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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 14 Number 2 Aug 2014

Experimental Studies on the Effect of Viscosity grade on


Mechanical Vibration Behavior of deep groove ball bearing
Dinesh Kumar Tyagi1, Prof. A. K. Jain2
*1
Research scholar, Fourth Semester, M. E. (Machine design) Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur (MP)-482011, India
*2
Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Jabalpur Engineering College, Jabalpur (MP)-482011, India
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
ABSTRACT
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
The purpose of this work is to investigate the vibration suppression characteristics of ball bearing supplied with lubricants without additives.
Experimental tests were performed in SKF6305 ball bearings, lubricated with mineral oil of three different viscosity grades (ISO 32, 68 and 100).
The mechanical vibration was determined through the processing and analysis of bearing radial vibration data, obtained from each of the
lubrication conditions, during 2 h of test run for temperature stabilization and under several bearing shaft speeds. The test rig setup consists of a
ball bearing and loading arrangement operated by a DC motor the applied radial load was 20% of the bearing nominal load. And take a reading by
digital accelerometer through root mean square (RMS) analysis of the vibration signals.

KEYWORDS: Lubrication, ball bearing, Viscosity, Vibration, Lubricant


____________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. INTRODUTION: The word Tribology was first reported in a alternatively used. The latter term is hardly all-inclusive.
landmark report by scientist Sir Jost in 1966. The word is derived Dictionaries define tribology as the science and technology of
from the Greek word tribos meaning rubbing, so the literal interacting surfaces in relative motion and of related subjects and
translation would be "the science of rubbing."' Its popular English practices.
language equivalent is friction and wear or lubrication science,
Notations Abbreviation
D Bearing outside diameter (mm) W Weight (kg)
D Bearing bore diameter (mm) ISO Indian stander organization
B Bearing width (mm) VG Viscosity grade
N Number of balls EHL elastic-hydrodynamic lubrication
BD Ball diameter (mm) HD hydrodynamic lubrication

Depending on some aspects, lubrication in mechanical systems can capabilities of two rolling element bearings supporting a rigid shaft.
occur in different regimes: full film, mixed or boundary lubrication. Also, Mitsuya [8] investigates the damping characteristics of a single
Full film lubrication can be further divided into elastic- deep groove ball bearing. The difficulty of performing sufficiently
hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), which occurs in non-conformal accurate measurements and the multitude of parameters influencing
contacts under high pressure, and hydrodynamic lubrication (HD), the results (type of bearings, radial and axial preload, speed,
occurring under low pressure and usually in conformal contacts [1 loose/interference fits of the bearing seats, lubricant Properties ,
3]. Among the group of mechanical components operating under temperature,) is emphasized in most of these publications.
EHL condition, there are the rolling bearings. This machine element
type is one of those more sensitive for development of faults related In the same context, another study [9] concludes that vibration
to lubrication deficiency. According to technical publications of energy of a bearing depends on surface irregularities, external
rolling bearing manufacturers [3-4], from the total of faults found in loadings, running speed and lubricant viscosity. For instance, it was
this type of component, 5080% are related to deficient lubrication, observed in experimental tests that the influences of lubricant
resulting from inadequate lubricant use, lack or excess of lubricant, viscosity on vibration response depended on speed for a bearing
lubricant aging, and presence of solid or liquid contaminant. In the under large load and low running speeds; increase in lubricant
face of high percentage of rolling bearing failures, the development viscosity causes reduction in vibration energy. In contrast, at high
of techniques for detection and diagnosis of faults in rolling bearings, running speeds, vibration energy is high when lubricant viscosity is
high.
due to lubrication deficiency, is a fundamental contribution to the
preservation of machine precision. According to Serridge [5], other All the mentioned works reinforce the already known
techniques such as oil analyses and temperature monitoring can also complexity concerning the analysis of vibration phenomena
provide advance warning of faults; however, vibration monitoring is occurring in mechanical contacts. The present work intends to
more versatile since it can reveal a wider range of faults. Defects in contribute for improving knowledge on the relationship between
bearings can excite Vibration frequencies in both low- and high- vibration phenomena and lubrication in bearings. This is done by
frequency bands. The influence of the particular bearing faults on the studying how a change in lubricant viscosity can affect the
observed vibrations was further more developed by Tandon and mechanical vibration of a rolling bearing by means of basic
Choudhury [6]. Experimental studies analyze the variations of the procedures of vibration analysis [10].
bearing dynamics for different values of the load, speed and
lubricant's viscosity. For example, Dietl [7] measures the damping

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 14 Number 2 Aug 2014

2. Experimental Setup Details: Table-2 Technical Specification of Ball bearing


Selection of Lubricants:
Components Dimensions(in mm)

Bearing outside diameter D 62mm


The lubricants were mineral oils of viscosity ISO 32 (V1), 68
(V2) and 100(V3) without additives with the purpose of obtaining Bearing bore diameter d 25mm
the vibration response related to different lubrication regimes in the Bearing width B 17mm
bearing element contacts. Oil heating occurred and a mixer system
Ball diameter BD 7.5mm
was Used to keep temperature homogeneous within the oil bath. A
Mercury thermometer immersed in the oil bath was used to monitor Contact angle 0
the oil temperature during the test. Number of balls, n 8

Fire point is the minimum temperature under a certain pressure


The tested ball bearing is vertically loaded and oil bath lubricated.
at which a uniformly heated fluid gives off sufficient vapor to burn
The lubricants were mineral oils of viscosity without additives with
continuously for at least five second. Flash point is the minimum
the purpose of obtaining the vibration response related to different
temperature to which, under specified test conditions, oil must be
lubrication regimes in the bearing element contacts. The radial
heated for sufficient vapors to be given off to form an inflammable
vibration of the studied ball bearing is measured by a piezoelectric
mixture with air. The flash point is one of the characteristics of oils;
accelerometer attached to the bearing housing known values of radial
it is not a criterion for their quality. The physical properties of base
load can be applied in the tested bearing through a lever and a load
lubricant ISO VG 32, 68 and100 Mineral oil are shown below in
cell with a screw system during the test run as shown in figure -1.
table-1 as
Experiments with every lubricant condition were repeated 3 times to
check. Repeatability
Table-1 Typical Properties of Lubricants
Properties of Lubricants

S.NO. Properties Values

ISO VG ISO VG ISO VG


32 68 100
1 Density kg/m3at at 0.71 0.85 0.88
29.5 0 C

2 Viscosity index 100 115 98

3 KV at 40C mm2/s 32 68 95

4 KV at 100C 5.4 9.3


mm2/s 10.5

5 Flash Point C 70 210


250
6 -10 -36 -18
Pour Point C
Figure-01 Experimental line Diagram for bearing
2.1 Experimental Apparatus and procedure vibration measurement
The Ball bearing in this study was SKF 6305 with an outer A system with pulleys transmits the power from an electric motor to
diameter of 62 mm, bore diameter 25mm, width of bearing 17mm the bearing shaft. Two ball bearings are used to support the shaft. A
and ball diameter 7.5 mm. The technical specification of roller frequency inverter controls the shaft speed. Actually, machines have
bearing is given below in table-2 as an inherent vibration that characterizes the baseline of their
dynamical behavior. The baseline dynamics certainly affects the
vibration of any monitored component. In fact, in the performed
tests, the vibration measured by the accelerometer was affected by
the overall dynamical response of the equipment, including all the
component parts (shaft, structure, etc.).

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 14 Number 2 Aug 2014

Figure-02 Experimental line Diagram for bearing vibration measurement

Then, the results presented in the paper are related to the changes in 3. Result and Discussion
3.1 Oil Temperature
the vibration. on of the equipment with respect to its baseline
Fig.3 shows oil bath temperature as a function of test time, for three
vibration, as a function of the different viscosity grade mineral oil of
tested viscosities. A gradual increase in temperature can be observed
the tested ball bearing After mounting the bearing, 2 h running time
during first hour of test and trends to stabilization in the second hour.
with clean oil was performed so as to stabilize the oil bath
This behavior is repetitive for the three tested viscosity grades.
temperature; typically to 45 C in 2 h. The applied load was static
Table- 4 Oil Temperature as Function of Test Time
and the shaft speed to 40 Hz. The vibration signal was acquired at
Varying Parameters Performing Parameters
every 15 min, up to 2 h, in order to verify the existence of some
abnormality in the system. The test continued to record the vibration Lubricant Time (min.) Oil Temperature(0c)
data corresponding to the clean oil condition, varying the shaft speed Viscosity Grades
(keeping the load constant). 0 27
20 33
40 37
Table-3The brief description of various measuring instruments Lubricant
60 41
Viscosity Grades
S.No. Instruments Capacity Quantity 80 42
V1:ISO32
100 43
1 Accelerometer 0-10KHz 1 120 43
o
2 Digital temperature 1 0 28
100 c
measurement
20 33
3 Load cell 100Kg 1 Lubricant
4 Electric Motor 1h .p. 1 Viscosity Grades 40 41
5 Frequency Controller 0-1KHz 1 V2:ISO68 60 44
80 46
In order to verify the effect on the bearing vibration of oil 100 47
viscosity change caused by the increase in oil bath temperature, 120 47
0 30
vibration signals were acquired at every 15 min, during 2 h of testing
20 34
(time for oil bath temperature stabilization). The applied load was set Lubricant
to (400N) (corresponding to approximately 20% of the bearing Viscosity Grades 40 43
V3:ISO100 60 47
dynamic capacity) and the shaft speed to 40 Hz. This procedure was
80 48
applied in the tests with the three oil viscosities. After temperature 100 50
stabilization, vibration signals were acquired for three shaft speeds 120 50
(1000rpm, 2000rpm,3000rpm and 4000rpm), in order to verify if the
trends in vibration behavior with the tested viscosity grades would be
kept constant when the speed changed. Experiments with every
lubrication condition were repeated several times to check
repeatability.

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 14 Number 2 Aug 2014

60 The RMS values of vibration in low frequency band present


Oil Temperature(0c) 50 minimum variation along with time and no appreciable difference in
40 the vibration value among the tested viscosities. On other hand , the
30 RMS values in HF band present a behavior in this band, it is possible
V1
20 V2 to notice more appreciable difference in vibration with smaller oil
10 V3 viscosity grade (V1) According to the performed analyses.
0
0 50 100 150
3.2.1 Effect of Shaft Speed
Time time (min.) Vibration signal were acquired by subsequence runs in the tests
with all the three viscosity grades, in three shaft speed (1000rpm,
Fig.3 Oil Temperature as Function of test time V1: ISO
2000rpm,3000rpm and 4000rpm). RMS values of overall vibration.
32; V2: ISO 68; V3: ISO 100
Including HF and low- frequency vibration band are shown in Fig.6.
Also, it can be observed that, for the studied viscosity grades,
As can be seen, vibration decrease when increase shaft speed. From
oil temperature is proportional to the viscosity degree. This
the point of view of tribological behavior, an increase in speed leads
phenomenon is correlated with frictional force that originated from
to an enlargement of the oil film thickness, which implies in better
viscous action among the layers in the lubricant film that separates
separation between the rolling elements and races of bearing and
the surfaces in contact. High frictional force (high viscosity) is
then decrease the level of vibration. However, as mentioned before,
related to high loss of energy in the contact, resulting in high heat
from the point of view of dynamic behavior, vibration measured by
generation
the accelerometer, placed on the housing of the tested bearing, was
composed by the vibration from contact area of tested bearing itself.
3.2 Bearing Vibration
Fig.3 show the RMS vibration values of ball bearing as function of
Table-5 RMS vibration as a Function of Shaft Speed
test time. Comparing the result In this figure with those in Fig.2, two
Varying Parameters Performing parameter
main observations can be done. First, it is observed that both
temperature and RMS values tends to increase and stabilize with test Lubricant Shaft RMS Vibration(mm/s2)
Viscosity Grades speed
time. Secondly, vibration level is smaller as oil viscosity degree (rpm.)
becomes higher. Lubricant 1000 7
Table- 5 RMS vibration as a Function of test Viscosity Grades 2000 45
V1:ISO 32 3000 62
Varying Parameters Performing parameter
4000 63
Lubricant Time RMS Vibration(mm/s2) 1000
4
Viscosity Grades (min.) Lubricant 2000 40
20 2.15 Viscosity Grades 3000 57
40 2.17 V2:ISO 68
Lubricant 4000 58
60 2.18
Viscosity Grades 80 2.18
1000
2
V1:ISO 32 100 2.19 Lubricant 2000 37
120 2.19 Viscosity Grades 3000 55
20 2.1 V3:ISO 100 4000 56
40 2.12
Lubricant 60 2.13
Viscosity Grades 80 2.13 70
)

V2:ISO 68 100 2.14 60


RMS Vibration( mm/s2

120 2.14
20 2.07 50
40 2.09 40
Lubricant 60 2.11 V1
Viscosity Grades 30
80 2.11 V2
V3:ISO 100 100 2.12 20
V3
120 2.12
10

0
2.2 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
RMS Vibration(mm/s2)

2.18 Speed (rpm)


2.16
2.14
V1 Figure. 4. Overall RMS vibration as a Function of Shaft
2.12
2.1 V2 Speed V1: ISO 32;V2: ISO 68; V3: ISO 100
2.08 V3
2.06
0 50 100 150 A change in the shaft speed alone causes a strong change in the

Test time (min.) excitation of hydrodynamics of all parts of the system. Identication
of the vibration coming only from the bearing contact requires a
Figure. 5. Overall RMS vibration as a Function of test time V1: ISO 32; special methodology; which was not the case of the present work. It
V2: ISO 68; V3: ISO 100

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) Volume 14 Number 2 Aug 2014

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