a and b be the distances of A
parallel to J30, is
from BO and DE
respectively, show that the distance of
the O.G. of the remainder from BC is

^0.U.1938}

2S* equal triangles be cut from the comers of a given


If
triangle lines drawn parallel to the corresponding opposite
by
sides, the O.G. of the remainder will coincide with that of
the triangle.

24. If from a triangle ABO, three equal triangles ABQ,


BPB, OQP be cut off, the O.G.*s of the triangles ABO and
PQB will be coincident.

25. O is the O.G. of a uniform quadrilateral plate, O' is


the O.G. of four equal particles placed at its corners, and 0
is the intersection of its diagonals. Prove that 0, O, O' are
collinear, and 00' 300'.
26. A lamina in the form of a regular hexagon ABCDEF
has its centre at 0. If the triangular portion OAB be
removed, find the O.M. of the remainder.

27. A
square ABOD
is divided into two parts by joining
A to E, the mid-point of BO. Prove that the line joining
the O.G. of the triangle ABE
to that of the quadrilateral
ADCE is perpendioular to AE.
28. From a thin uniform triangular board ABO, the
portion constituting the inscribed circle is removed. Prove
that the distance of the O.G. of the remainder from the
side a is

A
3cks s-wA
A being the area , and 9 the semi-perimeter of the board.

29. From a uniform circular disc of radius r, is cut


out a circle which passes through the centre and whose
diameter is ir. Find the 0G. of the remainder.
[O. U.1940}
18
194 INtmmEDUTB STATICS

80. In a nnifonn oircular disc of radios B* a ciroolar


^hole of radios r is ponohed oot, the distance between the
two centres being c, where r+c JS. <
Show that the O.G.
of the remainder is at a distance

or*

from the centre of the disc.

81* A sqoare is described externally on a side of an eqoi-


lateral triangle. Find the G.G. of the area of the combined
figore.

32* A thin oniform wire is bent into two coplanar


ciroolar rings of radii r, r , tooohing each other externally.
Find the distance of its centre of gravity from the point of
contact. [ C. V. 194*6 ]

38* A
piece of oniform wire is bent into three sides of
a sqoare ABODof which the side AD
is wanting. Show
that if it be hong op by the two points A and B
soccessi-
vely, the angle between the two positions of BO is tan**^ 18.

84. AB, BOt CD


are three eqoal thin oniform rods firmly
jointed at and G, the angles ABO and
B BOD
being each
120^. The system is sospended from the point A, Show
that ODis horizontal.

86* The centre of gravity of a hollow right ciroolar


cone closed by a base, made of a thin oniform sheet, is the
same as if the cone was solid. Prove that its vertical angle
is 2 sin"^ i.

86* A oniform solid right ciroolar cone whose height


is dooble of the diameter of the base, is hong op from a point
on the rim of the base. Show that its axis makes an angle
of 45'' with the vertical.

87* A booy is formed of a oniform thin sheet of metal


in the form of a hollow cone standing on a hollow hemi-
sphere with a common Ij^ase. Find the vertical angle of the
conei so that the combined O.Q. may be at the centre of
the hemisphere.
axNTBX OF ffjurnr 196

What would be the eotrespoBding result if the ooue and


ihe hemisphere were both sdid ?

38. A solid right eiroular cylinder is attached to a solid


lemispbere of equal base. Find the ratio of the height of
ibe cylinder to the radius of the base so that the combined
j.G. may be at the centre of the base.

39. From a solid right circular cylinder, a solid right


siroular cone on the same base is scooped out. Find the
ratio of the height of the cone to that of the cylinder if the
3 .(t, of the remainder is at the vertex of the cone.

40. From a uniform


right circular cone whose vertical
ingle is 60, the greatest possible sphere is scooped out.
Find the ratio in which the O.Q. of the remainder divides
ihe axis of the cone.

41. A frustum of a cone is formed by cutting off the


upper portion of a solid right circular cone by a plane parallel
lio the base. The radii of the parallel circular sections being
12 and r, and h the height of the frustum, show that the
leight of the O.G. of the frustum from the base is

h + 2B + 3r*
l? * -
'

4 E + Br+r*
42. A is laid on a table, and each card
pack of cards
projects inthe direction of the length of the pack beyond
he one below it
; if each projects as far as possible, show
:hat the distances between the extremities of successive
iards from the top will form a harmonioal progression.

Answers
1. -8 , 0.
2. The O.Q. divides the line joining the middle points of AB and
"Of in the ratio 19 : 11.
t. On OF, dividing it in the rato 6 ; 97, whets 0 is tiu centre of
he hexagon.
> 6. If d be the nnoconpied angnlar point, and 0 the oentce, the
eqnited 0.0. is in AO produoed at a distance \AO from 0.
196 INTHEMEDIATE STATICS

7. At a distance from the centre of the square, on the line from


Ahe centre perpendicular to the middle rod.

8. In the line joining the middle points of the paralld sides,

dividing it in the ratio 11 : 7.

0, Gi and being the G.G.*b of B, C and C, A, if AGi and BO^


intersect at G, the required O.G, of A, B is at the point of intersection
of AB and OG.
18. -V- n/2 inches.

14. OG"^i OEi where OGE is porpendioular to CD,


15. On OC at a distance iOC from 0. 17. ( AO.

18. P is the middle point of the median AD,

20. The O.G. divides the line joining the middle points of the parallel

sides in the ratio 4 : 5, being nearer the base.

26. On the perpendicular ON from 0 on DP, at a distance


from 0.

29. At a distance ^ from the centre of the disc on the line joinintr

the centre of the disc to that of the hole, produced backwards.

81, At a distance a ^om the vertex of the triangle, on the

line from the vertex to the centre of the square, where a is the side oi

the triangle.

8L r-f*. 7. a ooB- :
60*.

88. 1 : .Ji, 89. {8


- .Ji) : 1. 40. 49:11.
CHAPTER XI
WORK AND POWER
in. Work.
A force is said to do work when its point of application
moves in the direction of the acting force, and the work done
by a force, acting at a point of a body for any time, is measure
ed by the product of the force and the displacement of the
point of application of the force in its own direction^

Fig. (i) Fig. (2)

Lei; a force P be aotiing


on a body at A in the direction
AX for any time, and let A move to B daring the interval.
If ilfi be in the direction AX, as in fig. (i), the work done
= P,AB, and is positive. If the displacement AB of A is in
a direction opposite to that of P
as in fig. (ii), the displace-
ment measured in the direction of is ^ AB, and the work
P
done by the force here * - P.AB, which is negative.

If the displacement AB be in
a direction differebt from the direction
of the force, say making an angle 6
'With AX as in fig. (iii), the displace-
ment measured in the direction of
P is AN^AB cos 0, and in this case
we Fig. (iii)
get more generally

Work done by P "P-AB cos AB.P cos 0


Force component of displacement of its point of

application along the line of action of the force

or, Displacement ^ component of the force along the


direction of displacement
198 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

Evidently, the work done is poeitive or negative accord-


ing as 9 is acute or obtuse.
Cor. In particnlac if 6^90"^^ the work done is eero, i.e., no work is
done by a force if the displacement of its point of application is per-

pendicular to the line of action of the force.


If the displacement or its component is in a direction opposite to

that of the acting force, work is said to be done against the force

11*2. Units for measurement of work.


When a force equal to the weight of one pound displaces
itspoint of application through one foot in its own direction,
the amount of work done is defined to be one Foot-pound.

This is usually the unit of work used in Statics in the


English system.
When a force equal to the weight of one gramme dis-
places its point of application through one centimetre in
its own direction, the amount of work done is defined as
one Qramme-centlmetre.
This is the unit of work in Statics in the Frencli
system.

11*8 Theorem I. The algebraic sum of the works dcm


by a number of coplanar forces acting on a particle^ for any
displacement of the particle^ is equal to *the work done

their resultant.

Let the particle be displaced from 0 to J, and let the


farces Pi, Pa,... inclined at angles Oi, wiiljf OA act
)

WOJRK AND POWER 199

on ife. Let B be the resultant of the forces inclined at B


with OA.
The algebraic sum of the works done hy the forces
^Pi cos 9i OA + Pa cos 9a OA +
. .

- OA (Pi cos 01 + Pa COB 9a +


OA X algebraic sum of the resolved parts of the
forces along OA
=0A^ the resolved part of the resultant along OA
-OA^B ooB 6
work done by the resultant.

Theorem IL The work done in raising a number of


particles from one position to another Wh, where W is the

total weight of the particles^ and h is the distance through


which the centre of gravity of the particles has been raised.
Let wx, Wi,...Wn be the weights of the particles so that
Tr==wi + tt;a + * +
In initial position, let x%t (Tii be the distances of

the particles and x that of their O.G. from a fixed hori-


zontal plane (measured positive upwards), so that

Wl +to* + +
or, Wi*i + >*a;a + **' + tOnrn'I^.. (l)

In the displaced position Let a*'.,... x'n be the


distances of the particles and x' that of their O.G. from the
same fixed plane, so that
^ Pix'i + w.x'i
< +
-/ voiflt'n

+IP. +
+w
or, Wix'x + lo.x'* + + v>^ TT.S'. (2)

Subtracting (1) from (2),

wi - Xi) + w. (x * - x.) +
(x'l + * (x - XlJ
* TFiy-x) Wh.
2

900 INTEBMEDIATS STATICS

Sinoe x\ - ^Ti, w ' a;8... are the heights through which


t^e particles have been raised, left side represents the total
work done in raising the particles.
Hence the resnli.

Note. It sbould be noted that in the above result tbe work done
is quite independent of the path by -v^hiob tbe particles are displaced
from one position to another.
If tbe 0 G. of tbe system is lowered, instead of being raised, h is
negative, and so tbe work done against tbe weight is negative, in other
words, positive work is done by tbe weight.

11*4. Power. When an agent (say a man or a machine


or an engine) is doing work continuously, the rate at which
it does work per unit of time is defined to he its power.

The
unit of power in Statics is a Foot-pound per second
in the F.P.S. system, and a Gramme-centimetre per second
in the O.G.S. system.

The above unit, being very small, is not suitable for


practical purposes ; so engineers use a higher unit called
a Horse-Power.

When an agent is doing work at the rate of 550 foot^


pounds per second^ it is said to have one Horse-power.

The word Horse-power is usually abbreviated into H.P.

Note. This estimate of tbe average power of a horse was arrived


at by J. Watt by experiment.

irs. niustratlve Examples.


Ex. Eird the Horw-Power 0/ an engine that would empty in
48 minutes a cylindrical well full of water, if the diameter of the well
is 14 ft., its depth 40 ft., and if water is raised by pumping to a level

ground 70 ft above the surface of the well. [ C. U. 1946 ]

Volume of water volume of the cylinder


-irx7*x40-Vx49 x 40ou. ft.
WORK AND POWER 201

Sinoe one onblo foot of water weighs 62} pounds,


.* its weight V- X 49 x 40 x 62} lbs. wt.
886000 lbs. wt.
The 0.G-. of a solid cylinder is at half its height.

Hence initially the height of the O.G. of the water above the
bottom of the wells 20 ft., and finally it is 70+ 40, i.e., 110 ft.

*. the height through which the G.G. of the water has been
raised = llO - 20, i.e. , 90 ft.

Hence the work done 385000 X 90 ft.-lbB.

Let X be the reqd. H.P. ; then the work done by the engine in
48 minutes a; x 48 x 60 x 550 f t.-lbs.

fl:x48 x 60 x 650d85000 x 90.


. 8850 00 X 90 176 .-7

48 x 60 x 660 8 ^^8*

Examples on Chapter XI
1. Find how many foot-ponnds of work is done in
pushing a mass of 10 lbs. through 5 feet up a smooth ineline
of 1 in 10.

'
2. Show that the work done in drawing a body up
a smooth inolined plane is equal to the work doue in lifting
the body through the height of the plane.

3.Find the work done in piling over one another fire


bricks, originally lyingflat on the ground, haring giren
that the thickness of a brick is 3 inches and its weight
10 lbs.

4. A load of one ton is suspended by a rertical chain


100 ft. long, the chain itself weighing 6 lbs. per foot. How
many foot-pounds of work is done in winding up the load
to the top ?

6. A shaft, the horizontal section of which is a rectangle


10 ft. by 8 ft. is to be sunk 100 ft. into the earth. If the
arerage weight of the soil is 160 lbs. per cubic foot, find the
work done in bringing the soil to the surface.
tP. u. im]
aoa INTEBiaiDIATX STATICS

6. In digging a circular well of radins S ft. and of depth


20 ft., 12 ft. of clay and later 8 ft. of sand were taken out.
Find the work done in raising the materials to the surface,
assuming that one onbio foot of clay and one cubic foot of
sand weigh a lbs. and b lbs. respectively. [ P. U. 1988 ]

7. A tower is to be built of brick-work, the base being


a rectangle whose external measurements are 20 feet by
10 ft., the height of the tower 132 ft., and the walls 2i ft.
thick. Find the number of hours in which an engine of
S H.P. would raise the bricks from the ground, the weight
of a cubic foot of brick-work being 12 lbs.
[ 0. U. 1942 ]

8. There are 37 steps in a staircase, and on every step


except the highest is placed a marble ball weighing 4 ounces.
If each step be 8 inches high, find the work done in carrying
all the balls to the top of the staircase.

9. A horse draws a carriage 11 miles along a road


with a constant force of 42 lbs. wt. and takes 70 minutes
to perform the journey. Compare his power with a horse-
power.

10. The Darjeeling mail has a maximum speed of


60 miles per hour. If the total resistance then be the
weight of 1 ton, find the horse-power of the engine.
[ 0. D. 1982 ]

11. 'What is the E.P. required for a motor-car which


weighs 3000 lbs. and can run at 30 miles an hour against
an air resistance equal to scth of its own weight ?
[ 0. V. 1948 ]

12. Calculate the H.P. of an engine which takes


90 minutes to pump out water from a rectangular well of
length 20 ft., breadth 15 ft. and depth 100 ft. to the level of
the top of the well. [ One cubic foot of water weighs
62-6 lbs. ] 1 0. 17. ms ]

18. A well of which the section is a circle of diameter


14 ft. and depth 206 ft. is half full of water. Find the worir
done in foot-pounds in pump^g out the water to a level 4 ft.
WOBK AND POWNB a08

above the top of the well in 10 minntes, and oaloolate the


average horse*power of the pnmpmg maohine. [ 0. U. 1986 ]

14. An engine of 12 H.P. working 8 honrs a day enpplies


2000 houses with water which it raises to an average height
of 40 ft. !Find the supply of water to each hoose.

15. A man whose weight is 11 stone climbs a pole at


the rate of 15 inches per second. Show that he is working
at jnst over i H.P.

16. A cage containing coal of total weight cwt. is W


being raised from the bottom of a coal-mine whose depth is
& feet, with the help of a wire-rope weighing w lbs. per foot.
If the work is done in t minntes, find the H.P. of the
engine employed.

Answers
L 6ft.4bB. 5. 351t-lbB. 4. 354000 ft.-lbs.

5. 6xl0^ft..lbs. 6. 73*- (Oa+iet) ft.-lbB.

7. 33 hours. 8. Ill ft..lbs . 183 ; 135.

10. 8561 H.P. 11. 8H.P. 12. 143^ H.P.


18. 15718S987i ft.-lbs. ; 476,^11 H.P. 14. 3876 Iba daUy.

16 .
S34W+ti d
66000 i
CHAPTER XII

MACHINES

12*1. Machine and its nse.

Any contrivance, or arrangement of bodies fitted


together, so as to be in a convenient from to apply force at
one point in order to overcome a resisting force acting at
another point, is called a Machine.

The former force is called the Effort (or Power), usually


denoted by P, and the latter, Besistance (or Weight), usually
denoted by W. In Statics we are chiefly concerned with
finding the relation between the effort and the resistance
when there is equilibrium.

That by using a machine we can counteract one force


by another, differing from it in magnitude, point of applica-
tion, or direction, or in all three, is evident from the follow-
ing familiar oases.

For example, by using a single pulley a bucket of water


t

can be raised to a great height by a person standing on the


ground. Here the effort, though equal to the weight to be
raised, is applied more conveniently as a downward force.
Again by means of an Inclined Plane, a heavy body can
easily be raised through a great distance, the effort required
being less than the weight raised. A pair of To^igues enables
us to apply a force in a more convenient form, though the
effort is greater than the resistance in this case.

In the present chapter we shall discuss the working and


properties of some simple types of useful machines :

(i) the System of Pulleys


(ii) the Lever
(iii) the Common Balance
(iv) the Steelyards (Boman and Danish)
(v) the Wheel and Axle. /
MACHINES m
The principle and use of an inclined plane has already
been illustrated in many examples in the previous chapters,
and accordingly we need not deal with it heifO separately.

In the following discuBsions, for the sake of simplicity,


we shall suppose that the machines are perfectly smooth
and rigid, and all ropes and strings used in their working
are light, inextensible and flexible.
s

12*2. Principle of Work*


In the working of a machine two kinds of resistance are
overcome viz,, (l) those which the machine is specially
designed to overcome and (2) those which are due to the
internal adjustment of the different parts of the machine
friction and weights of the component parts of the
machine. The former are called useful, and the latter
wasteful resistances. It should be noted however that
wastefal resistances can never be wholly eliminated even in
the case of most delicate and highly finished machines. In
elementary investigation of simple machines the wasteful
resistances are usually ignored, and it is the effort which
balances the weight in such a machine. Hence the general
principle of work in Statics, in this particular case for
a machine, can be stated as follows :

If in a machine, friction, and weights of component parts


are neglected, the work done by the effort for any assumed
displacement of the system, is always equivalent to the work
done against the resistance.

This principle may sometimes be used to work out the


relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine,
as will be illustrated later.

12*8. Machanical Advantage^ Velocity rntiq. and


Efficiency.

(i) The ratio of the two forces, Besistance and Effort

exerted on a machine to balance one another, is called the


206 INTEBMEMATE STATICS

Mechanical Advantage (or Force-ratio) of the machine.


Thus

* Mechanical Advantage
Resistance W
Effort P
and Besistanoe * Effort x mechanical advantage.

Almost machines are so constrnoted that the effort


all
exerted is than the resistance overcome. Hence,
less
mechanical advantage is usually greater than unity. But
there are machines, as already mentioned, for which the
effort is equal to (as in case of a single pulley) or sometimes
greater than (as in case of a pair of tongues) the resistance,
and this really amounts to a case of mechanical disadvant-
age. Mechanical advantage is often abbreviated as M.A.

(ii) When
a machine is worked, if u and v are the
velocities, and x and y are the displacements of the points
of application of the effort and the resistance during a given
time, then u:v is defined as the velocity ratio of the
machine.*

Obviously, uiv^xiy.
. j
Dista nce through which P moves
veociyra
through which W moves
From the Principle of work, we have
P X distance through which P moves
* TT" X distance through which W moves.
Dista nce through which P moves
P Distance through which W moves
Thus, in an ideal machine whose parts are weightless
'land in which there is no friction,

Mechanical Advantage Velocity Batio.

(iii) In practical machines, where there is friction, or

other wasteful resistances, the effort will have to do some


work in overcoming these, the work done by P will
X

MAOEINEB 307

exceed that done against TF. The work done by the moving
forces inovercoming nsefnl resistance is called uieful work,
and the work done in overcoming wasteful resistance is
termed lost work.

The Efficiency of a machine is measured by the ratio

useful work hy themaoTiim^


work supplied tothe machine

Efficiency is usually less than one and is often expressed


as a percentage, but, in an ideal machine where there is no
friction etc., efficiency is unity.

If X and y are the distances moved through by the


points of application of and P W
respectively,

inir W I Mechanical Advantage

Le., in general,

Mechanical Advantage^ Velocity ratio x Efficiency.

I, PULLEYS
12*4. A Pulley consists of a ciroular plate with
a groove cut along its circumference so as to receive
a string and to prevent it from slipping off. It can turn
round freely about an axle passing through its centre and
perpendicular to its plane, the ends of this axle being
held by a frame called the block. A pulley is said te be
fixed or movable according as the supporting block is fixed
or movable. When the weight of ^ a pulley is found yeir
small in comparison with the weight it supports, it is
neglected, and in such a case the pulley is often called
a weightless pulley. The weight of the string that passes
round the pulley, being very small, will always be neglected
and the pulley will be considered to be perfectly smooth,
so that the tension of the string passing round it is constant
throughout its length.
208 INTBBMEDIATE STATICS

12'6. Single fixed pulley.

In this case the weight W


is fastened to one end of the
string while the effort P
is applied at the other end. The
portions of the string on the two sides may be parallel as
in fig. (i), or inclined to each other as in fig. (ii).

In both the oases, for equilibrium position, TF= P, since


each is equal to the tension of the string.

Mechanical advantage
W
^ 1.

Thus, in this case, the effort exerted is equal to the


weight overcome hence there is no mechanical advantage.
;

The only advantage is that it enables us to apply the force


in a convenient direction.

If the pulley be weightless,

in fig. (i), pressure on the fixed support


-P+ W+ W^2W
in fig. (ii), pressure on the fixed support
P cos 0+ W cos fi2Tr COB 0
where 20 is angle between the direction of P and W.
Note. That Tf P can also be Aown by taking moment about the
centre of the pulley. /
21ACBINE8 309

12*6. Hrrt flyfttftm nf Pnllftys, {Beparaie^string system)


In this system, there is
a number of movable pulleys
eaoh of which is supported by
a separate string passing below
it, one end of which is attached

to a fixed support, and the


other end, except for the string
round the highest pulley, is
attached to the block of the
next higher pulley. Effort is
applied to the free end of the
last string passing round the
highest pulley. The weight is
suspended from the block of
the lowest pulley.
In order to apply the
effort as a downward force,
an additional pulley is very
often kept fixed in the sup-
porting beam over which the
free end of the string passes. It should be noted that
this pulley does not form an essential part of the main
system in the sense that it does not contribute anything
to the mechanical advantage.

Relation between the Effort (or Power) and the Weight


Let Ax, be the pulleys beginning from the lowest,
ils,...
Tx, T2, be the tensions of the strings passing
round them and let W
be the weight and P the power. I^t
us suppose the portions of strings not in contact with
the pulleys to be vertical. The string passing round any
pulley pulls it vertically upwards on either side, and the
next higher, vertically downwards.

Case L
Let the weights of the pulleys be neglected.
Oonsider the equilibrium of the pulley Ax the forces \

acting on it are the two upward tensions^ eaoh equal to 2*1


on either side of it, and the weight W
acting downwards*

14
0 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

Since the forces acting on the pnlley Aa are the two


upward tensions, each equal to Ta, and a downward tension
equal to Tj,,

hence as before,

ar*- Tx. 2gi2'i=^Tr.

Similarly,

22, = Pg. 28=i2'g-^Tr.

II
CD
II U

If we have 4 movable pulleys, as in the figure,

2 4 -p.

/. p-Aw.
Similarly, if there be n morable pulleys, we shall

have TT.

mechanical advantage
w 2"
.
^
which obviously increases with the number of pulleys.

Gate II. Weights of the pullevs considered.

Let Wi, Wg,... be the weights of the pulleys Ax, Aa,


Oonsidering the equilibrium of the pulleys Ax, Aa,
if we have n pulleys, then,

2ri- TT+Wi,
aP*** Tx + v>a
2Ta^Ta+t0a

SPn * 2-i ^
and lastly, for the free end of the highest string
p-r*.
uAOEmm m
Mulidplying the equations snooessively by 1, 2, 2. 2,...
2^ and adding, we have ultimately
2**P* Tr+(wi + 2w;9 + 2*W8 + + 2**"'^f>w)
which gives the relation between P and W,
If the pulleys be all equal, each of weight w,
2"P- Tr+(l + 2 + 2* + + 2""^) w
Tr+ (2" -!)?.
Hence it follows that the mechanical advantage WiP
depends upon the weights of the pulleys.
Note 1. From the above equation, it is clear that the greater the
freights of the pulleys, the greater must be P to raise a given weight
PT, and so the mechanical advantage would be diminished. Hence
pulleys should be made as light as possible.
Note 2. This system is called separate-string system because each
pulley in this case has got a separate string passing round it.

Application ol the Principle of Work.

The above relation between P and W can also be


deduced from the principle of work.
Suppose the end to whioh^
of the string is applied, P
moves through a distance x in the direction of P. By
this, it is easily seen that the uppermost movable pulley
would be raised through a height ixt the next lower pulley
through a height and so on, the lowest pulley and

weight being raised through a height


^ x, in case of

n movable pulleys. Hence from the principle of work (when


weights of the pulleys are neglected)

Px^W.^x, P-^W.
If the weights of the pulleys are taken into oonsi*
deration,

i*.- + + '+Wn .

2''P- W+ (wt + 2w. + i'lo, + +2"w).


sua nrPEBUEDIATE STATIOB

12*7, Second Syston of Pnlleys. {Single-string


svstm)

Kg, 0) Kg. (ii)

In this system there are two blocks, each containing


pulleys, the upper block being fixed to a support, and the
lower block, which has the weight to be raised attached to
it,being movable. The same string passes round all the
pulleys. If the total number of pulleys be even, divided
Into equal number is each block (as in Eig. (ii)), the string
most be fastwied to the upper block ; but if the total
number of pulleys be odd, the number in the upper block
win be one greater than the number in the lower block (as
in Eig. (ii)9, and the String most be attached to the lower
91S

block. In both the oases, the strmfii DUBW ntemately over


a fixed pulley in the upper block and under a movaible pulley
in the lower block, the radii of different pulleys being such
that the portions of the string not in contact with a pulley
are rertical. The effort is applied as a downward force at
the free end of the string after it passes over the topmost
pulley.

Relation between Effort and Weight.

Let W
be the weight supported and w the weight of the
lower block with its pulleys.

It is easily seen that if n be the total number of pulleys


used in the system, whether n be odd or even, there will be
portions of string supporting the lower block. Since the
same string passes round all the pulleys which are smooth,
the tension in each portion of the string is the same, being
equal to the effort P applied at the free end. Since the
lower block is supported by n parallel forces each equal
to P, we have
W+v> = nP.
When the weights of the pulleys are neglected
W-P.
Hence, in this case, the meohanioal advantage'^
P
AppUeatlon of the Principle of Work.

Suppose the total W


(and consequently the whole of the
lower block) is raised through a distance a. Then each of
the n portions of the string supporting the lower block will
be slackened by the length x, and the total Imgth of
the string slaolmned being ns, P must descend through
a distance na; to keep the string taut.

.*. by the principle of work,


(Tr+w)a?*P.m*, TF+tt>"P.
Note. This system is oaliad tgstm beoause a slngla
Btdng passes mnnd all the pulleys.
214 INTERMEDIATE STATI08

12*8. Third System o t Pulleys ( Inverted separate-string

system).
This system consists of
several pulleys of which the
uppermost is fixed to a beam
and all the others are movable*
The string passing over any
pulley has one end attached to
a bar from which the weight is
suspended, and the other end
attached to the next lower
pulley. The effort is applied at
the freeend of the string passing
over the lowest pulley.

Relation between Effort and


Weight.

Let At. ie. ^^8,be the


movable pulleys beginning from
the lowest, and B the fixed
pulley, and let Tt. Tg, Ts* T 4
be the tensions of the strings
passing round them. Also let
W be the weight, and P the effort. We shall Buppose M
the pulleys to be
portions of the strings not in contact with
Tertical. and that there is no friction.

Oa$e I. Weights of the pulleys neglected.


the free
"Biom the equilibrium of the system, considering
end, and also the pulleys Att Aa,..., we have

Ti-P
and ra2ri2P
ra=2r,2*p
r4-2Z,-2*P.

Again, from the equilibrium of the bar from


which the
MAosmEa ai5

weight is saspended, (the bat being supposed of ne^igible


weight),
TT- Ti + T, + Ts + T*
P+2P+2*P + 2*P
-(l + 2 + 2* + 2*)P-(2*-l)P.
If there are n pulleys, of which the upper one is fixed
and (n - 1) movable, we have similarly)

TT* T+ Ta+ Ta + ** +
- P + 2P+ 2*P+ + 2*"*P
= (1 + 2 + 2* + + 2*"^)P
= (2*-l)P,
by summing the series which is a G.P.
w
mechanical advantage-^"Z'~l

which obviously increases with the number of pulleys.

Case II. Weights of the pulleys considered.

Let the weights of the movable pulleys Ax, Aa,... be


toi, to,... respectively.

Oonsidering the effort at the free end, and also the


equilibrium of the pulleys in succession, we have

Z'i =P
2,-2ri+t0i = 2P+t0i
T* 22* + to# * 2*P + 2tti +
Tt 22* + We 2*P + 2*Wi + 2>* + w*

Erom the equilibrium of the bar,

TF'-2i + r* + r* + 2'*
-(l + 2 + 2* + 2*)P + (l + 2 + 2*)wx + (l + 2)wa + Wa
-(2*-l)P + (2*-l);i + (2*-l)wa+Wa.
+

816 JNTEBMEDUTE STATICS

If thore are n pulleys of which the upper one is fixed,


and the rest moyable, we have similarly,

W2i + 2', + - + !Z
'
(1 + 2 + 2* + + 2)P + (1 + 2 + 2* + 2"*) Wi

+ (1 + 2 + 2* + + 2*) vot +
+ (1 + 2) w.a+Wfi.i
(2** - 1) P + (2""*^ - 1) >i + (2* 1) Wg +
+ (2* - 1) -* + (2 - 1)
If the pulleys be all equal, each being of weight to
so that tOito* "'ton-x*,

W- (2* - 1) P+ {2 + 2* + - + 2*^ - (n - 1)} to

-(2-l)P+i(2-n}io
by summing the series in G.F.

Note 1. From the above equation it is clear that the greater the
weights of pulleys, the smaller is the effort P required for a given
weight W.

Note 2. In this system, unless the point in the bar from which
the weight is suspended is properly chosen, the bar will not remain
horizontal. In any particular case, the point can be easily deter-
mined.

Note 8. As in the case of the first and second system of pulleys,


in this case also the relation between effort and weight can be obtained
by the principle of work.

12*9. niostrative Examples.


Ex. 1. A **first
system*' of pulleys consist of ^ pulleys^ each of
toeight 6 lbs., and the string passing romd the top-most pulley passes
over a fiaed pulley. With what force must a man of weight 220 lbs. pull
at the free end of the string in order to balance himself, suspended
from the lowest pulley f [C. U. 1946 ]

The man being suspended from the lowest pulley, and himself
pulling at the free end of the string, let P lbs. wt. be the pull exerted
at the free end, and W lbs. wt., the downward foroe exited by him at
MA0HINE8 217

the lowest pulley. The reactions at these two ends balance his total
weight, so that

P+Tf220 ... (i)

Again, P and W clearly serve as the efiort and the weight balanced
by the system of pulleys in this case, and as the pulleys have equal
weights, we get as in Art. 12*6, Oase II,

2^P-^7+(2-l).8.
U., 16PT7+120. ... (ii)

From (i) and (ii), we get

17P840, or, P*20 lbs. wt.

giving the required pull at the free end.

Ex. 2. A mem whose weight is 154 lbs, raises a body of 3 ewL by


means of a system of pulleys in which the same rope passes round all the
pulleys^ there being four in each blocks and the rope being attached to
the upper block. Neglecting the weights of the pulleys^ find what mil be
his thrust on the ground if he pulls vertically daionwards, [ C7 U, 1944 ]

Here we have the ^'second system" of pulleys.


The number of strings at the lower block2 x48.
Since the weights of the pulleys are neglected, if P be the efiort,
8P 3 owt. * 3 X 112 lbs. wt.

/, P42 lbs. wt.

The thrust of the man on the ground is clearly the difierence

between his weight and the pull he exerts.

the reqd. thrust* 154 lbs. wt. 42 lbs. wt.*112 lbs. wt.

Ex, 8. In the third system of pulleys, if the weight supported be


66 lbs,, each movable pulley, of which there are 8, weighs 1 lb*,

and the radius of each pulley including the fixed one be a, find the
point in the bar from which the weight must he suspended in order that
the bar may rdinain horieonial*

Taking the figure of Art, 12*8, let Z, L, M, be the points N


of attachment of the strings in the bar beginning with the longest
+

918 INTEEMEDIATE 8TATIC8


(extreme left), and X the point from which the weight is suspended.
Obviously Now, as in Art. 12*8, Oase II,

66 lbs. wt. TT ITj + Ta + T, 2*4

*(2*-l)l>+(2*-l)wi+(2*-l)tt^+w,
= 16P+ (7+3+1) lbs. wt., since *1 lbs. wt.

.*. 15P>b 45 lbs. wt. *. P31bB. wt. (!)

Thus, 2*1 *P* 3 lbs. wt., lbs. wt.,

2,-2r.+Wa-16lb8.wt.

Now, for the equilibrium of the rod, taking moment about


jV XE*^ P3.2A+ Pj. 3ft,
or, 66.ZX-(16+14+9).fl38a.

XK^li=iia.
Hence the weight mast be attached to a point in the bar at a distance
j{a from the point of attachment of the longest string.

Examples on Chapter XIKa)

1. If in the first system of pulleys, the number of


weightless pulleys be seven, find the weight which can be
raised by an effort 16 lbs. weight. [ 0, U, 1936 ]

2, The number of movable pulleys in a first system is


three and the sum of the power and weight is 90 lbs. If the
pulleys- are weightless, calculate the power. [ 0. U. 1947 ]

8. If in the first system of pulleys, the power = 80 lbs.,


the weight - 16/s owt., and the weight of each pulley 2 lbs.,
find the number of movable pulleys in the system.

4. In the system of pulleys in which each pulley hangs


from a fixed support by a separate string, the weights of the
three movable pulleys are 6, S and 1 lbs. respectively begin-
ning from the lowest. What weight will a power of 6 lbs*
weight support ?
;

6. MACHINES 219

In a gystem of pulleys in which each pulley hangs


by a separate string, there are three pulleys of equal weight
the weight attached to the lowest is 32 lbs., and the power
is 11 lbs. Find the weight of each pulley,
6. In raising the weight two inches by the first system
of pulleys, five feet four inches of string pass through the
hand. Find the number of the pulleys, assuming their
weights to be negligible.

7. In the first system of pulleys, show that, whatever


be the weights of pulleys, the equilibrium will not be affected
by increasing the effort, load, and the weight of each pulley
by the same amount.

8. In the first system of pulleys, if the weights of the


n pulleys, reckoning from the one nearest to TF, increase
in a geometric progression, the common ratio of which
is 2, prove that

P=
J+|(2-2-)
where w is the weight of the lowest pulley,

9. In the first system of pulleys, in which there are


10.
three movable pulleys, the weights of the pulleys beginning
from the highest increase in arithmetical progression down-
wards, and a power P supports a weight W, The pulleys
are then arranged in the reverse order, the highest being
placed lowest, and it is found that the interchange of and P
W maintains equilibrium. Prove that
3(Tr+P) = 2TFi,
where TFi = total weight of the three pulleys. [ C. t7 . 1941 ]

In the first system of pulleys, the weights of the


n pulleys beginning with the highest are in A.P., and a power
P Buports a weight W;
the pulleys are then reversed,
the highest being placed lowest and so on, and now and W P
when interchanged are in equilibrium. Show that
2W^^n{W+P\
where TTi is the total weight of all the pulleys.
220 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

11. In the firstsystem in which there are four movable


pulleys, each of weight w, if P be the effort (supposed to act

upwards) and 22 the stress on the beam, then

12. If in the first system of pulleys, is the P power


(acting upwards), W
the weight, and B
the stress on the
beam from which the pulleys hang, show that
(1-2"^0TF<22<(2'-1)P,
n being the number of pulleys in the system.

18. In the first system in which there are 4 weightless


movable pulleys, a man of weight 10 stone hangs from the
lowest pulley and supports himself by pulling at the end
of the string which passes over a fixed pulley. With what
force does he pull the string ?

the above case, the pulleys instead of being weight-


If in
less,be all of the same weight 8 lbs., what would be the pull
on the string ?
14. A man weight 136 lbs. standing on the floor pulls
of
at the power end system of 4 weightless pulleys.
of the first
If the weight suspended be eight times the weight of the
man, what is the pressure of his feet on the floor ?

16. If there be twelve pulleys divided equally between


the two blocks in the second system of pulleys, find the
weight which a power of 10 lbs. wt. will support, the weights
of the pulleys being neglected.

16. A second system of pulleys has 6 pulleys in the


upper block and 4 in the lower. How many times his own
weight can a man raise by this machine, if each block
weighs i\;th of his own weight ?

17. The cable by which Great Paul, the bell weighing


18 tons, was lifted to its place in the cathedral tower,
passed four times through each of two blocks' of pulleys of
negligible weight. Find the strength of the cable.
MAOEmBB m
18. la the second system of pulleys, a weight of 7 lbs.
supports a weight of SO lbs., and a weight of 9 lbs. just
supports a weight of 44 lbs. Eind the total number of
pulleys in the system, and the weight of the lower block.

19. In the second system of pulleys, unless the ratio of


the weight of the lower block to the suspended weight
be less than the number of strings in the lower block
diminished by unity, show that there is no mechanical
advantage.

20. It is required to lift a weight of 10 cwt. with


four pulleys each weighing 8 lbs. Would you prefer the first
or the second system as being more advantageous ?
[ 0. U. 1938 ]

21. A man weighing 10 stone raises a load of 6 cwt. by


means system of light pulleys, there being
of a single string
G pulleys in each block. Eind the thrust of the man on
the ground, and the stress on the supporting beam.
[B. E. 1986, dOl

22. By the second system of pulleys having three


pulleys in the lower block and the string attached to that
block a man standing on the ground supports a weight of
6 stone (including that of the lower block and the pulleys),
and the pressure on the ground exerted by his feet is
128 lbs. wt. Eind the maximum additional weight he can
support.

23. A man standing on the ground raises a weight of


1 ton by meansof two blocks, each containing three pulleys,
and each block, with the pulleys on it, weighs 10 lbs.
Eind the thrust on the beam from which the upper block is
suspended, and the least weight of the man.

24. In the second systmn of pulleys, a platform is


suspended from the lower block. A man of weight W,
standing on the platform, supports himself by exerting on
the string a force equal to P. If n be the totel number of
m INTEBMEDIATE 8TATIC8

pulleys in the system, and mW the weight of the platform


and the lower block together, show that

Pw + 1*
25. Draw a system of pulleys with parallel strings by
means of which a force may balance a weight seven times
as great. [ 0. U, 1928 ]

26. In raising a weight by (i) the first system, (ii) the


third system of pulleys, which is the more advantageous,
to have the pulleys heavy or light ?

27. There is one system of pulleys in which as the


weights of the pulleys increase, the mechanical advantage
increases. What is that system ?
28. If in the third system there are three movable pulleys
such that the weight of each is equal to the power, show
that the power will support a weight 26 times as great as
itself.

29. In the third system in which there are three


movable pulleys of weights 1 lb., 2 lbs., 3 lbs., respectively,
find the greatest and the least weight which can be kept in
equilibrium by the power of 10 lbs. wt., the pulleys being
arranged in order.

80. In the third system in which there are four pulleys


of equal size (of which one is fixed), each of weight 1 lb., find
the effort required to support a weight of 161 lbs. Aiso find
to what point of the bar the weight must be attached, so
that the beam may remain horizontal.

81. In the third system there are n weightless pulleys,


each Show that the distance of the point of
of radius a.
application of the weight from the line of action of the
2**
effort is gn^'na.

82* In the third system of weightless pulleys, if the free


3lfACEINE8 32d

end of the string round the lowest pulley be attached to


the bar from which the weight is suspended, show that the
tension of the string is diminished in the ratio 2** - 1 2**. :

8S. If the weight of the lowest pulley, in that system


of pulleys in which all the strings, n in number, are
attached to the weight, be equal to the power P, of the
next lowest, to 3P, and so on, that of the highest movable
pulley being 3*^ prove that TT : = S* - 1 ; 2. P
There are three movable pulleys of weights iVi, w 21
34.
Wb system, and the force P then balances
in the third
a loadTT when the first and second pulleys are interchanged,
;

then a force P' balances the same load. Show that

P-P' _ 4
15

35, A man
weighing 126 lbs. supports a weight of
106 by means of four pulleys of which one is fixed, in
lbs.
the third system. Find bis thrust on the ground if the
masses of the movable pulleys beginning from the lowest
are 1, 2 and 3 lbs. respectively. [ C. U. 1940 ]

Answers
1. 2046 lbs. wt. 2. 10 lbs. wt. 8. 6. 4. 25 lbs. wt.

5. 8 lbs. wt. 6 . 5. 18. 81V lbs. wt. ; 16^ lbs. wt.

14. 68 lbs. wt. 15. 120 lbs, 16. Sfjs times his own weight.

17. 2} tons wt. 18. 7 ; 19 lbs. wt. 20. First system,

21. 84 lbs. wt. ;


728 lbs. wt. 22. 64 stone.

28. 2636 lbs. wt ; 875 lbs. wt. 25. Second system, with 7 pulleys.
4 in the upper and 3 in the lower block, or third system with 3 pulleys.

26. Light in the first system, and heavy in the third system.

27. Third system. 29. 178 lbs., 166 lbs.

80. 10 lbs. wt ; the point required divides the distance between the
first two strings (passing over the two topmost pulleys) in the ratio
5; 3. 85. 120 lbs. wt
.

fi24 INTEBMEDIATS STATICS


IL LEVERS
12*10. A Lever is a rigid rod, sfcraight or curved,
movable in one plane about a fixed point in the rod. The
fixed point is called the fulcrum^ and the parts of the lever
between the fulcrum and the points of application of the
effort and the weight are called the arms of the lever.

When the arms are in the same straight line, the lever is
called a straight lever ;
in other cases, it is called a b&nt lever
Straight levers are usually divided into three classes
according to the positions of the points of application of
the effort and the weight with respect to the fulcrum.
Class I. In levers of the first class the effort P and the
weight W
act on opposite sides of the fulcrum C.

A crow-bar used to raise a heavy weight, a poke, used to raise


coals in a grate, etc. are levers of the first class ; and scissors, pincers
etc. are double levers of the first class.

Class IL In levers of the second class the effort P and

the weight W
act on the same side of fulcurum 0^ the
weight being nearer the fulcrum.
MAcmms 235

The oar of a boat is a lever of the second class and a pair of


nutcrackers is a double lever of this class.

Class III. In levers of the third class the effort P and


the weight W act on the same side of the fnlornm C, the
effort being nearer to the fulcrum.

W
An example of a third class lever is seen in the human forearm
raising an object placed in the palm of the hand, the efiort being in
this case the tension in the ligament near the joint . a pair of tongues
is a double lever of this type.

Equilibrium conditions and mechanical advantage of a straight


Lever.

If the weight of the lever is neglected, then in each of


the above three cases, the lever is in equilibrium under
the action of three forces, the effort P, the weight and W
the reaction B
at the fulcrum. Hence must be equal B
and opposite to the resultant of P and TT.
In Class I B * P + TT
In Class II B * TF- P
In Class HI B P - TF.
Again, as the resultant of the parallel forces P and TF
acts through C,
P.A<3- TF,BC.

.
' . mechanical advantage
W ^ AO
P BO
Thus, the levers of Class I generally and those of
Class II always have got mechanical advantage, whereas
15
JNTEBUfJSDIATE STATICS

the levers of Glass III have got mechanical disadvantage.


The levers of third class are used to apply force at a point
where the direct application of the force is not convenient.
If the weight of the lever is taken into consideration,
the equation for equilibrium may be written by taking
moment about the fulcrum, the moment of the weight of
the lever being also added.

III. THE COMMON BALANCE


12*11, The Common Balance.
The common balance is an instrument for determining
the weights of bodies. It consists of a straight uniform
beam AB, having two scale-pans of equal weight suspended
from the two ends, and turning freely about a fulcrum 0
outside the beam but rigidly connected to it.

In a perfect balance the fulcrum and the centre of


gravityG of the beam (with its connected parts) both lie
MACHINES m
on theline which bisects the beam perpendicularly, so that
when the beam is horizontal, 0, O and the mid-point 0
of the beam are in the same vertical line AO and BO ;

are called the arms of the balance.

The beam is horizontal when no weights or equal weights


are placed on the scale-pans. The body to be weighed
is placed in one of the scale-pans, and weights of known
magnitudes are placed in the other till the beam is hori-
zontal. If the balance be true {i,e. perfect), the sum of the
known weights gives the weight of the body.

Note. The common balance is a lover of the first class.

12'12. Requisites of a good balance.

The requisites of a good balance are

(i) it true, i,e., the beam should remain hori-


must be
zontal when no
weight, as well as equal weights are placed
in the scale-pans.

For this, it is necessary that

(a) the arms of the balance must be exactly equal

(&) the weights of the scale-pans must be equal

(c) the O.G. of the beam including the rigid connections


must be on the line through the fulcrum perpendicular to
the beam.

To test the truth of a balance, we first see that the


beam is horizontal when the pans are empty. Next a body
is placed in one scale-pan and such weights are placed in
the other that the beam is horizontal now if the contents
;

of the pans being interchanged, the beam is still found to


be horizontal, the balance must be true. If in the second
case, the beam is not horizontal, the balance is said to be
false.

(ii) it must be sensitive, i.e., for a very small difference

in the weights of the contents of the scale-pans, the beam


should be inclined to the horizontal at a perceptible angle.
323 JNTERUEDIATE STATICS

(iii) it must be BtahU, the beam, with the pans


empty, must quickly return to its horizontal position, when
disturbed.

Mote 1. In a good balance a rod or a pointer called the tongue is

attached perpendicular to the beam at its middle point, and as the beam
OBcillatefi, the pointer moves against a graduated scale. Bince it is

vertical when the beam is horizontal, by its help the determination of


sensitivenesB and stability of a balance becomes easier.

Note 2. A balance is said to be faulty in every respect, if it is not


true in every respect i,e, (i) if its arms are unequal in length, (ii) Us
Bcale-pans are unequal in weight, and (iii) the G.G. of the machine
is not on the perpendicular from the fulcrum on the beam.

12*13. Position of equilibrium of a balance with


unequal weights in the scale-pans.

w,+ s

Leti C be the middle-point of the beam AB, O, the 0.0.


of the beam with its rigid connections, and 0 the fulcrum.
Let OO-^KOG^k.
Let 8 weight of each soale-pan
TT- weight of the beam
TTi, weights placed in the pans at A and B res-
pectively, and let TTi TTs. >
a length of each arm, so that AO^CB^a.
Let 6 be the inclination of the beam to the horizon in
the position of equilibrium.
MACHINES 229

The horizoniial distances ot A, and from B 0 0 in this


position are easily seen from figure to be a cos 9 -% sin 9,
a ooB B + h sin B and (Ji + k) sin B respectively.
The beam is acted upon by the following forces :

Wi + 8, Wi + S, vertically downwards and J5, at A W


vertically downwards at and the vertical upward reaction
at 0.

Hence, for equilibrium, taking moments about 0, we


have
(TTi + S){a cos 6 - ft sin 0) Tr(h + fc) sin B
+ {W2 + S)(a cos B + h Bin 0),

(TTi W^aQOB 0 = siu 0 [TF(/t + i) + (TFi + W 2 + ^S)h].


{W^ - Trg)fl
W{Jh + k) + {Wt + W2 + ^S)h
Note 1. The lesuU shows that if 0^0, i.o., the beam
can rest only in a horizontal position.

Note 2. It shonld be noted that i! h and Tc were both zero, i.e., if

the O.G, of the beam and the fnloram coincided in the line AB^ the
beam could rest in any position when equal weights were put in the
pans, and could rest only in a vertical position if the weights were
different.

Note 8, For a given difference Wx " of the weights on the


pans, the greater the value of d, the more sensitive is the balance.
Thus /or a balance to be sensitive, a must be large, and h and k both
small, i.e., the arm should be long, and the fulcrum and the of the
beam as near the beam as possible, but not exactly coincident with the
centre of the beam (see note 2 above).

Note 4. If Wx and TT* be removed, while the inclination of the


beam to the horizon is 6, the moment about 0 of the acting forces,

tending to restore the beam to its horizontal position is, from the
figure,

8{a cos e+h sin B)+ W(h+k) sin d-N to cos d-h sin d)

-sin d {2h8+(h+k) W)
and for this to be large, h and h should be large ; in other words.
INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

a balance is stable for which h and k are large. Thus if a balance is

more stable, it will be less sensitive, and vice versa.

12*14. Double weighing.


Method 1. Firet plaoe the body to be weighed in one
scale-pan and in the other put suitable material (such as
sand, brick-chips, etc.) sufficient to balance the body. Next
remove the body, and in its place put weights of known
magnitudes sufficient to balance the brick-chips. The weight
of the body is obviously the sum of the weights.

This IS known as Borda*s method of double weighing.

Method IL The weight of a body is observed by placing


it successively in the two scale-pans. If the weights are
found to be exactly the same in both oases, the observed
weight is the true weight of the body and the balance
is true. This method enables us to test the truth of
a balance.

IV. STEELYARDS
12*16. The steelyards are also levers of the first kind,
with graduation marks on them, used for weighing goods,
in which the necessity of keeping a number of weights is
obviated. There are two kinds in common use

(i) The common (or Boman) Steelyards, having


a fixed fulcrum.

(ii) The Danish steelyards, having a movable


fulcrum.

12*16. The common (or Roman) Steelyard.

It consists of a straight steel lever AB


having a fulcrum
at a fixed point 0 near one end A. At A there is a hook
or a scale-pan in which the body to be weighed can be
placed, and a movable weight P
slides along the arm CB
which has graduations marked on it. After an article has
been placed in the scale-pan, the movable weight is shifted
along OB until the beam is horizontal and the mark at X
MACHINES S81

where fche movable weight rests, indicates the weight of the


article.

Graduation.

Let W'
be the weight of the steelyard and the scale-pan,
and let O be the point
of the beam through which acts.
The steelyard is usually constructed in such a way that its
O.G. is on the shorter arm. When there is no weight in
the scale-pan, let 0 be the position of the movable weight
P for which the beam is horizontal. The mark of the
graduation at 0 is then zero. Taking moment about C for
this case,
P.OG^W'.OO. ... (i)

Next put a weight W


in the scale-pan, and let be the X
new position of P
for which the beam is horizontal. Then
taking moment about C, we have,
P.XC = W. AO +1^.00 ... (ii)

Bubtraoting (i) from (ii), we get


P.OX- W.CA.
.. OX-^CA. ... (iii)
332 INTEBMEDUTE STATICS

Now if we measure off distances OXi, OXt, OXg,...


along OB, equal to OA, 20A, SOA,... and write 1, 2, 3,...
for Xi, Xs, Xs,... these graduations give the points for
wUoh the weight of the body placed in the pan is P, 2P,
3P,...

It should be noted that the graduations are of equal


length and if the movable weight P
is taken as 1 lb. (or
1 seer), the graduations obtained would indicate pounds (or
seers). If smaller graduations are required, these divisions
can again be divided into suitable sub-divisions.
Note 1. The dlstanoes of the saceessive graduations from the
fulomm are in A.F.

Note S. Weight-Bridge is a modified form of this machine. It is


generally used in railway stations for measnring the weights of heavy
luggages.

12*17. The Danish Steelyard.

The Danish steelyard consists of a lever AB whose


fulcrum C is movable. At one end B, there is a lump of
metal as a knob, and at the other end A there is a hook or
a pan where the body to be weighed is placed. The beam
is graduated and the weight of an article placed in the scale-
pan is ascertained by observing the mark of graduation of
the point at which the fulcrum must be placed so that the
beam should rest horizontally.
233

Graduation.

LgIi P be the weight of the beam ancTTire pan, acting


through the point 0 of the steelyard. It is obvious that
the zero graduation is at 0, since the fulcrum must be at O,
when the beam balances in a horizontal position without
any weight in the scale-pan.

Let C be the position of the point where the fulcrum


must when there is a weight W^nP
rest (say) in the scale-
pan, and the beam balances horizontally.

Taking moment about 0, we have

nP.AC^P.GC
P.(AO-AC).

AC^
n+1
Thus, the successive graduations for n**!, 2, 3,... etc.
are at points Oi, Ca, Ca,..., whose distances from A are

UG, HO. UG,...


If we mark 1, 2, 3,... for Oi, Oa,... these graduations
give the points for which the weights of the body on the
pan are P, 2P, 3P,... respectively. If P
be equal to 1 lb.
the graduations indicate pounds.

Note. Since H. P., the distances of the successive


i, J,... are in
graduations fiom the point from which the scale^pan is siLspended are
%n jET.P.

V. WHEEL AND AXLE


12*18. The Wheel and Axle.
This machine consists of the axle AS, in the form
of a cylinder, capable of rotation about a fixed horizontal
axis CD, and a wheel EF^ rigidly attached to it, and
therefore rotating about the same axis which passes through
the centre of the wheel and is perpendicular to its plane.
At the ends of the axis, there are two pivots C and D
284 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

resting in fixed sockets. This machine is used for raising


heavy bodies.

A string is wound round the circumference of the wheel


with one end fixed to it effort P is applied at the other end
;

of this string. The wheel is grooved along the circumference


to prevent the rope from slipping off. Another string is
coiled round the axle in the opposite direction with one
end fixed to it the weight;
W
is suspended from the other
end of this string. When effort is applied, the point of
application of P moves down and the string round the wheel
is uncoiled, and that round the axle winds up, so that is W
raised.

Mechanical Advantage.
Let a and h (h >
a) be the radii of the axle and the
wheel respectively. Since the only forces (except the
reaction on the axis) acting on the machine are P and W
which tend to rotate it round the axis OD in opposite
directions, for equilibrium, the sum of their moments round
the axis is zero.

Hence W'.a-P.6 = 0,
t.e., Tr.a = P.6.
.*. mechanical advantage
b ^ radius of the wheel
P a radius of the axle
which is obviously greater than unity.
Note. Meohanioal advantage can easily be increased by making
the radius of the wheel larger and that of the axle smaller*
MACHINES 285

Verilleatioii of the Priaciple of Work.

When the wheel and the axle make one complete


revolution, the length of the string uncoiled from the wheel
is 2nb and the length of the string wound up round the axle
is 27sa. Hence the point of application of moves down P
through a distance 2nb and that of W moves up through
a distance 2na,
. work done by the effort =P x 2nb
and work done against the weight = Wx 2na.
Hence, W x 2m = P x 2nb. . W.a = P.6
as otherwise shown above.
Note. WindlaBs, used for drawing water from a well, and Capstan,
used on board a ship, are different forms of wheel and axle. In the
former the axis is horizontal, and in the latter, the axis is vortical.

12*19. Illustrative Examples.


Ex. 1. The arms of a balance are of unequal length, but the beam
remains in a horizontal pasition when the scale-pans are not loaded.
If a body be weighed, being placed in succession in the two scale-pans,
show that its true weight is the geometric mean between its apparent
weights.

Since the beam remains horizontal when the scale-pans are empty,
the C.G, of the beam with the pans must be vertically below the

fulcrum.

Let a and b be the lengths of the arms of the beam and let a body
whose true weight is W
appear to weigh Wi and Tf, successively.

Then taking moment about tho fulcrum.


for the first weighing, TV. a- TTi . b (1)

for the second weighing, TV. 6= TV* . a. (2)

Multiplying (1) and (2), we have


.
/. Tv= JwTwl
Ex. 2. If the scale-pans are unequal in weight, but the balance is
othenoise correct, find the real weight of a body which appears to weigh
TV| and TV, when placed successively in the two scale pans.
INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

Let Sxt 8^ be the weights of the soale-pftns, a the length of either


arm, and W
the true weight of the body.

Taking moment about the fulorum at the Ist weighing


(TF+5i) fl*(Tri+Sa) a.
(1)

Similarly at the 2nd weighing


(TT+fifj) a (2)

Adding (1) and (2), 217= 171+ W,.


T7=i(17i + T7,).
Ex. 8, The arms of a balance are equal in length hut the beam is
tmjiLstly loaded (i*e, ihe C,0. of the whole machine is not on the
perpendicular from the fulcrum on the beam). Show that the true
weight of the body is the arithmetic mean between Us apparent weights
when it is weighed being placed in succession in each scale-pan.

Let a be the length of each arm and y the horizontal distance of the
O.G. of the machine from the fulcrum on the^sldo of the body at the first

weighing. Let 17 be the true weight of the body, T7i and 17, its appa-
rent weights and w be the weight of the machine.

Then taking moment about the fulorum, at the 1st weighing,

17ia Wa+wx,
Similarly, at the 2nd weighing,
T7aa+waj= T7a.

Adding, (T7i+ 17,) <z=2T7ci. 17= J (17, + 17,).


Ex. 4. A grocer has a balance whose arms are 11 inches and
12 inches respectively^ hut which is otherwise correct. If he sells
6 pounds of tea a customer at Bs, 2-12 as, per pound, by weighing
to

half the quantity in one scale-pan and the other half in the other, find
how much does he gain or lose by the transaction.
Let 17i and 17, be the true weights of the quantity of tea which
appear to weigh 8lbs. at the time of first and second weighing.

Then, ts^ing moment about the fulorum,


17i.ll3.12 ; 17,. 12=3. 11.
17i=3A; 17,-21.

.* 17, + 17, 8t^+21=6ii^*


1

MACEINES 287

the grooer really giyes the onstomer 6^7 lbs. of tea and reoeives
the price for 6 lbs.

.'.he loses by the transaction the price of ^ lbs. of teai.s. he


loses X 44 as. B1 anna.

Ex. 5. A shopkeeper using a common steelyard, alters the movable


weight for which it has been graduated. Does he cheat Hmself or his
customers ? [ P. U. 1933 ]

From the fig. of Art. 12*16, we have, when the machine is correct,

W.CA+W\Ca:=P.CX
wherp W is the weight of the body placed in the scale-pan and P the
movable weight. If the shopkeeper increases P, the right side of the

above equation becomes increased. Hence the left side, and therefore,
W is increased. But W
was the quantity corresponding to the marked
graduation. Hence where P is increased, the shopkeeper cheats himself.

Similarly, if P is decreased, he cheats his customers.


Ex. 6. If in a Danish steelyard, an be the distance of the fulcrum
from the extremity from which the weight of n lbs, is suspended, show
that

On <ln+ a flii+
10. V, 19m
HereOfl+i, On+a are distances of the fulcrum from the extremity
carrying the scale-pan, when masses of (n+1) lbs. and (n+2) lbs. are

placed in the pan. Then from the fig. ol Art. 12'17, if P be the weight
of the machine, taking moment about the position of the fulcrum in
the first case

n.anP.GCPUG-a).

.
1 1 P+n ... (1)


On" AQ' P
... (2)

1 1 l>+(+3 ... (3)


^n+fl AO P
238 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

adding and we get

+
0>n
(1)
1
4gL
(3),

r2P+2+21
p J4gL
2 r.P+(+l)
p
]._^faom(2).
. Ex. 7. In a wheel and axle, if the radius of the wheel be 6 times
that of the axle, means of an effort equal to 5 lbs. wt. a body be
and if by
lifted through 50 ft., find the amownt of the work expended.
[ P. JJ. 1932 ]
Let as the radius of the axle,
then 6a radius of the wheel.
Since the body is lifted through 50 ft., the circular measure of the

angle through which the axle turns 50


a i which is also equal to the

angle through which the wheel turns during the time, as they are
rigidly connected with each other.
Let X be the length of the string uncoiled from the wheel as the
body is raised.

Then a50 x 6= 300 ft.


oa a
.
*
. amount of work expended = 5 x 800 1500 f t.-lbs.

Examples on Chapter Xll(b)


1. The pressure on the fulcrum
of a straight lever of
first 6 lbs. wt., and the differenee of the forces
kind is
acting at the ends is 2 lbs. wt. Find the ratio of the arms
at which they act.
2. Two weights P and Q {P > Q) balance, acting at
the ends If P and Q inter-
A and P of a straight lever AB.
change places and additional weights Pi and Q are added
at A and B respectively, the equilibrium is undisturbed.
Show that P* - Q* = PiO - OiP.
$ A straight light horizontal lever has for fulcrum
a hinge at one end C, and from a point B is suspended the
weight W. If the pressure on the hinge (either upwards
or downwards) must not exceed ITT, show that the effort
must act somewhere within a space equal to iBO.
4 In a lever of the
first class, a weight fastened to W
one end supported by a force P at the other if the ends
is ;

are interchanged, the necessary force to balance is W


a force Q prove that TF*= J{PQ).
;
MACSZNE8

5. A pair of not-oraokers is inches long, and a nut


isplaced ali a distance f in. from the hinge. What pressure
applied at the ends of the arms, will crack the nut if
a weight of 20| lbs., when placed on the top of the nut
cracks it ?
6. A rectangular block of stone weighing i ton, whose
weight acts at its centre, is to be raised by a crow-bar 3 ff;.
long resting against a log of wood in front of it, at
a distance 6 inches from the end of the bar in contact with
the stone. Find the least force that must be applied to
raise the stone.

7. A straight lever AB whose arms AC, BO are a and


b, is in equilibrium under the action of the forces P and Q
at its endsA and B respectively the lines of action
; of the
forces meet at 0 and /LOAB-a and /LOBA^P, Find
the ratio of P to Q, and the pressure on the fulcrum.
8. A
straight lever is acted on at its extremities by
10. P,
forces inclined at angles of 30 and 60 to its length.
Q
If P ;
Q=
+ >/3-l, show that the reaction at the
fulcrum is 2 ^/2 at 45 to the lever.
9. A lever without weight is of length c, and a weight
is supported
11. by two strings of lengths a and h from its ends ;

if the lever rest in a horizontal position, show that the arms

of the lever are in the ratio

12.
The arms of a false balance are a and b, and a
weight W
balances P at the end of the shorter arm b, and
Q at the end of the arm a show that ;

a P-W [P. U.mO; U.P. 1947]


b^W-Q
A tradesman weighs out to a customer apparently
equal quantities of wheat alternately from the two scale-
pans of a balance with unequal arms. Does he gain or
lose ? [A.U. 1931 ]

A
substance weighed from the two arms suces-
sively of a false balance has apparent weights 9 and 4 lbs.
Find the ratio of the lengths of the arms and the true
weight of the body. [ P. U, 1980 ]
240 INTEBMEDJATE STATICS

18. In a false balance the arms being of unequal length,


a weight is measured in one scale-pan by P
lbs. and in the
other by Q lbs. Show that the arms are to one another
as JP s/Q, :

14. In a balance with unequal arms, the apparent


16.
weights of a body are 42i lbs. and 49 lbs. when weighed in
succession in the two scale-pans, and the whole length of
beam is ft. Find the length of each arm.
A man sitting in one scale of a common balance
places his *'pugree'* on the beam between the fulcrum and
the point of suspension of the scale. Will he weigh more
or less than if he had pugree on ? Give reasons for your
answer. [ 0. 17. 1980 ]
16. A boy sitting in one scale-pan of a balance presses
upwards with a rod against the beam at any point between
the fulcrum and the point from which the scale- pan in
which he is seated is suspended. Show that he will appear
to weigh more.

17. The arms a false balance are in the ratio of


of
20 : 21. How much does
a trader gain or lose if he places
articles to be weighed at the end of the shorter arm, when
he is asked for 4 seers of potatoes at 5 annas per seer.
[ P. U. 1986 ]

18. A balance has its arms unequal and one scale-pan


unjustly loaded. A body of true weight 9 chattacks appears
to weigh 8f and 10 chattacks when placed successively in
the two scale-pans. Find the ratio of the arms and the
weight with which the pan is loaded.

19. are unequal in weight but the


If the scale-pans
balance otherwise correct, find the real weight of the
is
body whose apparent weights are 12 lbs. and 14 lbs., when
the body is placed successively in the two pans.

20* One scale-pan of a balance is unjustly loaded. If


TFi and be the apparent weights bf a body when
weighed in succession in the two scale-pans, find its true
weight and the weight with which the scale is loaded.
MACHINES 241

21. If a balance be faulty in every respect, and if the


apparent weights of a body when weighed from the arms
of lengths a and b be Wx and W
2 respectively, its true
weight W
is given by

a+i
22. A dealer has a balance faulty in every respect, the
arras being 10 and 12 inches long. He weighs out to a
customer two bags of rice each of the same weight. If
Wx and 1^2 be their apparent weights when weighed from
the shorter and longer arms respectively, show that the
customer loses a quantity equal to TT(TFa-Tri).

2B.If a tradesman weigh out to a customer a quantity


oi wheat by alternately weighing apparently equal portions
of it in the two scale-pans of a balance which is unjustly
loaded, has unequal arms, and whose O.G. is in the longer
arm, show that he will defraud himself.

24. A tradesman has a pair of scales, which do not


quite balance and makes them balance by attaching a small
weight to one of the pans. Show that if he tries to serve
a customer with any weight of a commodity by weighing
parts of it in succession in each scale-pan against half the
weight in the other, he will always cheat himself.

25.A balance is faulty in every respect. A certain


article appears to weigh Px or P
2 according as it is put
into one scale-pan or the other. Similarly another article
appears to weigh Qx or Qb* Show that the true weight of
an article which appears to weigh the same in whichever
scale-pan it is put, is
P1 Q 2 -P 2 Q1 ^

^26. Three bodies of weights P, Q, appear to weigh


P', Q\ JS' in a balance which is faulty in every respect.
Show that (PQ' - P'O) + (QS' - Q'B) + (BP' - JB'P) = 0.
27. In a common steelyard, show that the distance
between any two graduation is proportional to the difference
between corresponding weights. [ 0. U. 1928 ]

16
242 INTERMEDIATE 8TATI0S

28* If the distance of the 0.0. of the beam of a common


steelyard from the fulcrum is 2 inches, the movable weight
^4 ozs., and the weight of the beam 2 lbs., find the distance
*of zero graduation from the G. G. [ A. U. 1928 ]

A uniform beam AB, 2 ft. long and weighing 3 lbs.


29.
isused as a steelyard, whose fulcrum is at a distance 3 in.
from A. If the movable weight be 1 lb., find the greatest
and least weights which can be weighed with the machine.

80. A shopkeeper using a common steelyard alters the


movable weight for which it has been graduated. Show
that he cheats himself or his customers according as he
increases or decreases the movable weight.

81. A common steelyard, correctly graduated when new,


has its weight and position of its 0.0. slightly changed
by the wearing away of the rod. A body of weight 5 lbs.
i oz. appears to weigh 5 lbs. Find the true weight of
a body which appears to weigh 12 lbs.

If the beam of a common steelyard be uniform and


82.
itsweight be m times the movable weight P, and the fulcrum
one nth part of the length of the beam from the end where
the weight is suspended, show that the greatest weight that
can be weighed is i {(2n - 2) + m (n - 2)} P. [ P. U. 1938 ]

88. When weights P


and Q are successively placed in
the scale-pan of a common steelyard, the movable weight is
at distances a and b from the fulcrum. If the movable
weight is equal to that of the machine, show that the
distance of the the 0.0. of the machine from the fulcrum is
Pb-Qa
P-Q *

84. The weight of a Danish steelyard is 6 lbs. and the


fulcrum is at a distance of 8 inches from the end to which
the weight is attached, to balance a weight of 8 lbs. Find
how far the fulcrum must be shifted in order to balance
a weight of 16 lbs.
A Danish steelyard loses
86. of its weight by use. ^
Ifthe 0.0. remains unchanged, find the real weight of a
body whose apparent weight is 20 lbs. as determine by it.
11ACHINE8 348

In a oertain Danish steelyard, it is found that


S6.
the custanoes of the fnlomm from the end carrying the
scale-pan are a and b if the weights and Q respectively P
are placed on the scale-pan. Find the position of the centre
of gravity of the instrument and show that its weight is

[ C. U. 1944 ]
a^o
In a Danish steelyard, show that the sensibility at
37.
any point varies as the square of the distance of the point
from the end at which the weight is suspended.
[ Fur a small change in the weight, the greater the shifting of the
fulcrum, i.e., the greater the distance between the graduations showing
the difference in weights, the more sensitive is the steelyard, ]

38. The radius of the wheel being three times that of the
axle, find how far the weight will be lifted when the power
is pulled down through the space of one foot. [ C. U, 1922]
39c A is raised from well by
bucket weighing 33 lbs.
means wheel and axle.
of The radius of the wheel is
21 inches and while it makes 5 revolutions, the bucket rises
10 ft. Find the force which will just raise the bucket.

40. If the difference between the radii of a wheel and


axle be eight inches, and the power and the weight be as
6 : 7, find the radii.

The radius of the wheel


41. isfour times that of the
axle,and the string on the wheel is only strong enough to
support a tension of 40 lbs. wt. ; find the greatest weight
which can be raised.
42. Two men, who can exert forces of 200 lbs. wt. and
225 lbs. wt. respectively, work at a wheel and axle, in
which two wheels are attached, of 5 feet and 4 feet diameter
respectively, the diameter of the axle being 20 inches find ;

the greatest weight the men can raise by it.

43. The radii of the wheel and axle are a and b


respectively, the weight consists of a cage of weight with W
ai man of weight W' inside it, who 8upport|s the system by
S44 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

holding the rope that passes over the wheel. Find the
tension he produces in the rope. [ Allahabad ]

44. A
particle of weight 40 lbs. placed on an inclined
plane supported by a force 24 lbs. wt. acting along the
is
plane. If the same weight were to be supported by a force
acting horizontally, show that the force must be increased
in the ratio of 6 : 4, while the pressure on the plane will be
increased in the ratio of 25 16. :

45. ^
Show that the smallest force which will keep a body
in equilibrium on a smooth inclined plane* must act along
the plane. [0. U.1912]
46. Find the inclination of a plane to the horizon on
which a power parallel to the plane will support double
its own weight.

47. A heavy body rests on a plane inclined to the


horizon at an angle a if the pressure on the plane be equal
;

to the effort applied, show that the effort is inclined at an


angle in ** 2a to the plane.

48. A power P
acting parallel to an inclined plane can
Bup^rt and acting horizontally can support TF2 both
TTi, ,

resting on the same plane. Prove that P* TFi* - TFa.

Answers
2 : 1. 5. 24 lbs. wt. 6* 11^ lbs. wt.
7. P : Bin jS : a sin a ; reaction - hJp*'+Q^2PQ cos (a+i8)7
11. Loss. 12. 2 : 3 ; 6 lbs. wt. 14. 18 inches ; 14 ins.
15. Less. 17. Loses 1 anna. 18. 4 : 5 ; 2} chattack.
19. 18 lbs. 20. J + W,) ; i (TTx - TV,). 28. 18 inches.
29. 16 lbs. ; 8 lbs. 81. 12 lbs. i oz. 84. 1^^ inches.
85. 18 lbs. wt. 86. Distance of 0. G. from the scale-pan is
rtMO-P)/(tO-aP).
88. 4 inches. 89. 6 lbs. wt. 40. 4 ft. ; 4} ft.

41. 160 lbs. 42. 1140 lbs. 48. (TT+F') &/(a+5}.


46. 80^
Appendix
SEC. A.THEORETICAL PROOF OF THE
PARALLELOGRAM OF FORCES
1. Laplaces proof.

We
shall first of all consider the case of two perpendi-
cular forces, and then extend the result to the case of any
two oblique forces.

Let P
and Q be any two perpendicular forces acting at
0 alongOA and OB, and let B be the magnitude of their
resultant acting in an unknown direction OC at angle d to
OA. Let XOY be drawn perpendicular to 00.
Then B along 00 is equivalent to a force P at an angle
B to it along OA), and a force Q perpendicular to P.
Hence a force along 00 is equivalent to force A.P at
an angle 9 to it, together with a force A.Q perpendicular
to the latter, for multiplying by the fabtor A is essentially
the same as an alteration in the scale of representation.
Thus the force P
along OA, which can be taken as
P P
^ B * along OA, can be replaced by a force
^ P
* at an
angle 0 to OA, {i.e., along 00), together with force
P
^ Q * in the direction OX perpendicular to 00, In the

346 INTEBlfEmiTE STATICS

same manner, the force along OB can be replaced

by a force P along OT at an angle 0 to OB, together

with a perpendicular force Q along 00. Thus the two


^ *

given loroeB P along OA and Q along OB are equivalent to


P* 0* PQ
a force
^ ^ along 00, together with a force along

OX and a force
^ along OY, and the two latter being

equal and opposite, cancel one another. Thus the single


+ Q*
force equivalmt to the two given forces P and 0 is
P* ^

along 00, which is thus the required resultant B.

Hence B ^ * or, JS* * P* + Q*, B= VP* + Q*,


giving the magnitude of the resultant of two perpendicular
forces.

Pig. (i) Pig. (ii)

For direction, let us consider first three equal forces


F, F, Facting at 0 along three mutually perpendicular
directions OX, OT, OZ, and let them be. represented
by OA, OB, 00 respectively. Complete the rectangular
parallelepiped with 0.i, OB, 00 as adjacent edges (Fig. iX
,

APPENDIX 347

The resultant of the two equal forces F, F represented


by OA and OB must, from symmetry, be equally inclined to
them, and therefore must act along the diagonal OD also its :

magni^de, from what has been proved above, is n/jP^ + F^


F v5. Combining with this the force F along 00, the
resultant of F along OD and F along 00 must evidently
be along some line in the plane OOD. Again, considering
the two forces F, F represented by OB and 00 first, and
then combining their resultant with OA, the final resultant
will lie in the plane AOE. Thus the direction of the final
resultant being common to the two planes OOD and AOB
must be along the diagonal 00\ Hence we establish that
the resultant of two perpendicular forces F ^/2 along OD
and F along 00 is in the direction of the diagonal 00' of
the rectangle ODO'O, and its magnitude is

Next, taking forces F, F F


along OX, OY, OZ
represented by OA, OB, 00, (Fig. ii), considering first the
resultant of OA, OB, and then combining it with 00, and
alternatively, finding the resultant of OB, 00 and then
combining with OA, wo can show exactly in a similar
manner as above that the resultant of two perpendicular
forces F
s/5 along OD and F
along 00 is along the diagonal
00* and its magnitude = F
s/i = 00\

Then take F, F s/S, F along OX, OY, OZ. Proceeding


in this manner, we show finally that the resultant of two
perpendicular forces F
tjn and F is represented by the
diagonal in magnitude and direction.

F
Now taking F, F, Jn along OX, OY, OZ we extend
the above result to the case of two perpendicular forces
F s/2 and F
Jn. Then taking F, s/3, F F
Jn the result is
extended to Fs/3 and F
Jn. Proceeding thus, we prove
the result for the case of two perpendicular forces Fs/m
and Fhjn where m and ii are any two positive integers.
Writing and n^q*, where p and q are any two
positive integers, we finally prove the parallelogram law of
forces to hold good for two pependicular forces pF and
qF. We can replace pF and qF by P and Q, where P and
248 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

Q are any two commensurable forces, for the ratio of any


two commensurable quantities can be put in the form p q :

where p and q are integers.


Even if P and Q are incommensurable, their ratio can
be put in the form of an endless decimal, and we can get
a terminating decimal differing from it by as small a quantity
as we please, which can be put in the form p q. Accord-
:

ingly, in the limit, the law is extended to the case of two


incommensurable forces.
Thus the parallelogram law holds good for finding the
resultant of any two perpendicular forces P
and Q, whether
commensurable, or incommensurable.
Lastly, to prove it for any two oblique forces, let OA
and OB represent two oblique forces P
and Q. Complete
the parallelogram OACB,
Join OC and draw XOY perpendicular to the diagonal
OC, and let AL and BM be drawn perpendiculars on 00,
B

By what has already been proved, the force OA can be


replaced by the perpendicular components and OL andOX
the force OB by the perpendicular components and OM
OF. Now from Geometry, triangle OBM
and ACL are
congruent and .accordingly OM^LC, and AL^BM.
Hence the represented by
forces and OX OF
which are
respectively equal to AL and PAf, being equal and opposite,
cancel one another. Thus the forces OA and OB are
equivalent to a force OL+OUf-OL+LO-QO along 00.
Hence 00 represents the resultant in magnitude and
direction.
APPENDIX 249

Thus the law of parallelogram of forces is completely


established.

2. Duchaylas proof.
This proof is based on the assumption of the principle
of Transmissibility of a force.

We first of all prove that if the parallelogram law for


the direction only of the resultant be true for any two
particular forces P
and Q acting at any angle, and also
for two forces P
and B
acting at the same angle, then
it will be true for the forces P
and Q + B
acting at the
same angle.

Let OA and OB represent the forces P and Q, and


BD along OB represent P. Complete the parallelogram
let
ODEA and draw BC parallel to OA. Join 00, OE, BE.
By our assumption, the resultant of P and Q is in
the direction of the diagonal 00, and by the principle of
transmissibility of a force, this resultant may be supposed
to act at 0. Here, it can be resolved into its components
P and Q along BO and AO parallel to their original
directions.
Again P along BO may be supposed to act at B
and this along with alongB BD
will, by our supposition,
give rise to a resultant along BE, which in its turn can
be assumed to act at E. Also Q along AO may be supposed
to act at E.
Thus the two forces P along OA and Q + B
along OBD
are ultimately equivalent to two forces both acting at E,
one along OE and the other along BE. Hence the resultant
250 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

of P and Q+i! acting at 0, represented by OA and


OD respectively, must be acting through E and therefore
must be along the diagonal OE of the parallelogram
ODEA.
Now, to start with, take two equal forces F, F along
any two directions, represented by OA and OB. Prom
symmetry, their resultant must be equally inclined to OA
and OB, and accordingly it is in the direction of the
diagonal of the rhombus OAOB. Hence, from what has
been proved above, the parallelogram law for direction
of the resultant will hold good for forces F and F+ Fi.e,, F
and 2F along OA and OB. Again, as the result is true for
F, F and for F, 2F acting at the same angle, it is true
for forces F and 3F acting at the same angle. Proceeding
in this manner, it can be shown to be true for F and pF.
Thus it is true for F+F and pF, for 2F and pF.
Similarly, it will be true for 3F and pF and ultimately for
qF and pF where p and q are any integers. Beplacing pF
and qF by P and Q, we see that, so far as the direction
is concerned, the parallelogram law for resultant is true
for any two commensurable forces P and Q acting at
any angle.
The result then can be extended to incommensurable
forces as well, in the limit, as in the previous proof.

Hence for any two forces P and Q, commensurable or


incommensurable, acting at any angle, the parallelogram
law is established so far as the direction of the resultant
is concerned. Now to establish that the law being true for
direction, it will be true for magnitude as well, it is left as
an exercise to the student. In this connection, see Ex. 8,
worked out, p. 24, and Ex. 65, p. 31 set in the book.

SEC, B.EQUILIBRIUM OF A CONSTRAINED BODY


1. Equilibrium of a heavy body supported at a fixed
pointi

It a body supported at a point be at rest under the


aeKon of gravity only (and no other external forces), the
APPENDIX 261

O.G. of the body and the point of support must be in the


same veriiioal line.

This is for the only forces acting upon the


obvious ;

body are (1) weight acting vertically downwards through


its
its O.G. and (2) the reaction at the point of support. For
equilibrium these two forces must be equal and opposite
and also must have the same line of action. Hence the
fixed point and centre of gravity must be in the same
vertical line.

Note. The above principle can be used in determining graphically


the C.O. ofa plane lamina. Thus, first suspend the body by a string
attached to any point A on its boundary and draw the vertical line
AD on the lamina through A, We know that the O.G. lies on AD,
Again suspend the body from any other point B on the boundary and
draw the vertical line BE, through B, on the lamina. Then the O.G*
also lies on BE,
Hence the reqd. O.G. is the point of intersection of AD, BE,

2. Equilibrium of a heavy body with an area in


contact with a plane.

Theorem : A body placed in contact with a horizontal


plane will or will iwt rest in equilibrium, according as the
vertical line through its centre of gravity meets the plane
inside or outside the base on which it stands.

The only forces acting upon the body are (l) the weight
of the body acting vertically downwards through its O.G.
and (2) the reaction of the plane, which is nothing but
the resultant of the total reactions of the several points of
262 INTEEMEDIATE STATICS

contact of the body with the plane, and hence acts through
a point inside the base.

For equilibrium, the weight of the body and the reaction


ef the plane must be equal, opposite and also must have
the same line of action. Hence when there is equilibrium,
the vertical line through the centre of gravity of the body
meets the plane inside the base. If the vertical line meets
the plane outside the base, obviously there cannot be equili-
brium and the body will topple over.
Note 1. By the base is meant the polygon without re-entrant
angles, (or more generally the closed curve having no convexity in-
wards) formed by joining the extreme points of the body in contact
with the plane. [ See Fig, (Hi) ].

Note 2. A bus for example will overturn if the vertical through its

G.G. falls outside the wheel base.


Note 3. Exactly as above it can be shown that a body placed on
an inclined plane, sufficiently rough to prevent sliding^ will be in

equilibrium or topple over, according as the vertical through the


centre of gravity of the body does or does not pass through the base
of the body.

3. Illustrative Example.
Ex. A solid right circular cone whose height is h and radius of
whose base is r, is placed on an inclined plane and prevented from
sliding. If the inclination of the plane he gradually increased^ find
when the cone will topple over.

In the extreme position, i.e, when the cone is on the point of


APPENDIX 258

toppling over, the y.ertioal through the O.G. of the cone must pass
through the extreme point of the base, i.e., would pass through the
end B of. the base. Let 6 be the inclination of the plane at that

time. Then obvipusly /LBOO = 6

Now, from the right-angled triangle BOO, tan BGO-^


tand=-|.
giving the required inclination.

Note. If a be the semi- vertical angle of the cone, then a.

Hence the cone will topple if tan 0 > 4 tan a.

Examples
Ex. 1. A solid right circular cylinder, of height h and radius of

cross-section r, is placed on an inclined plane of inclination a and


prevented from sliding. Show that the cylinder will topple when
tan a > 2r/h
Ex. 2. A leaning tower of n equal circular coins, each of radius a
and thickness 26, is piled over on a horizontal table, so that the centres

of gravity of all the coins lie in one straight lino. Show that the
greatest inclination of the line to the vertical is

Ex. 3. How many equal circular coins, having the thickness of


each equal to v^th of its diameter, can stand in a cylindrical pile on
an inclined plane, whose height is one-fourth of the base, assuming
that there is no slipping ? [ Ans. 100 ]

SEC. C.-STABILITY OF EQUILIBRIUM


1. Stable, Unstable, and Neutral Equilibrium.
Let a body be in equilibrium under a system of external
forces and reactions, being supported in any manner.^ If
the body be slightly displaced from its equilibrium position,
the external forces and the reactions in the new position of
the body will not in general be in equilibrium, so that the
body, when left to itself, will begin to move.
254 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

Now accordiog to the way in which the body moves,


the original equilibrium position is defined to be stable,
unstable, or neutral under different circumstances. .

(i) stable Eqnllibrlam.

A body
is said to be in stable equilibrium if, after it is
slightlydisplaced from its position of equilibrium, it has
a tendency to return to its original position.
(ii) Unstable Equilibrinm.

A body is said to be in unstable equilibrium, provided,


when slightly displaced from its position of equilibrium,
it tends to recede further away from its original position.

(iii) Nentral Equilibrinm.

A body is said to be in neutral equilibrium, provided,


when slightly displaced from its position of equilibrium,
it remains in equilibrium in this new position and tends
neither to come back to, nor to go further away from its
original position.

2. Stability of a body under gravity with one point


fixed.

In this case we know that the point of support must be


in the same vertical line with the C.G.

a body suspended from any point



If
having its O.G. at O vertically
0 and
below 0, be slightly displaced by being
turned through a small angle about 0,
as in Fig. (i), then the weight of the
body W, acting at G, will have a
moment about 0, which will tend to
cause the body to revolve back to its
original position. In this case, the
equilibrium is stable. If, however, Q,
the O.G. of the body, be vertically
above 0, the point of suspension, and
the body be slightly displaced through any angle, then the
moment of the weight about 0 will have a tendency to
'mvolve it further away from its original position as in
APPENDIX 205

Fig. (ii). In this case, the eqoilibriam is testable. When


the body issuspended from its O.G. it will remain at rest

Pig. (ii) Pig. (iii)

ivAany position, for the weight of the body and the equal
and opposite reaction of the support always act at the same
point and hence they balance one another. Hence in this
case, if the body be displaced, it will not tend either to
return to, or to recede further away from its original position
of equilibrium.

In such a case, the equilibrium is neutral.

8. Stability of a body with a portion of It In the form of a sphere


I resting with spherical portion In contact with a horizontal table.

Pig. (i) Pifr (ii) Pig. (iii)

In the position of equilibrium the weight of the body acting


yertically downwards through its centre of grayity is G
balanced by tbe teaotion of the table at the point of contact A,
which must accordingly be perpendicnlar to tbe plane of the
table and will therefore pass throngh centre 0 of the
sphere. Thns OG mast be rertioal [fig. (i) ]
;

256 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

Now let the bodybe slightly displaced so that is the B


new point of contact. The vertical through being normal B
at B to the sphere will pass through the centre 0. Now if
O be below 0, the weight of the body acting vertically
downwards through O will tend to rotate the body about
B back to its equilibrium position as in Fig. (ii) and the
equilibrium position is accordingly stable.

If on the other hand G be above 0, the weight in the dis-


placed position, as in Fig. (iii), will tend to rotate the body
further away from its equilibrium position. The original
equilibrium position is accordingly unstable.

If however G coincides with 0, the weight is the dis-


placed position acting vertically downwards in the line OB
will be balanced by the reaction at B, and the body there-
fore will remain in equilibrium in this displaced position.
The equilibrium in this case is neutral.

Thus in this case the equilibrium of the body is stable


unstable or neutral, according as the G.G. of the body
in the equilibrium position is vertically below, above, or
coincident with the centre of the spherical portion in contact
with the table.

Note. In the firbt illustration ( $ above), the equilibrium is stable


or unstable according as O falls below or above the point of suspension.
In the second illubtration ($ 5), the equilibrium is stable or unstable
according as 0 is below or above the point 0 through which the reaction
passes in all positions of the body. In both the cases, a lower position
of G ensures stability.

In general, top heavy bodies are unstable and bottom heavy bodies
are stable in their equilibrium positions.

Ex. A solid homogeneous body, consisting of a right circular


cylinder of height h and a hemisphere of radius r, on the same base,
rests with its 8]^erical portion in contact with a horisontal table
show that it will bo in stable, unstable ox neutral equilibrium
according as ^

r is > or < orhs/5.


APPENDIX 357

SEC. D. CONVERSE OF LAMIS THEORFM


If three forces acting at a point he such that each is

yroportional to the sine of the angle between the other two


the sense of the forces being such that any one of them lies

vith the angle opposite to that in which the resultant of


he other two lies)^ then the three forces are in equilibrium.

Leb the three forces P, Q, B acting at 0 along OX,


lY, OZ be such that
__ Q -B /A
Bin YOZ Bin ZOX sinXOY
ihe sense of the forces being as indicated by the arrow-heads
! see figure of 3'4 ]

Produce .^0 to C such that 00 ^B in magnitude.


Oomplete the parallelogram OAOB with diagonal 00, the
sides OA, OB being along OX and OY respectively. Then
[rom the triangle OAC,

OA ^ AO ^ 00 _ B .

sin OOA sin AOO sin OAO sin OAO

also, sin OOA * sin BOO *= sin (180* - YOZ)^Bijx YOZ

sin AOO sin (180* - ZOX) = sin ZOX


and sin OAO = sin (180" - XOY) = sin XOY.

- OA 40 _ B
sin rO^Bin.^OJr sin XOF
Comparing this with (i), we get
P-04, g = 400B.
Hence, by the parallelogram of forces, the resultant of
P and Q, which, are now represented by 04 and OB, is 00,
and this by construction is equal and opposite to B.
Thus P, Q, B are in equilibrium.
17
UNIVERSITY PAPERS
Calcutta University

1954
, (a) State and prove the Polygon of forces. Is the converse true ?
Give reasons for your answer.
(b) Forces acting at a point are represented in magnitude and
direction by 2J.B, SBC, 2CD, DA, OA and where DB ABCD is
a quadrilateral. Prove that the forces are in equilibrium.
2. (a) Three like parallel forces P, Q, B
act at the angular points
of a triangle. If their resultant passes through the intersection of the
medians of the triangle, show that
(h) Two unlike parallel forces P and Q {P Q) act at A and B
>
respectively. IfP and Q are both increased by x, show that the result-
ant will move through a distance d where d -

8. (a) The algebraic sums of the moment of a system of coplanar


forces acting at a point about each of two given points in the plane
are equal. What conclusions do you draw about the resultant of
the system ?
(6) Forces equal to 8, 6, 3 and 5 lbs. weight respectively act along
the aides of a square taken in order. Find their resultant.
4. (a) How high can a particle rest inside a hollow sphere of radius a
if the coefficient of friction be ?

(b) A uniform ladder rests with one end on the rough horizontal
ground and the other end against a rough vertical wall. The coefficients
of friction at the lower and upper ends are | and i respectively. Deter-
mine ^the angle which the ladder makes with the ground when it is
aboutlpslip.
Show that the centre of gravity of three equal particles placed
' at the vortices of a triangle is the same as the centre of gravity of
the triangle.
(b) If the centre of gravity of a triangle coincides with the centre
of the circumscribed circle, show that the triangle is equilateral.

6. (a) Describe the Third System of Pulleys. Find the mechanical


advantage of the system when the weights of the pulleys are neglected.

(6) The arms of a balance are 7^ and 7| inches long, and the
scale-pans balance wnen empty. How much would a customer gain
or lose in what was weighed as a pound of tea ?

1965
_ state and prove Lamis theorem about the equilibrium of three
^1.
coplanar forces acting on a particle.
,

CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY PAPERS 269

Two forces of magnitudes 3P and 2P respectively Have a resultant


R. If the first force is doubled, the magnitude of the resultant is
doubled. Find the angle between the forces.

2. If the algebraic sum of the moments of a system of ooplanar


forces about a given point in the plane of the forces is zero, prove that
either the system is in equilibrium, or that the resultant of the forces
passes through the given point.

Forces P, 2P. 3P, 4P act along the sides AB, BC, CD, DA of a
square ABCD, Find the magnitude and the direction of the resultant
and the point where the line of action of the resultant intersects AB,

Find the centre of gravity of a uniform triangular lamina.


ABCD is a square, and E, F are the middle points of AB, AD
respectively. Find the centre of gravity of the portion left,when
triangle AEF is cut of.
4.Prove that the work done against gravity in taking a number
of particles from one configuration to another is Wh, where is
the total weight of the particles, and h the height through which the
W
C.G. of the particles has been raised.

A well is to be made 40 ft, deep and 3 ft. in diameter. Find the


work done in raising the material, supposing that a cubic foot of it
weighs 140 lbs.

5. Describe, with a neat diagram, the first system of pulleys.


The number of movable pulleys in a first system is 3, and the
sum of the power and the weight is 162 lbs. wt. If the weights of
the pulleys can be neglected, calculate the power.

6. {a) A small ring rests, in limiting oquilibrium, on a rough vertical


circular wire which passes through a ring. If the coefficient of friction
be prove that the radius drawn from the centre of the wire to the
ring makes an angle of 30^ with the vertical.

A
uniform ladder rests, in limiting equilibrium, with one
(b)
end on a rough horizontal ground, and the other end on a rough vertical
wall. If the inclination of the ladder to the horizontal be 43*,
find the coefficient of friction between the ladder and the ground be f
find the coefficient of friction between the ladder and the wall.

1956
1. If three forces, acting upon a rigid body, be represented in
magnitude, direction, and line of action by the sides of a triangle tahen
in order, prove that they are equivalent to a couple whose moment Is
represent^ by twice the area of the triangle.
260 INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

If a system of forces act in one plane upon a rigid body, and if the
algebraic sum of their moments about each of three points in the
plane (not lying in the same straight line) vanish separately, prove
that the system of forces is in equilibrium.

'iT Find the centre of gravity of three uniform rods forming


a triangle.

A body consists of a right circular cone and a hemisphere on the


same base on opposite sides of it. If the height of the cone be equal
to twice the radius of the base, find the centre of gravity of the
compound body.
8. Describe, with a neat diagram, the third system of pulleys.
Neglecting the weights of the pulleys, find its mechanical advantage.

In the third system of pulleys, there are seven pulleys, each of


lbs. wt. What weight will be supported by the system without the
application of any effort ?

4. A particle is placed on a rough inclined plane and is on the


point of sliding down under action of its weight and the reaction of the
plane only. Provo that the inclination of the plane to the horizon
is equal to the angle of friction.

A body of weight 4 lbs., rests in limiting equilibrium on a rough


plane whose slope is SO" ; the plane being raised to a slope of 60", find
the force along the plane required to support the body.

8, Find the resultant of two unequal unlike parallel forces acting


upon a rigid body.

A straight weightless rod, 2 ft. in length, rests in a horizontal


position between two pegs placed at a distance of 8 inches apart, one
peg being at one end of the rod, and a wei^t of 5 lbs. is suspended
from the other end ; find the pressure on the pegs.

1967
State and prove the theorem of triangle of forces.
Twoforces SO lbs. wt. and 40 lbs. wt. respectively act on a particle
in directions at right angles to one another. Find the magnitude of
their resultant. A third force whose direction bisects the angle between
the directions of the given forces, acts on the particle. Gan the three
forces keep the particle in equilibrium ?

P
Two forces 2P, and lbs. wt. respectively act on a particle in
different directions. If the first be doubled and the second increased
by 10 lbs. wt., then the direction of the resultant remains unaltered.
Find the value of P.
8. Determine the resultant of two like parallel forces acting on
a rigid body.
CALCUTTA UNIVEB8ITY PAPEJR8 261

Two men one stronger than the other have to remote a blook of
stone weighing 270 lbs. by means of a light plank whose length is 6 ft.
The stronger man is able to carry 180 lbs. How must the blook be
placed so as to let him share that weight ?

8. Show that the algebraic sum of the moments of any two


coplanar forces about any point in their plane is equal to the moment
of their resultant about the same point.
A uniform beam AB 10 ft. long weighing 80 lbs. can turn freely
about a smooth hinge at A, What
horizontal force at will enableB
the beam to rest wiSi its centre 4 ft. below the level oi A7

Find the centre of gravity of a uniform triangular lamina.


Show thatit is the same as that of three equal particles placed at the
vertices of the triangle.
Three uniform triangular laminae which lie in the same plane stand
on the same base. Their vertices which are on the same side of the base
are collinear. Prove that their centres of gravity are also collinear.

5. Describe (with a diagram) the first system of pulleys.


Determine the relation between power and weight.
If there bethree movable pulleys and their weights beginning
from the lowest be 4 lbs., 2 lbs. and 1 lb. respectively, what power will
be required to support a weight of 28 lbs. ?

1968 {Old Syllabus)


1. Show how to determine the resultant of any number of forces
acting on a particle.
ABCD is a square of side a. Forces 8, 2, 1, 6 units act along the
sides AB, BO, CD, DA respectively and forces P and Q units act along
AO and BD respectively. Find P and Q if the resultant of the system
acts along AB,
N^fiT^Find the resultant of two unlike parallel forces.
Forces X, T, Z acting at the vertices of a triangle ABO each per-
pendicular to BC are in equilibrium. If each is turned about its point
of application in the same sense until they are at right angles to AB,
show that they form a couple. Find the moment of the couple if ABO
be equilateral and Z*
8 ; T^Z^A,

State in terms of moments only, necessary and sufficient condi-


8.
tions that a system of coplanar forces may be in equilibrium.
Show that a jiystem of coplanar forces whose moment about any
three non-collinear points is constant (which is not zero) cannot reduce
to a single force.
If four forces act along the sides AB, BO, CD, DA of a quadri-
lateral and are represented in magnitude and direction by these sides,
then shew that th^ reduce to a couple.
:

INTEBMEDIATE STATICS

4 . Find the centre of gra7lty of three uniform rods forming a


triangle ABC, 8hew that the centre of gravity of these rods will not
ooinoide with the centre of gravity of the area of the triangle ABC
unless the triangle is equilateral.

5. Draw a neat diagram of the first syatem of pulleys with three


movable pulleys. If the weights of the pulleys beginning from the
lowest be 4, 2 and 1 lbs. respeotivoly, calculate without assuming any
formula the force required to support a weight of 28 lbs. and the
tensions of the strings passing round the movable pulleys.

A uniform rod of length 8 ft. and weight 4 lbs. rests on a rough


horizontal plane. If the rod is just about to move under the action of
a force equal to Jth the weight of the rod at a distance of S ft. from the
centre, find the point about which the rod will begin to turn and the
value of the coefficient of friction.

1958 ( New Syllabus )


'
1. Enunciate the law of parallelogram of forces.

If two forces acting at a point be represented in magnitude and


direction by the two sides AB
and AC of a triangle ABO, prove that
their resultant is represented by 2AD, where D
is the middle point
of BO.
by the sides AB, AD, CB^ and
If four forces, completely represented
CD of a quadrilat/^ral A BCD, be inequilibrium, prove that is a ABCD
parallelogram. (Completely represented means the forces act along the
sides and are represented in magnitude and direction by the sides).

State the conditions of equilibrium of a system of coplanar


2.
forces. Three forces P, Q, B act at a point 0. Prove by resolving the
forces perpendicular to B
that
P sin A.POB )a Q sin A^QOB
( ( )

where Z.POB and A.QOB denote the angles between (P and B) and
(Q and B) respectively. Hence deduce Lamis theorem.

ABCD is a vertical section of a rectangular block resting on a rough


horizontal plane (BC being on the plane). The end AB is gently raised
by a force applied at A perpendicular to AC. If AB^Sft., and
BC""4 ft., find the least value of the coefficient of friction in order that
the comer may not slip.

^^Ak^'t'ind the centre of gravity of a uniform triangular lamina.


circular lamina of radius 8a and centre 0 has a hole in
A uniform
the form of an equilateral triangle of sides 2a with one vertex at 0.
Prove that the distance of the centre of gravity from 0 is

8 Two movable pulleys, oaoh of weight 2 lb., are arranged so as


,

to form a first system of pulleys. A weight of 60 lb. is attached to the


JPATNA VmVEBaiTY PAPEB8
lowest pulley aud the highest string after passing through another jflaied
pulley is attached to a weight P. Find without assuming any formula
the value of P
so that equilibrium is maintained.
If nowthe movable pulleys be made weightless and tne weight at
the lowest pulley be reduced to 82 lb., with what acceleration will the
weight P move ?

19B9
^1. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of two copla-
nar forces, each equal to P and inclined at an angle a to each other.
Two forces of magnitudes P and Q act on a particle at such an
angle that the magnitude of their resultant is equal to P. If P be
doubled, prove that the new resultant will be at right angles to Q.

2. Define moment of a force about any point. Prove that the


moment of two parallel forces (not equal and unlike) about any point
in their plane is equal to the moment of their resultant about the same
point. Also prove that if the parallel forces be equal and unlike the
moment of the forces about any point in their plane is constant.
8. Draw a neat diagram of the third system of pulleys and obtain
a relation between the weight and efiort.
A uniform ladder of length 16 ft. and mass 60 lbs. is placed with its
upper end against a smooth vertical wall, and its lower end on a rough
horizontal plane at a distance of 9 ft. from the wall ; a man of mass
140 lbs. stands at the top. Find the least coeificient of friction in
order that the ladder shall not slip.

*4. Prove that the work done in raising a number of particles


from one position to another is W.h, where W
is the total weight of
the particles, and h is the distance through which the centre of gravity
of the particles has been raised.

Pataa Univeraity
1941
() If three forces acting on a particle, keep it in equilibrium,
prove that each is proportional to the sine of the angle between the
other two.
() The 'side CD of a parallelogram AJBCD is bisected at E*
Find the resultant of the forces acting at A representedd by AB, AC
and 2AE.
2. la) Show that two couples, acting in one plane upon a rigid
body, wl^se moments are equal and opposite, balance each other.
264 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

(6) ABO is
a right-angled triangle having A as the right angle
and the side AC
4 ft. in length ; the moments of a force about tne
is
points A, B, C are respectively 8, 8 and 16 units in the same sense.
Find the magnitude and the line of action of the force.
* 8. (a) If three forces, acting in one plane upon a rigid body, keep
it in equilibrium, show that they must either meet in a point or be
parallel.

(6) A straight uniform rod of weight 3 lbs., is suspended from


a peg by two strings attached at one end to the peg, and at the other
to the extremities of the rod ; the angle between the strings is a right
angle and one is twice as long as the other. Find their tensions.

its
^ (a) A uniform wire
centre of gravity.
is bent into the form of a triangle. Find

(6) A square is described on a side of an equilateral triangle.


Find the centre of gravity of the combined figure.

5. (a) Describe the Danish Steelyard, and show how it can be


graduate.
(6) Two inclined plane have a common vertex, and a string
passing over a small smooth pulley at the vertex, supports two equal
weights. If one of the planes be rough and the other smooth, find the
relation between the two angles of inclination of the two planes when
the weight on the smooth plane is on the point of moving down.

1942
W {a) State the theorem of the triangle of forces, and prove its
converse.

(6) ABC
is a triangle ; D, E, F
are the middle points of the
sides BC, CA, AB
respectively. Show that the forces acting on
a particle and represented by the straight hues AD, BE, will main- CF
tain equilibrium,

() Find the resultant of two unlike and unequal parallel forces.


() Four forces P, 2P, 8P, and 4P act along the sides taken in
order of a square. Find th^r resultant.

8. (a) If a system of forces act in one plane upon a rigid body, and
ifthe algebraic sum of their moments about each of three points in
the plane (not lying in the same straight line) vanish separately, show
that the system of forces is in equilibrium.

(5) A heavy carriage wheel, of weight W


and radius r, is to be
dragged over an obstacle of height h, by a horizontal forces F applied
to the centre of the wheel. Show that F
must be greater than
PATNA VNIVEMITY PAPEB8 S65

4. (a) If a system of particles whose weights are be on


a straight line, and if their distances measured from a fixed point 0
in the line be iCi, find the distance x of their centre of gravity
from the fixed point.
(h) A metre rule of negligible weight carries weights 1, 3, 3,...
100 gm. attached to marks 1, 2, 8,...100 cm. respectivdy. Find the
point about which it will balance.

6. (a) Describe the system of pulleys in which each pulley is


supported by a different string.
(6) A body, of weight 4 lbs., rests in limiting equilibrium on
a rough plane whose slope is 80**. The plane being raised to a slope of
60, find the force along the plane requir^ to support the body.

1948
1. [a) Obtain the resultant of two forces P and Q acting at an
angle a.

Two forces P and Q act at an angle a and have a resultant P.


If each force be increased in magnitude by P, prove that the new
resultant makes an angle 0 with P such that

tan 0 =
P+0+S+(.P+Q)co8a
2. Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of two inter-
secting forces about any point in their plane is equal to the moment
of their resultant about the same point.

Three forces P, 2P, 8P act along the sides AB, BC, CA of a given
equilateral triangle ABC
; find the magnitude and direction of their
resultant and find also the point in whiem its lino of action meets the
side BC.

Obtain the centre of gravity of a uniform triangular lamina.


A
uniform rectangular zinc sheet 10 in. by 6 in. is folded over at
a corner in such a manner that the shorter side at the corner foils
entirely along the longer side. Find the centre of gravity of the new
sheet.

4. Describe a common steelyard, and explain how it is graduated.


A shopman, using a common stoelyard, alters the movable weight
for which it is graduated. Does he cheat himself or his customer ?

5. (a) Describe the conditions of equilibrium of a system of


coplanar forces.
(6) How high can a particle rest inside a hollow sphere, of
mdius a, if the ooefidcient of friction be f
vo
266 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

1944

iT (a) State and prove Lami*fi Theorem.


. 0 are points on the oircumferenoe of a circle. Forces
(b) A, B,
act along AB and BG inversely proportional to these lines in magni-
tude show that their resultant acts along the tangent at B,
;

2. (a) Obtain the resultant of two unlike and unequal parallel


forces.

(&) A uniform bar, of weight 8 lbs., and length i ft., rebts on


a peg and is supported in a horizontal posilion by a force equal to 1 lb.
weight acting vertically upwards at the other end find the distance ;

of the peg from the centre of beam.

8. (a) Prove that a couple and a force are equivalent to a single


force. Obtain its line of action.
(6) A uniform rod of weight 10 lbs. is hinged at one end. It is
pulled aside from the vertical by the horizontal force P acting at the
other end. If it rests at an angle of 45^ to the vertical, find the
value of P.

4. (a) Find the centre of gravity of a uniform quadrilateral lamina


having two parallel sides.

(fe) From a unifom triangle ABC* a portion PBC is out off.


Find the position of P, if it is the centre of gravity of the remainder.

5. (a) Describe the first system of pulleys, and obtain its mecha-
nical advantage.

(6) Provo that the least force which will move a weight W
along a rough horizontal plane is W
sin X, where X is the angle of
friction.

1945
1. (a) Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of any two
intersecting forces about any point in their plane is equal to the
moment of their resultant about the same point.
(b) Forces P, Q, B
act along the sides BO, CA, of the AB
triangle ABC, and the line of action of their resultant passes through
the centroid of the triangle. Prove that

0.
sin A sin B sin 0
2. (a) Obtain the resultant of two like parallel forces,

A uniform seesaw plank, 16 ft. long, weighs 1 owt. Find


(6)
the position of the support when two children, weighing 44 lbs. and
68 lbs. respectively sit at the two ends.
B. H. UNTVER81T7 PAPERS 267

8. (a) Provo that a system of coplanar forces is equivalent to


either a single foroe or a couple, or is in equilibrium.

(6) A body of mass 70 lbs. is suspended by strings whose lengths


are 6 and 8 ft. respectively, from two points in a horizontal line whose
distance apart is 10 ft. ; find the tensions of the strings.

4. (a) Show that the work done in raising a number of particles


from one position to another where TT is the total weight of
the particles and h is the height through which the centre of gravity
is raised.

(b) A square hole is punched in a circular lamina, the diagonal


of the square being a radius of the circle. Find the centre of gravity
of the remainder.

5. (^) Define the angle of friction.


Show that when a heavy body is just going to slide down a rough
inclined plane, the inclination of the plane equals the angle of
friction.

(6) The arms of a balance are as 14 15, and a commodity is


:

weighed alternately in its two pans. Find the loss per cent, to the
seller.

B. H. University

1953
State and prove the theorem of triangle of forces.
Two forces P and Q act at such an angle that their resultant is
equal in magnitude to P. Show that if P is doubled, the new resultant
is at right angles to Q.

2. Prove that a force acting at any point of a rigid body is equiva-


lent to an equal parallel force acting at any other point of the body
together with a couple.

Prove that throe parallel forces, two of which are equal and oppo-
site,caimot be in equilibrium.

8. State a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for three


coplanar forces to be in equilibrium,

ACB is a uniform rod, of weight TT it is supported (B being


;

uppermost) with its end A against a smooUi vertical wall AD by means


of a string CD, DB being horizontal and CD inclined to the wall at an
angle of 80. Find the tension of the string and the reaction of the
wall, and prove that AC = iAB,
268 INTERMEDIATE 8TATI08
^4.
Prove that the oentre of gravity of a tmifonn triangular lamina
is the same as that of three particles of equal mass placed at the
vertices of the triangle.

Ajiniform triangular lamina ABO of weight w, rests in a vertical


plana with AB in contact with a horizontal plane. The angle ABO
is 120. Show that the triangle will not topple over provided
AC < 2iB. If AC < 2AB, show that the least downward vertical force
applied at C which will cause the triangle to topple over is

wf^B A
3 UO "V
5. State the laws of limiting friction.
A uniform ladder, of length 70 feet, rests against a vertical wall with
which it makes an angle of 45, the coeffieients of friction between the
ladder and the wall and ground respectively being i and If a man,
whose weight is one-half that of the ladder, ascend the ladder, how
high will he be when the ladder slips ?

6. Explain the terms *trae', 'sensitive', 'stable' as applied to the


common balance.
A body, placed in a scale-pan, is balanced by 10 lb. placed in the
other pan when the positions of the body and the weights are
;

interchanged, 11 lb. are required to balance the body. If the length of


the shorter arm be 12 in., find the length of the longer arm and the
weight of the body.

1954
1. Two
forces of magnitudes tiiAB, nAC
act respectively along the
sides ABt AC
of a triangle ABC, Show that their resultant is
represent^ in magnitude and' direction by (m +n) AP, where is P
a point in BO
such that inBB*^nPC,

The sides AB AC of a triangle ABC are bisected in and


and D E
respectively. Show that the resultant of forces represented by BE
and DO is represented in magnitude and direction by |BC.

Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of any number of


2.
coplanar forces about any point in their plane is equal to the moment
of their resultant about that point.

Forces P, Q, B
act along the sides of a triangle ABC, taken in order,
and their resultant passes through the centres of the inscribed and
circumscribed circles* Prove that

l 2 , B ,

COB B-COB C cob C'-COS a 008 A-cos B*

8. Obtain a set of conditions for the equilibrium of a system of


ooplanar forces acting on a rigid body.
B. E. TJNJVEB8IT7 PAPEB8

A light rod AB hangs horizontally by two strings from a point C


and weights 8 lb. and x lb. are attached to A and B respectively. If
the angle ABC is GO** and the tension in the string AO is 10 lb. wt.,
find (a) the value of x, (b) the tension in the string BC, (c) the angle
BAG.
4. If the centre of gravity of the whole of a body and of a portion
of the body is given, show bow to find the centre of gravity of the
remainder.

A chessboard ABCD,
6 in. square, is divided into siztyfour squares
of side 1 in. The
eleven squares whose centres are nearest to the
corner C are out away. Find the distance from A of the centre of
gravity of the remainder.

5. Describe the machine known as the wheel and axle.


In a wheel and axle, if the radius of the wheel be six times that of
the axle, and if by means of an effort equal to fi lb. wt. a body be lifted
through SO feet, find the amount of work expended.

6. Prove that the coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of


the angle of friction.

Show that the least force which will move a weight TT along
a rough horizontal plane is sin W
where 0 is the angle of friction.

1965
1. Find the components of a given force Pin two directions
inclined at angles a and j9 respectively to the direction of P.

Forces P-Q, P, P+Q act at a point in directions parallel to the


sides of an equilateral triangle taken in order. Find their resultant.

2. State the conditions of equilibrium of any system of forces


acting in one plane upon a rigid body.

A uniform rod AB, 6 ft. long, weighing 10 lb., can turn freely about
a hinge at A. It carries a weight of 7 lb. at B, and is kept in equili-
brium by a horizontal string CB, which is attached to a point D of
the rod 6 ft. from A and to a point C 8 ft. vertically above A, Find
the tension of the string and the reaction at the hinge A,

8. (n) Prove that a single force and a couple acting in the same
plane cannot produce equilibrium. What are they equivalent to ?

(b) Forces proportional to AB, BO and 2CA act along the sides
of a triangle ABO taxen in order. Show that the resultant is re-
presented in magnitude and direction by OA and that its line of action
meets BO at a point X
where CX^BO*

4. (a) Find the centre of gravity of a triangle formed by three


uniform rods.
270 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

(b) ARy and BO CD


are three equal uniform rods firmly joined
80 as to form three suooessive bides of a regular hexagon, and are
suspended from the point A, Show that CD
is horizontal.

5. (a) When is a force said to do work ?

A* shaft, whose horizontal section is a triangle with sides 8 ft., 4 ft.


and 6 ft. I is to be sunk 50 ft. into the earth. If the aVerage weight
of the soil is 160 Ib./cu. ft., find the work done in bringing the soil to
the surface.

(5) Describe the third system of pulleys and find the relation
between effortand weight in such a system of n weightless pulleys.
6. A ladder rests with one end on the ground and leans directly
against a rough vertical wall (the coefficients of friction being fi.
respectively). How far up the ladder may a man go before equilibrium
is broken, assuming that the mans weight is equal to that of the
ladder ? Show that he will not get to the top if the inclination of the
ladder to the vertical is greater than

tan-

1956

1. (a) State and prove Lamis theorem.

(b) Two forces P and Q, inclined to each other at some angle,


act at 0 and have a resultant B, Atransversal cuts thoir directions
in L, M and N respectively. Prove that

OL oil ON
2. (a) Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of any two
forces about any point in their plane is equal to the moment of their
resultant about the same point.

(b) Prove that three parallel forces, two of which are equal and
opposite, cannot be in equilibrium.

8. (a) If three forces, acting upon a rigid body, keep it in equi-


librium, then prove that they must be

(i) ooplanar, and

(ii) either concurrent or parallel.

(b) A uniform beam, of length 2a, rests in equilibrium, with one


end resting against a smooth vertical wall and with a point of its
length resting upon a smooth horizontal rod, which is parallel to the
B. H. JimVEmiTY PAPERS 271

wall and at a distance h from it. Show that the inclination of the
beam to the vertical is

(!)
4. [a) State the requisites of a good balance and discuss one
of them.
(6) The arms of a balance are in the ratio 10 9 and the pans are

ofunequal weight in such a way that the beam remains horizontal


when the pans are empty. If goods are weighed half in one pan and
half in the other, prove that the seller loses f per cent.

5. (a) Determine the centre of gravity of a thin uniform triangular


lamina.
(&) From a thin uniform triangular lamina a triangular ABO
portion PBO
is out out in such a way that P
is the centre of gravity
of the remaining portion. Prove that P
is the mid-point of the median
through A.

6. [a) State the laws of friction.


A uniform ladder rests, at an angle of 45* with the horizon,
{h)
with its upper extremity against a rough vertical wall and its lower
extremity on the ground. If /u and fi* be the coefficients of friction
between the ladder and the ground and between the ladder and the wall
respectively, show that the least honzontal forces which will move the
lower extremity towards the wall is

where TT is the weight of the ladder.

1957
State and prove a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for a
1.
system of coplanar forces acting on a rigid body, to be in equilibrium.

A heavy uniform rod of length 2a, rests partly within and partly
without a fixed smooth hemispherical bowl, of radius r the rim of the ;

bowl is horizontal and one point of the rod is in contact with the rim ;
if $ be the inclination of the rod to the horizon, show that

2r COB 2$^ a cos $

2. {a) Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of two inter-
section forces about a point in their plane is equal to the moment of
their resultant about that point.
(b) A, B and C are three fixed points and P is a point such that
-^1

the resultant of forces PA and PB always passes through 0. Find the


locus of P.
272 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

8. (a) Find the centre of gravity of a triangle formed by three


uniform rods.
(&) A rod, of length 5a, is bent so as to form five sides of a regular
hexagon. Show that the distance of its centre of gravity from either
end of the rod is
g <^IS5
10

4. (a) Find the components of a force P along two directions


making angles of 80* and 45* with P on opposite sides.
(6) Forces equal to 8P, IP and 5P act along the sides AB, BC
and CA of an equilateral triangle ABC, Find the magnitude, direction
and line of action of the resultant.
6, Describe the first system of pulleys.
A man whose weight is 156 lb. is suspended from the lowest of
a system of 4 pulleys, each being of weight 10 lb., and supports himself
by pulling at the end of the string which passes over the fijced pulley.
Find the force which he exerts on string, supposing all the strings to be
vertical.

6. Explain the followiug terms


(g) Limiting friction.

(6) Coefficient of friction.

(e) Angle of friction.

Show that the least force which will move a weight W along a rough
horizontal plane is W sin 0, where ^ is the angle of friction.

1968
1. State find prove Lamis Theorem.
A body of 65 lbs. wt. is suspended by two strings of lengths 5 and
12 feet attached to two points in the same horizontal line at a distance
18 feet apart. Find the tensions of the strings.
2. (g) Find the resultant of a couple and a single force acting in the
same plane upon a rigid body.
(h) A heavy uniform rod, 4 feet long, rests horizontally on two
pegs which are one foot apart. A weight of 10 lbs. suspended from one
end, or a weight of 4 lbs. suspended from the other end, will just tilt
the rod up. Find the weight of the rod.
8. If three ooplanar forces be in equilibrium, prove that they are
either concurrent or parallel.
A smoothsphere is supported in contact with a smooth vertical wall
by a string fastened to a point on its surface, the other end being
attached to a TOint in the wall. If the length of the string be equal to
the radius of die sphere, find the tension of the string and the reaction
of the wall.
B. H. UNIVERSITY PAPERS 273

4. Derive the oo-ordinates of the centre of gravity of the number


of particles lying in one plane.
From a triangle is cut off ith of its area by a straight line parallel
to its base. Find the position of the centre of gravity of the remainder.

5. State the laws of friction.


Aladder rests in limiting equilibrium with one end on a rough floor,
whose coefficient of friction is /i, and the other against a smooth verti-
cal wall. Show that its inclination to the vertical is
tan"^ (2/i).

1969
Find the conditions under which a number
1. of coplanar forces
acting on a body keep it in equilibrium.
w
Two equal heavy rode, of weight and length 2n, are freely hinged
together and placed symmetrically over a smooth fixed sphere of radius
r. Show that the inclination of each rod to the horizontal is given by
r tan*d+r tan 6 a.
2. From
a uniform triangular board a portion consisting of the
area of the inscribed circle is removed. Show that the distance of the
centre of gravity of the remainder from any side a is
8 ^

28*^Bra8
*
3as
where S is the area and s the semi-perimeter of the board.

3. If a body be placed on a rough inclined plane and be on the


point of slipping down the plane, show that the angle of inclination of
the plane to the horizon is equal to the angle of friction.
How high can a particle rest inside a hollow sphere, of radius a,
if the coefficient of friction be 1/ iv/8 ?

4. Show that the algebraic sum of the moments of two coplanar


forces about any point in their plane is equal to the moment of their
resultant.
Forces equal to 8P, 7P, BP act along the sides AR, BC and CA of
an equilateral triangle ABC, Find the magnitude, direction and line
of action of the resultant.

5. ( a) Find the resultant of two like parallel forces P and Q acting


at points A and B.
(&) A uniform
rod of length 10' and weight 20 lbs. is hung in
a horizontal position by two vertical strings attached to the two end
points. The maximum tensions which the strings can bear are 20 lbs.
and 26 lbs. respectively. Find the range on the where an additional
weight of 20 lbs. can be placed without disturbing the equilibrium.

18
Allahabad (D. P.) Board Papers
1968
1. (a) A particle is acted of 10 and 6 lbs. weight which
on by forces
are at right angles and by a force of 8 lbs. weight bisecting the angle
between them, all these forces acting away from the particle ; and
the magnitude of the force that will keep it at rest.
{b) The horizontal roadway of a bridge is 41 ft. long, weighs
9 tons, and rests on similar supports at its ends. What is the thrust
borne by each support when a carriage, of weight 3 tons, is two-thirds
of the way across ?

2. (a) Describe the second system of pulleys.


An ordinary block and tackle has two pulleys in its lower block
(6)
and two in the upper. Assuming the system to bo frictlonloss, wh^t
force must be exerted to lift a load of 800 lbs. ?

8. (a) Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments of any two
ooplanar non-parallel forces about any point in their plane is equal to
the moment of their resultant about the same point.
(i) A heavy uniform rod rests partly within and partly outside a
smooth hemispherical bowl which is kept fixed with its rim horizontal.
The rod rests at an inclination of 80 to the horizontal. Compare the
length of the rod with the radius of the bowl.

4. (a) Weights proportional to 5, 4, 6, 2, 7 and 3 are placed at the


angular points of a regular hexagon, taW in order ; find the centre
of gravity of the weights.
{h) A cylinder and a cone have their bbses joined together, the
bases being of the same size ; find the ratio of the height of the cone
to the height of the cylinder so that the common centre of gravity
may be at the centre of the common base.
5. A and B are the centres of the two wheels of a bicycle consi-
dered symmetrical, about a plane through both wheels. O is the
centre of gravity of the bicycle. When both wheels are on the same
level, the pressure of the wheels A and B downwards are Wa and Wb
respectively. When A is jacked up a vertical height h above B, the
vertical pressures become Wa, Wfi respectively. Prove that

and that CB^iWAlW) d, where Tr*Btotal weight of the bicycle, AB-d,


and 0 is the foot of the perpendicular from O on AB,
6. From a uniform triangular board a portion consisting of the
area of the inscribed circle is removed ; show that the distance of the
centre of gravity of the remainder from any side, a, is
8 2s*-8Ta5 *
8as
where 8 is the area and a the semi-perimeter of the board.
ALLAHABAD (U. PJ BOARD PAPERS 275

1964
1. (a) ABCD is a
square ; forces of 11 lb. weight, 6 lb. weight and
9 1b. weight act in the directions ADt AC and AD respectively. Find
the magnitude of the resultant.
(6) ABCD is a square ; along AB^ CB^ AD and DC equal forces,
P, act. Find their resultant.

2. (a) There are 4 pulleys in each block in the second system of


pulleys. If a weight of 10 lb. supports a weight of 60 lb., find the
weight of the lower block.
(6) A body, weighed from the two arms successively of a balance,
has apparent weights 8 lb. and 9 lb. Find the ratio of the lengths of
the arms.

8. A heavy uniform rod, 16 inches long, is suspended from a fixed


point by strings fastened to its ends, their lengths being 10 inches and
14 inches. Find the angle at which the rod is inclined to the vertical.

4. (n) Show that the least force which will move a weight W
along a rough horizontal plane is W
sin 0, where 0 is the angle of
friction.

(6) A uniform ladder rests with one end on a rough horizontal


floor and the other against a smooth vertical wall, the coefficient of
friction at the floor being Find the inclination of the ladder when
it is about to slip.

5. (a) Find the centre of gravity of a uniform parallelogram.


(6) A
square piece of cardboard, each side of which is 10 inches
long, is divided into four equal squares and one of them is removed.
Find the distance of the centre of gravity of the remainder from the
corner opposite to the one removed.

6. (a)A heavy uniform rod rests with its extremities on a rough


circular hoop fixed in a vertical plane ; the rod subtends an angle of
120 at the centre of the hoop, and in the limiting position of equi.
librium is inclined to the horizon at an angle $, If s/d/istan a,
M being the coefficient of friction, show that
tan 9 ; tan 2a : : 2 :

7. Atriangular piece of paper is folded across the line bisecting


two sides, the vertex being thus brought to lie on the base of the
triangle. Show that the distance of Uie centre of inertia of the paper
in this position from the base of the triangle is three-quarters that of
the centre of inertia of the unfolded paper from the same line.

1966
Forces 2, ,JS, 6, s/8 and 2 lbs. weight respectively act on an
1. la)
angular point of a regular hexagon towards each of the other angnlar
points ; find their resultant.
;

276 INTEBMEDIATE 8TATIC8

(h) A straight uniform rod is 8 feet long ; when a load of 4 lbs.


is placed at one end it balances about a point 4 inches from that end ;

find the weight of the rod.

2. (a) Describe the third system of pulleys, and assuming the


formula connecting the effort and weight, and neglecting the weight
of the pulleys, show that the work done by the effort is equal to the
work done on the weight.

(6) If there be 5 pulleys, each of negligible weight, in the third


system of pulleys, what effort will be required to support 4 owt. ?

8. (a) A Umga^ loaded with 2 men weighing maunds each, exerts


a force on the horse's back, equal to 5 seers weight find the position
;

of the centre of gravity of the load if the horizontal distance between


the pad and the axle be 6 feet.

(b) Along the sides AB and CD of a square ABCD act forces each
equal to S lbs. weight, whilst along the sides AD and CB act forccb
each equal to 7^ lbs. weight ; if the side of the square bo 10 inches,
find the moment of the couple that will give equilibrium.

4. (a) If a body be placed upon a rough inclined plane, and be on


the point of sliding down the plane under the action of its weight and
the reactions of the plane, prove that the angle of inclination of the
plane to the horizon is equal to the angle of friction.

A cone of given vertical angle 2a, rests on a rough plane


(6)
which inclined to the horizon. As the inclination of the plane is
is
increased, show that the cone will slide, before it topples over, if the
ooofSoient of friction be less than 4 tan a.

5. (a) Find the centre of gravity of a uniform triangular lamina.

(6) From a square a triangular portion is out off, by cutting the


square along a line joining the middle points of two adjacent sides
find the centre of gravity of the remainder.

6. Two
equal rods, each of length, 2a, are fastened together so as
to form sides of a square, and one of them rests on a rough peg.
two
Show that the limiting distances of the points of contact from the
middle point of the rod are ia{lft), where m is the coefficient of
friction.

7. A square hole is punched out of a circular lamina, the diagonal


of the square being a radius of the circle. Show that the centre of
the remainder is at a distance

a/(8r-4)
the centre of the circle, where a is the diameter of the circle.
ALLAHABAD (V. P) BOARD PAPERS 277

1966

1. (a) Six forces, equal to 2, and 8 +'^ lbs.

weight respectively, make angles of 80, 46, fiO, 90, 180 and 270
with a fixed line. Find the magnitude of the resullant.

(6) A uniform rod, 10 feet long and weighing 20 lbs., can turn
freely about a point in it, and the rod is in equilibrium when a weight
of 6 lbs. is hung at one end. How far from the end is the point about
which it can turn.

2. (a) A man whose weight


is 200 lbs. raises a body weighing
600 lbs. by of a system of pulleys in which the same rope passes
means
round all the pulleys, there being 4 pulleys, in each block, and the
rope being attached to the upper block. Neglecting the weights of the
pulleys, find what will be his thrust on the ground if he is pulling
vertically downwards^

(b) A piece of iron in one pan A of a balance is counterpoised by


100 lbs. in the pan B. When the same piece of iron is put into the
pan Bit requires 102*01 lbs. in A to balance it. What is the ratio of
the lengths of the arms of the balance 7

3. ABCD is a rectangle of which the adjacent sides i4B and BO


are equal to 4 feet and 6 feet respectively. Along AB, BO, and CD
forces of 16, 80, and 24 lbs. weight act. Find the magnitude and the
line of action of the resultant.

4. {a) Enunciate the laws of friction.

(6) A
weight of 100 lbs. is on the point of motion down a rough
inclined plane when supported by a force of 20 lbs. weight acting
parallel to the plane, and is on the point of motion up the plane when
under the Inclination of a force of 40 lbs. weight parallel to the plane.
If the inclination of the plane to the horizon is cos' ^ i, find the
coefficient of friction.

5. (a) Particles, of masses 8, 2, and 2 lbs., are placed at the angular


points of a triangle. Show that the centre of gravity of the particles
bisects the distance between the centre of gravity of the triangle and
one of the vertices.

(6) ABC
is an equilateral triangle, of 18 inches side, of which
0 is the centre of gravity. If the triangle OBO
be removed, find the
centre of gravity of the remainder.

6. A uniform ladder, of weight rests at an angle of 45 with


the horizon, with its upper extremity against a rough vertical wall, and
its lower extremity on the ground. If M and be the coefficients of
limiting friction between the ladder and the ground and wall respeo-
276 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

lively, show that the least horizontal force which will move the lower
extremity towards the wall is

7. Two right cones, consisting of the same material, have equal


slant sides and vertical angles of 60^ and 120* respectively, and are so
joined that they have a slant side coincident. Show that, if they bo
suspended from their common vertex, the line of contact will be
inclined at 16 to the vertical.

1957
1. [a] The resultant of two forces P and Q is P. If Q be doubled,
B is doubled, whilst if Q bo reversed, B is again doubled. Show that
P 0 P ^/2
:
:
^2 : : ,

(b) Two men


carry a heavy stone weighing mds., hanging it
from a light pole, each one of which rests on the shoulders of one of
the men. The length of the pole is 6 ft., and the point from which the
stone is hung is one foot nearer to one man than to the other. What
is the pressure on each shoulder ?

2. (a) In a system of three movable pulleys, each of mass 1 lb., in


which the strings are parallel and are attached to the weight, the force
required to support a certain weight is half of that which would be
required if the pulleys of the system were weightless. Find that weight.

(b) The arms of a false balance, whose weight is neglected are in


the ratio of 8 7. If goods be alternately weighed from each arm,
:

show that the seller loses 25/28 per cent.


8. If weights proportional to the numbers 1, 2, 8, 4, 5 and 6 be
placed at the angular points of a regular hexagon taken in order, show
that the distance of their centre of gravity from the centre of the
hexagon is 2/7 the of the side of the hexagon.

4. (a) A uniform wireAOB is bent at 0 into two straight portions


inclined at an angle a,OA and OP being of lengths a and b respectively.
If it is suspended from A, show that for the portion OB to be
horizontal

(b) An
isosceles right-angled triangle has squares described
extemaUy on all its sides. Show that the centre of gravity of the
figure so form^ is on the line, which bisects the hypotenuse and
passes throt^^h the right angle and divides it in the ratio 1 : 26*

8 (a) DefiftSthe afipZs o//rtc^on, and show that the coefficient of


fjdotion is equal to the tangent of the angle of friction.
ALLAHABAD (U. K) BOARD PAPERS 279

(&) A uniform ladder of length 28 feet, rests against a vertical


wall with which it makes an angle of 45*, the coefficients of friction
between the ladder and the wall, and the ladder and the ground being
1/3 and 1/2 respectively. Find how high a man, whose weight is half
that of the ladder, will be able to ascend before the ladder begins
to slip.

6. One end of a string of length Z is attached to one end A of


a smooth uniform rod of length a, and the other end of the string is
attached to a light ring C, which slides on the rod. The string passes
over a small smooth pulley 0. Prove that in the position of equi-
librium, the inclination of the rod to the horizontal is given by

a coB*dZ sin d.

7. A solid hemisphere of weight W


rests in limiting equilibrium
with its curved surface on a rough inclined plane ; and its plane face
is kept horizontal by a weight P attached to a point in its rim. Provo
that the coefficient of friction is

P
jw(w+<ir)

1958
1. (a) State and prove the Triangle of Forces.
8.
the resultant P, of two forces P and Q, inclined to one
{b) If
another at any given angle, make an angle B with the direction of P,
show that the resultant of forces (P+ R) and Q, acting at the same
0
angle will make an angle with the direction of P+P.
^

2. (a) In the second system of pulleys, weights of 10 lbs. and 12 lbs.


support weights of 41 lbs. and 58 lbs. respectively. Find the weights
of the movable block of pulleys and the number of pulleys in each
block.

(h) The arms of a false balance are a and 6. A weight W


balances P at the end of the shorter arm 5, and Q at the end of the
arm a. Show that
a P W

(a) Find the centre of gravity of a quadrilateral lamina having


two parallel sides.

{h) A square hole is punched out of a circular lamina. The


diagonal of the square is equal to the radius of the circle, and one of
the comers is at the centre of the circle. 8how that the centre of

gravity of the remainder is at a distance centre of the


circle, where a is its diameter.
280 INTERMEDIATE STATIGS

4. {a) Prove that if two ooplanar forces have a resultant P, the


moment of R about any point in the plane of the forces is equal to the
sum of the moments of the forces.
, A uniform rod weighing 10 lbs. is hinged at its lower end,
(6)
and supported at an angle of 60^ with the vertical by a horizontal
is
string attached to its upper end. If the upper end also carries a
weight of 40 lbs., find the tension of the string.

6. (a) If a body be placed on a rough inclined plane and be on the


point of slipping down the plane, show that the angle of inclination of
the plane to the horizon is equal to the angle of friction.

(b) A ladder is resting on a rough horizontal ground, and leaning


against a rough vertical wall. Find the greatest angle at which the
ladder can oe inclined to the vertical without slipping, when the

coefficient of friction for the ground and the wall are and

respectively.

6. A beam whosecentre of gravity divides it into two portions, a


and placed inside a smooth sphere. Show that, if 0 be its inclina-
b, is
tion to the horizon in the position of equilibrium, and 2a be the angle
subtended by the beam at the centre of the sphere, then

tan 0 ^ tan a.
b+a
7. Two equal heavy rods, of weight W
and length 2a, are freely
hinged together, and placed symmetrically over a smooth fixed sphere
of radius r. Show that the inclination of each rod to the horizontal is
given by
r tan*^+r tan 0^a,

1959
1. (a) State and prove Lami*s theorem.

(6) A uniform triangular lamina, whose sides are 8, 4 and


5 inches respectively, is suspended by a string from the middle point
of the largest side. Find the inclination of this side to the vertical.

2. (a) From a regular hexagon is out out an equilateral triangle,


having the centre of the hexagon for its vertex, and one side of it as
its base. Find the centre of gravity of the renminder,

(6) A heavy uniform beam whose mass is 40 lbs. is suspended in


a horizontal position by two vertical strings, each of which can sustain
a tension of S5 lbs., weight. How f^v from the centre of the beam
should a body of mass 20 lbs. be placed, so that one of the strings
may just break.
ALLAHABAD (U, P.) BOARD PAPERS 281

3. (a) In a loaded balance with unequal arms, P appears to weigh Q,


and Q appears to weigh R, Find what R appears to weifi(h.

(b) A uniform lever is 18 inches long, and is of weight 18 ounces.


Find the position of the fulcrum when a weight of 27 ounces at one
end of the lever balances a weight of 9 ounces at the other end.

4. (a) Show that three forces which are completely represented by


the three sides of a triangle, taken in order, are equivalent to a couple.
Find also the moment of this couple.

(&) Forces equal to 3P, IP and 5P act respectively along the


sides AB, BC and CA of an equilateral triangle ABC, Find the
magnitude, direction, and the line of action of the resultant.

5. (a) Three heavy particles are placed at the vertices of a triangle


ABC, their weights being proportional to the opposite sides. Provo
that the distance of the G.G. of the particles from A is

26c cos *

^
a+6+c
(6) A heavy
carriage wheel of weight TV and radius r, is to bo
dragged over an obstacle of height h, by a horizontal force applied toF
the centre of the wheel. Show that F
must be slightly greater than

IP"
T'-h
6. A heavy uniform rod rests in limiting equilibrium within a fixed
rough hollow sphere. If X be the angle of friction and 2a the angle
subtended by the rod at the centre of the sphere, show that the incli-
nation 0 of the rod to the horizon is given by

2 tan 3 tan (o+X)-tan (o-X).

7. Forces P, Q, R and 8 act along the sides AB, BC, CD, and DA
of the cyclic quadrilateral ABOD, taken in order, where and are A B
the extremities of a diameter of the circumscribing circle. If the
forces are in equilibrium, show that
Gauhati University Questions
1949
. 1. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant of a number
of coplauar forces Pn P,, P,, acting at a point O in directions
making angles a,, o,, respectively with a given straight lino
OX in the plane of the forces. Deduce that if
Px cos tti+Pj cos oa+P, cos o, + "O
and Px sin Ox+P# sin aa+P, sin o, + =0
the forces arc in equilibrium.
Forces P, Q, lit S acting on a particle have directions parallel
respectively on the sides ABt BC, CDt of a rectangle BA
taken ABCD
in order. Prove that the magnitude of their resultant is

(P + - 2PB - 2QS)^.
2. If 3 forces acting on a particle keep
it in equilibrium, prove that
each is proportional to the sine of the angle between the other two.
Forces P, Q, B acting along the straight lines OAt OB, OC arc in
equilibrium. If 0 is the circumcentre of the triangle ABC, show that
P _ 0 B
a* (6 + c* " 6* (c* + a* - 6' ) c* (a + 6* - c*l
whore BC-a, CA^h, AB^c,
8.Prove that the sum of the moments of two coplanar forces
acting at a point about any point in this plane is equal to the moment
of their resultant.
Forces P, Q, B act along the sides BC, CA, AB of the triangle ABC
taken in prder, and the lino of action of their resultant passes
through the centroid of the triangle. Prove that

bin
p.
A
+_p_
sin B
+_^
sin O
0 .

4. Show that the centre of gravity of a heavy uniform triangular


lamina is the same as that of three equal particles placed at its
vertices.
The distances of the vertices of a heavy uniform triangular lamina
from a straight line in its plane are Find the distance of its
centre of gravity from the lino.

5. State the laws of limiting friction. What is *oono of friction* ?


A uniform ladder rests in limiting equilibrium with one end against
a rough vertical wall and the other on a rough horizontal plane, the
angles of friction being X' respectively. Show that the inclination $
of the ladder to the horizon is given by
cos (X-fX^)
tan
2 cos X sin X'
QAUHATI UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS

6. Describe, with a neat diagram, the system of pulleys in


which a single cord passes round all the pulleys, and calculate its
mechanical advantage.
In such a system it is found that a weight of w lb. supports
a weight of W
lb., and a weight of w* lb. supports a weight of W* lb.
Find the number of pulleys in the two blocks and the weight of the
lower block.

1960
1. State the Parallelogram of forces.
Prove that the algebraic sum of the resolved parts, along any
direction, of two forces acting at a point is equal to the resolved part
of their resultant in the same direction.
Forces P and Q, whose resultant
is B, act at a point 0. If any
transversal cuts the lines of action of the forces P, Q, at the points R
A, B, C respectively, show that

OA os 00
2. Find the resultant of two like parallel forces.

If two Q acting on a rigid body at the points


like parallel forces P,
A, B
respectively be interchanged in position, show that the point of
application of the resultant will be displaced along through AB
a distance d whore
i:zS. AB.
P+Q
8. If three coplanar forces keep a body in equilibrium, show that
their lines of action either meet in a point or are parallel. How are
the magnitudes of the three forces related in each of these two cases ?
A heavy uniform rod of length 2a rests in equilibrium, having one
end against a smooth vertical wall and being placed upon a smooth
peg at a distance b from the wall. Show that the inclination of the
rod to the vertical is

- (!)*
4, Define a couple. Prove that the algebraic sum of the moments
of the forces of a couple about any point in its plane is constant.
Forces of magnitudes 1, 2, 3, 4, 2 s/2 act respectively along the
sides AB, BC, CD, DA, and the diagonal AC, of the square ABCD.
Show that their resultant is a couple.

5. Prove that the centre of gravity of any number of particles


lying in the same plane is determined by the formulae

m *
V Zm
284 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

Find the centre of gravity of a uniform square plate ABCD ot


weight 80 lb., together with weights of 20, 40, 60, 50 lb. placed at its
four comers d, B, C, 2) respectively.
* 6. Describe, with a neat diagram, the first system of pulleys and
calculate its mechanical advantage.
The number of movable pulleys in a first system is three, and the
sum of the power and weight is 162 lb. If the pulleys are weightless,
calculate the power.

Utkal University Questions


1948
1. (a) Find the resultant of two forces P and Q acting at an
angle a.
(6) A, B, 0 are points on the circumference of a circle. Forces
act along AB and BC and are inversely proportional to these lines in
magnitude. Show that their resultant acts along the tangent at B.
2. Find the resultant
(a) of two unlike and unequal parallel forces
acting upon a rigid body.
(b) Four forces P, 2P, 3P and 4P act along the sides of a square
taken in order. Find their resultant.
8. (a) Find the resultant of a force and a couple acting in the same
plane.

(6) dB is a uniform bar of weight W


movable round a smooth
horizontal axis fixed at d ; to B is attached a light cord which passes
over a pulley 0 fixed vertically over d, and supports a mass of weight
P at its free end. Show that in the position of equilibrium
CB= 2P
Tf
OA.

4. (6) Find the G.G. of a lamina in the form of a trapezium.

(h) A well, of which the section is a circle of diameter 14 ft. and


whose depth is 200 ft., is full of water. Find the work done, in foot-
pounds, in pumping the water to the level of the top of the well.
5. (a) Describe a common steelyard and explain how it is graduated.

(6) the least force which will move a weight


Shew that along W
a rough horizontal plane is W
sin ^ where 0, is the angle of friction.

1949
State and prove the theorem of triangle of forces.
1. (c)

Find a point within a quadrilateral such that if it is Mted


(b)
on by forces represented by the lines joining it to the angular points,
it is itt equilibrium.
)

2. UTKAL UNIVEB8ITT QUESTION 285

(a) PioTe that two coplanar couples, of oqual and opposite


moments balance one another.
(6) Three forces P, Q, P act along the sides BC, CA, AB of
a triangle ABO, If their resultant passes through the centroid, shew
that
P +
a
3. State the conditions of equilibirum of a system of coplanar
forces acting upon a rigid body.
A uniform ladder of weight W
rests at an angle a to the horizon
with ends resting on a smooth floor and against smooth vertical
its
wall, the lower end being attached by a string to the junction of the
wall and floor And the tension of the string.
;

4 . Find the centre of gravity of a uniform triangular lamina.


A weight Sic placed at one vertex of a uniform triangular lamina
displaces the O.G. by twice as much as when w is placed on the same
vertex. Find the weight of the lamina.

5. {a) Define angle of friction and prove that in order that a body
may rest on a rough inclined plane, the inclination must not exceed
the angle of friction.
(&) A Danish steelyard weighs 6 tolas and the distance from the
O.G. to the scalc-pan end is 10 inches. If it is graduated for half-
tolas, find the position of the graduation marks.

1949 ( Supplanentary

1. Find the resultant, in magnitude and direction, of two forces P,


Q acting on a particle, inclined to each other at an angle a.
If the forces P, Q have a resultant B such that P^P, show that
the resultant of 2P and Q is at right angles to Q,

2. Obtain the resultant of two like parallel forces acting on a rigid


body.
A uniform plank, 16 ft. long weighs 1 cwt. Find the position of
the support when two children weiring 44 lb. and 68 lb. sit at the
two ends.
8. If three coplanar forces acting on a body are in equilibrium,
prove that they are either concurrent or parallel.
Two equal heavy spheres, of radius 1 inch, are in equilibrium
within a smooth hemispherical cup of radius 3 inches. Compare the
reaction between the cup and one sphere with the reaction between the
two spheres.
4 . {a) Find the centre of gravity of three uniform rods forming
a triangle.
II^TEBMEDIATE STATICS

(b) From a triangle is cut off ^th of its area by a straight line
parallel to the base. Find the position of the centre of gravity of the
remainder.
6. (a) A body is placed on a rough inclined plane ^hose inclination
Is greater than the angle of friction and is supported by a force acting
up the plane. Find the limits vritbin which this force must lie.
(6) A body of weight 50 lb. is supported on a smooth inclined
plane by a horizontal force 25 lb. together with a force 25 lb. acting
up the plane. Calculate the inclination of the plane and the pressure
on the plane.

Dacca University Questions


1949
1. Show if three forces acting on a rigid body be in equili-
that
brium and two of the forces meet at a point 0, the third force will
if
also pass through the point 0 and be ooplanar with the other two.
A heavy rod AB is suspended from a point 0 by two strings OA and
OB, show that the plane OAB is vertical.
2. Find the centre of gravity of a heavy uniform triangular lamina.
A particle
of given weight is placed anywhere on the above lamina.
Show that the centre of gravity of the two lies within a certain
triangle.
3. Describe a common balance with a neat diagram and write down
the requisites of a good common balance. P and Q balance on a
common balance. On interchanging them it is found that we must
add to Q one.hundredth part of itself, what is the ratio of the arms
and the ratio of P to Q.
4 . A system of pulleys is suspended from a fixed beam by separate
strings round them. Assuming that the pulleys are weightless, find the
mechanical advantage of the system.
If there be 4 movable pulleys, each of weight W and the efiort be P,
show that the stress on the beam is 15P 11#^
5. Two couples acting in one plane upon a rigid body whose
moments are equal and opposite, balance one another.
A sphere, of given weight TT, rests between two smooth planes,
one vertical and the other inclined at a given angle L to the vertical.
Find the reaction of the planes.
6. State the lawstof limiting friction.
Two unequal weights on a rough inclined plane -are connected by
a string which passes round a fixed pulley in the plane find the ;

greatest inclination of the plane consistent with the equilibrium of the


weights*
DACCA UNIVEB8ITT QUESTIONS 287

1952
1. Distinguisli between resolved parts and components of a force.
(i)

Find the components of a given force B


in two directions inclined at
angles a and p respectively to the direction of JR.
(ii) Forces JR-Si E, i2+;S act at a point in directions parallel to
the sides of an equilateral triangle taken in order. Find their
resultant.
2. (i) Obtain the magnitude and point of application of the
resultant of two unlike and unequal parallel forces acting upon a rigid
body. Discuss the case when the forces are equal.
(ii) Find the point of application of the resultant of three equal
and like parallel forces acting at the mid.points of the sides of a
triangle.

3. (i) Three forces acting upon a rigid body are represented in


magnitude and direction by tho sides of a triangle taken in order.
Prove that they reduce to a couple of moment equal in magnitude to
twice the area of the triangle.
(ii) Three forces, P, Q, B, act along the sides BC^ CA^ and AB
of a triangle ABC. If their resultant passes through the circumcentre
of the triangle, prove that

P cos 4 + C cos B+B cos C=0.


4.
6. (i) The sum moments of all the forces acting on a rigid
of the
body but all lying in one plane about each of three given points is zero.
Is the body in equilibrium ? Give reasons for your answer.
(ii) A uniform beam, AB, whoso weight is TT, rests with ono end,

A, on a smooth horizontal plane AC> The other end, P, rests on


a plane CB inclined to the horizon at angle 29. If a string CA, equal
to CB, prevents motion, drd its tension.

5. (i) Describe a common steelyard and explain how it is graduated.


(ii) When P and
Q are successively placed in the scale-
weights
pan of a common steelyard, the movable weight is at distances a and b
from the fulcrum. If the movable weight be equal to that of the
machine, show that the distance of the centre of gravity of the machine
from the fulcrum is
Pb-Qa
P-Q
If a body bo placed on a rough inclined plane and be on the
(i)
point of sliding down the plane, show that the angle of inclination of
the plane to the horizon is equal to the angle of friction.
(ii) ABCD is a uniform rectangular lamina, in which AB^a,
BO^b, a> b. A triangular lamina CBE
is removed, where 0 is
a point in AB such that BE*^b Show that the distance of the centre
b(3a-6)
of gravity of the remainder from AB is
8 (2a -6)*
;

288 INTERMEDIATE STATICS

1968
1. (i) Defino foroo. How is a force generally represented ? State
the law by which two forces acting at a point may be combined
together, and hence find completely the resultant of two forces P, Q
acting at a point inclined at an angle 0 to each other.
(ii) Two forces P and Q have the resultant B\ if P is doubled

and Q is trebled, their lines of action remaining the same, R is trebled


but if the direction of Q is reversed and P is doubled, tho resultant is
doubled. Show that
P 0 B
:
: : : ^/3 : : 2 ^/2.

2. Defino parallel forces. When afe they said to be like and


(i)

when unlike? Find the magnitude and point of application of tho


resultant of two like parallel forces acting upon a rigid body.
(ii) A plank AB^ 10 It. long and weighing 50 lbs., rests on two
supports, one at A and the other 2 ft. from B. If a man of weight
150 lbs. stands on the plank, 3 ft. from A^ find tho pressure on the
supports.
8. (i) Define a couple, arm and moment of a couple.
Prove that a single force and a single couple acting upon a rigid
body cannot produce equilibrium, but are equivalent to a single force
parallel to the original one.
(ii) ABOD
is a square whose side is 2 ft. along,4^* ;

DA act forces equal to 1, 2, 8 and 5 lbs. weight respectively, and along


AG and DB
act forces equal to 5 s/2 and 2 s/2 lbs. weight respectively.
Show that they are equivalent to a couple whose moment is 16 lbs.
per ft.

(i) A number of coplanar forces act


4. upon a rigid body. What
are the possible forms of their resultant ? Hence &d the condition
under which they will be in equilibrium.
(ii) A picture is supported symmetrically in a vertical plane by

a string passing over a rail. If the string is attached to two fixed points
A and B at the same level in the picture, show that the shoxtw the
length of the string the greater will be the tension.
5. Define centre of gravity of a rigid body. Find tho centre of
gravity of a thin uniform lamina in the form of a parallelogram.
From a circular disc, a circular part having a radius of the disc as
diameter is removed. Find the centre of gravity of the remainder.
6. Define a machine, mechanical advantage and efficiency of
a machine. Describe with a neat diagram that particular system of
pulleys in which a sendrate string pasaas round each pulley and one end
of the string is attached to a fixd beaaa, above the system.

Prove that the work done in lilting the 4^ght and the pulleys is
equal to the work done by the force /that is applied.