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K A STROUD

PROGRAMMES AND PROBLEMS


PROGRAMMES AND PROBuEMS
PROGRAMMES AND PROBLEMS
PROGRAMMES AND PROBLEMS
PROGRAMMES AND PROBLEMS

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ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Programmes and Problems

K. A. Stroud

MACMILLAN
K. A. Stroud 1970

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may


be reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, without permission.

First published 1970

Published by
MACMILLAN AND CO LTD
London and Basingstoke
Associated companies in New York, Toronto,
Melbourne, Dublin, Johannesburg and Madras

Printed by photo-lithography and made in Great Britain


at the Pitman Press, Bath
PREFACE
The purpose of this book is to provide a complete year's course in
mathematics for those studying in the engineering, technical and
scientific fields. The material has been specially written for courses lead-
ing to
(i) Part
I of B.Sc. Engineering Degrees,

Higher National Diploma and Higher National Certificate in techno-


(ii)

logical subjects, and for other courses of a comparable level. While formal
proofs are included where necessary to promote understanding, the
emphasis throughout is on providing the student with sound mathematical
skills and with a working knowledge and appreciation of the basic con-
cepts involved.The programmed structure ensures that the book is highly
suited for general class use
and for individual self-study, and also provides
a ready means for remedial work or subsequent revision.
The book is the outcome of some eight years' work undertaken in the
development of programmed learning techniques in the Department of
Mathematics at the Lanchester College of Technology, Coventry. For the
past four years, the whole of the mathematics of the first year of various
Engineering Degree courses has been presented in programmed form, in
conjunction with seminar and tutorial periods. The results obtained have
proved to be highly satisfactory, and further extension and development
of these learning techniques are being pursued.
Each programme has been extensively validated before being produced
in its final form and has consistently reached a success level above 80/80,
i.e. at least 80% of the students have obtained at least 80% of the possible
marks in carefully structured criterion tests. In a research programme,
carried out against control groups receiving the normal lectures, students
working from programmes have attained significantly higher mean scores
than those in the control groups and the spread of marks has been con-
siderably reduced. The general pattern has also been reflected in the results
of the sessional examinations.
The advantages of working at one's own rate, the intensity of the
student involvement, and the immediate assessment of responses, are well
known to those already acquainted with programmed learning activities.
Programmed learning in the first year of a student's course at a college or
university provides the additional advantage of bridging the gap between
the rather highly organised aspect of school life and the freer environment
and which puts greater emphasis on personal responsibility for his own pro-
gress which faces every student on entry to the realms of higher education.
Acknowledgement and thanks are due to all those who have assisted
in any way in the development of the work, including those who have
been actively engaged in validation processes. I especially wish to
record my sincere lhanks for the continued encouragement and support
which I received from my present Head of Department at the College,
Mr. J. E. Sellars, M.Sc, A.F.R.Ae.S., F.I.M.A., and also from
Mr. R. Wooldridge, M.C., B.Sc, F.I.M.A., formerly Head of Department,
now Principal of Derby College of Technology. Acknowledgement is also
made of the many sources, too numerous to list, from which the selected
examples quoted in the programmes have been gleaned over the years.
Their inclusion contributes in no small way to the success of the work.

K. A. Stroud
CONTENTS
Preface v
Hints on using the book xii
Useful background information xiii

Programme 1 : Complex Numbers, Part 1

Introduction: The symbol j; powers ofj; complex numbers 1

Multiplication of complex numbers


Equal complex numbers
Graphical representation of a complex number
Graphical addition of complex numbers
Polar form of a complex number
Exponential form of a complex number
Test exercise I
Further problems I

Programme 2: Complex Numbers, Part 2

Introduction 37
Loci problems
Test exercise II
Further problems II

Programme 3: Hyperbolic Functions

Introduction 73
Graphs of hyperbolic functions
Evaluation of hyperbolic functions
Inverse hyperbolic functions
Log form of the inverse hyperbolic functions
Hyperbolic identities
Trig, identities and hyperbolic identities
Relationship between trigonometric & hyperbolic functions
Test exercise III
Further problems HI

Programme 4: Determinants

Determinants \q\
Determinants of the third order
Evaluation of a third order determinant
Simultaneous equations in three unknowns
Consistency of a set of equations
Properties of determinants

vii
1

Test exercise IV
Further problems IV

Programme 5: Vectors

Introduction: Scalar and vector quantities 141


Vector representation
Two equal vectors
Types of vectors
Addition of vectors
Components of a given vector
Components of a vector in terms of unit vectors
Vectors in space
Direction cosines
Scalar product of two vectors
Vector product of two vectors
Angle between two vectors
Direction ratios
Summary
Test exercise V
Further problems V

^/Programme 6: Differentiation

Standard differential coefficients 1 7


Functions of a function
Logarithmic differentiation
Implicit functions
Parametric equations
Test exercise VI
Further problems VI

Programme 7: Differentiation Applications, Part 1

Equation of a straight line 195


Centre of curvature
Test exercise VII
Further problems VII

Programme 8: Differentiation Applications, Part 2

^-Inverse trigonometrical functions 223


Differentiation of inverse trig, functions
^Differentiation coefficients of inverse hyperbolic functions
Maximum and minimum values (turning points J

Test exercise VIII


Further problems VIII
1

Programme 9: Partial Differentiation, Part 1

Partial differentiation
25
Small increments
Test exercise IX
Further problems IX

Programme 10: Partial Differentiation, Part 2

Partial differentiation 277


Rates of change problems
Change of variables
Test exercise X
Further problems X

Programme 1 1 : Series, Part 1

Series
297
Arithmetic and geometric means
Series of powers of natural numbers
Infinite series: limiting values
Convergent and divergent series
Tests for convergence; absolute convergence
Test exercise XI
Further problems XI

Programme 1 2: Series, Part 2

Power series, Maclaurin 's series 327


Standard series
The binomial series
Approximate values
Limiting values
Test exercise XII
Further problems XII

^Programme 13: Integration, Part 1

Introduction
357
Standard integrals
Functions of a linear function
Integrals of the form
Integration of products -
integration by parts
Integration by partial fractions
Integration of trigonometrical functions .

Test exercise XIII


Further problems XIII
Programme 14: Integration, Part 2

Test exercise XIV 389


Further problems XIV
Programme 15: Reduction Formulae

Test exercise XV 419


Further problems XV
1/^Programme 16: Integration Applications, Part 1

x^Parametric equations 435


\^Mean values
*-^k.m.s. values
Summary sheet
Test exercise XVI
Further problems XVI
Programme 17: Integration Applications, Part 2

Introduction 457
Volumes of solids of revolution
Centroid of a plane figure
Centre of gravity of a solid of revolution
Lengths of curves
Lengths of curves - parametric equations
Surfaces of revolution
Surfaces of revolution - parametric equations
Rules of Pappus
Revision summary
Test exerciseXVII
Further problems XVII

Programme 18: Integration Applications, Part 3

Moments of inertia 483


Radius of gyration
Parallel axes theorem
Perpendicular axes theorem
Useful standard results
Second moment of area
Composite figures
Centres of pressure
Depth of centre of pressure
Test exercise XVIII
Further problems XVIII
^-''Programme 19: Approximate Integration

t- Introduction
517
j. Approximate integration
1 Method 1 by series
1

s/ftethod 2- Simpson 's rule


\ftoof of Simpson 's rule
Test exercise XIX
Further problems XIX
Programme 20: Polar Co-ordinates Systems
Introduction to polar co-ordinates 539
Polar curves
Standard polar curves
Test exercise XX
Further problems XX
Programme 21: Multiple Integrals

Summation in two directions 565


Double integrals: triple integrals
Applications
Alternative notation
Determination of volumes by multiple integrals
Test exercise XXI
Further problems XXI
Programme 22: First Order Differential Equations

Introduction 593
Formation of differential equations
Solution of differential equations
Method 1 - by direct integration
Method 2 - by separating the variables
Method 3 homogeneous equations: by substituting y = vx
Method 4 - linear equations: use of integrating factor
Test exercise XXII
Further problems XXII

Programme 23: Second Order Differential Equations with Constant


Coefficients

Test exercise XXIII 637


Further problems XXIII

Programme 24: Operator D Methods


The operator D 70
Inverse operator 7/D
Solution of differential equations by operator D methods
Special cases
Test exercise XXIV
Further problems XXIV
Answers 707
Index 744

xi
HINTS ON USING THE BOOK
This book contains twenty-four lessons, each of which has been
written in such a way as to make learning more effective and more
interesting. It is almost like having a personal tutor, for you proceed at
your own rate of learning and any difficulties you may have are cleared
before you have the chance to practise incorrect ideas or techniques.
You will find that each programme is divided into sections called
frames, each of which normally occupies half a page. When you start a
programme, begin at frame 1. Read each frame carefully and carry out
any instructions or exercise which you are asked to do. In almost every
frame, you are required to make a response of some kind, testing your
understanding of the information in the frame, and you can immediately
compare your answer with the correct answer given in the next frame. To
obtain the greatest benefit, you are strongly advised to cover up the
following frame until you have made your response. When a series of dots
occurs, you are expected to supply the missing word, phrase, or number.
At every stage, you will be guided along the right path. There is no need
to hurry: read the frames carefully and follow the directions exactly. In
this way, you must learn.
At the end of each programme, you will find a short Test Exercise.
This is set directly on what you have learned in the lesson: the questions
are straightforward and contain no tricks. To provide you with the
necessary practice, a set of Further Problems is also included: do as many
of these problems as you can. Remember that in mathematics, as in many
other situations, practice makes perfect or more nearly so.
Even if you feel you have done some of the topics before, work
steadily through each programme: it will serve as useful revision and fill
in any gaps in your knowledge that you may have.

USEFUL BACKGROUND
INFORMATION
I. Algebraic Identities

(a + bf = a2 + 2ab+b 2 (a + bf = a 3 + 3a 2 b + 3ab 2 + b 3
(a - bf =a 2 - Ixib + b 2
(a- b)
3
=a 3 ~ 3a b + 3ab - b
2 2 3

(a + bf = a 4 + 4a 3 b + 6a 2 b 2 + 4ab 3 + 6 4
(a - Z>) = a 4 - 4a 3 * + 6a 2
4
Z>
2
- 4ab 3 + b
4

2
a -b 2 = (a- b) (a + b). a
3
-b 3 ab + b 2 )
= (a- b) (a
2

+ b =(a + b)(a -ab + b 2 )


3 3 2
a

II. Trigonometrical Identities

2 2
cosec 2
2
(1) sin + cos = 1 ; sec = 1 + tan 2 0; = 1 + cot 2

(2) sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B


sin (A B) = sin A cos B - cos A sin B
cos (A + B) = cos A cos B - sin A sin B
cos (A - B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B

*
tan a iDB)^ =
(A + -=

1
tan
- tan

A + tan B-
A tan B
,. _. tan A - tan B
tan (A - B) _
1 + tan A tan B

(3) Let A=B = 0. .'. sin 20 = 2 sin cos


cos 20 =cos 2 0-sin 2
= 1-2 sin 2
= 2 cos 2 - 1

_ 2tan0
tan na j-^^
,

20 -

xin

(4) Letfl=| ;. sin = 2sin|cos|

cos ra
= cos^2 - sin 2^
2

= l-2sin'f

= 2cos.22 ^- 1

2 tan

tan0=
2
1-tan^-

(5) sin C+ sin D= 2 sin - cos


.

sin
n
C-
.

sin
=
D
.
2 cos
C+D
- sin C-D .

cos n,.
C + cos r.
D= -,
2 cos
C+D
2
cos
C-D
2

cos
p.
D - cos C = .
2 sin
.

C+ D
- sin
. C-D
-

(6) 2 sin A cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A - B)


2 cos A sin B = sin (A + B) - sin (A - B)
2 cos A cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A - B)
2 sin A sin B = cos (A - B) - cos (A + B)

(7) Negative angles: sin (-6) = -sin 9


cos (-8) = cos 9
tan (-6) = -tan 6

(8) Angles having the same trig, ratios:

(i) Same sine: 6 and (180 -6)


(ii) Same cosine: 6 and (360- 9), i.e. (-0)
(hi) Same tangent: 6 and (180 + 9)

xiv
(9) a sin + b cos = A sin (0 + a)
a sin -b cos = A sin (0 - a)
a cos +b sin = A cos (0 - a)
fl cos -6 sin = A cos (0 + a)

[A = vV + 6 2
)
where :

(a=tan- 1 |(0<a<90)

III. Standard Curves

(1) Straight line:

Slope, m = *! = ZiZZi
dx x2 -x l

Angle between two tan


m 2 -mi
lines,
+ m m2
,
1 l

For parallel lines, m2 = m 1

For perpendicular lines, m m2 l


= -1

Equation of a straight line (slope = m)


(i) Intercept c on real j-axis: y = mx + c
(ii) Passing through (x j, .yj): ^-^i=w(x-Xi)
(iii) Joining (x 1 ,y l ) and (x 2 J-^i
,.y ): 2

(2) 0>c/e:

2
Centre at origin, radius r: x2 + y 2 = r

Centre (h,k), radius /: (x-h) 2 + (y-k) 2 =r 2


General equation: x +y 2 + 2gx + 2fy +
2
c =
2
with centre (-g, -/); radius =
\/fe + /
2 - c)
Parametric equations x = r cos y = r sin
:
,

(3) Parabola:

Vertex 2
at origin, focus (a, 0): y = Aax
2
Parametric equations: x = at y = 2at ,

xv
(4) Ellipse:
2 2

Centre at origin, foci (\J[a


2
- b2 ] , 0): ^ +^7= 1

where a = semi major axis, b = semi minor axis


Parametric equations: x = a cos 6, y= b sin 8

(5) Hyperbola:
2 2
Centre at origin, foci ( \/a 2 + b 2 0): ,
x
y
-p" = 1

Parametric equations: x= a sec 6, y =b tan 6

Rectangular hyperbola:
2
Centre at origin, vertex/ y-, y-") : xy = = c 2 where c = -r-

2
i.e. xy = c
Parametric equations: x-ct, y = c/t

xvi
Programme 1

COMPLEX NUMBERS
PART1
Programme 1

1 Introduction: the symbol j


2
The solution of a quadratic equation ax + bx + c = can, of course, be

2
u* auby *u
obtained

the f
_
formula, x = i
-6V(6= -4gc)-

For example, if 2x 2 + 9x + 7 = 0, then we have

-9V(81-56) _ -9V25 -9 + 5
X
4 4 " 4

v -_4 14
" *" 4
0r
~T
:. x =-1 or -3-5

That was straight-forward enough, but if we solve the equation


5x 2 - 6x + 5 = in the same way, we get
_ 6 \/(36 - 100) ^ 6 V(-64)
*
TO 10
and the next stage is now to determine the square root of (-64).

Is it (i)8, (ii)-8, (iii) neither?

neither

It is, of course, neither, since + 8 and - 8 are the square roots of 64 and
not of (64). In fact, y/( 64) cannot be represented by an ordinary
number, for there is no real number whose square is a negative quantity.
However, -64 = "1 X 64 and therefore we can write

V(-64) = V(-l X 64) = V(-lK/64 - 8 V(-l)"


i.e. V(-64) = 8V(-1)
Of course, we arestill faced with
V(- l), which cannot be evaluated as a
real number, for the same reason as before, but, if we write the letter j to
stand for VHX then V(~64) = >/(-l) 8 = j8. .

So although we cannot evaluate V(-l). we can denote it by j and this


makes our working a lot neater.
V(-64) = V(-DV64=j8
Similarly, V(~36) = s/(-l )V36 = j6
V(- 7) = V(-1)V 7=j2-646
So can be written
V( 25)
Complex numbers 1

J5

We now have a way of finishing off the quadratic equation we started in


frame 1.

- tx x = 6V(36-100) _ 6 V(~64)
2 =u
5x
5* 6x + 5
i
- To To

:' x= " x
= ' 6
* j0 8
'

^JcT
.'.
x = 0-6+j0-8 or x = 0-6-j0-8

We will talk about results like these later.

For now, on to frame 4.

Powers of j
Since stands for _ l), us consider some powers of j.
j V( let

j =V(-D j =V(-i)
2
1
j =-i
r=u;2v)i=-i.j
= = -j
2
f=-j
4
j
=0 2 ) 2 =(-i) 2 = i
j
4
i

Note especially the last result: j 4 = 1 . Every time a factor j 4 occurs, it can
be replaced by the factor 1 , so that the power of j is reduced to one of
the four results above.

9 4 2
e.g. j =(j ) j
= (l) 2 j = l-j=j
j2o 4
)5 =(1)S =1
=(j
30 4
=(l) 7 (-l)=l(-l)'
a
j =G )'j
15 4 3 3
and j =(j ) J = lH) = -j

5
So, in the same way, j
Programme 1

s 4
since j =(j )j
= 1 j=j

Every one is done in the same way.


6 4 2 2
j =(j )J = Kj )=l(-l) = -l
7 4 3
j =G )J
=iH) = -J
4 2
j
8
= (j ) =0) 2 = i

42 =
So (i) j

12 =
00 j

(iii)
U =
J

and (iv) If x
2
- 6x + 34 = 0, x =

(i) -1, (ii) 1, (iii) -j, (iv)x = 3j5

The working in (iv) is as follows

6 V(36 - 136) _ 6 + V(-100)


x 2 - 6x + 34 = .'. x

,x-l^-3 j 5

i.e. * = 3+j5 or x = 3-j5

So remember, to simplify powers of j, we take out the highest power of'


4
j
that we can, and the result must then simplify to one of the four
results: j,
1, -j, 1.

Turn on now to frame 7.


Complex numbers J

Complex numbers 7
The result x = 3 + j5 that we obtained, consists of two separate terms, 3
and j5. These terms cannot be combined any further, since the second is

not a real number (due to its having the factor j).

In such an expression as x = 3 + j5,

3 is called the real part of x

5 is called the imaginary part of x

and the two together form what is called a complex number.

So, a Complex number = (Real part) + j(Imaginary part)

In the complex number 2+j7, the real part =

and the imaginary part =

real part ==
2; imaginary part ==
7 (NOTJ7!)
8
Complex numbers have many applications in engineering. To use them,
we must know how to carry out the usual arithmetical operations.

1 . Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers. This is easy, as one


or two examples will show.

Example 1 (4 +j5) + (3-j2). Although the real and imaginary parts


cannot be combined, we can remove the brackets and total up terms of
the same kind.

(4 + j5) + (3 - j2) = 4 + j5 + 3 - j2 = (4 + 3) + j(5 - 2)


= 7+j3
Example 2
(4+j7)-(2-j5) = 4+j7-2+j5 = (4-2)+j(7 + 5)
= 2+jl2

So, in general, (a + ]b) + (c + )d) = (a + c) + j(b + d)

Now you do this one:

(5+j7) + (3-j4)-(6-j3)=
Programme 1

2+j6

since (5+j7) + (3-j4)-(6-j3)


= 5+j7 + 3-j4-6+j3
= (5+3-6)+j(7-4 + 3)

= 2+j6

Now you do these in just the same way:

(i) (6+j5)-(4-j3) + (2-j7) =

and (ii) (3+j5)-(5-j4)-(-2-j3) =

10 (i)4+j (ii)jl2

Here is the working:

(i) (6+j5)-(4-j3) + (2-j7)


= 6+J5-4+J3 + 2-J7
= (6-4 + 2)+j(5+3-7)
= 4+j

(ii) +j5)-(5-j4)-(-2-j3)
= 3+J5-5+J4 + 2+J3 (Take care
with signs!)
= (3- 5 + 2) +j(5 +4 + 3)

= 0+J12 = j!2

This is very easy then, so long as you remember that the real and the

imaginary parts must be treated quite separately just like x's andy's in
an algebraic expression.

On to frame 11.
j

Complex numbers 1

2. Multiplication of Complex Numbers 11


Example: (3 + j4) (2 + j5)

These are multiplied together in just the same way as you would deter-
mine the product (3x + Ay) (2x + 5y).

Form the product terms of (i) the two left-hand terms


(ii) the two inner terms
14 (iii)

(iv)
the two outer terms
the two right-hand terms

(3 + J4) (2 + j5)
6+j8 +jl5+j 2 20
.2.

"3" 2
6+J23-20 (since =-l)

-14+J23
Ukewise, (4-j5)(3 +]2)

12
22 -j7

for: (4-j5)(3+j2)=12-jl5+j8-j 2 10
2
= 12-J7 + 10 (j =-l)
= 22-j7

If the expression contains more than two factors, we multiply the


factors together in stages:

(3+j4)(2-j5)(l-j2)
= (6+j8-jl5-j 2 20)(l-j2)
= (6-j7 + 20)(l-j2)

= (26-j7)(l-j2)

Finish it off.
Programme 1

13
12-J59

for: (26-j7)(l-j2)
= 26-j7-j52+j 2 14
= 26- j59- 14 = 12-J59

Note that when we are dealing with complex numbers, the result of our
calculations is also, in general, a complex number.

Now you do this one on your own.

(5+j8)(5-j8)=

14 89

Here it is:

(5 + j8) (5 - j8) = 25 +j40-j40-j 2 64


= 25+64
= 89

In spite of what we said above, here we have a result containing no j

term. The result is therefore entirely real.


This is rather an exceptional case. Look at the two complex numbers
we have just multiplied together. Can you find anything special about
them? If so, what is it?

When you have decided, turn on to the next frame.


Complex numbers 1

They are identical except for the middle sign in the brackets,
15
i.e. (5+j8) and (5-j8)

A pair of complex numbers like these are called conjugate complex


numbers and the product of two conjugate complex numbers is always
entirely real.

Look at it this way

(a + b) (a-b) = a 2 - b 2 Difference of two squares

Similarly (5 + j8) (5 -j8) = 5


2
-(j8)
2
=5 2 -j 2 8 2
= 52 +8 2 (j
2
=-l)
= 25 + 64 = 89

Without actually working it out, will the product of (7 - j6) and


(4+j3)be (i) a real number
(ii) an imaginary number
(iii) a complex number

16
a complex number

since (7-j6) (4 + j3) is a product of two complex numbers which are not
conjugate complex numbers.

Remember: Conjugate complex numbers are identical except for the


signs in the middle of the brackets.

(4 + j5) and (4 - j5) are conjugate complex numbers


(a +]b) and (a -\b) are conjugate complex numbers
but (6 +j2)and(2 +j6) are not conjugate complex numbers
(5 - j3) and (-5 + j3) are not conjugate complex numbers

So what must we multiply (3 - j2) by, to produce a result that is entirely


real?
Programme 1

17
3+j2

because the conjugate of (3 - j2) is identical to it, except for the middle
+ j2), and we know that the product of two conjugate com-
sign, i.e. (3
plex numbers is always real.

Here are some examples:

-j2)(3 +j2) = 3 -(j2) = 9 - j 2 4


2 2
Example 1 (3

= 9 + 4=13
Example 2 (2 + j7) (2 - j7) = 2
2
- G7) 2 = 4 - j 2 49
= 4+49 = 53

. . . and so on.

Complex numbers of the form (a + }b) and (a -]b) are called

complex numbers.

18
conjugate

Now you should have no trouble with these

(a) Write down the following products

(i) (4-j3)(4+j3)
(ii) (4+j7)(4-j7)
(hi) (fl+j6)(a-j6)

(iv) (x-iy)(x+jy)

(b) Multiply (3 - j5) by a suitable factor to give a product that is

entirely real.

When you have finished, move on to frame 1 9.


)

Complex numbers 1

Here are the results in detail.


19
2
(4-J3) (4+j3) = 4 -j 3 = 16 + 9 =
2 2
(a) (i) 25

2
(ii) (4+j7)(4-j7) = 4 -j 7 2 2
=16+49 = 65

(iii) (a + ]b) (a - ]b) = a 2 -) 2 b 2 = a


2
+ b2

- x2 - 2 2
x1 + y2
(iv) (x ]y) (x + ]y) = y =

(b) To obtain a real product, we must multiply (3 - j5) by its conjugate,


i.e. (3 +j5), giving

(3-j5)(3 +j5) = 3 2 -j 2 5 2 =9 + 25 = 34

Now move on to the next frame for a short revision exercise.

Revision exercise. 20
12
1. Simplify (i) j (ii) j' (iii) j
2. Simplify:

(i) (5-j9)-(2-j6) + (3-j4)


(ii) (6-j3)(2+j5)(6-j2)
2
(iii)
(4-J3)
(iv) (5-j4)(5+j4)

3. Multiply (4 - j3) by an appropriate factor to give a product that is


entirely real. What is the result?

When you have completed the exercise, turn on to frame 21.


^
10
Programme 1

\ Here are the results. Check yours

= 12 _ /;4\3 _ 1 3
1.

10 4 2 2 2 -1
GO j = (j ) j = i (-D=
4 5 3 3
(m) j" = o ) j =j =[T]

2. (i) (5-j9)-(2-j6) + (3-j4)


= 5-j9-2+j6 + 3-j4
= (5-2 + 3)+j(6-9-4) =
6-J7
(ii) (6-j3)(2+j5)(6-j2)
= (12-j6+j30-j 2 15)(6~j2)
= (27+j24)(6-j2) ,_
= 162 +J144-J54 + 48 210+J90
2
(iii) (4-J3) = 16-J24-9

7-J24
(iv) (5-j4)(5+j4)
= 25 -j 2 16 = 25 + 16 = 41

Required factor is the conjugate of the given complex number.

(4-j3)(4+j3)=16 + 9: 25

All correct? Right. Now turn on to the next frame to continue the
programme.

11
Complex numbers 1

Now let us deal with division.



Division of a complex number by a real number is easy enough.

5 -J 4 = 5 -4=1.67-jl.33
J
3 3 3

7-j4 r
But how do we manage with '

4+j3
If we could, somehow, convert the denominator into a real number, we
could divide out as in the example above. So our problem is really, how
can we convert (4 + j3) into a completely real denominator and
this is where our last piece of work comes in.
We know that we can convert (4 + j3) into a completely real number
by multiplying it by its c

23
Conjugate i.e. the same complex number but with the opposite sign

in the middle, in the case (4 j3)

nDDDanDnnnannnnDDnnnanDDDDnnnDnnanaDan
But if we multiply the denominator by (4 - j3), we must also multiply
the numerator by the same factor.

7-j4 = (7-j4)(4-j3) = 28-j37-12 _ 16-J37


4+J3 (4+j3)(4-j3) 16 + 9 25

if-j|=0.64-jl48
and the job is done.
To one complex number by another, therefore, we multiply
divide
numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator. This
will convert the denominator into a real number and the final step can
then be completed.

4-i5
Thus, to simplify . we shall multiply top and bottom by

12
Programme 1

24 the conjugate of the denominator, i.e. (1 - j2)

DnnannnnDannnnDDnnDDDnnaQDDDDDnnDnnnnD
If we do that, we get:

4-j5 _ (4-j5)(l-j2) = 4-J13-10


1+J2 (l+j2)(l-j2) 1+4
6 j 1 3 -6 .13

= -l-2-j2-6

Now here is one for you to do:

3 +j2
Simplify
1-J3
When you have done it, move on to the next frame.

25 Result

-0-3+jl-l

3+j2 _ (3+,j2)(l+j3) _ 3+jll-6


1-J3 (l-j3)(l+j3) 1+9

=
-3+jll = _
Q 3+jl . ,
1
10

naDnannDDDnDnnnnnDDDannnnDDDnnnnDDDnnD
Now do these in the same way:

4-J5 3+j5
(i) (ii)
v " _/
2-j 5-J3
(2+j3)(l-j2)
(iii)
3+j4
When you have worked these, turn on to frame 26 to check your results.

13
jl Complex numbers 1

m Results: Here are the solutions in detail. 26


I m 4-p_(4-j5)(2+j)_8-j6 + 5
K>
1 2-j (2-j)(2+j) 4 + 1

13- j6 _
2-6-J1-2

3+j5 _ (3+j5)(5+j3) = 15+J34-15


(ii)
5-j3 (5-j3)(5+j3) 25+9

(2+j3)(l-j2)_2-j+6_8-j
(iii)
(3+J4) 3+J4 3+J4
_ (8-j)(3-j4)
(3+j4)(3-j4)
. _24-j35-4_20-j35
9+16 25

= 0-8-J1-4

And now you know how to apply the four rules to complex numbers.

Equal Complex Numbers OT


Now let us see what we can find out about two complex numbers which
we are told are equal.
Let the numbers be

a + \b and c +]d
Then we have
a +}b = c + \d

Re-arranging terms, we get

a-c=](d-b)
In this last statement, the quantity on the left-hand side is entirely real,
while that on the right-hand side is entirely imaginary, i.e. a real quantity
equals an imaginary quantity! This seems contradictory and in general it

justcannot be true. But there is one special case for which the statement
can be true. That is when

14
Programme 1

28 each side is zero

a- c=\{d~b)
can be true only if

a-c = 0, i.e. a = c

and if d~b = 0, i.e. b = d

So we get this important result:

If two complex numbers are equal

(i) the two real parts are equal

(ii) the two imaginary parts are equal

For example, if x + \y = 5 + j4, then we know* = 5 and.y = 4


and ifa + }b = 6-j3, thena = and b = .

29

a = 6 and b=~3

Be careful to include the sign!

aDannnanDnnnnDDnnDnnnDannnDnnnaDnnnDDn
Now what about this one?

If (a + b)+)(a-b)= 1 +j 2, find the values of a and&.

Well now, following our rule about two equal complex numbers, what
can we say about (a + b) and (a - b)1

15
Complex numbers 1

+ 6 = 7 and a-b = 2 30
since the two real parts are equal and the two imaginary parts are equal.

onaannnnannanaaaaaaaaaaaaaaanaaaaaauaa
This gives you two simultaneous equations, from which you
can deter-
mine the values of a and 6.
So what are they?

a = 4-5; 6 = 2-5
31
For a + 6=7
2a = 9 .'. a = 4-5
26 = 5 :. 6 = 2-5
a-b = 2

DDDDDDDaDDDDDnDDDDDDDDDDDDDnnDDDDnnnDD
We see then that an equation involving complex numbers leads to
a
pair of simultaneous equations by putting

(i) the two real parts equal

(ii) the two imaginary parts equal

This is quite an important point to remember.

16
Programme 1

32 Graphical Representation of a
Although we cannot evaluate a complex number
Complex Number
as a real number, we can
represent it diagrammatically, as we shall now see.

In the usual system of plotting numbers, the number 3 could be repre-


sented by a line from the origin to
the point 3 on the scale. Likewise,
-3 +3
^
would be
a line to represent (-3)
drawn from the origin to the point
j~
(-3). These two lines are equal in
length but are drawn in opposite directions. Therefore, we put an arrow
head on each to distinguish between them.
A line which represents a magnitude (by its length) and direction (by
the arrow head) is called a vector. We shall be using this word quite a lot.
Any vector therefore must include both magnitude (or size)
and

33 direction

DnnDDDnaDnnnnnDnDnnnnnnnDnnDDDDDDDDnnn
If we multiply (+3) by the factor (-1), we get (-3), i.e. the factor (--1)
has the effect of turning the
vector through 1
80
180
+3

-3 -1

2
Multiplying by (-1) is equivalent to multiplying by j ,
i.e. by the factor
j twice. Therefore multiplying by a
single factor j have half the
will
effect and rotate the vector through
j3
only o

x
\ l

-3 -2 -1

17
Complex numbers 1

90 34
DDDnDnnDDDDDDnanDaanDnDDnDDDDnna a a a a a a
The factor j always turns a vector through 90
in the positive direction
of measuring angles, i.e. anticlockwise.

If we now multiply j3 by a
further factor j, we get j 2 3,
(-3) and the diagram agrees
i.e.

with this result.


xj
y >j

-2 -1

If we multiply (-3) by a further


factor j, sketch the new position of
the vector on a similar diagram.

Result:
35

Let us denote the two reference


J3 lines by XXi and YYj as usual.

+3
*, ~-

You will see that v


Y
1 ;
<l

(i) The scale on the X-axis represents real numbers.


XX! is therefore called the real axis.
(ii) The scale on the Y-axis represents imaginary numbers.
YY, is therefore called the imaginary axis.
On a similar diagram, sketch vectors to represent

(i) 5, (ii) -4, (iii) j2, (iv) -j


Programme 1

36 Results:

Check that each of your vectors


carries an arrow head to show
direction.

aaauaaoaauDaanannnuauanaaonannnnunnaaa
we must
we now wish to represent 3 + 2 as the sum of two vectors,
If
one
draw them as a chain, the second vector starting where
the first

finishes. ,,, ,
,

(3) 2j
H- -*!.

I 3+2=5
single vector
The two vectors, 3 and 2, are together equivalent to a
(giving naturally that
drawn from the origin to the end of the final vector
3 + 2 = 5).

Continue

If we wish to represent the complex number (3 + j2), then we add


37 together the vectors which repre-
sent 3 andj2.
Notice that the 2 is now multi-

plied a factor j which turns that


by
vector through 90.

The equivalent single vector to


represent (3 + j2) is therefore the
vector from the beginning of the
first vector (origin) to the end
of
the last one.

This graphical representation constitutes an


Argand diagram.

Draw an Argand diagram to represent the vectors

(i) z, =2+j3 (h) z2 =-3+j2


(iii) z3 =4-j3 (iv) z4 =^4-j5

Label each one clearly.

19
Complex numbers 1

Here they are. Check yours.


38

z, = 2+j3

Note once again that the end of each vector is plotted


very much like
plotting x and y co-ordinates.
The real part corresponds to the x-value.
The imaginary part corresponds to the Rvalue.

Move on to frame 39.

Graphical Addition of Complex Numbers

Let us find the sum of z, =


and z 2 = 2 + j3 by Argand diagram. If
5 + j2
39
we are adding vectors, they must be drawn as a chain. We
therefore draw
at the end of z l a vector AP repre-
,

senting z 2 in magnitude and


direction, i.e. AP = OB and is
parallel to it. Therefore OAPB is a
parallelogram. Thus the sum of z x
and z 2 is given by the vector join-
ing the starting point to the end of
the last vector, i.e. OP.
The complex numbers z% and
z2 can thus be added together by
drawing the diagonal of the
parallelogram formed by z x and z
2 .

If OP represents the complex number a + jb, what are


the values of a
and b in this case?

20
Programme 1

40 :=5+2=7 Z>
= 2 +3 = 5

:. OP = z = 7+j5

+ j2) and (2 + j3) algebraically.


You can check this result by adding (5

DnDDDOODDDnnDDDDODDODDODDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
So the sum of two vectors on an Argand diagram
is given by the
of the parallelogram of vectors.

41
diagonal

aaaDaannDDnnDDDnnnDnDnnaDaDaaannnnnnaa
How do we do subtraction by similar means? We do this rather craftily

without learning any new methods. The trick is simply


this:

Z\ -2 2 ~Z\ +(-Z2)

we draw the vector representing z, and the negative vector of 2


z
That is
a vector with
and add them as before. The negative vector of z 2 is simply
the same magnitude (or length) as z 2 but
pointing in the opposite direction.

e.g. Ifzi =5 +j2andz 2 =2+j3


vector OA = z t
= 5 +j2
OP =-z 2 =-(2+j3)
Then OQ = z 1 + (-z 2 )
= Zi -z 2

Determine on an Argand diagram (4 + j2) + (-2 + j3) ( 1 + j6)

21
Complex numbers 1

P (zi+r2 )
42

(* 2 )B

1 X

OA = z =4+j2
1

OB =z 2 =-2+j3
OC=-z 3 = l-j6

Then OP = 2! + 2 2 OQ=Z! + z2 -z 3 3-j

Polar Form of a Complex Number


It is convenient sometimes to express a complex
number a + ]b in a differ- 43
ent form. On an Argand diagram,
let OP be a vector a + jb
Let .

r = length of the vector and 6 the


\b angle made with OX.

r = ^(a 2 +b 2 )
6 = tan"
1
^
a = r cos and 6 = r sin

Since z=a +jb, this can be written


2 = r cos + jr sin 6 i.e. z = r(cos 9 + j sin 6)
This is called the polar form of the complex number a + ji, where
r = + b \V 2
) and = tan" 1 -n
Let us take a numerical example.

22
Programme 1

44 Example: To express z = 4 + j3 in polar form.

First draw a sketch diagram (that always helps)


We can see that
(i) r
2
= 42 + 32 =16 + 9 = 25

(ii) tan0=^-=O-75

6 = 3652

z = a + ]b = K cos + j sin 0)

So in this case z = 5(cos3652'+jsin3652')


Now here is one for you to do
Find the polar form of the complex number (2 + j3)
When you have finished it, consult the next frame.

45 z = 3-606 (cos 5619' + j sin 5619')

Here is the working

z = 2 + j3 = /-(cos +j sin 0)

r
i
=4 + 9=13 r = 3-606

tan0 =-= 1-5 = 5619'

z = 3-606 (cos 5619'+ j sin 5619')

DDDnDDnDODnnnDnnnDDDnnDDDDDnDDDDnnnDDn
We have special names for the values of r and .

z = a + )b = r(cos 6 + j sin 6)

(i) r is modulus of the complex number z and


called the is often
abbreviated to 'mod z' or indicated by \z\.
2 2
Thus if z = 2 + j5, then|z| =V(2 + 5 ) =V(4 + 25) = V29
(ii) d is called the argument of the complex number and can be abbreviated
to 'arg z'.

So if z = 2 + j5, then argz =

23
Complex numbers 1

argz = 6812' 46
z = 2 + j5. Then argz = 6 = tan"
1
1 = 6812'
DDDDDnnnnnanDnnannDnnnDnnnnnnnnaaaDD
Warning. In finding 6, there are of course two angles
between 0 and
360, the tangent of which has the value
| We must be careful to use the
angle in the correct quadrant. Always draw a sketch of the vector to
ensure you have the right one.
e.g. Find argz when z =-3 -j4.

is measured from OX to OP. We


first find E the equivalent acute
angle from the triangle shown.

tan = |=1.333 .\ E= S3i'

Then in this case,


o
= 18O +- = 2337 argz = 2337'

Now you find arg (-5 + j2)


Move on when finished.

2148'

x In this particular case, = 1 80 ~E


:. = 15812'
QnnannaDnoaDananonDDnoDDoaDDDoaDDQDOo
Complex numbers in polar form are always of the same shape and differ
only in the actual values of/- and 6. We often use the shorthand version
r\d_\o denote the polar form.

e.g. If Z = -5 + j2, r = V(25 + 4) = ^29 = 5-385 and from above


6 = 15812'
-- The full polar form is z = 5-385 (cos 15812' +
j sin 15812') and this
can be shortened to z = 5-385 |15812'
Express in shortened form, the polar form of (4 - j3)
Do not forget to draw a sketch diagram first.

24
Programme 1

48
2
v/(4 +3 )
= 2 = 5
r r

= 3652'
tan E = 0-75 /.

= 360- = 3238'

'

:. z = 5(cos 3238' + j sin 3238') = 5 |3238


DDDnanDanDDOnDnaDDDDnDDDDDDDDnDDDDDDDD
Of course, given acomplex number in polar form, you can convert it
che cosine and the sine
into the basic form a + )b simply by evaluating
and multiplying by the value of r.

e.g. z = 5(cos 35 + j sin 35) = 5(0-8192 + jO-5736)

z = 4-0960 +J3-8680

Now you do this one- o


Express in the forma + )b, 4(cos 65 + j sin 65 )

z = 1-6904
49 +J3-6252

= 4(cos 65+j sin 65> 4(0-4226 + J0-9063) = 1-6904 + J3-6252


for z
nDDDDanDDDDnDDDClQ-DDQnDDDDDaaanDDDDDDDD
greater than 90, care must be taken in evaluating
If the argument is
appropriate signs,
the cosine and sine to include the
e.g. If z = 2(cos 210 + j sin
210) the vector lies in the third quadrant.

cos 210= -cos 30

sin210 = -sin30

Then z = 2(-cos 30 -j sin 30 )

= 2(-0-8660-j0-5)
= -l-732-j
Here you are. What about this one?
Express z = 5(cos 140 + j sin 140) in the form a + }b
What do you make it?

25
Complex numbers 1

z =-3-8300 +J3-2140 50
Here are the details -
cos 140 = -cos 40
sin 140 = sin 40

z = 5(cos 140 + j sin 140) = 5(-cos 40 + j sin 40)


= 5(-0-7660 + jO-6428)
= -3-8300
+J3-2140
DaaannnDnnDannnnDnDDnDnnnnnDnnnDnDDDn
Fine. Now by way of revision, work out the following,

(i) Express -5 + j4 in polar form


(ii) Express 3 |300 in the form a + ]b
When you have finished both of them, check your results with those on
frame 51.

r
2
=4 2 +5 2 = 16 + 25 = 41
51
--
r = 6-403
tan E = 0-8 :. E = 3840'
--
e = l4120'

-5 + j4 = 6-403(cos 14120' + j sin 14120') = 6-403 |14120


'

Oi) 3 1300 = 3(cos 300 + j sin 300)

a cos 300 = cos 60

sin 300 = -sin 60

c 3 [300 = 3(cos 60 -j sin 60)


= 3(0-500 -J0-866)

1-500-J2-598
Turn to frame 52.

26
:

Programme 1

two ways of expressing a c mPiex number


52 We see then that there are

(i) in standard form z=a +)b

in polar form: z = r(cos 6 + j


sin 6)
(ii)
2 2
where r = \/(a +b )

= i b
and tan"

we can easily convert from one


If we remember the simple diagram,
system to the other.

So on now to frame 53.

53
Exponential Form of a complex number.

There is still another way of expressing a complex number which we must


arrive at it this way:
deal with, for it too has its uses. We shall
example,
Many functions can be expressed as series. For
v2 Y3 x4 xs
e* = i+*+%+7- + fT- + !r + --

sin* -x _ "3f + 3] 7! 9! '"

X ,x X
cosx-
,
i
1 ~2! 4l 6!

recollections of these series You had better make


You no doubt have hazy
a note of them since they have turned up.

27
>

Complex numbers 1

If we now take the series for e* and write j0 in place of x, we get Jl*|

J
2! 3! 4! "

'*-!?-!?

-(-&- 2! 4! )

4.ua
+j(*-i; + _
g-.. ..)
3! 5!

= cos +j sin

Therefore, /-(cos 9 + j sin 0) can now be written as re e This


is called the .

exponential form of the complex number. It can be obtained from


the
polar form quite easily since the r value is the same and the angle
6 is the
same in both. It is important to note, however, that in the exponential
form, the angle must be in radians.

Move on to the next frame.

55
The three ways of expressing a complex number are therefore

(i) z=a+]b
(ii) z = r(cos +j sin 0) . . . . Polar form
(iii) z = r.e) e Exponential form

Remember that the exponential form is obtained from the polar form,
(i) the r value is the same in each case.
(ii) the angle is also the same in each case, but in the
exponential form
the angle must be in radians.
So, knowing that, change the polar form 5(cos 60 + j sin 60) into the
exponential form.

Then turn to frame 56.

28
Programme 1

56
Exponential form 5c
for we have 5(cos60 +jsin60) r=5
6 = 60 = | radians
n
J
3
.'. Exponential form is 5 e

DnDnnnDnnDnnnnaDDnnDDDDnDDnnDanaDnanDn
And now a word about negative angles

We know eJ e = cos 6 + j sin 6

If we replace 9 by ~6 in this result, we get

e"J fl
=cos(-0)+j sin(-0)
= cos0 j sinfl

So we have e = cos 6 +
t'i j sin 6
Make a note of
e~J
e = cos 6 - j sin 6 these.

one operation that we have been unable to carry out with


57 There is

complex numbers before this. That is to find the logarithm of a com-


plex number. The exponential form now makes this possible, since the
exponential form consists only of products and powers.
For, if we have ..

Then we can say


In z = In r + j0

e.g. If
z = 6-42eJ 1 57 -

then
lnz = ln642+jl-57
= 1-8594 +J1-57

and the result is once again a complex number.


0236 then In z =
And if z = 3-8e-J ,

29
Complex numbers 1

lnz = ln3-8-jO-236 :

1-3350-J0-236 58
DnDDDnDnnDnDDDDDDnDDnDnDanDDnnDDDDDnDn
Finally, here is an example of a rather different
kind. Once you have seen
it done, you will be able to deal with others of this
kind. Here it is.

Express e^ 4
in the form a + ]b

Well now, we can write

e'-J^4 as e^ 4

= e(cos tt/4 -j sin n/4)

=e
U _j
>i}

(1
-
V2 j)

59
This brings us to the end of this programme, except
for the test
exercise. Before you do that, read down the Revision Sheet that follows
in the next frame and revise any points on
which you are not completely
sure
Then turn on and work through the test exercise: you will find the
questions quite straightforward and easy.

But first, turn to frame 60.

30
Programme 1

60 Revision Summary

1 Powers off
2 3 4
i
= V(-D, J
=-i> 3 =n, i = i-

A factor j turns a vector through 90 in the positive direction.

2. Complex numbers
z =a + \b

a = real part
b= imaginary part

3. Conjugate complex numbers (a+jb) and (a-)b)

The product of two conjugate complex numbers is always real.

2 2
(a+)b)(a-]b)=a +b

4. Equal complex numbers

If a + }b = c + }d, then a = c and 6 = d.

5. Polar form of a complex number


Y
z = a + j&
i

>"'/IT
lb
= r(cos0 +j sin0)

^e
It -X
= r\
a *1
r = V(a 2 +& 2 ); = tairl
{l)
also a=rcos6; b=r sin 9

r = the modulus of z, written 'modz' or |z|

d = the argument of z, written 'argz'

6. Exponential form of a complex number

z=r(cosd +isin6) = rei e


in radians
e
and r(cos0-jsin0) = re-J

7. Logarithm of a complex number


6
z = rei :. lnz = lnr + j0
e
or if z = re~i .'. Inz = lnr-j0

31
Complex numbers 1

Test Exercise - I Kl
3 12 14
1. Simplify (i)j , (ii)f, (iii)j (iv) .
, j

2. Express in the form a + jb

0) (4-j7)(2+j3) (ii)(-l+j) 2

(iii) (5 + j2) (4 - j5) (2 + j3) (iv) 1


^ J

3. Express in polar form

(i) 3+J5 (ii)


-6+J3 (iii)
-4-J5
Express in the form a +
4.
$
(i) 5(cos 225 +j sin 225) (ii) 4 J330

5. Find the values of x and y that satisfy the equation

(* + >0+j(*-.>') = 14-8+j6-2

6. Express in exponential form

0) z, = lo|3715' and (ii) z 2 = lp 32245'


|

Hence find In z\ and In z 2 .

7. Express z = e
1+J7r/2
in the forma +j&.

Now you are ready to start Part 2 of the work on complex numbers.

32
.

Programme 1

Further Problems - 1

1 Simplify (i) (5 + j4) (3 + j7) (2 - j3)

.... (2-j3)(3+j2) ,..., cos3x + jsin3x


K} (4-j3)
KJ cos* +j sin*

2. Express .,- tt. + in the form a + }b.

3. If z = x
2+j3
:- +
1
r~
]i
, express z in the form a + ]b.

4. if z = -^4, find the real and imaginary parts of the complex number

z + l
z

2 5
result in the
5. Simplify (2 + j5) + ^jp -j(4-j6), expressing the
forma + ]b.

6 If z,1 = 2 + i,
J
z-, = -2 + i4 and = Z +
23 Z
t 2
, evaluate z 3 in the form

a +)b. If Zi z 2 Z3 are represented on an Argand diagram by the


, ,

points P, Q, R, respectively, prove that R is the foot of the perpen-


dicular from the origin on to the line PQ.

7. Points A, B, C, D, on an Argand diagram, represent the complex


numbers 9 + j, 4 + jl3, -8 + j8, -3 - j4 respectively. Prove that
ABCD is a square.

8. If (2+j3)(3-j4) = x +jy, evaluate* andj>.

+ b) + )(a -b) = (2+ j5) + j(2 - j3), find the values of a and
2 b.
9. If (a

10. If x andj> are real, solve the equation

)x _ 3x + j4
1 + )y x + 3y

11 if z = a+ $ where a,b,c,d, are real quantities, show that (i) if z is

c+]d

33
Complex numbers 1

a _c
real then-- and (ii) if z is entirely imaginary then- = -^.

12. Given that (a + b) + ](a ~b) = (l + j) 2 + j(2 + j), obtain the values of
a and b.

13. Express (-1 + j) je


in the form re , where r is positive and ~n < 6 < n.
14. Find the modulus ofz = (2 3
-j) (5 +jl2)/(l +j2) .

1+ J 3 >*
15. If* is real, show that (2 + j)e< + (2 - j) e*
1 "* 3 * is also real.

16. Given that z x =/?, +R+juL;z 2 =R 2 ;z 3 = ,^and


24 =R * + andalsot hatz 1 z 3 =z 2 z 4 express/? andZ terms
j^Q; , in

ofthe real constants .Rl^^Cs andC4 .

17. Uz-x+iy, where* and y are real, and if the real part of
(z +l)/(z + j) is equal to 1 show that the point z lies on a straight
,

line in the Argand diagram.

18. Whenz =2+j3, z 2 = 3 -j4, z 3 = -5 = z, +


1
+J12, thenz
If" = /z,find'when/=5+j6. ^-^J|-.
**

19. tf
R i
+ )jL
]f3
^
""";

*4
^2
"
. where ^i,^2,-R3,^4,co,Z.andCarereal,
j
<3c
show that

CR2R3
=
a 2 C 2 Rl + 1

20. If z and z are conjugate complex numbers, find two complex


numbers, z = z, and z = z 2 that satisfy the equation
,

3zz + 2(z-z) = 39+jl2

On an Argand diagram, these two numbers are represented


by the
points P and Q. If R represents the number
j 1 show that the angle ,

PRQ is a right angle.

34
Programme 2

COMPLEX NUMBERS
PART 2
Programme 2

Introduction
1
In> Part 1 of this programme on Complex Numbers, we discovered how to

manipulate them in adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing. We also


finished Part 1 by seeing that a complex numbers + \b can also be
expressed in Polar Form, which is always of the form r(cos 6 + j sin d).
You will remember that values of r and d can easily be found from the
diagram of the given vector.

r
2
=a 2 + b
2 .'.
r=y/(a 2 + b 2 )

and tan 6 = - = tan^

To be sure that you have taken the correct value of 6 always , DRAW A
SKETCH DIAGRAM to see which quadrant the vector is in.

Remember that 6 is always measured from

OX i.e. the positive axis OX.

aDDnnnDannnnDnannaDnDDannQnDDDnDDnDnan
Right. Just by way of revision and as a warming up exercise, do the
following:

Express z = 12 j5 in polar form.

Do not forget the sketch diagram. It ensures that you get the correct value
for0.

When you have finished, and not before, turn on to frame 3 to check your
result.

37
Complex numbers 2

Result:

D
13(cos337 23'+jsin33723')

Here it is, worked out in full.


Y

r^
B 12 r
2
= 12 2 + 5
2
= 144+25 = 169
-^^
r=13
1

:.
15
-j r^V^^1

Y
z UnE=Y2 =04167 '
E = 223T
In this case, 8 = 360 ~E = 360 - 2237' /. 8 = 33723'

z = r(cos +j sin 8) = 1 3(cos 33723' + j sin 33723')

aDDDDDDDDDDnDOnDDDPDDDOnDaDDQDOnaDDDDn
Did you get that right? Here is one more, done in just the same way.

Express -5 - j4 in polar form.

Diagram first of all! Then you cannot go wrong.

When you have the result, on to frame 4.

Result:
2 = 6-403(cos 21840' + j sin 21840') 4
Here is the working: check yours.
Y

r
2
=5 2 +42 =25 + 16 = 41
-- r = V41 =6-403
tan E=j= . E = 3840'
In this case, 8 = 180 + = 21840'
So z = -5 -j4 = 6-403(cos 21840' + sin 21840')
j

DnDanDDGDnDDDDDDDnnannDnDnnnaDDDaDannD
Since every complexnumber in polar form is of the same shape,
i.e.r(cos 8 + j sin 8) and differs from another complex
number simply by
the values of r and 8, we have a shorthand method
of quoting the result
in polar form. Do you remember what
it is? The shorthand way of writing
the result above, i.e. 6-403(cos 21840' + sin 21840')
j is

38
Programme 2

6-403 l21840'

nnnuuDDononnnnaoaaaaaaaaanaoaaauaaaaaa

Correct. Likewise:
5 5 32215'
5 -7 2(cos 322 1 ' +j sin 322 1 ') is written 5-72
c
5(cosl05+jsinl05) " " 5 105

3-4(cos| + jsing) " " 3-4

They arecomplex numbers in polar form. They are all the same
all

shape and differ one from another simply by the values of


and

r and e

DDDDDnnDnDannnDDnnaDnnnnnnDDDDDnDDDDnD
Now let us consider the following example.

Express z = 4 - j3 in polar form.


First the diagram.
Y From this,

r=5
tan = = 0-75 /. E = 3652'
J
6 = 360 - 3652' = 3238'

4-j3 = 5(cos3238'+jsin3238')

or in shortened form, z

39
Complex numbers 2

z = 5 3238

DnnanDDnnDnDDnnnnnDannnnnDnDnnDDnDnan
In this last example, we have

z = 5(cos3238'+jsin3238')
But the direction of the vector,
measured from OX, could be given
as -3652', the minus sign show-
ing that we are measuring the angle
in the opposite sense from the
usual positive direction.

We could write z = 5(cos [-3652'] + j sin [-3652']). But you already


know that cos[-0] = cos d and sin[-0] = -sin 6.

z = 5(cos3652'-jsin3652')
i.e. very much like the polar form but
with a minus sign in the middle.
This comes about whenever we use negative angles.
In the same way z = 4(cos 250 + j sin 250) = 4(cos [-110] +
j sin [-1 10])
,

= 4( )

z = 4(cos 110-j sin 110)


8
since cos(-l 10) = cos 110
and sin(-110)=-sin 110
DnnDaDDDDDDDDDnDDnDDDDDnnDDDDDDnDnDDDD
It is sometimes convenient to use this form when the value of 6 is
greater than 180, i.e. in the 3rd and 4th quadrants.

Ex. 1 z = 3(cos230+jsin230)
= 3(cos 130 -j sin 130).

Similarly, Ex. 2 z = 3(cos 300 + j sin 300) = 3(cos 60 - j sin 60)


Ex.3 z = 4(cos 290 + j sin 290) = 4(cos 70 -j sin 70)
Ex.4 z = 2(cos 215 + j sin 215) = 2(cos 145 - j sin 145)
and Ex.5 z = 6(cos 310 + j sin 310) =

40
Programme 2

z = 6(cos50-jsin50)

since cos 310 = cos 50

and sin 310= -sin 50

DDDDnDDanaDDonDDDnnnDnDaDDnDanDDDDDnna
One moment we agreed that the minus sign comes about by the
ago,
given in this way
use of negative angles. To convert a complex number
'+' in the middle, we simply
back into proper polar form, i.e. with a
negative sign in
work back the way we came. A complex number with a
middle equivalent to the same complex number with a positive
the is

sign, but with the angles made negative.

e.g. z = 4(cos 30
- j sin 30)
= 4(cos[-30] +jsin[-30])
= 4(cos 330 + j sin 330) and we are back in the proper polar form.

You do this one. Convert z = 5(cos 40 -j sin 40) into proper polar form.

Then on to frame 10.

10

z = 5(cos320+jsin320)

= 5(cos 40 - j sin 40) = 5(cos [-40] + sin [-40 ]


since z j

= 5(cos 320 + j sin 320)

DDnDDDDDDaDnnDDanDDDnananDDDDaannanDan
Here another for you to do.
is
polar form.
Express z = 4(cos 100 -j sin 100) in proper
Do not forget, it all depends on the use of negative angles.

41
Complex numbers 2

z = 4(cos260+jsin260) 11
for z = 4(cos 100 -j sin 100) = 4(cos [-100] + sin [-100])
j

= 4(cos 260 + j sin 260)

nnDDODDDDDDDDODDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
We ought to see how this modified polar form affects our shorthand
notation.
Remember, 5(cos 60 + j sin 60) is written 5 60 1

How then shall we write 5(cos 60 - j sin 60)?


5 160 We know that this really stands for
5(cos [-60] + j sin [-60]) so we
i 5/
could write 5 |-60 But instead of
.

A 60

using the negative angle we use a
V/-60 different symbol i.e. 5 [-60
becomes 5 ["60
5
\
5 1-60"
Similarly, 3(cos 45 -j sin 45) = 3 I
-45 =

3 [45
12
DnnDnnnnnDaDDDDnnnDDnnnanDnDDDDDnDDnnn
This is easy to remember,

for the sign ... Q resembles the first quadrant and indicates
measuring angles, \ i.e. in the positive direction,

while the sign \j resembles the fourth quadrant and indicates

measuring angles J i.e. in the negative direction.

e.g. (cos 15 + j sin 15) is written |


15

but (cos 15 -j sin 15), which really (cos [-15]


is +j sin [-15])
is written I
15
So how do we write (i) (cos 120 + j sin 120)
and (ii) (cos 135 -j sin 135)
in the shorthand way?

42
Programme 2

13
(0 120

DDDnnDDDnnaaDnananaDDnDDnDannanannnnDn
The polar form at first sight seems to be a complicated way of
complex number. However it is very useful as we shall
representing a see.

Suppose we multiply together two complex numbers in this form.


LetZ! =r 1 (cos6 1 +j sin0!)andz 2 = r 2 (cos0 2 +j sin0 2 )
ThenzjZiz =r (cosd +j
1 1
sin 6 Y ) r 2 (cos 6 2 + j sin0 2 )
= r l r2 (co%d l cos0 2 +j sin^ cos0 2 +j co%B x
sin0 2
2
+j sin 6 1 sin0 2 )
2
Re-arranging the terms and remembering that j
= -1 we get
,

Ziz 2 = r x r 2 [(cos0j cos0 2 -sinSj sin 2) + j(sin 0! cos 2

+ cos^i sin0 2 )]
Now the brackets (cos 0, cos0 2 -sin0 x sin B 2 ) and (sin 0j cos0 2
+ cos0! sin0 2 )
ought to ring a bell. What are they?

cos cos0 2 - sin0! sin0 2 = cos^j + 2)


14 6*i

sin^j cos0 2 + cos 0j sin0 2 = sin(0! +6 2 )

DnDaannDnaaDDaDDnnnnaaaanonDDnDnnaDDDD
In that case, ZiZ 2 -r x r 2 [cos(0i + 2 )+jsin(0! + 2 )]

Note this important result. We have just shown that

^(cosfl! +j sin0 1 ).r 2 (cos0 2 +j sin0 2 )


= r l r 2 [cos(0! +0 2 )+jsin(6 1 + 2 )]

i.e. To multiply together two complex numbers in polar form,


(i) multiply the r's together, (ii) add the angles, 6 , together.

It is just as easy as that!


e.g. 2(cos 30 + j sin 30) X 3(cos 40 + j sin 40)

= 2 X 3(cos [30 + 40] + j sin [30 + 40])


= 6(cos 70 + j sin 70)

So if we multiply together 5(cos 50 +j sin 50) and 2(cos 65 + j sin 65)

we get

43
)

Complex numbers 2

10(cos 115 +j sin 115)


15
nnnnDnnDannnannDnPDDannDDDnDnaannDDan
Remember, multiply the r's; add the 0's.
Here you are then; all done the same way:
(i) 2(cos 1 20 + j sin 1 20) X 4(cos 20 + sin 20)
j

= 8(cosl40+jsin 140)
(ii) a(cos 6 + j sin d) X b(cos +j
) sin

= ab(cos[6 + 0] +jsin[0 +0])


(iii) 6(cos 210 +j sin 210) X 3(cos 80 + j sin 80)
= 18(cos290+jsin290)
(iv) 5(cos 50 + j sin 50) X 3(cos [-20] + sin [-20]
j

= 15(cos30+jsin30)
Have you got it? No matter what the angles are, all we do is

(i) multiply the moduli, (ii) add the arguments.


So therefore, 4(cos 35 + j sin 35) X 3(cos 20 + sin 20)
j

16

12(cos55+jsin55)

oaaaanaoannaanaannnanannanaanaaanaaana

Now let us see if we can discover a similar set of rules for Division.

We already know that to simplify |i| we first obtain a denominator


that is entirely real by multiplying top and bottom by

44
Programme 2

17 - j4
the conjugate of the denominator i.e. 3

anDDDaaoooDQcmDananciQDQnnnnoDnnnonDDDD
Right. Then let us do the same thing with

/iCcosf?! +j sin^i)
r 2 (cos0 2 +j sin0 2 )

r^cosgi +j sin 0i) _ r t (cos t +j sin0i)(cos0 2 -j sin0 2 )


r2 (cos0 2 +j sin 2) r 2 (cos 2 + j sin 2 ) (cos 2 -j sin 2 )

_r 1 (cos0 1 cos0 2 + jsin0 1 cos0 2 -jcos0i sin0 2 +sin0i sin 2)


"
~T2 (cos' 2 + sin'0 2 )
!

_ r x [(cos 0! cos 2 + sin x


sin 2 ) +j(sin0 t cos 2 -cos0 t sin0 2 )]
~r2 r
=_i[cos(0! -0 2 ) + jsin(0i-0 2 )]

So, for division, the rule is

18 divide the r's and subtract the angle

DDDDDDDnDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDnDDaDnnDDDDaDD
That is correct.

6(cos72 +i sin 72)' = .,, 01 o,. o^ .

e-g. -) ..,, . .
l0 . 3(cos31 +jsin31)
2(cos 41 + j sin 41 )

So we now have two important rules


If Zi =r (cos0 1 +j sin0i) andz 2 =r 2 (cos0 2 +j sin0 2 )
1

then (i)z!Z 2 =r 1 r 2 [cos(0 t + 2 )+jsin(0! +0 2 )]

and (if)i = ^.[co<fli -0 2 )+j sin(0! -0 2 )]

The results are still, of course, in proper polar form.

Now here is one for you to think about.


If Z! = 8(cos 65 + j sin 65) andz 2 =4(cos 23 + j sin 23)

then(i)z!Z 2 = and(ii)~ =
z2

45
Complex numbers 2

19
z x z2 =32(cos88 + jsin88)

-^=2(cos42+jsin42)

DDDDDPODDDOaODDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDODDDDDD
Of course, we can combine the rules in a single example.

5(cos 60 + sin 60) X 4(cos 30 + 30)


eg j
j sin
2(cos50+jsin50)
oo
= 20(cos90 +jsin90 )
u
2(cos50 +jsin50)
o
= 10(cos40 +jsin40)

What does the following product become?


4(cos 20 + j sin 20) X 3(cos 30 + sin 30)
j X 2(cos 40 + j sin 40)

20
Result:

o
24(cos90 +jsin90)

i.e. (4X3X2) [cos(20 + 30 + 40) + j sin(20 + 30 + 40)]


= 24(cos90 D +jsin90)

DDOOODODDDOOOaDDDDDDDDDDDDDODDDDDDDDDD
Now what about a few revision examples on the work we have done so
far?

Turn to the next frame.

46
.

Programme 2

21 Revision Exercise
Work all these questions and then turn on to frame 22 and check your
results.

1 Express in polar form, z = -4 + j2.

2. Express in true polar form, z = 5(cos 55 -j sin 55)

3. Simplify the following, giving the results in polar form

(i) 3(cos 143 + j sin 143) X 4(cos 57 + j sin 57)

10(cosl26+jsinl26)
Cll)
2(cos72 +jsin72)
4. Express in the forma + \b,

(i) 2(cos30+jsin30)
(ii) 5(cos 57 -j sin 57)

Solutions are on frame 22. Turn on and see how you have fared.

47
Complex numbers 2

Solutions
22
1. r
2
=2 2 +4 2 =4+ 16 = 20
.-.
r = 4-472
8 tan E = 0-5 :. = 2634'
x, 4 o~^< '
6 = 15326'
z =-4 + j2 = 4-472(cos 15326' + j sin 15326')

2. z = 5(cos 55 -j sin 55) = 5 [cos(-55) + sin(-55)]


j

= 5(cos305+j sin 305)

3. (i) 3(cos 143 + j sin 143) X 4(cos 57 + j sin 57)


= 3 X 4[cos(143 + 57) + j sin(143 + 57)]
= 12(cos200+jsin200 D
)
o
(ii) 10(cosl26+jsinl26 )

2(cos72+jsin72)

= ~ [cos(126 - 72) + j sin(126 - 72)]

= 5(cos54+jsin54)

4. (i) 2(cos30+jsin30)
= 2(0-866 +j0-5) = 1-732 +j
(ii) 5(cos57-jsin57)
= 5(0-5446 -J0-8387)
= 2-7230 -J4-1935

Now continue the programme on frame 23.

48
Programme 2

23 Now we are ready to go on to a very important section which follows


from our work on multiplication of complex numbers in polar form.
We have already established that
if Z\ =ri(cos Q\ + j sin Oi) andz 2 - r 2 (cos 2 +j sin 2)

then z t z2 =r 1 r 2 [cos(6i
+ 2 )+jsin(0i + 2 )]

So if z 3 = r 3 (cos 3 + j sin 3) then we have


z y z2 z 3 =r 1
r 2 [cos(0i + 62 ) + j sin(0 t + d 2 )] r 3 (cosd 3 + j sin 3)

24
ZiZ 2 z 3 =r 1 r 2 r 3 [cos(e 1
+ 2 +0 3 ) +j sin^! +0 2 + 3 )]
for in multiplication, we multiply the moduli and add the arguments.

DDDDDODDnDDDDDDOOODDDDDDDnDDO^nDDnDDQD
Now suppose that z x z 2) z 3 are , all alike and that each is equal to
z = /-(cos 6 + j sin 6). Then the result above becomes

ZiZ 2 z 3 =z 3 =r.r.r[cos(d +6 +0)+j sin(0 + + 0)]


3
= r (cos30 +j sin 30).
3 3 3 3
or z = [r(cos + j sin 0)] = r (cos + j sin 0)
3
= r (cos30 +j sin 30).

That is: If we wish to cube a complex number in polar form, we just


cube the modulus (r value) and multiply the argument (0) by 3.
Similarly, to square a complex number in polar form, we square the
modulus (r value) and multiply the argument (0) by

49
.

Complex numbers 2

i.e. [/-(cos 6 + j sin 6)] 2


= 2
r (cos 26 + j sin 26)
25
aDaanDnnaDDDDaaaDnDDnnnnnanDDanaPDQan
Let us take another look at these results.
2 2
[r (cos 6 + j sin 6)] = r (cos 2d + j sin 26)
[/(cos 6 +j sin 0)] 3 =/- 3 (cos 3(9 + j sin 3(9)
Similarly,

[/ (cos 5 + j sin 6)] 4 = /-"


(cos 46 + sin
j 46)
s
[r (cos +j sin 6)} = s
r (cos 50 + j sin 50)

and so on.
In general, then, we can say

[r(cos0+j sine)]"

26
[/(cos 5 +j sin^)]" = r"(cosn6+j sinnd)

nnnDDDDDDDanDDDDDDDDDnDnnnDnnaDD a a

This general resultis very important and is


called DeMoivre 's Theorem
it says that to raise acomplex number in polar form to any power n we
raise the r to the power n and multiply the angle
by n
eg. [4(cos 50 + 2
j sin 50] = 4 2 [cos(2 X 50) + j sin(2 X 50)]
= 16(cosl00+jsinl00)
and [3 (cos
0 + 3
1 1 j sin 1 1 0)] ---
27 (cos 330 + j sin 330)
and in the same way,

[2(cos37+jsin37)] 4 =

50
Programme 2

27 16(cosl48+jsinl48)

DnnnnanDDDDDDDDnDDDDnnnnDaDDDnnDnnDDnn
This is where the polar form really comes into its own! For DeMoivre's
theorem also applies when we are raising the complex number to a
fractional power, i.e. when we are finding the roots of a complex number,
e.g. To find the square root of z = 4(cos 70 + j sin 70).

We have \lz = z^ = [4 (cos 70 + j sin 70)] i n =


i.e.
j
A,(cos 70
= 45
70,
-~- +j sin ~y
. .

= 2 (cos 35 + j sin 35)

It works every time, no matter whether the power is positive, negative,

whole number or fraction. In fact, DeMoivre's theorem is so important,


let us write it down again. Here goes

If z = r(cos d + j sin 6), then z n =

z" = /-"(cos
28 z = r(cos 6 + j sin0), then nd + j sin nQ)

for any value of n.

DnDQaDDDaDQnDnDnnDDDDannDnnDnanDDnDann

Look again at finding a root of a complex number,. Let us find the cube

Y
rootofz = 8(cos 120 +j sin 120).
Here is the given complex number
shown on an Argand diagram.
z = 8 1
120
Of course, we could say that 9 was
'1 revolution + 120': the vector
would still be in the same position,
or, for that matter, (2 revs. + 120),
(3 revs. + 120), etc.

i.e.z =8 120 or 8 |480 ,or8


, 1
840 or 8 , [
1200 ,
etc. and if we now
1

apply DeMoivre's theorem to each of these, we get


i i 480
Z3 =8^ if , 8 ^ or etc.

51
Complex numbers 2

rU 8 4 120 c
-j- or 8^
i 480
-T- ci
or 83
840
5- _i
or 83
1200

29
3

DDDDDDDnDnnnnnnDDDanDDDnDDnDDnDnnnanna
If we simplify these, we get

z^ = 2 [40_ or 2 [_160_ or 2 or 2 |^00_ etc.


J280^
If we put each of these on an Argand diagram, as follows,

160

we see we have three quite different results for the cube roots of z and
also that the fourth diagram is a repetition of the first. Any subsequent
calculations merely repeat these three positions.

Make a sketch of the first three vectors on a single Argand diagram.

Here they are: The cube roots of z = 8(cos 120 + j sin 120).
30

z, = 2 I
40

z2 = 2 |160

?3 = 2 1280

"s

aDDDannDDDDDDnDnaDnnnDaDDnQDnnDnnDDDDn
We see, therefore, that there are 3
cube roots of a complex number.
Also, if you consider the you see that the 3 roots are equally
angles,
spaced round the diagram, any two adjacent vectors being separated
by degrees.

52
Programme 2

31 120

DnDnDnnnaDDnnnDDDDDDDDnnnnDnnDnnnnaDao

That is right. Therefore all we need to do in practice is to find the first of


the roots and simply add 120 on to get the next - and so on.
Notice that the three cube roots of a complex number are equal in
360
modulus (or size) and equally spaced at intervals of - i.e. 1 20.

Now let us take another example. On to the next frame.

32
Example. To find the three cube roots of z = 5(cos 225 + j sin 225)
x i 225 225
The first root is given by z x = z 3 = 5^(cos^5- + j sin -^- )
= l-71(cos75+jsin75)
zj = 1-71 |
75

We know that the other cube roots are the same size (modulus), i.e. 1 -71

and separated at intervals of 5- , i.e. 120.

So the three cube roots are:

zi = 1-71 75
I

z 2 = 1-71 [195

z 3 = l-71 |315

It helps to see them on an Argand diagram, so sketch them on a combined


diagram.

53
Complex numbers 2

We
number
find any roots of a
in the
complex
same way.
33
(i) Apply DeMoivre's theorem to
find the first of the n roots,
(ii) The other roots will then be
distributed round the diagram

at regular intervals of
n
A complex number, therefore, has

2 square roots, separated by \{LC\ Q

i.e. 180

3 cube roots, ~~- i.e. 120

4 fourth roots,
360
i.e. 90

5 fifth roots, etc.

There would be 5 360


fifth roots separated by
5
i.e. 72
c

34
DDDnnnDnnDDDnDDDDDnanannnnnDaDDannnDDD
And now: To find the 5 fifth roots of 1 2 j
300

z=12[300_ --.
2, = 12*"
^=12Tl60

We now have to find the value of 12^. Do it by logs.

Let A = 12s Then log


. A ~ log 1 2 = j(l -0792) = 0-2158

Taking antilogs, A= 1 -644

The first of the 5 fifth roots is therefore, z t = 1 .644|60


The others will be of the same magnitude, i.e. 1 -644, and equally

separated at intervals of r^ i.e. 72

So the required 5 fifth roots of 1 2 |


300 are
z, = 1 -644 |_60_, z2 = 1 .644 |132, z3 = 1 -644 204
[

z4 = 1 -644 1
276 , z5 = 1 -644 [348
Sketch them on an Argand diagram, as before.

54
Programme 2

35 ">

Jz 1

X^
z2 i *1 = 1-644 | 60

*2 = 644 |
136

X, -^ *3 1-644|204

*5 *4 = 1-644 I
2 76
*3
'5 = 1 644 348
1

>
L
Principal root. Although there are 5 fifth roots of a complex number, we
are sometimes asked to find the principal root. This is always the root
whose vector is nearest to the positive OX axis.
In some cases, it may be the first root. In others, it may be the last
root. The only test is to see which root is nearest to the positive OX axis.
In the example above, the principal root is therefore

36 Principal root zs = 1 -644 348

DDDDnDnnannDDDDnDnnaDanDnnnDDDDnDDnnaD

Good. Now here is another example worked in detail. Follow it.


We have to find the 4 fourth roots of z = 7(cos 80 + j sin 80)
u
80
The first root, z x = T$
4
:

lA 20

Now find 7^ by logs. Let A = 7^

Then log A =^log 7 = |(0-845 1) = 0-2113 and A = 1-627

zx = 1 -627 |
20

The other roots will be separated by intervals of - = 90

Therefore the four fourth roots are


zj = 1-627 20_ z2 =1-627 1
110
z3 = 1-627 |
200 z 4 = l-627[ 290
And once again, draw an Argand diagram to illustrate these roots.

55
Complex numbers 2

Y
37
\ J

Zi = 1627 J 20

2z = 1627 J110

*i 0\ X *3 = 1 627 |200
z4 = 1-627 [290

aDDDDnnDDDnnDnnannDDDDDaDnnnnnanDDDaDa
And in this example, the principal fourth root is

38

Principal root: z x = 1-627 |20

since it is the root nearest to the positive OX axis.

DDDnnDnnnnDnanannnDnnnDnnnnnDnnnnDnnDa
Now you can do one entirely on your own. Here it is.
Find the three cube roots of 6(cos 240 + sin 240).
j Represent them
on an Argand diagram and indicate which is the principal
cube root.

When you have finished it, turn on to frame 39 and check your results.

56
Programme 2

39 Result:
>
4**

z, = 1 817 I
80
j

= 1-817 200
K8o zz

z3 = 1-817 |320
1

N^O"
*2
Principal root : Zj = 817 |320
*3

<l
u

DDnnnnnnnQnnannnoanaonQO
Here is the working.
240"
z = 6 I
240 Zi =63 1-817 80

5zrr\

Interval between roots = = 120

Therefore the roots are:

1-817 180 z2 =1-817 1200 z 3 = 1-817 1


320

The principal root is the root nearest to the positive OX axis. In this case,
then, the principal root is z3 = 1-817 ]
320

On to the next frame.

Expansion o/sin nd and cos nd, where n is a positive integer.


40 By DeMoivre's theorem, we know that
cos nd + } sin nd = (cos 6 + j sin d) n
The method is simply to expand the right-hand side as a binomial series,

after which we can equate real and imaginary parts.


An example will soon show you how it is done:
Ex. 1. To find expansions for cos 38 and sin 3d.

We have
cos 3d + j sin 30 = (cos 8 + j sin dy
= (c + js)
3
where c = cos 8
s = sin d
Now expand this by the binomial series like (a + b) 3 so that
cos 30 + j sin 30 =

57
Complex numbers 2

C
3 2
+j3c s-3cs 2 -js 3 41
for: cos 30 + j sin 30 = c 3 + 3c 2 Qs) + 3c(js)
2
+ (js)
3

3 2 2 3
= c +j3c s-3cs -js sincej
2
=-l
3 3
= (c 2
-3cs )+j(3c s~s 3 ) 2
j =i
Now, equating real parts and imaginary parts, we get

cos 30 -
and sin 30 =

cos 3d = cos 3
sin 30 = 3 cos 2
- 3 cos
sin
sin
- sin 3
2
42
If we wish, we can replace sin 2 by (1 - 2
cos 0)
2
and cos by (1 -sin 2 0)
so that we could write the results above as
cos 30 = (all in terms of cos 0)
sin 30 = (all in terms of sin 0)

cos 30 =4cos 3 0-3 cos0 43


sin 30 =3 sin0-4sin 3
since cos 30 = cos 3 - 3 cos (1 - cos 2 0)
= cos 3 -3 cos0 + 3 cos 3
3
= 4 cos - 3 cos
and sin 30 = 3(1 - sin 2 0) sin - 3
sin
= 3 sin0 3 3
-3sin -sin
= 3 sin0 -4sin 3
While these results are useful, it is really the method that counts.
So now do this one in just the same way:
Ex. 2. Obtain an expansion for cos 40 in terms of cos 0.

When you have finished, check your remit with the


next frame.

58
Programme 2

44 cos 40 = 8cos 4 0-8cos


2
+ 1

4
Working: cos 40 + j sin 40 = (cos + j sin 0)
4
= (c + js)
4 4
= c + 4c
3
(js) + 6c 2 Cs) 2 + 4c(js) 3 + (js)
4 4
= c + j4c 3
- 6c 2 s 2 - j4cs 3 + s
s

4 - 6c s + s4 ) + j(4c 3 s - 4cs 3 )
2 2
=
(c
Equating real parts:
4 - 6c 2 s 2 + 4
cos 46 = c s

c
4
-6c (l-c 2 ) + (l-c2\2
2 2 2
)
4
c - 6c
2
+ 6c 4 + 1 - 2c 2 + c
4

4 2
8c -8c + 1

= 8 cos 4 0-8cos 2 + 1

Now for a different problem. On to the next frame.

__ Expansions for cos"6 and sin"0 in terms of sines and cosines of


iX J) miltiples of 6
Let z = cos 6 + j sin 6

x
then -=z = cos 6 -j sin i

.'.
z + =
z
2 cos 6 and z z
= j 2 sin 6

Also, by DeMoivre's theorem,


z" = cos n# + j sin nd

and n = z~" = cos nd - j sin 0

.'.
z" += = 2 cos n# and z" --=- = j 2 sin nd
z" z"

Let us collect these four results together: z = cos 6 + j sin 6

z + = 2 cos z --=J 2 i sin


z z

z" + -t.
z"
= 2 COS H0 z" ^ = j 2 sin0

Mzfe a note of these results in your record book. Then turn on and we
will see how we use them.

59
Complex numbers 2

3
Ex. 1. T5 expand cos
46
From our results, z + = 2 cos i

z
L
/. (2cos0) 3 = (z+-) 3

^ -1 ^ 1

3
= z + 3 z + 3I+ I3
z z*

Now here is the trick: we re-write this, collecting the terms up in pairs
from the two extreme ends, thus -

(2cos0)^3_,3
3
=(z 3 +p)
.
K + ~3(z+-)
.U .

And, from the four results that we noted,

z + =1

and z" +-

z+ =2 cos0;z 3
+-, =2 cos 30 47
3
.'.
(2 cos 0) = 2 cos 30 + 3.2 cos 6
3
8 cos = 2 cos 30 + 6 cos
4cos 3 = cos 30 + 3 cos0
,
3 1
cos 0=-(cos30 + 3cos0)

Now one for you:

Ex.2. Find an expansion for 4


sin

Work in the same way, but, this time, remember that

z-- = j 2 sin0 andz" -n , =j 2 sin nd


z z

When you have obtained a result, check it with the next frame.

60
Programme 2

48 4 - 46-4 cos
sin 6 = [cos 26 + 3]

for, we have:

z - = j 2 sin 6 z n ;
- ^ = 2
i sin nd

4
Q 2 sin 0) = (z --) 4

1 \ 1

"liM?)-^!?)*
(2 4 tj)-* ! +p) + 6

Now z M + - = 2 cos nd

4
1 6 sin 6 = 2 cos 40 - 4.2 cos 20 + 6

.'.
sin
4
=- [cos 46 -4 cos 26 +3]

They are all done the same way: once you know the trick, the rest is

easy.

Now let us move on to something new.

Loci Problems
49 We
are sometimes required to find the locus of a point which moves
in theArgand diagram according to some stated condition. Before we
work through one or two examples of this kind, let us just revise a
couple of useful points.
You will remember that when we were representing a complex
number in polar form, i.e., z =a + )b =r(cos 6 + j sin d), we said that
(i) r is called the modulus of z and is written 'mod z' or |
z\ and
(ii) 6" " " argument of z " " " 'arg z'

Also, r = \/(a 2 + b 2 ) and 6 = tan" 1 j-j

so that |
z |
= \J(a
2
+ b 2 ) and arg z = tan" 1
Similarly, if z = x + 'yy, then \z\ =
and argz=

61
.

Complex numbers 2

2 2
\z\ = V(* + y ) and arg z = tan" 1 fL\
If 2 =x + jy,

Keep those mind and we


50
in are now
ready to tackle some examples.
Ex. 1. \iz=x + jy, find the locus defined as \z = 5. \

Now we know that in this case, \z\ = yj(x 2 + 2


y )
The locus is defined as \J(x 2 + y 2 ) = 5

.'.
X 4
+ y2 =25

Locus | z ]
= 5
i.e. x 2 +y 2 = 25

This is a circle, with centre


at the origin and with
radius 5

That was easy enough. Turn on for Example 2.

Ex. 2. If z =x+jy, find the locus defined as arg z =-


51
In this case, arg z = tan |Z| '
;. tan
1
|Z] = L
Z= tanlj_= tan 45 = 1 ;. L= 1 .-. j, = jc

So the locus arg z =^ is therefore the straight line y=x

All locus problems at this stage are fundamentally


of one of these
kinds. Of course, the given condition may look a trifle more involved
but the approach is always the same.

Let us look at a more complicated one. Next


frame.

62
Programme 2

z+
Jj Ex. 3. Uz =x +jy, find the equation of the locus
1

Since z =x + jy,
z+l=x+]y+l=(x+l)+]y =r \9 l 1

z-l=x+]y-l =(x-l)+]y =r2 \6 2 :


z2

z+ 1

z - 1 r2 \
e2 r2

z+ 1
J= Ifil +y 2
y/[(x + l)
2
= ]

r2 \z 2 \
^/[{x-lf+y 2 ]

= 2
Wl(x-\) 2 +y 2 ]

2
+y 2
(^ + i) =
" (x-l) +y 2 2

All that now remains is to multiply across by the denominator and tidy
up the result. So finish it off in its simplest form.

53 We had
(x+ l)
2
+y 2
(x-iy^ry
2
So therefore (x+l) +y 2 =4J(x-l) 2 +.
2 2 2
x + 2xy + 1 +y = 4(x -2x+ 1 +y 2 )
= 4x 2 - 8x + 4 + 4y 2
2 2
:. 3x - \0x + 3 + 3y ;

This is the equation of the given locus.

Although this takes longer to write out than either of the first two
examples, the basic principle is the same. The given condition must be
a function of either the modulus or the argument.

Move on now to frame 54 for Example 4.

63
1

Complex numbers 2

Ex.4. Ifz=x+j>>,findtheequationofthelocusarg(z 2 )=--.


Rtt
z~x+iy=r\d :. arg z = d = tan
-1
'
y
{i}
.".
tan d =*.

.'
By DeMoivre's theorem, z
2
= r
2
[20

arg(z
2
) = 20=-?-

".
tan 29= tan (-7) =-1
4

2 tan 6>
=
1 -tan 2
2
.'.
2tan0 = tan -1

But tan d =L
X

^XX
= z! -
,2

2
2xy =y -x 2
:.
y =x
2 2
+ 2xy
In that example, the given condition was a function of the argument.
Here is one for you to do:
lfz=x+]y, find the equation of the locus arg(z+ 1)=-
Do it carefully; then check with the next frame.

Here is the solution set out in detail.


lfz=x+jy, find the locus arg(z + l)= 55
z "x+\y :. z+ 1 =x+}y+ 1 =(x + \)+jy
arg(z+l) = tan-
1
(
JL.) = 1.
lx+11 3

V
=tan^ = V3
x+ ] 3

y=\/3(x+l)
And that is all there is to that.
Now do this one. You will have no trouble with it.

lfz=x+jy, find the equation of the locus z - 1 I =5


|

When you have finished it, turn on to frame 56.

64
Programme 2

56 Here it is: z = x + \y given


; locus \z \ [
= 5

z-1 =x+iy-l =(x-l) + iy

:. |z-l| =v/ [(*-i) 2


+.y
2
]
=5
2 2
.-.
(^-l) +7 =25
2
:. x -2x+ 1 +j 2 =25
.".
x 2 -23c+>> 2 =24

Every one is very much the same.

This brings us to the end of this programme, except for the final test
exercise. Before you work through it, read down the Revision Sheet
(frame 57), just to refresh your memory of what we have covered in this
programme.

So on now to frame 5 7.

65
Complex numbers 2

Revision Sheet

Polar form of a complex


57
1
. number
z=a+]b= /-(cos d + j sin 0) = r |
6

r - mod z = I
z |
= y/a 2 + b 2

'
= arg z = tan"
,-lf*
(f)
2. Negative angles
z=r(cos [-0] +j sin [-6])

x cos [-0] = COS

sin [-0] = -sin 6


.'.
z = r(cos d -j sin 0) = r

3. Multiplication and division in polar form

If z i =>"! z2 = r2
jj^; j^2_
then ^ 2
=/-,/-
2 I
0, + e2

z2 r2 LJ i
4. DeMoivre's theorem
If z = r (cos + sin 0), then z n = /-"(cos n0 +
j
j sin nd)
5. Exponential form of a complex number

z -a +]b standard form


= r(cos + j sin 0) polar form
= r eJtf
[0 in radians] .... exponential form
Also ei 9 = cos + j sin

e"J e = cos0 -j sin0


6. Logarithm of a complex number

z = rei e :. In z = In r+jd
7. Loci problems

If z= x+]y, \z\ =\/(x 2 +y 2 )


arg z = tan" 1 jZ.1

TTzar 's /Y/ A^o w .yow are razc?y for the Test Exercise on Frame 58.

66
Programme 2

Jj Q Test Exercise II

1 . Express in polar form, z = 5 j3.

2. Express in the forma +]b, (i) 2 1


156, (ii) 5 |
37.

3. Ifzj = 12(cos 125 + j sin 125) and


z2 = 3(cos72 +j sin 72), find (i) z x z2 and (ii) z
2
giving

the results in polar form.

3
4. If z = 2(cos 25 + j sin 25), find z in polar form.

5. Find the three cube roots of 8 (cos 264 + j sin 264) and state which
of them is the principal cube root. Show all three roots on an Argand
diagram.

6. Expand sin 40 in powers of sin and cos 8

4
7. Express cos in terms of cosines of multiples of .

8. If z = x + \y, find the equations of the two loci defined by

(i)|z-4| = 3 (ii) arg(z + 2)=5

67
Complex numbers 2

Further Problems-II

1. If z =x + iy, where x and y are real, find the values of x and y when
3z _3z
+ = _4_
J
-J J 3-j

2. In theArgand diagram, the origin is the centre of an equilateral


triangleand one vertex of the triangle is the point 3 + j-y/3.
Find
the complex numbers representing the other
vertices.

3. Express 2 + j3 and 1 -j2 in polar form and apply DeMoivre's

theorem to evaluate Ai-i . Express the result in the forma


+J6
and in exponential form.

4. Find the fifth roots of -3 + j3 in polar form and in exponential form.

5. Express 5 + J12 in polar form and hence evaluate the


principal value
of V(5 + jl2), giving the results in the form a +
\b and in form re je .

6. Determine the fourth roots of -16, giving the results in the form
a +)b.

7. Find the fifth roots of -1 giving the results in


, polar form. Express
the principal root in the form r e) e .

8. Determine the roots of the equation x 3 + 64 = in the form


a + )b where a and b are real.
,

9. Determine the three cube roots of lZJ giving the


results in
l +j
modulus/argument form. Express the principal root in the form
a+)b.

10. Show that the equation z 3 = 1 has one real root


and two other roots
which are not real, and that, if one of the non-real
roots is denoted
by to, the other is then co 2 Mark on the Argand
.
diagram the points
which represent the three roots and show that they
are the
vertices of an equilateral triangle.

68
. .

Programme 2

1 1 Determine the fifth roots of (2 - j5), giving the results in


modulus/argument form. Express the principal root in the form
a + \b and in the form r ei e .

12. Solve the equation z 2 +2(1 + j)z + 2 = 0, giving each result in the
form a + \b, with a and b correct to 2 places of decimals.

1-
13. Express e ^/ 2 in the form a + jb

14. Obtain the expansion of sin 10 in powers of sin d.

6
15. Express sin x as a series of terms which are cosines of angles that
are multiples of x.

16. If z = x + yy, where x andy are show


z-2
real, that the locus
z +2
is a circle and determine its centre and radius.

17. If z =x + jy, show that the locus are] ^1= is a circle. Find its
z -ii 6
\
centre and radius.

18. If z = x +jy, determine the Cartesian equation of the locus of the


point z which moves in the Argand diagram so that

2
|z+j2| +|z-j2J 40

19. If z =x + )y, determine the equations of the two loci:

z + 2 Z + 2) 77
(i) = 3 (ii) arg

20. If z = x + )y, determine the equations of the loci in the Argand


diagram, defined by
z + 2 z - 1 1 n
(0
:

2, and (ii) arg


z-1 z + 2

21. Prove that

(i) if |
Zj+z 2 ]
=|z -z 2 1 |
,
the difference of the arguments of

Z\ and z 2 is .

69
Complex numbers 2

()if argjiiliij^^henlz,, =,z 2 |

22. If z = x + )y, determine the loci in the Argand diagram, defined by


2 2
(i) |z+j2l -\z -j2| =24
2 2 2
(ii) \z+]k\ +\z-]k |
= 10A: (k>0)

70
Programme 3

HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS
Programme 3

Introduction
When you were first introduced to trigonometry, it is almost certain that
you defined the trig, ratios ' sine, cosine and tangent - as ratios between
the sides of a right-angled triangle. You were then able, with the help of
trig, tables, to apply these new ideas from the start to solve simple right-
angled triangle problems and away you went.
You could, however, have started in quite a different way. If a circle
of unit radius is drawn and various constructions made from an external

point, the lengths of the lines so formed can be defined as the sine,
cosine and tangent of one of the angles in the figure. In fact, trig, func-
tions are sometimes referred to as 'circular functions'.
This would be a geometrical approach and would lead in due course
to all the results we already know in trigonometry. But, in fact, you did
not start thatway, for it is more convenient to talk about right-angled
triangles and simple practical applications.
Now if the same set of constructions is made with a hyperbola instead
of a circle, the lengths of the lines now formed can similarly be called the
hyperbolic sine, hyperbolic cosine and hyperbolic tangent of a particular
angle in the figure, and, as we might expect, all these hyperbolic functions
behave very much as trig, functions (or circular functions) do.
This parallel quality is an interesting fact and important, as you will
see later for we shall certainly refer to it again. But, having made the
point, we can say this: that just as the trig, ratios were not in practice
defined geometrically from the circle, so the hyperbolic functions are not
in practice defined geometrically from the hyperbola. In fact, the defini-
tions we are going to use have apparently no connection with the hyper-
bola at all.

So now the scene is set. Turn on to Frame 1 and start the programme.

73
Hyperbolic Functions

You may remember that of the many functions that can be expressed
as a series of powers of x, a common one is e x ,
1
x4
2
1 . ,* *3
2! 3! 4!
If we replace x by -x, we get

2! 3! 4!

and these two functions x x


e and e are the foundations of the definitions
we are going to use.
(i) If we take the value of e x subtract , e'
x
, and divide by 2, we form
what is defined as the hyperbolic sine of x.

e q~x
x = hyperbolic sine of x

This is a lot to write every time we wish to refer to it, so we shorten it to


sinh x, the h indicating its connection with the hyperbola. We pronounce
it 'shine x '.

sinh*

ey - -y
So, in the same way, - e
would be written as

sinh y

DDnonDOODDOOODDDDDDOODOOQODODODOQDDODQ
In much the same way, we have two other definitions:

W 2 = h erbo lic cosine of


yP x
= cosh x [pronounced 'cosh x']

( m ) x + -x - hyperbolic tangent of x
e

= tanhx [pronounced 'than x']

We must by learning these definitions, for


start off
all the subsequent
developments depend on them.
So now then; what was the definition of sinh xl

sinh* =

74
Programme 3

sinh X =

noooanQaoaaannaooDDoaaoonnnQanaoaaaaaQ
Here they are together so that you can compare them.

= e*
-e x
sinh x
2
x + x
e e~
cosh x =
2

e
x
-e x
tanh x =
e
x + ex
Make a copy of these in your record book for future reference when
necessary.

sinh x '

cosh x = -
tanhx :

DDDnnnanDnDDnDnDnnnnDDDnDDDDDDnDDDDnnn
x x
We started the programme by referring to e and e' as series of

powers of x. It should not be difficult therefore to find series at least for

sinh x and for cosh x. Let us try.

(i) Series for sinh x


*x _ X2 X3 . X4
= 1 +X+^7 + }t 11

X
2
L
X
3
X4
e-* = l

If we subtract, we get

+ +
3 s
2x 2x
2x
3! 5!
Divide by 2
"
x x
-=sinh x =x + ^T + 5T
+
2
x we get a similar
(ii) If we add the series for e* and e~ , result.

What is it?

When you have decided, turn on to Frame 5.

75
:

Hyperbolic Functions

X2 x4 X6
coshx=1+ + + ~6! +
2! 4!

DnDn.nnDnDDnnnannnDQnnapnDDnnDDDDnaDDDn
For we have

'x
= - x+ x +x
e l
jr i i'---

x x
cosh* = 1 + ^7+-rr+

Move on to Frame 6.

So we have:

sinhx=^
X
+I]+
x^
_+
_ + x^ ...

cosh x=l + |! + 5l +
^+ ...

Note: All terms positive: sinh x has all the odd powers,
coshx has all the even powers.
We cannot easily get a series for tanh x by this process, so we will leave
that one to some other time.
Make a note of these two series in your record book. Then, cover up
what you have done so far and see if you can write down the definitions
of:

(i) sinhx = (ii) C oshx =


(iii) tanh x = No looking!

76
Programme 3

sinh X ; cosh x = -; tanh x =


e* + e"
:

All correct? Right.

DnnnnDnannnnnDnnnnnnnDDnanoDDanDnnDaDn
Graphs of Hyperbolic Functions
We shall get to know quite a lot about these hyperbolic functions if we
sketch the graphs of these functions. Since they depend on the values of
x
e* and e we had better just refresh our memories of what these graphs
,

look like.
x x
y= e and y - e cross the >>-axis
at the pointy = 1 (e = 1). Each
graph then approaches the x-axis
as an asymptote, getting nearer
and nearer to it as it goes away to
infinity in each direction, without
actually crossing it.

So, for what range of values of x


x
are e* and e' positive?

x x
are positive for all values of x
8 e and e

Correct, since the graphs are always above the x-axis.

DDDnDDDnaDDnDDDDDDDnnnnnDnnnnnDnDannnD
At any value of x, e.g. x = x iy
x -v
e
cosh x = ,
i.e. the value of

cosh x is the average of the values


of e* and e~x at that value of x.
This is given by P, the mid point
of AB.
If we can imagine a number of
ordinates (or verticals) like AB and
we plot their mid-points, we shall

obtain the graph of y = cosh x.


Can you sketch in what the
graph will look like?

77
Hyperbolic Functions

Here it is:

y = cosh x

X1 ~~ x _ n
We see from the graph of y = cosh x that:
(i) cosh = 1
(ii) the value of cosh* is never less than 1

(iii) the curve is symmetrical about the >>-axis, i.e.

cosh(-x) = coshx
(iv) for any given value of coshx, there are two
values of x, equally
spaced about the origin, i.e. x = a.

Now let us see about the graph of y = sinh x in the same sort of
way.

3*- D'x
sinha:=- 10
x - ex
e
sinh x =
2
On the diagram,
x
CA----e
x
CB =-e

{ = ex -e x
_e* -e x
BP

The corresponding point on the graph of y = sinh x is thus obtained


by standing the ordinate BP on the x-axis at C, i.e. P .
:
Note that on the left of the origin, BP is negative and is therefore
placed below the x-axis.
So what can we say about y = sinh x?

78
Programme 3

y= sinh x
.* _ .-x

From the graph of y = sinh x, we see

(i) sinh =
(ii) sinhx can have all values from - to +

(iii) the curve is symmetrical about the origin, i.e.

sinh(-x) = -sinh x

(iv) for a given value of sinh x, there is only one real value of x.

If we draw j = sinhx and y = coshx on the same graph, what do we get?

y = cosh X
12
y= sinhx

Note that y = sinhx is always outsider = coshx, but gets nearer to it

as x increases
i.e. asx^-, sinh x - cosh x

us consider the graph of y = tanh x. Turn on.


And now let

79
Hyperbolic Functions

It is not easy to build y = tanh x directly from the graphs of y = e* 13


and j = e"*. If, however, we take values of e* and e'x and then calculate
x - x
e
y=
e'
and plot points, we get a graph as shown.

We see (i) tanh =


(ii) tanh x lies between y = -1 and y =
always 1

(iii) =
tanh(x) tanh x
(iv) as*-* 00 , tanhx^-1
as x - -, tanh x -> -1

Finally, let us now sketch all three graphs on one diagram so that we can
compare them and distinguish between them.

Here they are:


x
y = cosh
14
sinh x

One further point to note:


origin, y = sinh x and y = tanh x have the same slope. The two
At the
graphs therefore slide into each other and out again. They do not cross
each other at three distinct points (as some people think).
It is worth while to remember this combined diagram: sketch it in your
record book for reference.

80
Programme 3

I J) Revision Exercise
Fill in the following-

x
e +e

Results on the next frame. Check your answers carefully.


Hyperbolic Functions

Results: Here they are: check yours. 16


(i) e* + e"
:

= coshx

00 = tanhx

(iii) = sinhx
>
<

(iv)

^ y = tcinh x

(v)

y = cosh x

(vi)

y = sinh x

Now we can continue with the next piece of work.

82
Programme 3

1/ Evaluation of Hyperbolic Functions


The values of sinhx, coshx and tanhx for some values of x are given in
value
the tables. But for other values of x it is necessary to calculate the
of the hyperbolic functions. One or two examples will soon show how
this is done.

Example 1. To evaluate sinh 1 -275

x 1
"
275 1
'
275 We now
Now sinh* = \(e - e*) .\ sinh 1-275 = Ke - e' ).

1 275
1 27S
Note that when we have done that, e"
' "
is
have to evaluate e .

found from tables. Here goes then:


merely its reciprocal and can be

Let A = e
1 '
275 :. In A= 1 -275 and from tables of natural logs we
now find the number whose log is 1-275.

This is 3-579 .".


A= 3-579 (as easy as that!)

So e
1 "
275 =3-579 and e"
1 "
275
=^ = 0-2794

:. sinh 1-275 =K3-579- 0-279)


= 1(3-300)= 1-65

:. sinh 1-275 = 1-65

cosh 2-156.
In thesame way, you now find the value of
When finished, move on to frame 18.

18 cosh 2-156 = 4-377


cosh

DDDDnDDDDDDDDDnDDDDDnnnnDDDDDDDDnnD
Here is the working:
2' 1S6 2 "
156
Example 2. cosh 2-156 =\(e + e' )

Let A = e 2 156
"
.'.
In A= 2-156 :. A= 8-637 and - = 0-1158

:. cosh 2- 156 = (8-637 + 0-1 16)


= |(8-753) = 4-377

:. cosh 2-156 = 4-377

Right, one more. Find the value of tanh 1 -27.

When you have finished, move on to frame 19.

83
Hyperbolic Functions

tanh 1-27 = 0-8539


19
DDnaDnnDDDDDnnanDanDnaDDDnnDnDnDQDnnnD
Working: i-27_ -i-27
e e
Example 3. tanh 1-27 :

- -
e -r e

Let A=e 1-27 ;. In A =1-27 .\ A = 3-561 and \ = 0-2808


A
3-561-0-281 _ 3-280 O" 5159
, , =
' tanh l -
21 ~ Q'5845
3-561 +0-281 3-842
1-9314
iZi
tanh 1-27 = 0-8539 -i

So, evaluating sinh, cosh and tanh is easy enough and depends mainly
on being able to evaluate e*, where k is a given number and that is most
easily done by using natural logs as we have seen.

And now let us look at the reverse process. So on to frame 20.

Inverse Hyperbolic Functions ~ -~


Example 1. To find sinh"
1
1-475, i.e. to find the value of x such that xll
sinhx= 1-475.
x - x
Here it is: sinh x = 1 -475 .'. %(e e )
= 1 -475

.-.
e* - -\ = 2-950

Multiplying both sides by e x : (e


x
f - 1 = 2-95(e*)
x 2
(e ) -2-95(e*)-l=0
This is a quadratic equation and can be solved as usual, giving

2
&x = 2-95V(2-95 +4) = 2-95 V(8-703 + 4)
2 2

=
2-95 y/l 2-703
=
2-95+3-564
2 2

_ 6-514
=
j or
0-614 _
7y = 3-257 or -0-307

But e* is always positive for real values of x. Therefore the only real solu-
tion is given by e* = 3-257.
:. x= In 3-257=1-1809
.-.
x= 1-1809
Exercise 2.

Now you find cosh"


1
2-364 in the same way.

84
Programme 3

-1
cosh 2-364 = 1-507
21
naaannnnDnannaDDnaannDDnDaDnnnnaaaaDDD
1 1
For: To evaluate costf 2-364, let x = cosh"" 2-364

.'.
cosh* = 2-364
+ e'
= 2-364 :. e* + -Y = 4-728

x 2 =0
(e -4-728(e*)+l

^
)

e* = 4-728V(22-36-4) Vlg .
36 =

= i(4-728 4-285) = i(9-013) or ^(0-443)


e*= 4-5065 or 0-2215
.'.
x = In 4-5065 or In 0-2215
= 1-5056 or 2-4926 i.e. -1-5074
x =1-507
Before we do the next one, do you remember the exponential defini-

tion of tanh x? Well, what is it?

22 tanh x = -

DDDDnnDnnaDDDanDDDDannnnanDDnn Dnnnannn
That being so, we can now evaluate tanh" 0-623.

Let
1
x = tanh" 0-623 .'- tanh x = 0-623

e c

=0-6^
x + x
e e~
.-.
e
*- e-*=0-623(e*+e-x )
-X
:. (1- 0-623) e*=(l + 0-623) e

x
0-377 e* = 1-623 e'

1-623

e*
0-2103
( s x\2
1-623 T-5763
"0-377 2) 0-6340
:. e
x = 2-075 0-3170

:. x= In 2075 = 0-7299
tanh" 0-623 = 0-730
1
:.

1
Now one for you to do on your own. Evaluate sinrf 0-5

85
Hyperbolic Functions

1
sinh" 0-5 = 0-4810
23
aQnaaonanaanannaaaaQDqnoQQDQDQDOODODOn
Check your working.
1
Let x = sinh" 0-5 .'. sinh x = 0-5
p
e
x _ p
e
-x
1
= 0-5 :. e* = 1

/. (e*) 2 - 1 = e*
2
(e*) -(e*)-l=0
a *_ 1V(1+4)_1V5
2
3-2361 -1-2361
or
2 "* 2
= 1-6181 or -0-6181
e* =-0-6181
.-.
x= ln 1-6181 =0-4810
gives no real
1
sinh" 0-5 = 0-4810 value of x.
1
And just one more! Evaluate tanh" 0-75.

24
1
tanhT 0-75 = 0-9731

QnQQnnnnonnaonannnnQnnooonoQannaanaQn
Let x= tanh" 0-75
1
.'. tanh x = 0-75

= 0-75

x - x =
e t 0-75(e* + e"*)

(l-0-75)e*=(l + 0-75)e"*

0-25 e* = l-75e*

x 1-75
(e Y = 7
0-25

e* = V7 = 2-6458
But remember that e x cannot be negative for real values of x.
Therefore e* = 2-6458 is the only real solution.

.'.
x = In 2-6458 = 0-9731

0-75 = 0-9731
1
tanh"

86
|

Programme 3

25 Log. Form of the Inverse Hyperbolic Functions


Let us do the same thing in a general way.
1
To find tanh" * in log. form.

As usual, we start off with: Let y= tanh""


1
* .'. x=tanh^
y -y
e - e ,-y = x(e y + e
y
)
e
y + e
y
y y +x)= ^(1 +x)
e (\-x) = e- (\
e
2 y 1+x
l-x
1 +x
:. 2j> = ln
1

,-1l 1, fl +x
y = t<mh x=$\n\^^

So that tanlf
1
0-5=1 In
j^)
= iln3=i(10986) =0-5493

And similarly, tanh '


(-0-6) :

tanh" (-0-6)
1
=-0-6932
26 nnDDDnnDnnannDnDnnnaDnnnnnDnDDnnnnDnnn
For, tanh"
1
* = -jln{ t~z

=\ In 0-25 2-5 0-9163


= i(2-6137) 10 2-3026
2-6137
= i(-l-3863)

= -0-6932
_1
Now, same way, find an expression for sinh x.
in the
1
Start off by saying: Lety = sinrf * x = sinny .'.

y -y
& - e^ = x e y - y = 2x
.e y -- = 2x
y
(e y )
2
-2x(e y )-l=0 Now finish it off.

87
Hyperbolic Functions

Result: sinh
1
jc=ln{x+V(^ 2 +l)} 97
nnnnnnnDDnnDDDDDnnDnDDnnnnDnnDnanDDnnD
For (e>) 2 -2x(e>)-l=0
2
2x V(4x 2 + 4) = 2x 2y/(x + 1)
ey =
^ 2

= xV(* 2 + 1)

ey =x+yj(x 2 + 1) or e y =x-sj(x 2 + 1)

At first sight, there appear to be two results, but notice this:

In the second result, 2


V(* + 1) >*
.'. ty = x - (something > x) i.e. negative.
Therefore we can discard the second result as far as we are concerned
since powers of e are always positive. (Remember the graph of e x .)

The only real solution then is given by ty = x + \J{x 2 + 1)

y= sinh"
1
* = \n{x + y/(x 2 +1)}

1
Finally, let us find the general expression for cosh x.

Let
-1
y = cosh x
,
.'.
x = cosh y =?
ey +

Q y 28
ey L = 2x 2
- 2x{t y ) +1=0

e^ W<y-
:. +
(e^)

4)
= *V(*'-l)

:. ey =x + 2
V(* - 1) and ey = x-y/(x 2 - 1)

Both these results are positive, since \J(x


2
~ \)<x.
u
However,
X+y/(x -l)
77-5
1

2
- = -
X+V(* "I)
77-5
i
.
x-\J(x 2
}L>-%
2
-\)
X-\/(x -l) ~i

So our results can be written

e^W^-Oande
c y = x + s/(x
2 - 1)
^^^
or {x + y/(x
2
- l)}"
1

.-.
2
y = \n{x+^(x -])} or -\n{x+^(x 2 -\)}
x = ln{x + V(* 2 ~ 0}
.".
cosh"
1

Notice that the plus and minus signs give two results which are symmetri-
cal about thejy-axis (agreeing with the graph of y = coshx).

88

Programme 3

29 Here are the three general results collected together,

sinrf'x = \n{x+\/{x 2 + 1)1

* = ln{* + V(* 2 ~
1
cosh" 1)1

tanh"
-i-ir^
1
*= 5 In I

Add these to your list in your record book. They will be useful.
Compare the first two carefully, for they are very nearly alike. Note
also that sinh"
1
x has only one value,
(j)
1
(ii) cosh" x has two values.

So what comes next? We shall see in frame 30.

Hyperbolic Identities

30 There is no need to recoil in horror. You will see before long that we
have an easy way of doing these. First of all, let us consider one or two
relationshi ?s based on the basic definitions.

(1) The first set are really definitions themselves. Like the trig, ratios,
we have reciprocal hyperbolic functions:

(i) coth x (i.e. hyperbolic cotangent) = -



r

(ii) sechx (i.e. hyperbolic secant) = r

(iii) cosech x (i.e. hyperbolic cosecant) = -r-r


These, by the way, are pronounced (i) coth, (ii) sheck and (iii) co-sheck
respectively.

These remind us, once again, how like trig, functions these hyperbolic
functions are.

Make a list of these three definitions: then turn on to frame 31.

89
: : .

Hyperbolic Functions

- x x
sinh* e* e e* + e
(2) Let us consider
cosh* 2 ' 2
31
e* -
= x
e~*
-=
x
tanh *
e + e'

sinh x (Very much like


tanh x '

cosh* \ sin 6 .

tan 9 = 2 I
cos 9)

x _x
(3) Cosh x = \{e + e"*); sinh x = ^(e* - e )

Add these results: cosh x + sinh x = e*


- x
Subtract cosh x sinh x = e'

Multiply these two expressions together

(cosh x + sinh x) (cosh x- sinh x) :

' cosh * 2
- sinh
2
* = 1

2 2
Jin trig., we have cos + sin = 1 , so there is a difference in
|
( sign here. )

On to frame 32.

(4) We just established that cosh *


2
- sinh
2
*= 1

Divide by cosh
2
* : 1 r-=- = r^-* 32
cosrr* cosh
.'.
1 - tanh 2 * = sech *
2

.'. sech
2
*= 1 - tanh 2 *

{Something like sec


2
= 1 + tan 2 0, isn't it?}

(5) If we start again with cosh 2 * - sinh


2
* = 1 and divide this time by
2
sinh *, we get
2
cosh * _ 1
2 2
sinh * sinh *
.'.
coth * 2 - 1 = cosech 2 *

.*.
cosech 2 * = coth 2 * - 1

2 2
I In trig., we have cosec = 1 + cot , so there is a sign difference I
I here too. J

Turn on to frame 33.

90
Programme 3

33 (6) We have already used the fact that

-
cosh x + sinh * = e* and cosh x sinh x= e~

If we square each of these statements, we obtain

(0
(ii)

34 cosh 2 * + 2 sinh x cosh x + sinh 2 * = e


2X

2*
cosh * 2 sinh x cosh x + sinh * = e"
2 2

So if we subtract as they stand, we get

g
2X _ e
-2X
2 sinh x cosh x = = sinh 2x

.'.
sinh 2* = 2 sinh x cosh x
If however we add the two lines together, we get ....

2 2 2*
35 2(cosh * + sinh *) = e + e

2 2 = cosh 2x
.'.
cosh * + sinh *

2 2
.'.
cosh 2x = cosh * + sinh *

We already know that cosh 2 * - sinh


2
*= 1

.'.
cosh 2
* = 1 + sinh 2 *

Substituting this in our last result, we have


cosh 2* = 1 + sinh 2 * + sinh 2 *
.'.
cosh 2* = 1 + 2 sinh 2 *

Or we could say
2
cosh * - 1 = sinh 2 *
.'.
2 2
cosh 2* = cosh * + (cosh * - 1)

.'.
cosh 2* = 2 cosh *
2 1

Now we will collect all these hyperbolic identities together and com-
pare them with the corresponding trig, identities.

These are all listed in the next frame, so turn on.

91
Hyperbolic Functions

(1)
Trig. Identities

cot* = 1/tan*
Hyperbolic Identities
coth* = 1/tanh*
36
sec* = 1/cos* sech* = 1/cosh*
cosec* = 1/sin* cosech* = 1/sinh*
2 2
(2) cos * + sin *= 1 cosh 2 * - sinh 2 * = 1
2
sec * = 1 + tan 2 * sech 2 * = - tanh 2 *
1
2
cosec * = 1 + cot 2 * 2
cosech * = coth 2 * - 1
(3) sin 2* = 2 sin * cos * sinh 2* = 2 sinh * cosh *
cos 2* = cos 2* - sin 2 * cosh 2* = cosh 2 * + sinh 2*
= 1 2 sin 2* = 1+2 sinh
2
*
= 2 cos 2* - 1 = 2 cosh 2 * - 1

If we look at these results, we find that some of the hyperbolic


identities follow exactly the trig, identities: others
have a difference in
sign. This change of sign occurs whenever sin 2 *
in the trig, results is
being converted into sinh 2 * to form the corresponding
hyperbolic
identities. This sign change also occurs when sin 2 * is
involved without
actually being written as such. For example, tan 2 * 2
involves sin * since
2
tan * could be written as ^~. The change of sign therefore occurs
2
with tan * when it is being converted into tanh 2 *
cot
2
* " "" " cot^
* " " "
cosec
2
" " cosech 2 * "
The change also occurs when we have a product of two sinh terms,
sign
e.g. the trig, identity cos(A + B) = cos A cos
B - sin A sin B gives the
hyperbolic identity cosh(A + B) = cosh A cosh B + sinh A sinh
B.
Apart from this one change, the hyperbolic identities can be written
down from the trig, identities which you already know.
For example:

tan 2x = J^-
1- tan * 2 becomes tanh 2* =
1
2tanh *
+ tanh 2 *

So providing you know your trig, identities, you can apply the rule
to form the corresponding hyperbolic identities.

92
y

Programme 3

37 Relationship between Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions


From our previous work on complex numbers, we know that:

je
e =cos0 +jsin0
,e - j sin 6
and e~ = cos 6

Adding these two results together, we have


Je +e-J 9 =
e

2 cos 6
38
e g
ei + e-J
So that. cos 8

which is of the form = , with jc replaced by G#)

39 cosh j0

Here, then, is our first relationship.

cos 9 = cosh j0

Make a note of that for the moment: then on to frame 40.

If we return to our two original statements


40 e
je
= cos# + j sin 6

je = cos0 -j sin0
e~

and this time subtract, we get a similar kind of result


eJ e -e-J e =

41 2j sin 6

So that, j sin 6 =
e>
e - e>
e

93
Hyperbolic Functions

42
sinh j0

So, sinhjfl =j sin

Mz&e a note of that also.

So far, we have two important results: 43


(i) cosh \8 = cos 8
(ii) sinh j0 =j sin

Now if we substitute 8 = jx in the first of these results, we have


2
cosjx = cosh(j x)
= cosh(-x)

:. cos )x = cosh x [since cosh(-x) = cosh x]

Writing this in reverse order, gives

cosh x = cos ]x Another result to note.

Now do exactly the same with the second result above, i.e. put 8 - jx
in the relationship j sin 8
= sinh j0 and simplify the result. What do you get?

44
j sinhx = sinjx

For we have j sin 8 = sinh j0


2
j sin jx = sinh(j x)
= sinh(-jc)
= -sinhx [since sinh(-x) = -sinhx]

Finally, divide both sides by j, and we have


sin jx = j sinh x

Now on to the next frame.

94
Programme 3

45 Now let us collect together the results we have established. They are
so nearly alike, that we must distinguish between them.

sin jx = j sinhx sinh jjc =j sin x

cosjx = cosh* cosh jx = cos x

and, by division, we can also obtain

tan jx =j tanhx tanhjx=jtanx

Copy the complete table into your record book for future use.

46 Here is one application of these results:

Example 1. Find an expansion for sin(x + \y).


Now we know that
sin(A + B) = sin A cos B+ cos A sin B
.'.
sin(x + ]y) = sin x cos j y + cos x sin ]y
so using the results we have listed, we can replace

cos \y by
and sin \y by

47 cos \y = cosh y sin jy = j sinhj>

So that
sin(x + ]y) = sin x cos \y + cos x sin \y
becomes sin(jc + \y) = sin x cosh y + j cos x sinh y

Note: sin(x + \y)is a function of the angle (x + j y), which is, of course,

acomplex quantity. In this case, (x +jy) is referred to as a Complex


Variable and you will most likely deal with this topic at a later stage of
your course.
Meanwhile, here is just one example for you to work through.
Find an expansion for cos(x - ]y).

Then check with frame 48.

95
Hyperbolic Functions

cos(x - )y) = cos x cosh y + j sin x sinh y


48
Here is the working:

cos(A - B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B


.'.
cos(x - jy) = cos x cos \y + sin x sin j y
But cos jjy = cosh y

and sin j.y = j sinh y

.'.
cos(x - jj>) = cos x cosh ^ + j sin x sinh >>

49

All that now remains is the test exercise, but before working through
look through your notes, or revise any parts of the programme on
it,

which you are not perfectly clear.

Then, when you are ready, turn on to the next frame.

96
.

Programme 3

50 Test Exercise III

1 If L = 2C sinh ^, find L when H = 63 and C = 50.

2
2. If v = 1-8 L tanh-^, find v when d = 40 and L = 315.

3. On the same axes, draw sketch graphs of (i)y = sinh x, (ii)j' = coshx,
(iii)^ = tanhx

. . .., 1 + sinh 2A + cosh 2A


4Simpllfy
1 - sinh 2A- cosh 2A
5. Calculate from first principles, the value of
-1 -1
(i) sinh 1-532 (ii) cosh 1-25

2x
6. If tanh x =-r, find e and hence evaluate x.

7. The curve assumed by a heavy chain or cable is

y=C cosh-pr

If C= 50, calculate (i) the value of y when x = 109,


(ii) the value of x whenj> = 75.
i

8. Obtain the expansion of sin(x - jj>) in terms of the trigonometric and


hyperbolic functions of x and>\

97
. )

Hyperbolic Functions

Further Problems - HI

1 Prove that cosh 2x = 1 + 2 sinh 2 x.

2. Express cosh 2x and sinh 2x in exponential form and hence solve,


for real values of x, the equation

2 cosh 2x - sinh 2x = 2

3. If sinh x= tan.y, show that x = ln(sec^ +tanjO-

4. If a = c cosh x and b = c sinh x, prove that

(fl + 6) 2 e- 2x =a 2 -6 2
-1
5. Evaluate (i) tanh" '0-75, (ii) cosh 2.

6. Prove that tanrf


1
!
* ~ 1
) = In x
( * + 1

7. Express

and & to 4
(i) cosh Ll and (ii) sinh
significant figures.
^ in the form a + ]b, giving a

8. Prove that (i) sinh (x + y) = sinh x cosh j + cosh x sinh >>


(ii) cosh(x +j) = cosh x cosh y + sinh x sinh
y
Hence prove that
tanhx + tanhj
tanh(x + y) = _
1 + tanhx tanhj>

9. Show that the co-ordinates of any point on the hyperbola


x2 v2
~2 ~p = 1 can be represented in the formx = a cosh u,y = b sinhw.

10. Solve for real values of x

3 cosh 2x = 3 + sinh 2x

1+tanh * 2*
11. Proveth a t- = e
1 - tanh x

12. It t = tanhi, prove that sinhx = -~ 2 and coshx = j-^. Hence


solve the equation
7 sinh x + 20 cosh x = 24

98
'

Programme 3

13. If x = x
ln tan find e and e * and hence show that

sinh x = tan 6
[54 ,

14. Given that sinh *x = In [x + \J{x 2 + 1) j, determine sinh *


(2 + j) in
the forma +]b.

15. If tanj J = tan A tanh B, prove that

sin 2A sinh 2B
tan x =
1 + cos 2A cosh 2B

16. Prove that sinh 30 = 3 sinh 0+4 sinh 3 0.

1 a+ J*), show that tan cos b


17. If x + )y = tarf (e 2x = f and , that
sinh a'
sin ft
tanh 2j> :

cosh a

18 ifx =
a? '
s' n ^ at + s' n fl ^
calculate \ when a = 0-215 and =
t 5.
2 I cosh a/ - cos at
,

1
a
19. Prove that rantr !
*, \ = \n-
[x +0*2 ) a

2
20. Given that sinh
1
x = ln{x + \/(x + 1)}, show that, for small values
ofx,
*3

sinh
t -1
x
*
-x-
6
+
JX 5
40
.

99
Programme 4

DETERMINANTS
Programme 4

1 Determinants
You are quite familiar with the method of solving a pair of simultaneous
equations by elimination.
e.g. To solve 2x + 3y + 2 = ... (i)

3x + Ay + 6 = ... (ii)

we could first find the value of x by eliminating y. To do this, of course,


we should multiply (i) by 4 and (ii) by 3 to make the coefficient of y the
same in each equation.

So &c + 12>> + 8 =

9jc + 1 2y + 18 =
Then, by subtraction, we get x + 10 = 0, i.e. x = -10. By substituting back
in either equation,we then obtain y = 6.

So finally, x=-10, y = 6

That was trivial. You have done similar ones many times before. In just
the same way, if

a xx +b y +di
x
= ... (i)

a 2 x + biy + d2 = ... (ii)

then to eliminate^ we make the coefficients of y in the two equations


identicalby multiplying (i) by and (ii) by

(i) by 6 2 and (ii) by 6 t

Correct, of course. So the equations

a xx +b^y + di =

a 2 x + b 2y + d 2 =

become a x b 2 x + b^b^y + b 2 d\ -

a 2 &iX + bib2y + bid 2 =

Subtracting, we get
(a l b2 -a 2 bi)x + b 2 di ~bid 2 =0
so that {a l b2 -a 2 bi)x = bid 2 -b 2 di
Then x =

101
Determinants

b 1 d2 -b 2 di
X =
alb2 -a 2 b l

In practice, this result can give a finite value for x only if the
denominator is not zero. That is, the equations
tfi* + b xy + dx =
a 2 x + b^y + d2 =
give a finite value for x provided that {a x b 2 ~a 2 bi) f 0.

Consider these equations:


3x + 2y - 5 =

4x + 3y - 7 =

In this case, a 1 = 3, &i = 2, a 2


= 4, &2 = 3

0i6 2
~ a ibi - 3.3 -4.2
= 9-8=1
This is not zero, so there (will | be a finite value of x.
will not

will

The expression 0^2 ~a 2 b\ is therefore an important one in the solu-


tion of simultaneous equations. We have a shorthand notation for this.

ai bi
a \b 2 a 2 b\ -

ax bx
For to represent a x b 2 -a 2 b\ then we must multiply the terms

diagonally to form the product terms in the expansion: we multiply


bx
and then subtract the product i.e. + ^ and s

3 7
e-g-
= 3.2- 5.7 = 6- 35 =-29
5 2

6 5 5
So
1 2 1

102
Programme 4

6 5
= 12-5 =
1 2

DDnaDDnnnnnDnnDnnDDnnnonDDDDnDDnnnDDD

is called a determinant of the second order (since it has two


a2 b2

rows and two columns) and represents a y b 2 -a 2 b\. You can easily

remember this as +^^-^-^r .

Just for practice, evaluate the following determinants :

4 ?. 7 4 2 1

(i) ,
(ii) ,
Oii)
b 3 6 3 4 -3

Finish all three: then turn on to frame 6.

4 ?.

(i) = 4.3-5.2= 12-10 =


5 3

7 4
(ii) = 7.3-6.4 = 21-24 = -3
6 i

2 1

(iii) = 2(-3)-4.1 =-6-4 = -10


4 -3
anDDnnaDnDDDDnnnanannnDaDnnnDDaDDDnnDQ

Now, in solving the equations


J
a t x + b^y + di =0
{ 2 x + biy + d 2 =0

we found that x= -ij-2 1-1 and the numerator and the denominator
aib 2 2 b\

can each be written as a determinant.

b 1 d2 -b 2 di = ; axb2 -a 2 b =
x

103
-

Determinants

bi di i bx
i

b2 d2 a2 b2

If we eliminate x from the original equations and find an expression


for y, we obtain
_ Jaid2 -a 2 di\
]aib 2 -a 2 b y

So, for any pair of simultaneous equations

i\X + b\y +di =


a 2 x + b^y + d2 =

.b y d 2 -b 2 di _a\d 2 -a 2 dx
we have and
a\b 2 -a 2 b\ """ ^ fli6 2 -a 2^i

Each of these numerators and denominators can be expressed as a


determinant.

So, x= and y =

bi d, ai di 8
b2 d2 a2 d2
X = and y =
bi i 61

a2 b2 2 b2

X 1 y -1
and
6, dt ai 61 "i di flj 61

Z>
2 d2 a2 b2 a2 d2 a2 b2

We can combine these results, thus:

X ~y 1

bi dx ai d\ 1
i 61

b2 d2 a2 d2 |
a2 62

Afafce a note 0/ fese results and then turn on to the next frame.

104
Programme 4

So if a yx +bty +di =0
a 2 x + b^y + d2 =
X -y 1
Then
bi dt i dx 1\ by

b2 d2 a2 d2 a2 b2
Each variable is divided by a determinant. Let us see how we can get
them from the original equations.

(i) Consider .
. Let us denote the determinant in the denominator
bx dx

b2 d2

bi d,
by Aj , i.e. A i
t
b2 d2
To form Ai from the given equations, omit the x-terms and write down
the coefficients and constant terms in the order in which they stand.
<tix +biy +d t = 6, d.
gives
a 2x + bjy + d 2 = b2 d2
-y ai di
(ii) Similarly for , let A2
di "2 d2
a2 d2
To form A 2 from the given equations, omit the j;-terms and write down
the coefficients and constant terms in the order in which they stand.
aix + biy +d t
= di
gives A2 =
a 2 x + b-^y + d2 = 2 d2
1
(iii) For the expression denote the determinant by Aq.
a\ by

a2 b2
To form Aq from the given equations, omit the constant terms and write
down the coefficients in the order in which they stand
aix + b x y + d x =0 ay b x
gives
a 2 x + b2y + d2 = a2 b2

Note finally that


_x
.2 =1
A t A2 A
Now let us do some examples, so on to frame 10.

105
Determinants

Example I. To solve the equations j Sx + 2y + 19 = 10


The key to the method is

- ~y - *

A, A2 Aq
To find A , omit the constant terms

5 2

Ao = 5.4-3.2 = 20-6= 14
3 4
.-.
Ao = 14 ... (i)

Now, to find Ai , omit the x -terms.

A, =

Ai =-42
11
2 19
for Ai = 34 -76 = -42 (iO
4 17
Similarly, to find A2 , omit the j>-terms

5 19
A,= 85-57 = 28 (iii)
3 17
Substituting the values of A t , A2 A , in the key, we get

x _y _ J_
-42 ~ 28 ~ 14

from which x = and y =

-42 28
X = "'-i; -y-" = ~2
14 14
,y 12
Now for another example.
Example 2. Solve by determinants |2x+3>'-14 =
\3x-2y+ 5 =
First of all, write down the key:
x _^y
_ _ J_
Ai A2 "'Aq
(Note that the terms are alternately positive and negative.)
2 3
Then A, -4- 9 =-13 0)
3 -2
Now you find Ai and A2 in the same way.

106
.

Programme 4

13 Ai =-13; A 2 =-52

For we have 2x+3y-14 =


3x - 2y + 5 =

3 -14 3 -14
A, = =
-2 5 5 -2
= 15 -28 = -13. :. Aj =-13

?, -14 ?. -14
A, = =
i 5 t> 3

= 10 -(-42) =52 :. A2 = 52

x _ -y _ 1
So that " "
A! A2 A

and A! =-13; A 2 =52; A =-13

_Ai_-13_, . _,

A2 52 = "
-' _
= _
at^3 4
"zn
Do not forget the key
x _-y _ 1

A^ "A2 ~A^
with alternate plus and minus signs.

Make a note of this in your record book.

Here is another one: do it on your own.


14
Example 3. Solve by determinants
4jc - 3y + 20 =
3x + 2y - 2 =

First of all, write down the key.


Then off you go: find A , Ai and A 2 and hence determine the values
of x and.y.

When you have finished, turn on to frame 15.

107
Determinants

x = -2; y = 4
15
Here is the working in detail:
4x - 3y + 20 =
A ~ A2 Ao
3x + 2y- 2 = t

4 -3
Ao = 8-(-9) = 8 + 9 = 17
3 2

-3 20
Ai = 6 - 40 = -34
2 -2

4 20
A2 = = -8 - 60 = -68
3 -2
Ai _-34
-2 :. x = -2
Ao 17

A2 -68 .

:. j=4

nDODnnDDDnaDnnnnDDnaDDDnDDDnnannnDnDnn
Now, by way of revision, complete the following:

5 6
(0
7 4

5 -2
00 3 -4

(iii)
b c

P q
(iv)
r s

Here are the results. You must have got them correct.

=
16
(0 20--42 -22
(ii) -20 -6 = -26

(iii) ac- bd
(iv) ps- rq

For the next section of the work, turn on to frame 1 7.

108
.

Programme 4

Determinants of the third order

17 A determinant of the third order will contain 3 rows and 3 columns, thus:
0i bi Cx

a2 b2 c2

3 b3 c3
Each element in the determinant is associated with its MINOR, which
is found by omitting the row and column containing the element concerned.

b2 ?2 :
i !
bi Cll
e.g. the minor of a, is obtained
b3 c3 \ a2 \
b2 c2

!
3 !
b3 c3

a2 \a l \ bi i C1
the minor of b\
i
is obtained
a3 c3 a 2 \b 2 c2
\

a3 :
b3
c3

a2 b2 01
the minor of c t is obtained
a3 b3 2 ~b 2 c2 \

So, in the same way, the minor of a 2 is a3 b3 c3 i

by ct
18 Minor of a 2 is
b3 c3

since, to find the minor of a 2 we simply ignore the row and column con-
,

taining a 2 , i.e.
! fli !
bj. Cl

1 a2 j
fc 2 Cl

:
a 3i ^>3 c3 Similarly, the minor of b 3 is

ax Cy
19 Minor of b 3 -
a2 c2

i.e. omit the row and column containing b 3 .

01 61 i Cl

02 62 '
Ci

% b3 \
c3 \
Now on to frame 20.
J

109
Determinants

Evaluation of a third order determinant 20


To expand a determinant of the third order, we can write down each
element along the top row, multiply it by its minor and give the terms
a plus or minus sign alternately.

i bt Ci
~
a\ ^7 b t
a2 c2 + c, a2 b2

a3 c3 a3 b3
a3 b3 c3

Then, of course, we already know how to expand a determinant of the

second order by multiplying diagonally, +

Example 1.
1 3 2
1 5 7 -3 4 7 + 2 4 5
4 5 7 =
4 8 2 8 2 4
2 4 8
= 1(5.8 - 4.7) - 3(4.8 - 2.7) + 2(4.4 - 2.5)
= l(40-28)-3(32-14) + 2(16-10)
= 1(12) -3(18) + 2(6)
= 12- 54 + 12 =-30

Here is another.

Example 2. 3 2 5
21
3 6 7 -2 4 7 + 5 4 6
4 6 7
9 2 ?. 2 ?, 9
2 9 2

= 3(12 -63) -2(8- 14) + 5(36- 12)


= 3(-51)-2(-6) + 5(24)
= -153 + 12 + 120 = -21

Now here is one for you to do.

Example 3. Evaluate 2 7 5

4 6 3

8 9 1

Expand along the top row, multiply each element by its minor, and
+ and signs to the products.
assign alternate

When you are ready, move on to frame 22.

no
Programme 4

22 Result 38

For 2 7 5
6 3 -7 4 3 + 5 4 6
4 6 3
9 1 8 1 8 9
9 1

= 2(6 - 27) - 7(4 - 24) + 5(36 - 48)


= 2(-21)-7(-20) + 5(-12)
= -42+ 140-60 = 38

We obtained the result above by expanding along the top row of the
given determinant. If we expand down the first column in the same way,
still assigning alternate + and - signs to the products, we get
2 7 5
2 6 3 -4 7 5 +8 7 5
4 6 3
9 1 9 1 6 3
8 9 1

= 2(6 - 27) - 4(7 - 45) + 8(21 - 30)


= 2(-21)-4(-38) + 8(-9)
= -42 + 152-72 = 38
which is the same result as that which we obtained before.

y^ We can, if we wish, expand along any row or column in the same way,
multiplying each element by its minor, so long as we assign to each
product the appropriate + or- sign. The appropriate 'place signs' are
given by +_ + _ +
- + - + - .

+ - + - + .

- + -+ -
etc., etc

The key element (in the top left-hand corner) is always + . The others are
then alternately + or - as you proceed along any row or
, down any column.
So in the determinant 13
7

5 6 9

4 2 8

the "place sign" of the element 9 is

Ill
Determinants

24
since in a third order determinant, the 'place signs' are

+ - +
Remember that the top left-hand element
- + - always has a + place sign. The others
+ - + follow from it.

Now consider this one 3 7 2

6 8 4

1 9 5

If we expand down the middle column, we get

3 7 2
-7 6 4 + 8 3 2 -9 3 2
6 8 4
1 5 1 5 6 4
1 9 5

Finish it off. Then move on.

Result
-78
25
for 6 4 + 8 3 2 -9 3 2

1 5 1 5 6 4
= -7(30 -4) + 8(1 -2) 5
-9(12- 12)
= -7(26) + 8(13)- 9(0)
= -182 + 104 = -78

So now you do this one:

Evaluate 2 3 4 by expanding along the bottom row.


6 1 3

5 7 2

R%e you have done it, turn to frame 26.

112
Programme 4

26 Answer 119

We have 2 3 4 and remember + - +

6 1 3 - + -
5 7 2 + - +

= 5 3 4 -7 2 4 + 2 2 3

1 3 6 3 6 1

= 5(9 - 4) - 7(6 - 24) + 2(2 - 18)


= 5(5)-7(-18) + 2(-16)
= 25 + 126-32=119
One more:
Evaluate 1 2 8 by expanding along the middle row.
7 3 1

4 6 9

27
Result 143

For 12 8-7 2 8 + 3 1 8 - 1 1 2

7 3 1 6 9 4 9 4 6

4 6 9
= -7(1 8 -48) + 3(9 -32) -1(6 -8)
= -7(-30) + 3(-23)-l(-2)
= 210-69 + 2= 143

DDDDnDDDDnDnDnDnnnDnDnDDDnnDnDDDnDnnDn
We have seen how we can use second order determinants to solve
simultaneous equations in 2 unknowns.
We can now extend the method to solve simultaneous equations in
3 unknowns.

So turn on to frame 28.

113
Determinants

Simultaneous equations in three unknowns


Consider the equations
28
a x x + b xy + c x z + dx =
a 2 x + b 2y + c 2 z + d2 =
a 3 x + b 3y + c 3 z + d 3 =

If we find x, y and z by the elimination method, we obtain results that


can be expressed in determinant form thus:
x y z -1
_ _
ftl Cl di ci dx ax bi dt a\ bi Cl

b2 c2 d2 c-i d2 a2 b2 d2 a2 b2 c2

b3 c3 di 3 b3 d3 "3 b3 c3

We can remember this more easily in this form:

x ZL z ^i_
Ai A2 aT A
where Ai = the det. of the coefficients omitting the x-terms
" "
A2 = " " " " " j-terms
" "
A3 = " " " " " z-terms
" "
Ao = " " " " " constant terms.

Notice that the signs are alternately plus and minus.


Let us work through a numerical example.

Example 1. Find the value of x from the equations

3y- z- 4 =
'2x +
3x+ y + 2z- 13 =
x + 2y - Sz + 1 1 =

2L=Z2. z ^1
First the key: :

A, A2 a! Ao

To find the value of x, we use


x

Ai
=
A
-l
, i.e. we must find A] and A .

(i) to find A , omit the constant terms.

2 3 -1
?. 1 7. -3 3 7 -1 3 1

A = 3 1 2 =
2 -5 1 -5 1 2
1 2 -5
= -18 + 51-5 = 28
(ii) Now you find Ai , in the same way.

114
Programme 4

29 A =-56
t

for Ai 3 -1 -4 = 3(22 -65) + 1(11 +26)-4(-5-4)


1 2 -13 = 3(-43)+l(37)-4(-9)
= -129 + 37 + 36
2-5 11
= -129 + 73 =-56

.
-1 . x _-l
But
A "A i
" -56 28

Note that by this method we can evaluate any one of the variables,
without necessarily finding the others. Let us do another example.

Example 2. Find y, given that

f2x+ ^-5z + ll=0


! x- y + z- 6 =
[4x + 2y-3z+ 8 =
First, the key, which is

z
30 Aj A2 a; Ao

To find j, we use
A2 A
Therefore, we must find A 2 and Ao

The equations are 2x+ >>-5z+ 11 =0


x y + z- 6 =

4.x + 2j> - 3z + 8 =
To find A2 , omit the ^-terms.
2 -5 11
1 -6 + 5 + 11 1

.".
A2 1
-3
-3 8
-3
2(8 - 18) + 5(8 + 24) + 1 1(-3 - 4)
-20 + 160-77 = 63
To find A , omit the constant terms

Ao =

115
Determinants

Ao=-21
31
for 2 1 -5
2 -1 1
- 1 1 1 -5 1 -1
Ao = 1 -1 1 =
2 -3 4 -3 4 2
4 2-3
= 2(3 - 2) - l(-3 - 4) - 5(2 + 4)
= 2 + 7-30 = -21

So we have A
~y
2
=
-i
-.
A
. .
. A2
y =ir- z-,
Aq -21
63

:.y=-3
The important things to remember are
X ~y _ z
(i) The key "<5
A, A2 A; ^0

with alternate + and - signs.

(ii) To find Ai , which is associated with x in this case, omit the x -terms
and form a determinant with the remaining coefficients and con-
stant terms. Similarly for A2 A 3 A, , .

Next frame.

Here is a short revision exercise on the work so far.


32
Revision Exercise
Find the following by the use of determinants.

l. x+2y-3z- 3 =

2x- y- i- 11 =0 Find y.
3x + 2y + z + 5=0
- Ay
3x- + 2z + 8 = |

5y-3z+
x + 5y 2 = \ Find* andz.
5x + 3y - z+ 6 J

2x-2y- z- 3 =

4x + 5y - 2z + 3=0 f
Find x,y and z.

3x + Ay - 3z + 7 =

When you have finished them all, check your answers with those given in
the next frame.

116
Programme 4

33 Here are the answers:

1. y=-4
2. x=-2; z = 5

3. x = 2; y = _ 1; z = 3

Ifyou have them a// correct, turn straight on to frame 52.


If you have not got them all correct, it is well worth spending a few
minutes seeing where you may have gone astray, for one of the main
applications of determinants is in the solution of simultaneous equations.

If you made any slips, move to frame 34.

34
The answer to question No. 1 in the revision test was y = -4

Did you get that one right? If so, move on straight away to frame 41.
If you did not manage to get it right, let us work through it in detail.

The equations were ( x + 2y- 3z- 3 =


2x- y- z- 11 =0
3x + 2y+ z + 5 =

Copy them down on your paper so that we can refer to them as we go


along.
The first thing, always, is to write down the key to the solutions. In
this case:


A!
-

To fill in the missing terms, take each variable in turn, divide it by the
associated determinant, and include the appropriate sign.
So what do we get?

On to frame 35.

117
.

Determinants

x _~y_ z _ H_ 35
a7 ~a7~a^"a

The signs go alternately + and


In this question, we have to find y, so we use the second and last terms
in the key.

1-6-
-
-y = -l
AA 2

A
.
A2
y = ir-
A

So we have to find A 2 and A .

To find A 2 we
,

36

form a determinant of the coefficients omitting those of the >>-terms.

So 1 -3 -3

A2 = 2-1 -11

3 1 5

Expanding along the top row, this gives

-1 -11 (-3) 2 -11 + (-3) 2 -1


A, =
1 5 3 5 3 1

We now evaluate each of these second order determinants by the usual


process of multiplying diagonally, remembering the sign convention that

^and ^^
So we get A2 =

118
, Programme 4

37 A, = 120

for A2 = l(-5 + 1 1) + 3(10 + 33) - 3(2 + 3)


= 6 + 3(43)- 3(5)
= 6 + 129-15= 135- 15 = 120

A A2 = 120

We also have to find A , i.e. the determinant of the coefficients omit-


ting the constant terms.

So

A =

38

If we expand this along the top row, we get

Ao

39 -1 -1 -2 2 -1 -3 2 -1
Ao =
2 1 3 1 3 2

Now, evaluating the second order determinants in the usual way gives
that
Ao=

119
Determinants

Ao =-30
40
for A = 1(-1 + 2)- 2(2 + 3)- 3(4 + 3)
= 1(1) -2(5) -3(7)
= 1-10-21 =-30
So Aq=-30.

So we have
_A 2 _120_
y A -30

:.y = -A

Every one is done in the same way.


Did you get No. 2 of the revision questions correct?
If so, turn straight on to frame 51.
If not, have another go at it, now that we have worked through No. 1

in detail.

When you have finished, move to frame 41.

x = 2 41
The answers to No. 2 in the revision exercise were
z = 5

Did you get those correct? If so, turn on right away to frame 51 . If not,
follow through the working. Here it is:

No. 2 The equations were


'
3x - Ay + 2z + 8 =
x + 5y-3z + 2 =
5x + 3y- z +6=

Copy them down on to your paper.

The key to the solutions is:

x _
-...-
_ ... - ...

Fill in the missing terms and then turn on to frame 42.

120
Programme 4

42
A ~ A2
t
A3 A

have to findx andz. .-.


We shall use

X 1 Ai
i.e. x =
Ao Ao

-1
and
z
i.e. z =- A 3
A, Ao Ao

So we must find Ai , A3 and A .

(i) To find Ai , form the determinant of coefficients omitting those of


the .x-terms.

/. Ax

43
-4 2 8

A t = 5 -3 2

3 -1 6

Now expand along the top row.

-3 2 -2 5 2 + 8 5 -3
A, =
-1 6 3 6 3 -1

Finish it off: then on to frame 44.

121
Determinants

A, =48 44
for A =-4(-18
t + 2)-2(30-6)+8(-5 + 9)
= -4(-16)- 2(24) + 8(4)
= 64-48 + 32 = 96-48 = 48

:. Aj = 48

(ii) To find A3 , form the determinant of coefficients omitting the z-terms.

A,

3-4 8
45
A3 = 1 5 2

5 3 6

Expanding this along the top row gives

A3 =

46
3 5 2 + 4 1 2 +8 1 5
A3 =
3 6 5 6 5 3

Now evaluate the second order determinants and finish it off. So that

A3 =

On to frame 47.

122
Programme 4

47 -120

since A 3 = 3(30 - 6) + 4(6 - 10) + 8(3 - 25)

= 3(24) + 4(-4) + 8(-22)


= 72-16-176.
= 72-192 = -120

:.A 3 =-120

(iii) Now we want to find Ao

Ao =

48
3 -4 2

Ao = 1 5 -3

5 3 -1

Now expand this along the top row as we have done before. Then
evaluate the second order determinants which will appear and so
find the

value of A .

Work it right through: so that

Ao =

123
Determinants

Ao=24 49
for
5 --3 +4 1 --3 + 2 1 5
Ao =
3 --1 5 --1 5 3

= 3(-5 + 9) + 4(-l + 1 5) + 2(3 - 25)


= 3(4) + 4(14) + 2(-22)
= 12 + 56-44
= 68 - 44 = 24

:. A =24

So we have: At =48, A 3 =-120, A<> =24

Also we know that

So that x = and z = ...

48
x=-2 50
(-120) _
z 24 ~ 5 z = 5

Well, there you are. The method is the same ev(:ry time but take
care not to make a slip with the signs.

Now what about question No. 3 in the revision exercise. Did you get
that right? If so, move on straight away to frame 52.
have another go at it. Here are the equations again: copy them
If not,
down and then find*,.}> andz.

2x-2y- z-3 =
Ax + Sy - 2z + 3 =
1

3x + Ay - 3z + 7 =

When you have finished this one, turn on to the next frame and check
your results.

124
Programme 4

51 Answers to No. 3

2, y=~\, z = 3

Here are the main steps, so that you can check your own working.

_^L = IZ = JL =Zi_
Ax A2 A 3 A

-2 -1 -3

A, = 5 -2 3 = 54

4 -3 7

2 -1 -3

A2 = 4 -2 3 = 27

3 -3 7

2 -2 -3

A3 = 4 5 3 = 81

3 4 7

2 -2 -1

Ao = 4 5 -2 = -27

3 4 -3

X 1
=-ii=2
x =-
A, Ao Ao -27
x=2
-y 1 A2
A2 A y= A -27
^=-1
z 1
z =-_A 3 = li = -3
a; A A -27
z =-3
All correct now?

On to frame 52 then for the next section of the work.

125
Determinants

Consistency of a set of equations 52


Let us consider the following three equations in two unknowns.

3x- y-4 = (0
2x + 3y~8 = (ii)

x- y-4=Q (iii)

If we solve equations (ii) and (iii) in the usual way, we find that x = 1 and

y = 2.
If we now substitute these values in the left-hand side of (i), we obtain
3x -j-4 = 3-2-4= -3 (and not as the equation states).
The solutions of (ii) and (iii) do not satisfy (i) and the three given
equations do not have a common solution. They are thus not consistent.
There are no values ofx and y which satisfy all three equations.
If equations are consistent, they have a

53
common solution

Let us now consider the three equations

3x + y- 5 = (i)

2x + 3y - 8 = (ii)

x - 2y + 3 = (iii)

The solutions of (ii) and (iii) are, as before, x = 1 and y = 2. Substituting


these in (i) gives

3x +y -5 =3 + 2-5 =

i.e. all three equations have the common solution x= l,y = 2 and the
equations are said to be c

126
Programme 4

54 consistent

Now we will take the general case

a x x + by +di = (i)

a 2x + b 2 y + d2 - 00
a 3 x + b 3y +d 3 = (iii)

If we solve equations (ii) and (Hi),

i.e. ( a 2 x + biy + d2 =
a 3 x + 63J + d3 =

we get "
Ai A2 " A

b2 d2 a2 d2 a2 b2
where A, = , A2 = , A =
b3 d3 a3 d3 3 b3

A _ A2
and y - ~
t
so that x - V" -7
Ao Aq

If these results also satisfy equation (i), then

ay^ + bv^ + d^Q

i.e. fli-Ai ~b y A 2 +d v A =

d2 a2 <2 2 fl
2 > 2
i.e. 61 + di
d3 a3 d3 fl
3 Z> 3

fll 61 C?i

i.e. a2 i2 c? 2

a3 63 c? 3

which is therefore the condition that the three given equations are
consistent.

So three simultaneous equations in two unknowns are consistent if the


determinant of coefficients is

127
Determinants

55
Example 1. Test for consistency

For the equations to be consistent


must be zero.

1
-5
= 2 4 1 - 1 1 1 _5 1 4
1
4 1
-1 -10 3 -10 13 -1
-1 -10

= 2(-40+l)-l(-10-3)-5(-l-12)
= 2(-39)-(-13)-5(-13)
= -78 + 13 +65 =-78 + 78 =
The given equations therefore consistent.
(are/are not)

are

Example 2. Find the value of k or whk;h the equations are consistent.


56
(3x+ y + 2 = 3 1 2

J Ax + 2y - k = For consistency,
4 2 -k =
[2x- y + 3k =
2 -1 3&

:. 3 2 -k -1 4 -k +2 4 2
=
-1 3k 2 3k 2 -1

3(6& - k) - 1 (1 2k + 2k) + 2(-4 - 4) =

/. 15Ar- 14fc- 16 = .\ fc-16 = .\ fc=16

Now one for you, done in just the same way.


Example 3. Given ( x + (k + 1 )y + 1 =
\ 2kx + Sy -3 =

{ 3x+ ly + 1 =

Find the values of k for which the equations are consistent.

128
y

Programme 4

57 k = 2 or
-
1

The condition for consistency is that


1 k+ l 1

2k 5 -3 =

3 7 1

5 -3 -(*+0 2k -3 + 1 2k 5
=
7 1 3 1 3 7

(5 + 21)-(fc + 1) (2fc + 9) + (14fc- 15) =


26-2fc 2 -llfc-9+ 14fc-15 =
-2k 2 + 3k + 2 =
:. 2k 2 -3k~2 = :. (2k+l)(k~2) = Q
.".
&= 2
_1
or k=-x

Finally, one more for you to do.


Example 4.
X + y-
k =
kx - 3y + 1 1 =
Find the values of k for consistency when
2x + Ay - 8 =

58 k = 1 or -x

For 1 1 -k
fc -3 11 =

2 4-8
1 -3 11 - 1 k 11 -k k -3
=
4 -8 2 -8 2 4

:. (24 - 44) - (-8k - - k(4k 22) + 6) =


8k + 22 - 4/c - 6k
2
:. -20 + =
2
-4k + 2k + 2 =
:. 2/fc
2
- A: - 1 = :. (2k + 1) (k - 1) =

.'.
fc = 1 or k =

129
Determinants

Properties of determinants 59
Expanding a determinant which the elements are large numbers can be
in
a very tedious affair. It is possible, however, by knowing something of the
properties of determinants, to simplify the working. So here are some of
the main properties. Make a note of them in your record book for future
reference.

1. The value of a determinant remains unchanged if rows are changed to


columns and columns to rows.

ax bx

h b. a2 b2

2. If two rows (or two columns) are interchanged, the sign of the
determinant is changed.

a2 b2 at b\

at bi a2 b2

3. If two rows (or two columns) are identical, the value of the deter-
minant is zero.
=
a2 a2

4. If the elements of any one row (or column) are all multiplied by a
common factor, the determinant is multiplied by that factor.
ka x kb-t a\ bx

a2 b2 a2 b2

5. If the elements of any one row (or column) are increased (or decreased)
by equal multiples of the corresponding elements of any other row (or
column), the value of the determinant is unchanged.

a x +kbi bx fii bi

a 2 + kb 2 b2 a2 b2

DannnaDnnnnnDnDDnnDDDnDDDnnDnDDDDDDDDD
NOTE: The properties stated above are general and apply not only to
second order determinants, but to determinants of any order.

Turn on now to the next frame for one or two examples.

130
Programme 4

60 Example 1. Evaluate 427 429


369 371
Of course, we could evaluate this by the usual method
(427) (371) -(369) (429)
which is rather deadly! On the other hand, we could apply our knowledge
of the properties of determinants, thus:

427 429 427 429 - 427


(Rule 5)
369 371 369 371 -369
427 2

369 2

58
(Rule 5)
369 2

= (58)(2)-(0) = 116

Naturally, the more zero elements we can arrange, the better.

For another example, move to frame 61.

Example 2. Evaluate 1 2 2
61 4 3 5
column 2 minus column 3 will
give us one zero
4 2 7

1 0. 2

4 -2 5 column 3 minus twice (column


1) will give another zero
4 -5 7

4 -2 -3 Now expand along the top row


4 -5 -1

-2 --3
We could take a factor (-1) from
--1
the top row and another factor
-5
(-1) from the bottom row.

(-1X-1) 2 3

5 1

Next frame. 1(2-15) = -13

131
Determinants

Example 3. Evaluate
62

You do that one, but by way of practice, apply as many of the listed
properties as possible. It is quite fun.

When you have finished it, turn on to frame 63.

The answer is 32 , but what we are more interested in is the method 63


of applying the properties, so follow it through. This is one way of doing
it;not the only way by any means.

4 2 2
We can take out a factor 2 from
2 4 2 each row, giving a factor 2 3 i.e. ,

8 outside the determinant.


2 2 4

2 1 1

column 2 minus column 3 will


1 2 1
give one zero in the top row.
1 1 2

2 1
column 1 minus twice (column
1 1 1 3) will give another zero in the
same row.
1 -1 2

1
Expanding along the top row will
-1 1 1 now reduce this to a second order
determinant.
-3 -1 2

-11 1

Now row 2 + row 1


-33 -1

-11 1

-4
4

1
= -8 (-4) = 32
4

132
Programme 4

64 Here is another type of problem.


x 5
Example 4. Solve the equation
5 x+ 1

-3-4 x - 2
In this type of question, we try to establish common factors wherever
possible. For example, if we add row 2 and row 3 to row 1 we get ,

(x + 2) (x + 2) (x + 2)

5 x+ 1 1

-3 -4 x- 2
Taking out the common factor (pc + 2) gives

(*+2) 1 1

5 jc + 1

-3-4 x-2
Now if we take column 1 from column 2 and also from column 3, what
do we get?
When you have done it, move on to the next frame.

We now have (x + 2) 1

65 5 jc-4 -4 =
-3 -1 - x + 1

Expanding along the top row, reduces this to a second order determinant.
(x + 2) x-4 -4
-1 x+ l
If we now multiply out the determinant, we get

(x + 2) [(x-4)(x+ l)-4] =0
(x + 2) (x - 3x - 8) =
2
:.

2
x+2= or jc -3x-8 =

which finally gives x = -2 or x .3+V41


Finally, here is one for you to do on your own.
Example 5. Solve the equation
5x3
x+2 2 1=0
-3 2 x
Check your working with that given in the next frame.

133
Determinants

Result: 66
x = -4 or 1 \/6

Here is one way of doing the problem

5 x 3

x+2 2 1=0 Adding row 2 and row 3


to row 1 gives
,

-3 2 x

x+4 x +4 x +4
Take out the common
x+ 2 2 1
factor (x + 4)
-3 2

(x+4) 1 1
Take column 3 from
x + 2 2 = column 1 and from
column 2
-3 2

(*+4)
=
This now reduces to
x+ 1 1
second order
-jc 3 2 -x

(x + 4) x + l 1
Subtract column 2 from
=
x- 3 2 -x column 1

(x + 4) x 1
We now finish it off
-5 2-x
:. (x+4)(2x-x,22 + 5) =
x - 2x -
2
;. x + 4= or 5 =

which gives x = -4 or x= 1 \J6

onaannnnoDDDQaoaaaaonnaDnaDaananonaoaa
You have now reached the end of this programme on determinants
except for the Test Exercise which follows in frame 67. Before you work
through brush up any parts of the work about which you are at all
it,

uncertain. Ifyou have worked steadily through the programme, you


should have no difficulty with the exercise.

134
Programme 4

Qg Test Exercise IV
Answer all the questions. Take your time and work carefully. There is

no extra credit for speed.


Off you go then. They are all quite straightforward.

DnnannnDnnnDnDDaannnnnannnnaDDDnnDnDnn
1. Evaluate (a) 1 1 2 (b) 1 2 3

2 1 1 3 1 2

1 2 1 2 3 1

2. By determinants, find the value of x, given

'2x+3y~ z- 13 =

x-2y + 2z+ 3=0


3x+ y + z- 10 =

3. Use determinants to solve completely

*-3.y+4z-5 =
2x+ y+ z-3 =
[4x + 3y + 5z-l=Q

4. Find the values of k for which the following equations are consistent

3x + 5y+k =
2x + y- 5 =

(*+ \)x +2y- 10 =

5. Solve the equation


x+ 1 -5 -6
-\ x 2 =
-3 2 x + 1

Now you can continue with the next programme.

QnnonaDnaQaQQnnaaoannaciaQLjnannaQanna

135
Determinants

Further Problems IV

1. Evaluate 0) 3 5 7 Oi) 1 428 861

11 9 13 2 535 984
15 17 19 3 642 1107

2. Evaluate (i) 25 3 35 00 155 226 81

16 10 -18 77 112 39

34 6 38 74 HI 37

3. Solve by determinants

4x-5v + 72 =-14
9x + 2v + 3z = 47
x- y- Sz - 11

4. Use determinants to solve the equations

4x - 3y + 2z = -7

2x - Ay - z = -3

5. Solve by determinants

3x + 2y - 2z = 16
4x + 3y + 3z = 2

2x- .y + z=-l

6. Find the values of X for which the following equations are consistent
5x+(\+l)v-5 =
(\-1)jc + 7^ + 5 =
3x + 5v + 1 =

7. Determine the values of k for which the following equations have


solutions other than x =y =
4x-(k-2)y- 5 =
2x + y -10 =
(fc+l)x - 4j/- 9 =

136
Programme 4

8. (a) Find the values of k which satisfy the equation

k 1

1 k 1 =

1 k

(b) Factorise 1 1 1

a b c
3 3 3
a b c

9. Solve the equation


jc 2 3

2 x+3 6 =

3 4 x +6
10. Find the values of x that satisfy the equation

x 3 +x 2+ x
3 -3 -1 =

2 -2 -2

11. Express 1

2 2 2
a' b c

(b+cf2 < j. \2
{c+af ( M2
(a+bf j.

as a product of linear factors.

12. A resistive network gives the following equations.

2(i3-/a) + 5(j 3 -/i) =24


(i 2 -3) + 2i 2 +(i 2 -ii)=
5(i, -i 3 ) + 2(i,-i 2 ) + ;,= 6

Simplify the equations and use determinants to find the value of i 2


correct to two significant figures.

13. Show that (a + b + c) is a factor of the determinant


3
b +c a a
3
c+a b b
3
i a +b c c

and express the determinant as a product of five factors.

137
Determinants

14. Find values of fc for which the following equations are consistent.

x+ (1 + k)y + 1=0
(2 + k)x + 5y - 10 =
x + 7y + 9 =
15. Express 1 + x2 yz 1 as a product of four linear factors.

1+y 2 zx 1

1+z 2 xy 1

16. Solve the equation x+l x+2 3

x+3 x+l
2 =
x+3 x+2 1

17. Ifx,.y, z, satisfy the equations

+M >r-M iy = W
(iM, 2

-M 2x + 2M 2 + (Mi - M )z = >>
2

~M 2 y+QU + M )z = l 2

evaluate x in terms of W, M, and M .


2

18. Three currents, it , i2 , i3 , in a network are related by the following


equations.
^ + ^ ^+ = 3Q

6ii - i
2 + 2/ 3 = 4
3r\ - \2i 2 +8i 3 =
By the use of determinants, find the value of it and hence solve com-
pletely the three equations.

19. If k(x-a) + 2x-z =


k(y-a) + 2y-z =
k(z-a)-x~y + 2z =

show that *= 2fq,+ 3)


k +4k + 2

20. Find the angles between = and =n that satisfy the equation
2 2
1 + sin cos 4 sin 20
2 2
sin 1 + cos 4 sin 20 =
2 2
sin cos 1 +4 sin 20

138
Programme 5

VECTORS
Programme 5

| Introduction: scalar and vector quantities


Physical quantities can be divided into two main groups, scalar quantities

and vector quantities.


(a) A scalar quantity is one that is defined completely by a single number
with appropriate units, e.g. length, area, volume, mass, time, etc. Once the
units are stated, the quantity is denoted entirely by its size or magnitude.

(b) A vector quantity is defined completely when we know not only its
magnitude (with units) but also the direction in which it operates, e.g.
force, velocity, acceleration. A vect<- quantity necessarily involves
direction as well as magnitude.

So, (i) a speed of 10 km/h is a scalar quantity, but


(ii) a velocity of '10 km/h due North' is a quantity.

vector

A force F acting at a point P is a vector quantity, since to define it

/ completely we must give

(i) its magnitude, and also

(ii) its

direction

So that:
(i) A temperature of 100C is a quantity.
2
(ii) An acceleration of 9-8 m/s vertically downwards is a
quantity.

(iii) The weight of a 7 kg mass is a quantity.

(iv) The sum of 500 is a quantity.

(v) A north-easterly wind of 20 knots is a quantity.

141
Vectors

(i) scalar, (ii) vector, (iii) vector, (iv) scalar, (v) vector

Since, in (ii), (iii) and (v), the complete description of the quantity
includes not only its magnitude, but also its

direction

Vector representation
A vector quantity can be represented graphically by a line, drawn so that:
(i) the length of the line denotes the magnitude of the quantity,
according to some stated vector scale,
(ii) the direction of the line denotes the direction in which the vector
quantity acts. The sense of the direction is indicated by an arrow
head.

e.g. A horizontal force of 35 N acting to the right, would be indicated by


a line > and if the chosen vector scale were 1 cm = 10 N,
the line would be cm long.

3-5

The vector quantity AB is referred


to as
AB or a

The magnitude of the vector


quantity is written |ABl , or|a~|,
or simply AB, or a (i.e. without
the bar over it).

Note that BA would represent a vector quantity of the same magnitude


but with opposite sense.
B B

AB=

On to frame 7.

142
Programme 5

Two equal vectors


If two vectors, a and b, are said to be
equal, they have the same magnitude
and the same direction.

If a = b, then (i) a = b (magnitudes equal)

(ii) the direction of a = direction of b, i.e. the two vectors


are parallel and in the same sense.

Similarly, if two vectors a and b are such that b = -a, what can we say
about (i) their magnitudes,

(ii) their directions?

N
8 (i) Magnitudes are equal,
(ii) The vectors are parallel but opposite in sense.

i.e. if b =a, then

Types of vectors
(i) A position vector AB occurs when the point A is fixed.
(ii) A line vector is such that it can slide along its line of action, e.g. a

mechanical force acting on a body,


(iii) A free vector is not restricted in any way. It is completely defined

by its magnitude and direction and can be drawn as any one of a set
of equal-length parallel lines.

Most of the vectors we shall consider will be free vectors.

So on now to frame 1 0.

M3
Vectors

Addition of vectors 10
The sum of two vectors, AB and BC, is defined as the single or equivalent
or resultant vector AC
i.e. AB + BC = AC
or a + b = c

A "s B

To find the sum of two vectors a and b, then, we draw them as a chain,
starting the second where the first ends: the sum
then given by the
c is

single vector joining the start of the first to the end of the second.

e.g. If p =a force of 40 N, acting in the direction due East


=a force of 30 N, " " " " due North

I
then the
ttt'then 1 magnitude of the vector sum r of these two forces will be

r=50N 11
for
*'' r
2
=p 2 +q 2
? = 1600 + 900 = 2500

r = V2500=50N

The sum of a number of vjctors a + b +c + J+


E
(i) Draw the vectors as a chain
' X (ii) Then:
a+T= AC
D
v
AC+c = AD
'c
:. a +b +c = AD
AD + d = AE
:. a +~b + c+d = AE
i.e. the sum of all vectors, a, b, c, d, is given by the single vector joining

the start of the first to the end of the last - in this case, AE. This follows
directly from our previous definition of the sum of two vectors.
R
Q *" A- t Similarly,

PQ + QR + RS + ST =

144
Programme 5

12 PT

Now suppose that in another case, we draw the vector diagram to find the
sum of a", b,c,d,e, and discover that the resulting diagram is, in fact, a
closed figure.

What is the sum of the vectors


a,b,c, d, e~, in this case?

Think carefully and when you have


decided, move on to frame 13.

13
Sum of the vectors =

For we said in the previous case, that the vector sum was given by the
single equivalent vector joining the beginning of the first vector to the
end of the last.

But, if the vector diagram is a closed figure, the end of the last vector
coincides with the beginning of the first, so that the resultant sum is a
vector with no magnitude.

Now for one or two examples.


Example 1. Find the vector sum AB + BC + nD + DE+EF.
Without drawing a diagram, we can see that the vectors are arranged
in a chain, each beginning where the previous one left off. The sum is
therefore given by the vector joining the beginning of the first vector to
the end of the last.
:. Sum = AF
In the same way,
AK + KL + LP + PQ = .

145
Vectors

AQ 14
Right. Now what about this one?

Find the sum of AB-CB + CD-ED


We must beware of the negative vectors. Remember that -CB = BC, i.e.

the same magnitude and direction but in the opposite sense.

Also -ED = DE
AB-CB + CD-ED AB + BC + CD + DE
AE.
>Iow you do this one

W Find the vector sum AB + BC - DC - AD

r When you have the result, move on to frame 15.

15
For:
AB + BC-DC-AD = AB + BC + CD + DA
and the lettering indicates that the end of the last vector coincides with
the beginning of the first. The vector diagram is thus a closed figure and
therefore the sum of the vectors is 0.

Now here are some for you to do:

(i) PQ + QR + RS + ST =
(ii) AC + CL-ML =

(iii) GH + HJ + JK + KL+LG =

(iv) AB + BC + CD + DB =

When you have finished all four, check with the results in the next frame.

146
Programme 5

16 Here are the results:

(i) PQ + QR + RS + ST = PT

(ii) AC CL-ML= AC + Cl+LM = AM


+

(iii) GH + HJ + JK + KL+LG =
[Since the end of the last vector coincides with the
beginning of the first.]

(iv) AE + J5C + CB+T5B = SB


D
The lastthree vectors form a closed
figure and therefore the sum of these
three vectors is zero, leaving only AB
to be considered.
"^
A B
Now on to frame 1 7.

Components of a given vector


\
17 Just as AB + BC + CD + T)E can be replaced by AE, so any single vector
PT can be replaced by any number of component vectors so long as they
form a chain in the vector diagram, beginning at P and ending at T.

e.g. i^"''"^\.c

5
\ >.
\ J_ VY = a + b+c-+d

Example 1.

ABCD is a quadrilateral, with G and H the mid-points of DA and BC


respectively. Show that AB + DC = 2 GH

We can replace vector AB by any


chain of vectors so long as they start
at A and end at B
e.g. we could say

AB = AC + GH+HB

'-=\ Similarly, we could

DC =
say

147
Vectors

DC = DG + GH + HC
18
So we have
A AB = AG + GH + HB
DC = DG + GH + HC

.-.
AB + DC = AG + GH + HB + DG + GH + HC
= 2GH + (AG + DG) + (HB + HC)
Now, G is the mid point of AD. Therefore, vectors AG and DG are equal
in length but opposite in sense.
.-.
DG = -AG
Similarly HC=-HB
:. AB + DC = 2GH + (AG-AG) + (HB-HB)
= 2GH
Next frame.

19
Example 2.

Points L, M, N are mid points of the sides AB, BC, CA, of the triangle
ABC. Show that

(i) AB + BC + CA =
(ii) 2AB + 3BC + CA = 2LC
(hi) AM BN CL + + = 0.

(i) We can dispose of the first part


straight away without amy trouble.
We can see from the vector diagram
that AB + BC + CA = since these
three vectors form a

148

r
Programme 5

20 Now for part (ii).


closed figure

To show that 2 AB + 3 BC + CA = 2 LC

B M
From the figure

AB = 2AL; BC=BL + LC; CA = CL + LA


.'.
2AB + 3BC + CA = 4AL + 3Bl + 3LC + CL+ LA
Now BL = -AL; CL = -LC; LA = -AL
Substituting these in the previous line, gives

2AB + 3BC + CA =

21 2LC

For 2 AB + 3 BC + CA = 4 AL + 3 BL + 3 LC + CL + LA
= 4AL-3AL + 3LC-LC-AL
= 4AL-4AL+3LC-LC
= 2LC
Now part (iii)

To prove that AM + BN + CL =
From the figure in frame 20, we can say

AM =+ BM
AB
BN=BC +CN
Similarly CL=

22 CL = CA + AL

So AM + BN + CL = AB + BM + BC + CN + CA + AL
= (AB + BT + CA) + (BM + CN"+AL)
= (AB + BC + CA) + i(BC + CA + AB)
= Finish it off.

149
Vectors

23
AM + BN + CL =
Since AM + BN + CL = (AB + BC + CA) + KBC + CA + AB)
Now AB + BC + CA is a closed figure .". Vector sum =
and BC + CA + AB is a closed figure .'. Vector sum =
:. AM + BN + CL =
Here is another.

Example 3.

ABCD is a quadrilateral in which P and Q are the mid points of the


diagonals AC and BD respectively.
Show that AB + AD + CB + CD = 4PQ
First, just draw the figure: then move on to frame 24.

24

A D
To prove that AB + AD + CB + CD = 4PQ
Taking the vectors on the left-hand side, one at a time, we can write

AB = AP + PQ + QB
AD = AP + PQ + QD
CB =
CD=
t

CB = CP + PQ + QB CD = CP ; + PQ + QD 25
Adding all foilr lines together, we have
AB + AD + CB + CD = 4PQ + 2AP + 2CP+ 2QB + 2QD
= 4 PQ + 2 (AP + CP) + 2(QB + QD)

Now what can we say about (AP + CP)?

150
Programme 5

26 AP+CP =
Since P is the mid point of AC .'.
AP = PC

:. CP = -PC = -AP
.'.
AP + CP = AP-AP=0.
In the same way, (QB + QD) =

27
QB + QD =
Since Q is the mid point of BD .'. QD = -QB
.'.
QB + QD = QB-QB =

.'.
AB + AD + CB + CD = 4PQ + +

= 4PQ

28 Here is one more.


Example 4.

Prove by vectors that the line joining the mid-points of two sides of a
triangle is parallel to the third side and half its length.

A
Let D and E be the mid-points of AB
and AC respectively.

DE = DA + AE
Now express DA and AE in terms of BA and AC respectively and see if
you can get the required results.

Then on to frame 29.

151

)
Vectors

Here is the working. Check through it.


29
DE = DA + AE
= IA+i-AC
= i(BA + AC)
.-.
DE = ^BC
.'. DE is half the magnitude (length) of BC and acts in the same direction.

i.e. DE and BC are parallel.

Now for the next section of the work: turn on to frame 30.

Components of a vector in terms of unit vectors 30


The vector OP is defined by its

magnitude (r) and its direction (8).


It could also be defined by its two

components in the OX and OY


directions.

i.e. OP is equivalent to a vector a in the OX direction + a vector b in the


OY direction.
i.e. OP = a (along OX) + b (along OY)
If we now define / to be a unit vector in the OX direction,

then a=ai
Similarly, if we define / to be a unit vector in the OY direction,
then b = bj

So that the vector OP can be written fc$

r =a i +b j

where / and / are unit vectors in the OX and OY directions.


Having defined the unit vectors above, we shall in practice omit the
bars over the / and /, in the interest of clarity. But remember they are
vectors.

152
Programme 5

31 Let Zj = 2i + 4/ and z 2 = 5/ + 2/
Y

5 H

To find Zi + z 2 , draw the two vectors in a chain.

fi + z2 = OB
= (2 + 5)z+(4 + 2)/
= 7/ + 6/

i.e. total up the vector components along OX,


"
and " " " " " OY
Of course, we can do this without a diagram:

If Zi = 3/ + 2/ and z2 = 4/ + 3/

Zi +z 2 =3z+2/+4i + 3/
= li + 5/

And in much the same way, T 2 T\ =

32 Z2 -Z! = 1/ + 1/

for z2 -Zi =(4z + 3/)-(3/ + 2/)

= 4/ + 3/-3z-2;
= 1/ + 1/

Similarly, if z"i
= 5 i - 2/; z2 = 3/ + 3/; z3 = 4/ - 1/,

then (i)zi +z 2 +Z3 =


and (ii)zi
_ Z2 - z 3 =

When you have the results, turn on to frame 33.

153
Vectors

0)12/ ;
(ii)-2/-4/
33
Here is the working:
(i) zj + z 2 + z 3 = 5/ - 2/ + 3/ + 3/+ 4/ - 1/
= (5 +3 + 4)/ + (3 -2-1)/
= 12/
(ii) Z! - z2 - f3 = (5/- 2/).- (3/ + 3/) - (4/- 1/)

-3 -4)/
= (5 + (-2 -3 + 1)/
-
= 2i -4/
Now this one.

If OA = 3/ + 5/ and OB = 5/- 2/, find AB.


As usual, a diagram will help. Here it is:

First of all, from the diagram, write


down a relationship between the
vectors. Then express them in terms
of the unit vectors.

AB =

AB = 2/-7/
34
for we have OA + AB = OB (from the diagram)
.'.
AB = OB-OA
= (5/ -2/) -(3/ + 5/) = 2i -7/
On to frame 35.

Vectors in space z
The axes of reference are defined by 35
the 'right-hand' rule.

OX, OY, OZ form a right-handed set


if rotation from OX to OY takes a
"7 right-handed corkscrew action along
the positive direction of OZ.

Similarly, rotation from OY to OZ gives right-hand corkscrew action


along the positive direction of

154
Programme 5

36 ox
Vector OP is defined by its

components
a along OX
J* b " OY
c " OZ

Let / = unit vector in OX direction,


=
0Y
k= " " " OZ
Then OP = ai + bj + ck
Also OL =a +b 2 and OP2 = OL2
2 2
+c
2

OP 2 =a 2 +ft 2 +c 2

So, if r = ai + 6/ + ck, then r = y/(a 2 +b 2 +c 2 )

This gives us an easy way of finding the magnitude of a vector expressed


in terms of the unit vectors.

Now you can do this one:

If PQ = 4i + 3j+2k, then |pq| =

37 PQ = V29 == 5-385
i
For, if PQ =4i + 3j+2k
2
|pq|= V(4 +3 2 +2 2 )
= V(16 + 9 + 4) = V29=5-385

Now move on to frame 38.

155
Vectors

Direction cosines JQ
The direction of a vector in three dimensions is determined by the angles
which the vector makes with the three axes of reference.
z
Let 0? = r = ai + bj + ck
Then
a
- = cos a .. a = r cos a

7=cos0 b = r cos (3

cos 7 c-r cos 7

Also a
1
+b z +<r =r
2 2
.'.
r cos a + r 2 cos 2 (3 + r 2 cos 2 7 =r 2
2 2 2
.".
cos a + cos |3 + cos 7 = 1

If / = cos a
w = cosj3 then /
2
+m +2 2
= l

n = cos 7
Note: [l,m,n]_ written in square brackets are called the direction cosines
of the vector OP and are the values of the cosines of the angles which the
vector makes with the three axes of reference.
So for the vector r=ai + bj + ck

/=-; m=j\ n =j and, of course r = >/(a 2 + b 2 +c 2 )

So, with that in mind, find the direction cosines [l,m,n] of the vector
T=3i-2j+6k
Then to frame 39.

7=3i-2j + 6k 39
a = 3,b=-2,c = 6 r = V(9 + 4 + 36)

/. r = V49 =7

:. /=|; m=-\; n =
\
Just as easy as that! On to the next frame.

156
Programme 5

40 Scalar product of two vectors


two vectors, the scalar product of A and B is definedas
If A and B are
A B cos B, where A and B are the magnitudes of the vectors A and B, and
9 is the angle between them.

The scalar product is denoted by


A.B (sometimes called the 'dot
product', for obvious reasons)
B

Al = ABcosfl In either case, the


= AX projection of B on A result is a scalar
quantity.
or BX " " A" B

For example

OA.OB =

41 OA.OB = ^
For, we have:

OA.OB = OA.OB.cos
= 5.7.cos45

= 1 -35V2
V2 2

Now what about this case:

The scalar product of a and b


= a.b =

-.90

157
Vectors

42
since, in this case, a.b = a. b. cos 90 = a.b.O =
So, the scalar product of any two vectors at right -angles to each other is

always zero.

And in this case now, with two vectors in the same direction, 6 = 0,

* so a.b =

a.b
43
since a.b. = a. b.cos0 = a.b. I = a.b

Now suppose our two vectors are expressed in terms of the unit vectors.

Let A = a-ii + bij+cik


and B= a 2i + b 2 j + c 2 k

Then A.B = (a xi
+ bij+ c y k).(a 2 i + b2]' + c 2 k)
= a l a 2 i.i+ a-ib 2 i.j + aiC 2 i.k + b 1 a 2 /.i + bib 2 j.j
+ bic 2 j.k + c x a 2 k.i + c 1 b 2 k.j + cc 2 k.k

This will simplify very soon, so do not get worried.

For i.i= l.l.cos0 = 1

:.i.i=\; j.j=l; k.k=\ (i)

Also /./= 1.1 cos 90 =

i.j=0; j.k = 0; k.i = (ii)

So, using the results (i) and (ii), we can simplify the expression for A.B
above to give

AJ =

158
a ,

Programme 5

44 A.B = a a 2 + b x b 2 + c t c 2
x

since A.B = a x a 2 \ + x b2 + a x c 2 Q + bia 2 + bxb2 \ + b x c2


+ c x a2 + cxb2 + c t c2 \
.'.
A.B = a x a 2 +b x b 2 +fiC 2

i.e. we just sum the products of coefficients of the unit vectors alonj;
corresponding axes.

e.g. If A= 2/ + 3/ + 5k and B = 4/ + lj + 6k

then A.B =2.4 + 3.1 +5.6


+ 3 +30 =41 A.B =41

Oneforyou: If P= 3z- 2/+ Ik; Q= 2i + 3j~4k,


then P.Q=

45
for P.Q = 3.2 + (-2).3 + l(-4)
= 6 - 6-4 :. P.Q =-4
Now we come to:

Vector product of two vectors


The vector product of A and B is written A X B (sometimes called the
'cross product') and is defined as a vector having the magnitude A B sin 8
where 6 is the angle between the two given vectors. The product_vector
acts in a direction perpendicular to A and B in such a sense that A, B, and
(AXB) form a right-handed set - in that order

(Axe) |
(AX B)|= ABsin6
Note that BXA reverses the direction
of rotation and the product vector
would now act downward, i.e.

(B X A) = -(A X B)

(BxA)
If = 0,then|(AX B)| =

\ and if =90,then)(AX B)| =

159
Vectors

9= 0,|(AX B)|=0
46
0=9O,|(AX B)|=AB

If A and B are given in terms of the unit vectors, then

A=a l
i + bij+c l k and B = a 2 i + b 2 j + c 2 k

Then AX B = (a^ + 6, j + c x k) X (a 2 i + b 2 j+c 2 k)


= aia 2 iXi + aib 2 iXj + a c 2 i'>(k + b x a 2 'iXi 1

+ bib 2 jXj +J} 1 c 2 j'Xk + Cxa 2 kXi + c x b 2 kXj


+ CiC 2 kX k

But iXi= l.l.sinO =

.-. iXi = jXj = kXk = (i)

Also / X / = 1.1. sin 90 = 1 in direction OZ, i.e. iX j = k

:. i X / = k
}Xk= i \ (ii)

kX i = j

And remember too that

iXj=-(jXi)
since the sense of
j X k= -(k X j)
rotation is reversed.
kXi = -(i X k)

Now with the results of (i) and (ii), and this last reminder, you can
simplify the expression for AX B.
Remove the zero terms and tidy up what is left.

Then on to frame 47.

160
Programme 5

47 AXB = {bic 2 -b 2 c t )i + (a 2 c t
- iC
2 )/ + {a\b 2 ~a 2 bi)k

for AX B =a x a 2 Q + dib 2 k + iC 2 (-/) + bia 2 (-k) + bib 2


+ bic 2 i + Cifl 2 ; + Cifc 2 (-z) + CiC 2
= (b l c 2 -b 2 c l )i + (a 2 c l -aic 2 )/ + (fl 1 62 -a 2 b )k
x

Now we could rearrange the middle term slightly and rewrite it thus:

AX B= {b\C 2 ~b 2 ci)i-{aic 2 -a 2 c x )i + (flib 2 -a 2 bi)k


and you may recognize this pattern as the expansion of a determinant.

So we now have that:

if A=a t i + bij+cik and B = a 2 i + b 2 j + c 2 k

then AX B / / k

0i &1 Cl

a2 b2 c2

and that is the easiest way to write out the vector product of two vectors.

Note: (i) the top row consists of the unit vectors in order, /, /, k
(ii) the second row consists of the coefficients of A
(iii) the third row consists of the coefficients of B.

Example. If P = 2/ + 4/ + 3 k and Q" = 1 i + 5/ - 2k first write down


the determinant that represents the vector product P X Q.

48
PXQ = i j k

2 4 3

1 5 -2

And now, expanding the determinant, we get

FXQ=

161
Vectors

PX Q=-23/ + +
7/ 6fc
49
PXQ / / k
2 4 3

1 5 -2

4 3 2 3 + /c 2 4

5 -2 1 -2 1 5

= z(-8 - 1 5) - /(-4 - 3) + fc(10 - 4)


= -23/ + 1] + 6k
So, by way of revision,
(i) Scalar product ('dot product')
A.B = AB cos 6 a scalar quantity.

(ii) Vector Product ('cross product')

A X B = vector of magnitude A B sin 9 , acting in a direction


to make A, B, (A X B) a right-handed set.

Also AX B = z
i k

ii bx Cx

a2 b2 c2

And here is one final example on this point.

Example. Find the vector product of P and Q, where


P= 3/- 4/ + 2k and ~Q = 2i + 5/- Ik.

PX Q = -6z" + 7/ + 23fc

=
50
for PX Q / ;'
k
3-4 2

2 5-1
-4 2 -/ 3 2 +k 3 -4

5 -1 2 -1 2 5

= z(4 - 10) -/(-3 - 4) + /c(15 + 8)

= -6z + 7/ + 23 k On to frame 51.

162
Programme 5

51 Angle between two vectors


Let A be one vector with direction cosines [/, m, n]
" B be the other vector with direction cosines [/', rri', ri]

We have to find the angle between these two vectors.

Let OP and_OP' beunit vectors


parallel to A and B respectively.
Then P has co-ordinates (/, m, ri)
" "
and P' (l',m',ri)

{m-m')

2 - ri) 2
Then (PP') = (/- I'f + (m- m'f + (n

= I
2 - 2.1.1' + l'
2
+m 2 - l.m.rri + m 2
+ n 2 - Inn + n'
2

= (l
2
+m +n 2 2
) + (I'
2
+ m' 2
+ ri
2
)
- 2{ll' + mm + nri)

But (/ 2 +m 2
+n 2 )= 1 and (/'
2
+m' 2 +n' 2 )= 1 as was proved earlier.

2
:. (PP') = 2-2(//' +mm' + nri) (i)

Also, by the cosine rule,

2
(PP') = OP2 + OP' 2 - 2.0P.0P! cos e
= 1 + 1 -2.1.1.cos0 [ OP and OP' are )

= 2-2cos0 (ii)
\unitvectors j

So, from (i) and (ii), we have:

(PP')
2
= 2-2(//' +mm +nri)
and (PP')
2
= 2 - 2 cos 6

:. cos 9 =

52 cos 6 = ll' + mm + nri

i.e. just sum the products of the corresponding direction cosines of the
two given vectors
So, if [/, m,n] = [0-5, 0-3, -04]
and [l',m',ri] = [0-25, 0-6, 0-2]
the angle between the vectors is 6 =

163
Vectors

6= IT 53
for, we have
cos 6 = 11' + mm + nri
= (0-5) (0-25) + (0-3) (0-6) + (-0-4) (0-2)
= 0125 + 0-18 - 0-08
= 0-308 - 0-08 = 0-225
0=77

NOTE: For parallel vectors, d = 0 ' //' + mm +nri = 1

For perpendicular vectors, 8 = 90, .'. //' + mm' + nri =

Now an example for you to work:


Find the angle between the vectors

P=2i + 3j + 4k and Q = 4i-3j + 2k

First of all, find the direction cosines of P. You do that.

54
'vfe'
m
*<k'
n=
^
2 2
for |P| =V(2 + 3 + 42 ) = V(4 + 9 + 16) =

r V29
fe 3
/
V29
_c_ 4
r \729
"
"2 3 4
' U,m,n] =
V29 '
%/29 '
\/29

Now find the direction cosines [/', m, ri] of Q in just the same way.

When you have done that, turn on to the next frame.

164
Programme 5

55
since r'=|Ql = V(4
2
+3 2 +2 2 ) = V(16 + 9 + 4) = V29
-3
.. [1 ,m,n] =
V29 '
V29 '
V29
We already know that, for P,

[l,m,n] = _?_ _1 J_
V29 '
V29 '
V29
So, using cos d =11' + mm + nri', you can finish it off and find the angle
6. Off you go.

= 762'
56
a = 2 4 ^ 3 (-3) 4 2
for COS P + - - + -

V29 V29 '

V29 V29 V29 V29

29 29 29

0-2414
=
1T
2

Now on to frame 5 7.

p^ Direction ratios

3/ If OP = ai + fc/ + cfc, we know that

\0P\ = ^a 2 +b 2 +c 2
r =

and that the direction cosines of OP are given by

I =
r
, ?n =
r
, n = r
We can see that the components, a,b,c, are proportional to the direction
cosines, /, m, n, respectively and they are sometimes referred to as the

direction ratios of the vector OP.

Note that the direction ratios can be converted into the direction cosines
by dividing each of them by r (the magnitude of the vector).
Now turn on to frame 58.

165
.

Vectors

Here is a short summary of the work we have covered. Read through it. 58
Summary
1 A scalar quantity has magnitude only ; a vector quantity has both
magnitude and direction.

2. The axes of reference, OX, OY, OZ, are chosen so that they form a
right-handed set. The symbols /',/, k denote unit vectors in the direc-
tions OX, OY, OZ, respectively.
2 2 2
If OP = ai + bj +ck, then OP| = | r = V(tf + b +c )

3. The direction cosines [I, m, n] are the cosines of the angles between
the vector and the axes OX, OY, OZ respectively.

i _b n--
_c
i-
For any vector
^ i
l ~ji m-,
and l
2
+m 2 +n 2 =\

4. Scalar product ('dot product')


A.B = A B cos 9 where 9 is angle between A and B.

If "K=a 1 i + bij + Cik and B=a 2 i + b 2 j + c 2 k


then A.B=a l a2 +bib 2 +c x c 2

5. Vector product ('cross product')


AX B = (A B sin 9) in direction perpendicular to A and B, so that
A, B, (A X B) form a right-handed set.
Also AX B i i k
d\ hi Ci

a2 b2 c2

6. Angle between two vectors


cos =11' + mm' + nn
For perpendicular vectors, //' + mm + nn = 0.

now remains is the Test Exercise. Check through any


All that points that
may need brushing up and then turn on to the next frame.

166
Programme 5

59 Now you are ready for the Test Exercise below. Work through all the
questions. Take your time over the exercise: the problems are all straight-
forward so avoid careless slips. Diagrams often help where appropriate.
So off you go.

Text Exercise V

1. IfOA = 4/ + 3/, OB = 6/ -2/, OC = 2i~j, find AB, BC and CA, and


deduce the lengths of the sides of the triangle ABC.

2. If A = 2/ + 2/ - k and B = 3 i - 6/ + 2k, find (i) A.B and (ii) AXB.

3. Find the direction cosines of the vector joining the two points
(4, 2, 2)and (7, 6, 14).

4. If A = 5/ + 4/ + 2k, B = 4z - 5/ + 3k, and C = 2/ -/ - 2k, where ;', /',

k, are the unit vectors, determine

(i) the value of A.B and the angle between the vectors A and B.
(ii) the magnitude and the direction cosines of the product vector
(AXB) and also the angle which this product vector makes
with the vector C.

167
Vectors

Further Problems -V

1. The centroid of the triangle OAB s den oted by G. If is the origin


i

and OA = Ai + 3/, OB = 6i~j, find OG in terms of the unit vectors,


/and/

2. Find the direction cosines of the vectors whose direction ratios are
and (1,2, -3). Hence find the acute angle between the two
(3, 4, 5)
vectors.

3. Find the modulus and the direction cosines of the vectors


3/ + 7j- 4k, i 5/ 8k, and 6/ 2/+ 12k. Find also the modulus
and the direction cosines of their sum.

4. If A = 2/ + 4/ -3k, and B = / + 3/ + 2k, determine the scalar and


vector products, and the angle between the two given vectors.

5. If OA = 2/ + 3;'- k, OB = i - 2j+3k, determine


(i) the value of OA.OB_
(ii) the product OA X OB in terms of the unit vectors
(iii) the cosine of the angle between OA and OB

6. Find the cosine of the angle between the vectors 2/ + 3/ - k and


3/-5/ + 2fc.

7. Find the scalar product (A.B) and the vector product (A X B), when
(i) A = + 2/- k, B = 2/ + 3; + k
i

(ii) A=2z + 3/+4, B = 5i~2j+k

8. Find the unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors 2//+ k


and 3/ + 4/ k, where /',/, k are the mutually perpendicular unit
vectors. Calculate the sine of the angle between the two vectors.

9. If A is the point (1,-1, 2) and B is (-LJ2, 2) and C is the point


(4, 3, 0), find the direction cosines of BA and BT, and hence show
that the angle ABC = 691 4'.

10. If A = 3r -/' + 2k, B- + 3/- 2k, determine the magnitude and


i

direction cosines of the product vector (A X B) and show that it is

perpendicular to a vector C = 9/ + 2/ + 2k.

168
Programme 5

11. A, B, C are vectors defined by A= 8/ + 2]- 3k, B = 3/- 6/+ 4/fc, and
C= 2/ - 2/ fc, where z, /', k are mutually perpendicular unit vectors.
(i) Calculate A.B and show that A and B are perpendicular to each
other
(ii) Find the magnitude and the direction cosines of the product
vector(A XTT)

12. If the position vectors of P and Q are/ + 3/' Ik and 5/ 2/ + 4k


respectively, find PQ and determine its direction cosines.

13. If position vectors, OA, OB, OC, are defined by OA = 2i- /+ 3k,
OB = 3/ + 2/- 4/fc, OC = -/' + 3/ - 2k, determine

(i) the vector AB


(ii) the vector BC __
(iii) the vector product AB X BC
(iv) the unit vector perpendicular to the plane ABC

169
Programme 6

DIFFERENTIATION

1
Programme 6

Standard Differential Coefficients


Here is of the standard differential coefficients which you
a revision list

have no doubt use'd many times


before. Copy out the list into your note-
book and memorize those with which you are less familiar possibly
Nos. 4, 6, 10, 11, 12. Here they are:

dy
y=f(x)
dx

1. xn nx"-
1

2. ex tx

3. e
kx ke !cx

4. ax a x .\na

1
5. \nx
X
1
\og a x
x. In a

I sinx cosx

cosx - sin*
2
9. tan* sec x
10. cot X cosec
2
x
11. secx sec x.tanx

12. cosecx - cosec x.cot x


13. sinhx coshx
14. coshx sinhx

The last two are proved on frame 2, so turn on.

171
Differentiation

The differential coefficients of sinh x and cosh* are easily obtained


by remembering the exponential definitions, and also that

-r- ie
l
x
}=e x and T-{e x } = -e x
'
dx dx

(i) y = sinh x y= ~

^_e*-(-e-)_e* +e-^
cosh;c
"dx 2 2

.'. (sinh x) = cosh x

x x
e + e'
(ii) y = cosh x y
2
x
dy _tx + (~e ) _ e
x - x
. e~ _
" dx sinhx
2 2

.'. (cosh x) = sinh x


Note that there is no minus sign involved as there is when differen-
tiating the trig, function cosx.
We will find the differential coefficient of tanhx later on.

Move on to frame 3.

Let us see if you really do know those basic differential coefficients.


First of all cover up the list you have copied and then write down the
differential coefficients of the following. All very easy.

1. xs 11. cosx
2. sinx 12. sinhx
3x
3. e 13. cosec x
3
4. lnx 14. a
5. tan x 15. cot X
X 16. a
x
6. 2
4
7. secx 17. x'
8. coshjc 18. loga x
9. logio* 19.
x/2
10. e* 20. e

When you have finished them all, turn on to the next frame to check your
results.

172
Programme 6

Here are the results. Check yours carefully and make a special note of
any where you may have slipped up.

1 5.x
4
11. sin x
2. cosx 12. coshjc
3x
3. 3e 13. -cosecx.cotx
4. 1/x 14.
5. sec
2
* 15. -
cosec x
2

6. 2* In 2 x
16. a lna
7. secx.tanx 17. -4x' s
8. sinhx 18. l/(xlna)

9. l/(x In 10) 19. W 1 = l/(2\/x)

\<? h
x
10. e 20.

If by chance you have not got them all correct, it is well worth while
returning to frame 1 , or to the list you copied, and brushing up where
necessary. These are the tools for all that follows.

When you are sure you know the basic results, move on.

Functions of a function
Sin x is of x since the value of sin x depends on the value of
a function
the angle x. Similarly, sin(2x + 5) is a function of the angle (2x + 5) since

the value of the sine depends on the value of this angle.

i.e. sin(2x + 5) is a function of (2x + 5)

But (2x + 5) is itself a function of x, since its value depends on x.

i.e. (2x + 5) is a function of x

If we combine these two statements, we have

sin(2x + 5) is a function of (2x + 5)


" a function of x

Sin(2x + 5) is therefore a function of a function of x and such expressions


are referred to generally as functions of a function.

So e 8 '"^ is a function of a function of

173
Differentiation

sln y depends on the value of the index


since e sin y and sin y
81 "-*'
depends on j. Therefore e is a function of a function of^.

DDDnDnDnnnDDnnnnnDnnnnDDnnannannnnDDnn
We very often need to find the differential coefficients of such func-
tions of a function. We could do them from first principles:

Example 1. Differentiate with respect to x, y = cos(5x - 4).

Let u = (5x 4) .'.


y= cos u .'. ~- = -sin u - -sin(5x - 4). But this

gives us
dy

du
not
dy
dx
,
. To convert our result into the required
n coefficient

we use = dy
dy

du .
,
.

i.e.
1i
we multiply
. . dy ,
,
~- (which
, .

we have) by ,
, . du
-=-
,

to obtain
.

(which we want);-7 is found from the substitution u = (5x~4),

du r
i.e. ^- = 5.

'
-j- {cos(5x - 4)}= -sin(5x - 4) X 5 = -5 sin(5x - 4)

So you now find from first principles the differential coefficient of


sm x
y=e . (As before, put u = sin x.)

~{e sinx }=cosx.e sinx

For: v = e sin x Put u = sin . x .'.


y = e" .'.
du
= e"

_ L dy dy du du
But -r- = -T- - and -r- = cos x
,

dx du dx dx
d sinx
{e }=e sinx .cosx
dx
This is quite general.
If J = /(") andw = F(x), then -^- = ^- -
, i.e. if y = In F, where F
r \.- c ^ dx du dx
is a function of x, then
dy = dy_ dF^ \_dF
dx dF dx F dx
So,if>' = lnsinx & = _L .
C os x = cot x
dx sinx
dF
It is of utmost important not to forget this factor , so beware!

174
Programme 6

8 Just two more examples:

(i) y= tan(5;t ~ 4) Basic standard form is y = tan x, -= sec 2


x

In this case (5x 4) replaces the single x

;. i^ = 2
sec (5x - 4) X the diff. of the function (5x - 4)
dx
= 2
sec (5.x - 4) X 5 = 5 sec (5x
2 - 4)

(ii) y = (4x- 3)
s
Basic standard form isy = X s ,
- = 5x
A
dx
Here, (4x - 3) replaces the single x

:. %=
dx
5(4x - 3)
4
X the diff. of the function (4x - 3)
4 4
= 5(4* - 3) X 4 = 20(4* - 3)

So, what about this one?

If y = cos(7x + 2), then^ =

y = cos(7x + 2)
;
-7 sin(7x + 2)

DnnnDnaoDDDDnDDDLinnnnDnnnannDDnDnnDana
Right, now you differentiate these:

6
1. y = (4x-5) -
3 ~x
2. y= e

3. j> = sin 2x
2
4. y = cos(x )
5. y= ln(3 -4 cosjc)

The results are on frame 10. Check to see that yours are correct.

175

\

Differentiation

Results: 10
1. - <n 6
j = (4x-5) ^
~y.=
= (s(Av-
6(4x-5) A = 1A(A
<n 5 .4 V - ^\$
24(4x-5)

3 -x
2. .y = e
^= e
3
^(-l)=-e 3
-->;

3. v = sin 2x -f-
= cos 2x.2 = 2 cos 2x
ax:

2 2 2
4. ^ = cos(x ) -^- = -sin(x ).2x=-2x sin(x )

=ln(3-4cosjc) -7-== (4smi)-


5. jy
& 3-4cosx 3-4 cos x
nnnnnnnnnnnDannnDDnannnnnnDDDDannaDDnD
Now do these:
= sin2 *
6. _y e
2
7. y = sin ^
8. y = In cos 3x

9. j = cos 3 (3jc).
10. j/=log 10 (2x-l)

Take your time to do them.


When you are satisfied with your results, check them against the results in
frame 11.

Results: 11
sin2x
6 . ^=e ^=e sin2x -2cos2x = 2cos2x.e sin2 *
dx
? dy
7. y= sin x -f-= 2 sin x cos x = sin 2x
dx

8. y= In cos 3x -/ = ^- (-3
dx cos 3x v
sin 3x) = -3 tan 3x

3
9. y= cos (3jc) -^- = 3 cos 2 (3x).(-3 sin 3x) = -9 sin 3* cos 2 3x

1 2
10. j,=log i0 (2x-l) ^ = (2c _ 1 )lnl0
-2=
(2x _ 1 )lnl0

All correct? Now on with the programme. Next frame please.

176
Programme 6

12 Of course, we may need to differentiate functions which are products


or quotients of two of the functions.

1. Products
Ify = uv, where u and v are functions of x, then you already know
that
dy _ dv ,
du
ax ax ax
= 3
e.g. If y a: , sin 3x
dy
then = x 3 3 cos 3x + 3x sin 3x
.

dx
= 3x 2 (x cos 3a: + sin 3x)

Every one is done the same way. To differentiate a product

(i) put down the first, differentiate the second; plus


(ii) put down the second, differentiate the first.

2*
So what is the differential coefficient of e In 5jc?

13 | = (i t 21 5 ,)

2x 2x =
for y= e In 5x, i.e. u = t , v In 5x

^=e
dx
2 *-L.5
5x
+ 2e 2 *ln5;t

2
= e *(i + 2 In Sx)

Now here is a short set for you to do. Find -f- when
dx
2
1. y =x tanx
sx
2. y= e (3x + 1)
3. _y = x cos 2x
4. _y = x3 sin 5x
2
5. ^ =x In sinh x

When you have completed all five move on to frame 14.

Ill
Differentiation

Results:
14
1. j=x 2 tanx .'. -?- = x 2 sec 2 * + 2x tan x
dx
= x(x sec 2 x + 2 tanx)

2. >> = e
5
*(3x +1) :.^=e sx .3 + 5e sx (3x + l)

= s s
e *(3 + 15x + 5) = e *(8 + 15x)

3. .y=xcos2x :. -^- = x(-2 sin 2x) + 1 .cos 2x


= cos 2x - 2x sin 2x

4. >> = x3 sin 5x .'.


-f-
= x3 5 cos 5x + 3x
2
sin 5x
dx
2
= x (5x cos 5x + 3 sin 5x)

*
5. j> = x2 In sinhx .".
-f-
= x2 . cosh x + 2x In sinh x
dx sinh x
= x(x coth x + 2 In sinh x)

So much for the product. What about the quotient?


Next frame.

2. Quotients

In the case of the quotient, if u and v are functions of x, and_y = 15


v. u
then = dx dx
2
dx v

Example 1 If v =
sin 3x <- (*+ 1)3 cos 3s- sin 3s.l
x+1 '
dx (jc + 1>2
2
*!-lnx.2e 2x
Example 2. Ifj/ = ^
,
dy =
dx
.


e
?
e
4x

p
(I-21nx)

--21nx
X

If you can differentiate the separate functions, the rest is easy.

=
You do this one. If y
x2
j >
'
~T
dx
=

178
Programme 6

d cos 2* _ -2(* 2* + cos 2*)


16 dx\
i

*
i sin

2*) - cos 2x .2x


2
d ( cos 2x \ _ x (-2 sin
for
dx\
_ 2x(x sin 2* + cos 2x)

_
~
-2(* sin 2x + cos 2a:)
v.3

dy dv du
So: For_y=wv, ,

..(0
a* dx dx
du dv
dy_ _ dx dx
forv=^ (ii)
dx v
Be sure that you know these.

You can prove the differential coefficient of tan x by the quotient


sin*
method, for if y= tan x, y cos*

Then by the quotient rule, = (Work it through in detail)


-J-

17 y= tan x -f- = sec x


dx

sin* dy _ cos x. cos * + sin x. sin x


for y- 2
cos* dx cos x

1__
n SGC
2
X
cos x
In the same way we can obtain the diff. coefft. of tanh x

sinh x .dy _ cosh x .cosh x - sinh * .sinh x


y = tanh * = cosh -

" dx cosh 2 *
x
cosh 2 * - sinh
2
*
2
cosh *
1
2
2 seen *
cosh *
2
.-. -j- (tanh *) = sech *

Add this last result to your list of differential coefficients in your note-book.
So what is the diff. coefft. of tanh(5* + 2)?

179
Differentiation

d_
(tanh(5x + 2)]= 5 sech (5x
2
+ 2) 18
dx

d
for we have : If i

tanh x
i

|
= sech x
7

then [tanh(5x + 2)} = sech 2 (5x + 2) X diff. of (5x + 2)


2
= sech (5x + 2) X 5

= 5 sech 2 (5x + 2)

Fine. Now move on to frame 1 9 for the next part of the programme.

19
Logarithmic differentiation

The rules for differentiating a product or a quotient that we have revised

are used when there are just two-factor functions, i.e. uv or. When there
v
are more than two functions in any arrangement top or bottom, the diff.
coefft. is best found by what is known as 'logarithmic differentiation'.

It all depends on the basic fact that = {in jc = - and that if x is


J

replaced by a function F then


dx \
In F
i
= =-
r dx
. Bearing that in mind,

let us consider the case where y= w , where u, v and w and also v


are functions of x.
First take logs to the base e.

In y= In u + In v - In w
Now differentiate each side with respect to x, remembering that u, v, w
and y are all functions of x. What do we get?

180
Programme 6

20 1 dy 1 du 1 dv 1 dw
y dx u dx V dx w dx

So to get by itself, we merely have to multiply across by y. Note that

when we do this, we put the grand function that y represents.

dy _uv t\ du 1 dv 1 dw \

dx w \u dv v dx w dx I

This is not a formula to memorize, but a method of working, since the


actual terms on the right-hand side will depend on the functions you start
with.
Let us do an example to make it quite clear.
2
jr x sin x _ dy
y = cos 2x
,

If ~-
find -T-
dx

The first step in the process is

21 To take logs of both sides

y= .". In y= In (x )
2
+ In (sin x) - In (cos 2x)

Now diff. both sides w.r.t. x, remembering that j-(ln F) =


I

y dx
dy
=
1

x
.
-2x A
+
sinx
1
cosx-
cos 2x
1
(-2 sin 2x)

= + cot x + 2 tan 2x
x
.

..
dy = x sin x
-r- -
2 1 ,

-1- cot
.

a:
,

+ 2 tan 2x
.
dx cos 2x \x )

This is a pretty complicated result, but the original function was also
somewhat involved!
You do this one on your own:

If y =x 4 e 3x tanx, then
dx

181
x

Differentiation

dy 3x 4 secx 2 22
~x 4 e 3X tanx -
j. \
+ 3 +
dx tanx

Here is the working. Follow it through.

j> = x 4 e 3 *tanx .". \ny = ln(x 4 ) + ln(e 3 *) + In (tanx)

1 dy _ 1 j
1

3X -3e +
_-4-4x + ir
.y dx x tanx
sec2jc
= 1+3 +
x tanx
2
4y 3x 4 sec x
.

..-f-=x
4
e
JJC j.

tanx
(
+ 3 +
dx { tan x

There it is.

Always use the log. diff. method where there are more than two func-
tions involved in a product or quotient (or both).

Here is just one more for you to do. Find-^- given that ,

=
y z? cosh 2x
x

J=^r
dx x cosh 2x
(4-^-2tanh2x
\ x 23
Working. Check yours.

e
4
y= 5 In 7 = ln(e *)- ln(x 3 )- In (cosh 2x)
x cosh 2x

"
I *1= 4^ -4e- 13 *
-3x
2 -
1
2 sinh 2x
^ dx e x cosh 2x

= 4- -2tafth2x
x
"
^_.
.. -^ r-r-
I
4---2tanh2x
3 1

dx x cosh 2x I x I

Well now, before continuing with the rest of the programme, here is a
revision exercise for you to deal with.

Turn on for details.

182
Programme 6

i\ Revision Exercise on the work so far.

Differentiate with respect to x

1. (i) ln4x (ii) In (sin 3x)

3x
2. e sin 4x

,, sin2x
2x + 5

(3x + 1) cos 2x

5. xs sin 2x cos 4x

When you have finished them all (and not before) turn on to frame 25
to check your results.

183
Differentiation

Solutions
25
r-\ . dy \ \
,-ln4* i . .

1. (!) - ^%--4=^_
(ii) v = In sin 3x .'.
-i- = -
dx
^
3x
sin
3 cos 3x

= 3 cot 3x

3 3x
2. v = e * sin 4jc .'. -p = e A cos 4x + 3e 3 * sin 4x
dx
3
= e *(4 cos Ax + 3 sin 4x)

sin 2x . dy _ (2x + 5) 2 cos 2x - 2 sin 2x


2
2x + 5 " dx (2x + 5)

(3x + l)cos2x
4. ^=i 2*
e

\ny = ln(3 x + 1) + ln(cos 2x)-ln(e 2X )

dy
7 dx
1

3.x
1

+ 1
3+
cos 2x
* -(-2 sin 2x) - ?e 2x
3
- 2 tan 2x - 2
3jc+ 1

(3x + ) cos 2x 3
2 tan 2x - 2
1 (

2*
dx e bx + 1 I

5. _y = x5 sin 2x cos Ax

.'.
In jy = ln(x 5 ) + ln(sin 2x) + In (cos Ax)


1 dy^\. 5x^ 2cOS
j ox x sin
?
2x
C
+
cos
*

4.x
(- 4 sin4x)

= -+ 2 cot 2x-4tan4x
x

~r = Xs sin 2x cos 4x + 2 cot 2x - 4 tan Ax


dx I x

So far so good. Now on to the next part of the programme on frame 26.

184
Programme 6

26 Implicit functions

If y = x 2 - Ax + 2, y is completely defined in terms of x and > is called an


explicit function of*.
When the relationship between x and y is more involved, it may not be
possible (or desirable) to separate y completely on the left-hand side,
e.g. x y + sin y = 2. In such a case as this,j is called an implicit function

of*, because a relationship of the form^ =f(x) is implied in the given


equation.
It may still be necessary to determine the differential coefficients
of y
with respect to x and in fact this is not at all difficult. All we have to
remember is that y is a function of x, even if it is difficult to see what it
is. In fact, this is really an extension of our 'function of a
function'

routine.
2
+y 2 = 25, as stands, an example of an function.
x it is

27 x2 +y 2 = 25 is an example of an implicit function.

DDDnDaDDnnnDannnDDDDDDnnDDnnnDDDnnnDDn
Once again, all we have to remember is that y is a function of x. So, if

2 2
x +j; = 25,letusfind^.
ax
If we differentiate as it stands with respect to x, we get

2x + 2y Q
dx
=

Note that we differentiate^ 2 as a function squared, giving 'twice times


the function, times the diff. coefft. of the function'. The rest is easy.

2x + 2y^
dx
=

dy . dy = x
:. y-f=-x
dx
..
-f
dx y
As you will have noticed, with an implicit function the differential coef-
ficient may contain (and usually does) both* and

185
Differen tiation

y
DnnananoDnDnDDDnnDDDDDDDnnnDnnnDDanDaD 28
Let us look at one or two examples.

If x
2
+ y2 - 2x~ 6y + 5 = find-^ and-^p at x= 3,j> = 2.
Example 1. 0,

Differentiate as it stands with respect to x.

dx dx

:.(3y-6)g = 2-2*

dy _ 2-2x _ 1 -x
dx 2y - 6 _>> - 3

(y-3)(-l)-(l-x)^
~,
Then
^ rf,i-r>
v _ dJ' x l
|
dx
2
dx dx\y-3) iy~3)
2

O-y)-(l-x)^
dx
_
(y-3) 2
d 2 y. (3-2)-(l-3)2 _ l-(-4) .
dx 2 (2-3) 2 1

At (3,2) f
Jx
= 2, ^
dx
= :

2
Now this one. If x + 2xy + 3y 2 = 4, find-^-

Away you go, but beware of the product term. When you come to 2xy
treat this as (2x)(y).

x 2 +2xy + 3y 2 =4 _
2x + 2xfx + 2y + 6y dx

dy __(2x + 2y)__(x+y)
dx (2x + 6y) (x + 3y)
And now, just one more:
If x3 +y 3 + 3xy 2 = 8, find -^ Tum fQ frame 2Q fof fhe solution

186
:

Programme 6

30 Solution in detail

x z + y i + 3xy 2

3x 2 +3y 2 ^+3x.2y^-+3y 2 =

. dy _ (x
2
+y 2 )
" ~dx (y
2
+ 2xy)

That is really all there is to it. All examples are tackled the same way.
l
The key to it is simply that y is a function of x' and then apply the
'function of a function' routine.

Now on to the last section of this particular programme, which starts on


frame 31.

31
Parametric equations
In some cases, it is more convenient to represent a function by expressing
x and y separately in terms of a third independent variable, e.g. y = cos It,
x = sin t. In this case, any value we give to t will produce a pair of values
for x and j% which could if necessary be plotted and provide one point of
the curve of y = f(x).
The third variable, e.g. t, is called a parameter, and the two expressions
for x and y parametric equations. We may still need to find the differen-
tial coefficients of the function with respect to x, so how do we go

about it?

Let us take the case already quoted above. The parametric equations
of a function are given as y = cos 2t, x = sin t. We are required to find
2
dy d y
expressions ciorf- and -r-y
,

Turn to the next frame to see how we go about it.

187
Differentiation

y= cos 2t, x = sin t. Find %


dx
d
and -Z
dx z
32
From>> = cos 2t, we can get ~2 sin 2t
-J-=

From x = sin t, we can get -^ = cos f

We now use the fact that-f =-


ax at dx

so that -r-=-2 sin It


dx '
cos t
1
:
4 sin f cos f
cos t
dy A
-r-= -4 sin f
ax
That was easy enough. Now how do we find the second diff. coefft.? We
cannot get it by finding y
d d X
f and -r^- from the parametric equations and
joining them together as we did for the first diff. coefft. That method

could only give us something called -pf- which has no meaning and is

certainly not what we want. So what do we do?


On to the next frame and all will be revealed!

To find the second differential coefficient, we must go back to the


very meaning of fd
y
2

^ 33
2
d y d tdy\ dl , . \

But we cannot differentiate a function of t directly with respect to x.

Therefore we say
J -^(-4
dx\
sin t)
'
=(-4
dt\
sin t).
I

dx
.

2
d y A 1
r-n = -4 COS t. = -4
dx cos t

g-i
Let us work through another one. What about this?
The parametric equations of a function are given as
y= 3 sin# - sin 0,
3
x = cos 3

Find ~ and 2
dx dx Turn on to frame 34.
Programme 6

dy
-~ = 3 cos 6 - 2

34 3 sin cos
.'.

c?x
X = cos !

3cos 2 0(-sin6l)
d0
= -3 cos sin(

3
dx d6

dy _dy d6- _
^"Tdx
3 cos d (1
V
- sin
.

d)
^ -3 C os 2
i
-
sin 5
3
3 cos
-j = cot
-3 cos 2 fl sin d
l

OX

Also
d^y_d
dx
1
( cosec 2 )
-3 cos 2 6 sin
-1

dx 2 3 cos
2
sir?0 V
Now here is one for you to do in just the same way
2 - 3t 3 + It
If x y-
J !
find^
l + ? '
l + t dx
W/?e >>ow /zflve done it, move on to frame 35.

dy = }_
35 dx 5

.
2-3? dx (1+Q (-3) -(2 -3Q
For
1 +t It (T+Tp
3 + 2? dy (1+0 (2) -(3 +20
1+? dt

dx -3-3/ 2 + 3? -5
* (i +o 2
^(i+0 2
dy. 2 + 2?--3-2? :

dt (H-o 2 (TT77
2
dy_ <^ <# _ -1 (1+ ?) _ 1
2 ~-5
dx dt' dx (1+?) 5 dx
And now here is one more for you to do to finish up this part of the work.
It is done in just the same way as the others.

If x = a(cos 6 + 9 sin 0) and y = fl(sin 6 - 6 cos 0)

f and
find
ax ft
ax

189
Differentiation

Here it is, set out like the previous examples. 36


x = a(cos 6 + 6 sin 6)

dx
.'.
-jT- = a( sin 8 + 8 cos 8 + sin 8) = a 8 cos <

do

y =a(sin 6-6 cos 6)

' -7q = a(cos 6 + 8 sin 6 - cos 6) =a d sind

dy dy dd . . 1
~=-^--7- = a8 smd
.

.. = tan 6
dx dd dx ad cos 6

$
dx
= tan0

d y_ d u .. du .. dd
-rr= 7- (tan0) = -^(tan0).

_ !
1
sec
0 COS 8

. d*y_ 1

dx 2 3
'
00 cos

You have now reached the end of this programme on differentiation,


much of which has been useful revision of what you have done before.
This brings you to the final Test Exercise so turn on to it and work
through it carefully.

Next frame please.

190
Programme 6

37 Test Exercise VI
Do all the questions. Write out the solutions carefully. They are all quite
straightforward.

1 . Differentiate the following with respect to x


2
(i) tan 2x (ii) (5jc + 3) 6 (iii) cosh x
2 3
(iv) logioOc 3x 1) jv) In cos 3x (vi) sin 4x
4X

(vii) e
2x
sin 3x (viii)
(x + lf j
^ e
xcos2x
sin x

dy d 2y

2./ If x
2
+y 2 - 2x + 2y = 23, find and at the point where
/ -f-
dx dx-f2
V x =-2, y = 3.

3. Find an expression for when


J-

x 3 +y 3 +4xy 2 = 5

4. If x = 3(1 - cos 8) and .y


= 3(0 - sin 0) find j- and -pr in their

simplest forms.

191
Differentiation

Further Problems - VI

1 . Differentiate with respect to


_
x
^
^__
,..
(i)ln{
,
fcosx + sinx]
I cos x

: }:
sin xj /
f

\
,.. N . ,
(li)ln(secx + tanx)
,
. >. : ,....
(ni>
\/
.
4
suvx 3
cos x

2. Find & when


dx \/~
toy = ^^
1+cosx
(ji)y = ta(j-=4]
U +x I

f
e
3. If v is a function of x, andx = -7
e' + 1

show that -f-


= x( l - x) -f-
dt dx

4. Find -f- when x 3 + y


3
- 3xv 2 = 8.
dx

sln 5*
. 5. Differentiate: (i) y= e (u )y = n | ^-j-jjl

6. Differentiate: (i) y=x


2
cos x
2
(ii)^
(i = lnjxV(l-x 2 )j
2x
..... e lnx

7. If (x - j) 3 = A(x + j>), prove that (2x +y)^= x + 2y.

8y Ifx 2 -xy +y 2 = 7, find ^ and |^ at x = 3,y = 2.

2
<i v
--9. If x
2
+ 2xy + 3y 2 = l, prove that (x + tyf "di +2 = 0.

10. If x = In tan4- and.y = tan 6 - d, prove that


2
J2
%
(for
= tan 2 sin 9 (cos 6 + 2 sec 0)

192
Programme 6

11. If y = 3 t 2x cos (2x - 3), verify that ^-


dx 2 4 ^+8v
dx *
=

12. The parametric equations of a curve are* = cos 2B,y=\ + sin 20.
2
c ,dy an d y at =
. .

n 6 Find also the ecluation of the curve as


'
dx d?" '

a relationship between x andj\

13. n>={* + VU+* 2


))
3/2
, show that

!4. Fi nd^ and-^ifx=a cos 3


, y =a sin
3
<9

15. Ifx = 3cos0-cos 3 0,;;=3sin 9 - 3


sin 0, express 4^ and %Z in terms
dx dx
offl.

Show 2 OTX
16. that y= e" sin 4mx is a solution of the equation

17. If>> = sec x, prove that )>j^=() + y*


CMC \ CUC /

18. Prove that x = A e" fcr


sin pf , satisfies the equation

f^ + 2*f + y + *> = (

fcf
19. If> = e" (A cosh ?f + B sinh qf) where A, B, q and fc are constants,
show that

X 5
20. If sinh y= {T* :\ show that
4 + 3 sinh x'
= ,
u
dx 4 + 3 sinh*

193
Programme 7

DIFFERENTIATION APPLICATIONS

PART1
Programme 7

1 Equation of a straight line

The basic equation of a straight line is y = mx + c,

Y
u fy = dy
where m = slope =-r-
i

ox dx
-f-

c = intercept on real jy-axis


Note that if the scales of x and y

are identical, -f- = tan 6


ax
e.g. To find the equation of the straight line passing through P(3,2) and
Q(-2,l), we could argue thus:

y = mx + c

Line passes through P, i.e. when x = 3,y = 2 2 = m3 + c .'.

Line passes through Q, i.e. when x = ~2,y = 1 1 = m{2) + c. .'.

So we obtain a pair of simultaneous equations from which the values


of m and c can be found. Therefore the equation is

We find m= 1/5 and c = 7/5. Therefore the equation of the line is

y-^j, i.e. 5y = x + 7

DnanDDnnDaDDnnaDnnnnannnDDnDaDDnDnnDnD
Sometimes we are given the slope, m, of a straight line passing through
a given point {x x y\ ) and we are required to find
, its equation. In that
case, it is more convenient to use the form

y~y\ =m(x-x l )

For example, the equation of the line passing through the point (5,3)
with slope 2 is simply which simplifies to

Turn on to the next frame.

195
Differentiation Applications 1

y~3 = 2(x~5)
\.e.y-3 = 2x-\0 y = 2x-7

DnnnnDDDnDDnDDnDDDaDaDDDDDnDnnDDDDDnDD
Similarly, the equation of the line through the point (-2,-1) and
having a slope - is

y-(-i)={x-(-Z)

:. y + l=^(x + 2)

2y + 2 =x + 2

y= x
2

So, in the same way, the line passing through (2,-3) and having
slope (-2) is

y = i-2x
For y-(-S) = -2(x-2)
.'
y+ 3 = -2x + 4 :. y= 1 - 2x

DDDDanaDnDnDaaanDDnanoDDnDDnnnaanDnnnn
Right. So in general terms, the equation of the line passing through the
point {x l ,y l ) withslope m is
Turn on to frame 5.

196
Programme 7

y-yi =m(x-x 1 ) It is well worth remembering.

DnDDnnnDnnnDDaDDDDDDDnnDaDnnDnnnDanDnD
So for one last time:
P has co-ordinates (4,3) and the slope m of
If a point a straight line
through P is 2, then the equation of the line is thus
y - 3 = 2(x - 4)
= 2x-8
.'.
y=2x-5
The equation of the line through P, perpendicular to the line we have
just considered, will have a slope mi , such that m rri\ = -1

i.e. mi =- . And since m = 2, then m (


=--^-. This line passes through

(4,3) and its equation is therefore

j,-3 = -I(*-4)
= -x/2 + 2

^ = -^+5 2>> = 10-*

If m and rri\ represent the slopes of two lines perpendicular to each

other, then mm.\ =\ or m\ = -


m
Consider the two straight lines

2y = Ax - 5 and 6y = 2 3x
If we convert each of these to the form y= m x + c, we get
5
(i) y = 2x - and (ii) j> =-
1

^+
1

So in (i) the slope m = 2 and in (ii) the slope mi = - y2


1
We notice that, in this case, mi = or that mm. =-1
Therefore we know that the two given lines are at right -angles to each
other.

Which of these represents a pair of lines perpendicular to each other:


(i) y = 2>x-5 and 3y = x + 2.
(ii) 2y = x - 5 and 7 = 6 - x
(iii) y-3x-2 = and 3.y+;c + 9 = 0.

(iv) 5y-x = 4 and 2j + 10* + 3 = 0.

197
J1

Differentiation Applications 1

Result:

(iii) and (iv)

DDDnDnDnnDanQanannnnDnapaDDDnDQDDDDDaD
For if we convert each to the fornix = mx + c, we get
x 2
(i) y= 3x~5 and 7
=-3+

m = 3;m =-:.mm f-\ i 1 Not perpendicular.

y= =
()
2~J and y -x + 6
_ 1
m--;m --l mmif-l
l :. Not perpendicular.

(iii) j = 3x + 2 and _y = ~- 3

m--3i 1
;m =--1 :. mm 1
=-\ Perpendicular.

(iv) y = I + and ^ = -5a: -


I

m =j ; m, = -5 :. mm l
= -1 Perpendicular

Do you agree with these?

Remember
to each other, then
that if y =mx + c and y = m x x+ d are perpendicular 8
m wj =-1, i.e.m, =-_
Here is one further example:
A line AB passes through the point P (3,-2) with slope ~\ Find its .

equation and also the equation of the line CD through P perpendicular


toAB.
When you have finished, check your results with those on frame 9.

198
:

Programme 7

Equation of AB ;y-(-2) = -i(*-3)

y+ 2 --2 + 1
1
.y = "2
2

2y+x+l--=
1 1
_
Equation of CD: slop 2 WIl = = 2
m
7 -(-2) =2(jc -3)
^ +2 == 2x--6
^ =
--2x--8

So we have:
D
r /" 2x-8|

10 m rrii =-1

naDnnDanDnnDnnnnnDDDonDDDnnaDDnDDDDnDD
And now, just one more to do on your own.
The point P(3, 4) is a point on the line y = 5x-\l.
Find the equation of the line through P which is perpendicular to the
given line.

That should not take long. When you have finished it, turn on to the
next frame.

199
Differentiation Applications 1

5y + x = 23

For: slope of the given line,;; = 5x - 11


1 1 is 5.

slope of required line =

The line passes through P, i.e. when x = 3, y= 4.

^-4=-I(jc-3)
Sy - 20 = -x + 3 :. 5y + x = 23
nooaaaQOQOonQananaannaanQQonanana
Tangents and normals to a curve at a given point.
The slope of a curve, y =/(*), at a point P on the curve is given by the
slope of the tangent at P.
*lf

7
It is also given by the value of ^ at the point P,

which we can calculate, knowing


y=fio the equation of the curve. Thus
we can calculate the slope of the
tet.y,)
tangent to the curve at any point P.

' X

What else do we know about the tangent which will help us to


determine its equation?

We know that the tangent passes through P, i.e. when x =x ,y=y i 1 .

DDnDODDDDnDDDDDDDDDDDDDnDDaDDDDnnnDDDD 12
Correct. This is sufficient information for us to find the equation of the
tangent. Let us do an example.
e.g. Find the equation of the tangent to the curves =
2x 3 + 3x 2 ~2x -3
at the point P,jc = l,y = 0.
h,
2
~r = 6x + 6x -2
ax
Slope of tangent (^1 :
6 + 6-2= 10, i.e.m= 10
\dx( x= 1

Passes through P, i.e. x =1,^ = 0.

y~y\ = wOc-Xj) gives j>-0 = 10(x-l)


Therefore the tangent is y = 1 Ox - 1

We could also, if required, find the equation of the normal at


P which is
defined as the line through P perpendicular to the tangent
at P. We know
for example, that the slope of the normal is

200
Programme 7

13 -1
Slope of normal =
1_

Slope of tangent 10

DDDDDDaDDDDnDnnnnanDDnDDDDDDnDnDDnaaD
The normal also passes through P, i.e. when x = 1 ,y = 0.

.'.
Equation of normal is: y-0= - (x - 1)

10y = -x + 1 \0y+x=l

That was very easy. Do this one just to get your hand in:
Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve
y = x 3 - 2x 2 + 3x - 1 at the point (2,5).
Off you go. Do it in just the same way.

When you have got the results, move on to frame 14.

14 Tangent: y = Ix - 9 Normal: ly + x = 37

Here are the details:

y = x - 2x 2
3
+ 3x - 1

dy dy
.

.. ^=3* -4x + 3 /. AtP(2,5),-^= 12-8 + 3 = 7

Tangent passes through (2, 5), i.e. x = 2, y- 5

y 5 = l{x - 2) Tangent is y
~
= Ix - 9
-1
For normal, slope = - =-I
slope of tangent 7

Normal passes through P (2, 5)

:.y-5=-{x-2)
7y-35=-x + 2

Normal is ly + x = 37

You will perhaps remember doing all this long ago.

Anyway, on to frame 15.

201
Differentiation Applications 1

The equation of the curve may, of course, be presented as an implicit 15


function or as a pair of parametric equations. But this will not worry you
for you already know how to differentiate functions in these two forms.
Let us have an example or two.
Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve
x 2 + y 2 + 3xy - 1 1 = at the point x=l,y = 2.

First of all we must find-p at (1 , 2). So differentiate right away.

2x + 2y^- +
dx
3x^+3y
dx
=

(2y + 3x)fx = ^2x + 3y)

dy _ 2x + 3y
dx 2y + 3x
Therefore, at x = l,y = 2,
dy..

dx

dy _ 2 + 6 dy = J&_
16
,

'

dx 4+ 3 dx 1

Now we proceed as for the previous cases.


o
Tangent passes through (1 , 2) .'.
y-2= - (x - 1)

7y-14 = -8x + 8

.'.
Tangent is ly + 8x = 22

Now to find the equation of the normal.

-1 7
Slope =
Slope of tangent 8

7,
Normal passes through (1,2) :.y 2 Jx-l)
8j-16 = 7x-7
Normal is 8y = Ix + 9 That's that!
Now try this one:
Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve
x3 +x 2 y+y 3 -7 = at the point x = 2,j = 3.

202
2

Programme 7

Results:
17
Tangent: 31j + 24x = 141 Normal: 24y =31*+ 10

Here is the working:


jc
3
+x 2 y+y 3 -7 =

3x
2
+x 2
^+2xy
dx
+ 3y 2
^
dx
= Q

2 ^L = -(3x d = _ 3x 2 +2xy
(x +3y 2 )$- 2
^ 3X +lXy)
+2xy)
+2xv) - dx 2
dx x +3y 2

A t(2 '^
AU/ 3) ^i = -i2i2 = _24
" dx 4 + 27 31

(i) Tangent passes through (2,3) .'.


y- 3 = - 24 (x - 2)
31>-93 = -24x + 48 ' 31>> + 24x = 141

(ii) Normal: slope = 31


. Passes through (2,3) ' >> ~3=
31
(x - 2)

24^-72=31x-62 :. 24y = 3lx + 10

Now on to the next frame for another example.

Now what about this one?


18 The parametric equations of a curve are x =
3t
, y=
t
2

Find the equations of the tangent and normal at the point for which
r= 2.
First find the value of
d
- when t = 3.
dx
3r . dx_{\ +r)3-3f _3 + 3t - 3t
x- 2
1 +f " dt (1 + f) (1+0 (1 +0 :

r . dy _(1 +t)2t-t 2 _ It + 2f 2 - 1
2
_2t + t
y 14-/ " n A2 2
1 +r
rlt
'"
dr + r)
(1 J- (1 + r) (1 + ff
dy ^dy dt _ 2t + t
2
(1 + t)
2
_ 2t + t
2
;. Att = 2&=- ' <2x
dx dt '
dx (1 + tf '
3 3 3

To get the equation of the tangent, we must know the x and_y values of a
point through which it passes. At P
2
3f _ 6 _6_ _ ? _4
jc
:

1 +r 1+2 3 '
J 1 +r 3

Continued on frame 19.

203
Differentiation Applications 1

So the tangent has a slope of -z and passes through (2, 4)


19
i= 8
.'. Its equation is
y 3 3
(x-2)
3y~4 = 8x-L6 :. 3j; = 8;c-12 (Tangent)

For the normal, slope =


slope of tangent
-1
= 3
8

Also passes through (2, -|) :. y- 1 = ~\{x - 2)


2Ay - 32 = -9x + 18 ."
24y + 9x = 50 (Normal)
Now you do this one. When you are satisfied with your result, check
it with the results on frame 20. Here it is:
If>> = cos 2f andx = sin f, find the equations of the tangent and

77
normal to the curve at t = .

Results:

Tangent: 2y + Ax = 3 Normal: 4y = 2x + 1
20
Working:
dy
y - cos 2f .'. ~=-2 sin 2t = -4 sin t cos t
dt
dx
x = sin t .'.
-7T- = cos t
dt
dy dy dt = -4 sm t cos f
_
=
j-
:J7-
1 =-4 sin
.

dx dt dx cos ?

At r=4, |U- 4!l4 ,- 4( .


)
= -2
6
.'.
slope of tangent = -2

Passes through x= sin = 0-5; y= co 0-5


6

Tangent is y- ^ = -2(jc
- ~) .'.
2y - \ = -Ax + 2

.".
2y + Ax = 3 (Tangent)

Slope of normal = y Line passes through (0-5, 0-5)

Equation is y \

2
= \_

2
(*-4)
' 4^-2 = 2^-1
'
4y = 2x 1 (Normal)

204
6

Programme 7

21 Before we leave this part of the programme, let us revise the fact that
we can easily find the angle between two intersecting curves.

Since the slope of a curve at (x x ,y ) is given by the value of -~- at

that point, and ~= tan 6, where is the angle of slope, then we can

use these facts to determine the angle between the curves at their point
of intersection. One example will be sufficient.
e.g. Find the angle between^
2
= 8x and x 2 + y 2 = 16 at their point of
intersection for which y is positive.

First find the point of intersection,


2
i.e. solve y = 8x and
x2 +y 2 = 16
2 2
Wehavex +8x= 16 :.x + 8x-16 =
-8 V(64 + 64) _ -8 y/128
X
2 2

=
-8 11-314
~ =
3-314
or
-19-314
-

x = 1 -657 or [-9-655] Not a real point of


intersection.

When = 1-657, y 2 = 8(1-657) = 13-256,


jc y= 3-641

Co-ordinates of P are x = 1-657, y = 3-641

Now we have to find -f- for each of the two curves. Do that
ax

2 dy. . dy _ 4 _ 1
(i) y = Sx :. 2y " dx 1099
22 =1099
dx
= 4742'
y 3-641 0-910

tan 0! /. di

(ii) Similarly for x2 + y 2 = 1

2x + 2.y^ =
dx
^
dx
=
_x = _F65_7 = -0-4551
y 3-641

tan d 2 =-0-4551 /. 82 =-2428'


Finally, 6=e -d 2 l
= 41 42' - (-2428')
= 4742' + 2428'
= 7210'

205
Differentiation Applications 1

That just about covers all there is to know about finding


normals to a curve. We now look at another application
tangents and 23
of differentiation.

Curvature

The value of at any point on a curve denotes the slope (or direction)
of the curve at that point. Curvature is concerned with
how quickly the
curve ischanging direction in the neighbourhood of that point.
Let us see in the next few frames what it is all
about.

24
Let us first consider the change in direction of a
curves =/(*) between
the pomts P and Q as shown. The direction of a curve is measured by the
slope of the tangent.
fix)

Slope at P = tan 0! = l&\

Slope at Q = tan 2 =[^\


U*J Q
These can be calculated, knowing
the equation of the curve.
From the values of tan 0, and tan d the angles 6, and
2 ,
2 can be found
from tables. Then from the diagram, = - 0,
2 .

If we are concerned with how fast the


curve is bending, we must
consider not only the change in direction from P
to Q, but also the
length of which provides this change in direction.

206
.

Programme 7

the arc PQ
25
i.e. we must know the change of direction, but also how far along the
curve we must go to obtain this change in direction.
Now let us consider the two points, P and Q, near to each other, so
that PQ is a small arc (= 6 s). The change in direction will not be great,
so that if 8 is the slope at P,
Y '
- then the angle of slope at Q can
be put as 8 + 88.

The change in direction from P to Q is therefore 5 8


The length of arc from P to Q is 5 s.
The average rate of change of direction with arc from P to Q is

the change in direction from P to Q _ 5 8

the length of arc from P to Q 8 s

This could be called the average curvature from P to Q. If Q now moves


down towards P, i.e. 5 s -> 0, we finally get~p which is the curvature

at P. It tells us how quickly the curve is bending in the immediate


neighbourhood of P.

In practice, it is difficult to find


H8
since we should need a relationship

26 between 8 and s, and usually all we have is the equation of the curve,
y =/(x) and the co-ordinates of P. So we must find some other way
round it.

Let the normals at P and Q meet


in C. Since P and Q are close,
CP - QC (=R say) and the arc PQ
can be thought of as a small arc
of a circle of radius R. Note that
PCQ = 88 (for if the tangent turns
through 86 the radius at right ,

angles to it will also turn through


the same angle).
You remember that the arc of a circle of radius r which subtends an angle
6 radians at the centre is given by arc = rd So, in the diagram above,
.

arc PQ = 8s =

207
Differentiation Applications 1

arcPQ = Ss=R50 27
5s = R60 :. |^4
8s R
If 5 s -> 0, this becomes = which is the curvature at P.

That we can state the curvature at a point, in terms of the radius


is,
R
of the circle we have considered. This is called the radius of curvature,
and the point C the centre of curvature.

So we have now found that we can obtain the curvature


ds
if we have
some way of finding the radius of curvature R.

If R is large, is the curvature large or small?

If you think 'large', move on to frame 28.


If you think 'small' turn on to frame 29.

Your answer was


28
: 'If R is large, the curvature is large.'

nDDDDnnDDQDDDDDDDnanDOODDDDDODDDDnDDD

This is not so. For the curvature = and we have just shown that

-j--
g K is the denominator,
. so that a large value for R gives a small

value for the fraction and hence a small value for the
curvature.

You can see it this way. If you walk round a circle with a large radius
R
then the curve is relatively a gentle one, i.e. small value
of curvature, but
if R is small, the curve is more abrupt.
So once again, if R is large, the curvature is

208
Programme 7

R is large, the
29 If curvature is small

Correct, since the curvature =


as R
DDnnDDDnnDnnnaDnoDDnannnnnnDaDDnnnanDD
In practice, we often indicate the curvature in terms of the radius of
curvature R, since this is something we can appreciate.

Let us consider our two points P and Q again. Since 8 s is very small,
there is little difference between
the arc PQ and the chord PQ, or
between the direction of the chord
and that of the tangent.

So, when 8s -0,4^ = tan


dx
dx
= COS0
ds
tan . Differentiate with respect to s.
dx
Then
l{f)4HA d
d [dy\ dx I
t
d6
ds
d'y dd
= sec 2o
6r-
dx 2 '

ds

ds dx
3/2
3/2 3/2
Now sec
3 2
= (sec 0) = (1 + tan 2 0) = {
1 + (-^ ) }

2
d y
3/2
dd 17 l
1+ ()
3/2 R =
ds R"
(
1+ >
2
1 2
dx

Now we have got somewhere. For knowing the equation/ = /(x) of


the curve, we can calculate the first and second differential coefficients
at the point P and substitute these values in the formula for R.
This is an important result. Copy it down and learn it. You may never
be asked to prove it, but you will certainly be expected to know it and to
apply it.

So now for one or two examples. Turn on to frame 30.

209
Differentiation Applications 1

Example 1. Find the radius of curvature for the hyperbola xy = A at the jU

R
2
dx

So all we need to find are -f and-= at (2,2)'


dx dx
^ dy -4
y = = Ax
a -i _,
xy = 4a
.

..
1
..-*-= -Ax 2 =-s-

and
S =8* 3=
^
At (2,2)
v
'
*: =
dx
-! = -!.
4 '
^
dx5
= 8=i
8

, R= {ut!H'Ui!r =(2) .
ft=2V2
:. R = 2\/2 = 2-828 units.

rftere we are. Another example on frame 31.

Example 2. If y = x + 3x 2 - 3
, find R at x = 0.
rf>\
2,3/2 31
R=
2
dx
i
*: =
dx
.*-*,-A^-n^-i
i+^_^2 A-o.. dy
,($-.
i

dx" dx 2

{l + l}3/2 _ 2 3/2 _2x/2_V2


6 6 6 3

'. R= 0-471 units

Now you do this one:

Find the radius of curvature of the curve y 2 =^- at the point (l,4)

When you have finished, check with the solution oh frame 32.

210
Programme 7

R= 5-21 units
32
Here is the solution in full.
2
dy_ ^_ dy _ 3x
=-
y dx = 4 " dx Sy
.

y "

- At V'V>dx 4 " \dx) 16


2
8y(6x)-3:c 8
dy = 3x^_ d2 y = .
dx
dx Sy " dx 2 64 y 2
1 \ d
2
24 - 24.f _ 24 - 18 _ 3
At(l,I), y _
dx' 16 16
2 > 3/2
312 3/2

W
(dy\ f. {251 3/2
1 + } + _9J
> _ r 16) _ \16J _ 8 125 _ 1 25 _5_
R =
64 24 24
2
dx '
R= 5-21 units

Of course, the equation of the curve could be an implicit function, as

33 in the last example, or a pair of parametric equations.

- =-
e.g. \fx = -sin0 andy = 1 cos 0, find Rwhen0 = 60
>

* = 0-sin0 -=l-cosfl l

dy = dy_dB_
dY dx dd dx '

y - 1 - cos 8 /. -^ = sin
I
I

. dv . 1 _ sing
dx 1 - cos 1 - cos

At = 60, sin 8 =^j, cos0=i; ^=^


_d i sin0 \ = d_ ( sing 1 dd_

dx dx\l-cos0) dd \l-cosd\dx

_ (1 - cos 0) cos 8 - sin . sin 6 1

(1 - cos 8)
2
1 - cos 8

0- cos 2 8 2
-sin 6 _ cos - -1
_ cos 1
=
(1 - cos 0)
3 "
(i - cos 0)
3
(i - cos ey
-l -l
:. At = 60,-$ = = -4
dx* (T^l? i
.
R _03p/ 2 _2 _8 3
_ R = -2 units

211
,

Differentiation Applications 1

You notice in this last example that the value of R is negative. This
merely indicates which way the curve is bending. Since R is a physical
34
length, then for all practical purposes, R is taken as 2 units long.
If the value of R is to be used in further calculations however, it is
usually necessary to maintain the negative sign. You will see an example
of this later.

Here is one for you to do in just the same way as before:


Find the radius of curvature of the curve x = 2 cos 3 d,y = 2 3
sin 8

at the point for which 8 = = 45.

Work through it and then go to frame 35 to check your work.

Result:

R= 3 units 35
For x=2 3
cos 6 :. dx
do
= 6 cos 2 (-sin
v 6)' = -6 sin 8 cos
2
(

jy = 2sin 3 .'. 4=6sin 2 0cos0


du

dy_dy_ dd _ 6 sin 2 9 cos 6


2 -tan0
dx dd dx -6 sin d
'
cos 6 cos 6
2
At = 45,^ = -1 /.
(^)
y
=1
dx dx'

M U- $-{*.}. U^,} dd
dx
_

-6
-sec
2

sin 9 cos
2
8
1

6 sin0 cos 4

A tg = 45^=
'dx
.*
6(i)(l)
=^ = ^-2
6

R=
h&r ()'
2
3/2
^_Z
2
V2 2V2
dx 3

.3.2V2 =
3
2V2
' R= 3 units

212
j

Programme 7

Centre of curvature. To get a complete picture, we need to know also the


position of the centre of the circle of curvature for the point P(x 1 ,j' 1 ).
36
If the centreC is the point (h, k),
- ^ we can see from the diagram that:
/ h = x 1 -L? = x -Rsin0 l
/
\
/
\

\
k=y l + LC =yi + R cos 6
1

1 c \
That is, h=X! -Rsinfl
{
rv /
\

\
r* \ R 1 k =yi + R cos0
\ //
\
\
'Li /\P{x,.y,) where Xi andj'i are the co-
-I-- 1
ordinates of P, R is the radius of

yf
l

V i
curvature at P, 6 is the angle of
< h

" =1
slope at P, i.e. tan

of the centre
Example. Find the radius of curvature and the co-ordinates
37 of curvature of the curve y= _
3-x
at the point (2,3).

dy (3-jc) M)-(11-4*)(-1) _ -12 + 4jc+U-4x ,


-1

c~ (3^x7 (3-x) 2 (3-x) 2

dx 1 W
-2
d2 y_d
=^H3-^}=2(3-x)-(-l)=^3
dx

:. Atx = 2,
^.=^=-2
2
dx 1

(3/2

Kl_ "2 "2 V2


_^y
2
dx
R = -V2
Now before we find the centre of curvature (h, k) we must find the angle
dy
of slope from the fact that tan =-j-at P.

i.e. tan = -1 .'. 6 = -45 (0 measured between 90)


.'.
sin = and cos =

213
Differentiation Applications 1

= -45 Sin0= -^ COS6=


38
j2
cnnnnnannnnnnDDDnnnnnDnnnDnnnnannnaDDD
So we have: Xi = 2, y^ =3

.\ ft = *, - R sin = 2 -(- y/2) (--4) = 2 - 1 = 1 , ft = 1

k =71 + R cos = 3 +(- V2) (-4) = 3- 1 = 2, A: = 2

.'. centre of curvature C is the point (1,2)

NOTE: If, by chance, the calculated value of R is negative, the minus sign
must be included when we substitute for R in the expressions for and k. ft

Next frame for a final example.

Example. Find the radius of curvature and the centre of curvature for

the curve y = sin


2
, x :
2 cos d at the point for which d =.
,
39
Before we rush off and deal with this one, let us heed an important
WARNING. You will remember that the centre of curvature (h, k) is

given by
h =Xi -Rsin0 \ , . ,
_ .I and in these expressions
r
k=y
,
l
,

+ R cos0 J

d is the angle of slope of the curve at the point being considered

i.e. tan0
\dx) ]

Now, in the problem stated above, 8 is a parameter and not the angle

of slope at any particular point. In fact, if we proceed with our usual


notation, we shall be using 8 to stand for two completely different
things
and that can be troublesome, to say the least.
So the safest thing to do is this. Where you have to find the centre of
curvature of a curve given in parametric equations involving 8, change the
symbol of the parameter to something other than 8. Then you will be safe.
The trouble occurs only when we find C, not when we are finding R only.

214
Programme 7

40 So, in this case, we will re-write the problem thus:


Find the radius of curvature and the centre of curvature for the curve

y= sin
2
t,x = 2 cos f , at the point for which t = -j

Start off by finding the radius of curvature only. Then check your
result so far with the solution given in the next frame
before setting out

to find the centre of curvature.

41 R = -2-795, i.e. 2-795 units

Here is the working.

2
7y
= sin f .'. -p = 2 sin t cos t
dt
_ dx
x = 2cosf .. =-2sinf
.

dt
dy _dy dt _2 sin f cos t _ _^ c
f
~dx dt' dx -2 sin f

A..-"-.f-M--i.-.f4
A*g-i-~')-n-~'}---r.i,--s
. d 2 y_ 1
""
dx 2 2

R= Wi
dV " i

2 2
dx

_-2-5n/5_-5\/5_ -5 (2-2361)
8 4 4

=
-lM805 = _ 27951
4

R =-2-795

All correct so far? Move on to the next frame, then.

215
Differentiation Applications 1

Now to find the centre of curvature (h, k)


42
h=x l
- R sin 6
k=y l
+ Rcos 6

where tan0 ~=-| .-. 6 = -2634' (0 between 90)

:. sin(-2634') = -04472; cos(-2634') = 0-8944

Also Xi = 2 cos 60 = 2. = 1

7i = sin'

and you have already proved that R = -2-795.


- ^H
What then are the co-ordinates of the centre of curvature?

Calculate them and when you have finished, move on to the next frame.

43
Results: /z=-0-25; fc=-l-75

For: h=\ -(-2-795) (-0-4472) 0-4464


= -1-250 T-6505
1

00969
h = -0-25

and k = 0-75 + (-2-795) (0-8944) 0-4464


= 0-75-2-50 1-9515
0-3979
k = -\-15

Therefore, the centre of curvature is the point (-0-25 -1 -75)


,

This brings us to the end of this particular programme. If you have


followed it carefully and carried out the exercises set,
you must know
quite a lot about the topics we have covered. So turn on now and work
the Test Exercise. It is all very straightforward.

216
.

Programme 7

44 Test Exercise VII

Answer all questions


2 2 2 2
1 Find the angle between the curves x + y = 4 and 5x + y = 5 at
their point of intersection for which x andjy are positive.

2. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve


2
y = 1 1 - j3 at the point (6, 4).

3. The parametric equations of a function are x = 2 cos 3 6,y = 2 3


sin 0.

Find the equation of the normal at the point for which 8 = = 45.

4. If x = 1 + sin 28, y = 1 + cos 8 + cos 28, find the equation of the


tangent at 8 = 60.

5. Find the radius of curvature and the co-ordinates of the centre of


curvature at the point x = 4on the curve whose equation is
y=x
2
+ 5 In x - 24.

i d2 y
6. Given that x = 1 + sin 8, y= sin 8 -5- cos 28, show that -7-5- = 2. Find

the radius of curvature and the centre of curvature for the point on
this curve where 8 = 30.

Now you are ready for the next programme.

217
. .

Differentiation Applications 1

Further Problems- VII

1 Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 2x


2 a t the point

(3, 0-6) and the equation of the tangent at the origin.

2. Find the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve


4x 3 + 4xy+y 2 =4 at (0, 2), and find the co-ordinates of a
further
point of intersection of the tangent and the curve.

3. Obtain the equations of the tangent and normal to the ellipse


x2 y2 _
169
+
2T~
at the p0mt ( 13 cos 6 5 sin
> ^ If the tangent and

normal meet the x-axis at the points T and N


respectively, show that
ON.OT is constant, O being the origin of co-ordinates.

2 2
4. If x y + xy -x*-y 3 +16 = 0, find-^ in its simplest form. Hence
find the equation of the normal to the
curve at the point (1,3).

5 Find the radius of curvature of the catenary y = c cosh


(-) at the
pointer, ,>>,).

2 2
6. If 2x +y - 6y - 9x = 0, determine the equati6n of the normal to
the curve at the point (1,7).

7. Show that the equation of the tangent to the curve x= 2a cos


3
/,
3
y =a sin 1 at , any point P(0 < <^)
r is

x sin t + 2y cost -2a sin t cos t =


If the tangent at P cuts the j-axis at Q, determine the area of the
triangle POQ.

8. Find the equation of the normal at the point x = a cos d,y = b sin 0,
of the ellipse ~ +^- = 1 . The normal at P on the ellipse meets the
major axis of the ellipse at N. Show that the locus
of the mid-point
of PN is an ellipse and state the lengths of its
principal axes.

218
Programme 7

X ~X
9. For the point where the curve y =~r j passes through the origin,
determine:

(i) the equations of the tangent and normal to the curve,


(ii) the radius of curvature,
(iii) the co-ordinates of the centre of curvature.

10. In each of the following cases, find the radius of curvature and the
co-ordinates of the centre of curvature for the point stated.

(1)^4=1 at (0,4)

y = Ax -x - 3 at x = 2-5
2 2
(ii)

(iii) y = 2 tan 0, x = 3 sec at = 45

1 1 Find the radius of curvature at the point (1 , 1) on the curve


x3 -2xy+y 3 =0.

12. If 3ay
2
= x(x -a) 2 with a > 0, prove that the radius of curvature at
the point (3a, 2d) is

13. If x = 26- sin 20 and y = 1 - cos 20, show that-/ = cot and that
ax

-Hr2 = i. z~z
4 If P is the radius of curvature at any point on the
dx 4sin
2 = 8y.
curve, show that p

Find the radius of curvature of the curve 2x + y - 6y - 9x =


2 1
14. at

the point (1,7).

2
1 5 Prove that the centre of curvature {h, k) at the point ?(at 2at) on ,

2 2 3
the parabola y = 4ax has co-ordinates h = 2a + 3at =
k -2at , .

16. If p is the radius of curvature at any point P on the parabola


2 3
x = 4ay, S the point (0, a), show that p = 2V[(SP) /SO]
is , where O
is the origin of co-ordinates.

17. The parametric equations of a curve are x = cos t + t sin t,


y= sin t -1 cos t. Determine an expression for the radius of curvature
(p) and for the co-ordinates (h,k) of the centre of curvature in terms
off.

219
Differentiation Applications 1

18. Find the radius of curvature and the co-ordinates of the centre of
curvature of the curves = 3 lnx, at the point where it meets the
x-axis.

19. Show that the numerical value of the radius of curvature at the point

(*i , y i) on the parabola j>


2
= Aax is
2(a + x

a
.\*-
i
2

)
3/2

. If C is the centre

of curvature at the origin and S is the point (a, O), show that
OC = 2 (OS).
2
20. The equation of a curve is 4y =x 2 (2~x 2 ).
(i) Determine the equations of the tangents at the origin,
(ii) Show that the angle between these tangents is
1
tan" (2\/2).
(iii) Find the radius of curvature at the point (1,1/2).

220
Programme 8

DIFFERENTIATION APPLICATIONS

PART 2
Programme ,

Inverse trigonometrical functions


1
1
You already know symbol sin" x (sometimes referred to
that the as
'arcsine x') indicates 'the angle whose sine is the value x\
e.g. sin"
1
0-5 = the angle whose sine is the value 0-5
= 30
There are, of course, many angles whose sine is 0-5, e.g. 30, 1 50, 390,
510, 750, 870, .. .. etc., so would it not be true to write that
-1
sin 0-5 was any one (or of these possible angles?
all)

The answer is we have been rather


no, for the simple reason that
1
lax in our definition of sin" x above. We should have said that sin" x
1

indicates the principal value of the angle whose sine is the value x;
to see what we mean by that, move on to frame 2.

The principal value of sin" 1 0-5 is the numerically smallest angle


(measured between 0 and 180, or 0 and -180) whose sine is 0-5.
Note that in this context, we quote the angle as being measured from 0
to 180, or from 0 to -180.
In this range, there aretwo
~X to 180
angleswhose sine is 0-5, i.e. 30
and 150. The principal value of
the angle is the one nearer to the
positive OX direction, i.e. 30.

0-5 = 30
1
sin"
to -180
and no other angle!

Similarly, if sin 8 = 0-7071 what, is the principal value of the angle 81

When you have decided, turn on.

223
Differentiation Applications 2

Principal value of 9 = 45

for: sin 9 = 0-7071 .\ In the range 0 to 180, or 0 to -180, the


possible angles are 45 and 135.
Y The principal value of the angle is

the one nearer to the positive OX


axis, i.e. 45.

sin"
1
0-7071 =45

DnnnnDDannnDDnDnnDnnnnnDnnnDnanDDnDnnD
1
In the same way, we can find the value of tan" y/3.
Iftan 6 = V3 = 1 -7321 then 9 = 60 or 240. Quoted in the range 0 to
,

180 or 0 to -180, these angles are 9 = 60 or -120.


Y p
'
240--
/
(\60
/

x, X
\ /

The principal value of the angle is the one nearer to the positive OX
direction, i.e. in this case, tan" \J3
1
=

tan"V3 = 60

Now let us consider the value of cos 1


0-8 1 92.
From the cosine tables, we
one angle whose cosine is 0-8192 to be
find
35. The other is therefore 360 - 35, i.e. 325 (or -35).

" Y,
Y,

Of course, neither OX: they are symmetrically placed. In


is nearer to
such a situation as this, it is the accepted convention that the positive
angle is taken as the principal value, i.e. 35, cos" 0-8192 = 35
1
.".

So, on your own, find tan"' (-1). Then on to frame 5.

224
Programme 8

tan" (-1)
1 = -45

For, if tan 6 = -1, 6 = 135 or 315

.135
\

In the range 0 to + 180, these angles are 135 and -45.


The one nearer to the OX axis is -45. .'. Principal value = -45.
-1
tan (-1) = -45

Now here is just one more:


1
Evaluate cos" (-0-866)

Work through it carefully and then check your result with that on frame 6.

1
cos" (-0-866) = 150

For we have

cos ' = 0-866 .'. =30


:. 9 =150 or 210

In the range 0 180, these


angles are d = 150 and -150
Neither is nearer to the positive
OX axis. So the principal value is
taken as 150.

cos"
1
(-0-866)= 150

-1 1 1
So to sum up, the inverse trig, functions, sin *, cos" *, tan" *
indicate thep v of the angles having the value
of the trig, ratio stated.

225
Differentiation Applications 2

principal value

Differentiation of inverse trig, functions


-1 1
1
Sin" *, cos * depend, of course, on the values assigned to x.
*, tan"
They are therefore functions of x and we may well be required to find
their differential coefficients. So let us deal with them in turn.

(i) Let y= sin


l
x. We have to findi^2L
dx
First of all, write this inverse statement as a direct statement.

y= sin"
1
* .".
x = siny

Now we can differentiate this with respect to y and obtain


dx

dx dy
-j-= cosy .. -j- =
dy dx

dy._ 1
8
dx cosy

Now we express cos>" in terms of x, thus:


2 2
We know that cos y+ sin y= 1

2 - 2 - x2
.'.
cos y = 1 sin ^= 1 (since x= sin y)
2
.".
cos y = \/( 1 ~x )

"'
dx VO -x 2 )

d \
{
.

sin
_,
x\ }=z 1_ ^ x
dx\ j V(l-^ 2 )

Now you can determine |


cos
i
x J
in exactly the same way.

Go through the same steps and finally check your result with that on
frame 9.

226
Programme 8

d_ { '
cos lx
dx [ ] Vo^
Here is the working:
Let y= cos x .'.
x = cos j
dx dy 1
dy dx smy
cos
2
y+ sin
2
y= 1 .'. sin
2
y = 1 - cos 2 _y = 1 - x2
2
siny = V(l -x )

-=-
dy
" dx~sj{\-x 2 )" "'cos
d _, -1 . i -1
x]=j^, \
!
dx )

So we have two very similar results

1
(i)
iH sin"*rv(i-* 2
)
Different only in sign.

(n) cos x = 7- 7;

-1
Now you find the differential coefficient of tan x. The working is

slightly different, but the general method the same. See what you get and
then move to frame 10 where the detailed working is set out.

10 d
dx
t*
{ tan
-1
x)= }
1

l+x 25
l
Working: Let y= tan x .".
x = tan_y.
dx 2
-r- = sec
2
y= 1 + tan y = 1 + x2

dy -
^=i
dy
+JC 2

dx 1
l

+ x2


dx{ {
tan
-1
x
j
}
=
1 + x2
*

Let us collect these three results together. Here they are:


d ( . _, 1 1
sin 'x (0
dx Vd-* 2 )

iH
cos
~
v vfe }
=
2
)
(ii)

d U -i 1 1
-v- tan x )
=-. n- (iii)
dx\ + x2 I 1

Copy these results into your record book. You will need to remember them.
On to the next frame.

227
. 1

Differentiation Applications 2

Of course, these differential coefficients can occur in all the usual 1


combinations, e.g. products, quotients, etc.

Example 1. Find -^ ,
given thatj> = (1 ~x 2 ) sin"
1
*

Here we have a product


",
= +8fa *<- 2x)
(1
i -^vF?)
= V(l - x 2 ) - 2xsin x
_1

Ify = tan" (2x -


^
1
Example 2. 1), find

This time, it is a function of a function.

*- I
.2 =
2
~
dx 1 + (2x - l)
2
1 + 4x 2 - 4x + 1

2 + 4x
2
- Ax 2x
2 - 2x + 1

and so on.

12
Here you are. Here is a short exercise. Do them all: then check your
results with those on the next frame.

Revision Exercise
Differentiate with respect to x:
1
1 y= sin" 5x
1
2. y= cos" 3*
3. y = tan" 2x 1

4. y = sin' 1 (x 2 )
5. j=x 2 .sin- 1

(|)

JVferc j>om have finished them all, move on to frame 1 3.

228
.

Programme 8

Results:
13
1 v = sin" Sx
1
:. -^ =
dx V{l-(5^) 2 }
_ s = _
V{1 - 25x }
2

V- d 1 2
3 'v = tan"
tan
1
2v
2x -^-

1+(2jc)2
? -
-2- j^^-
4. ^ = sm
1
(x
2
) ^=-
^ 7r

V{l-(x 2 2
)
1
.2x =
f~ V(l-x
2x
4
)
-1 a
5
'-' ta
(f)---S-* 7p^)-i^^(f)
2V{i-V
=
vcfe)
+ ^ sin
"1

(!)
Right, now on to the next frame.

\J\ Differential coefficients of inverse hyperbolic functions

In just the same way that we have inverse trig, functions, so we have
inverse hyperbolic functions and we would not be unduly surprised if
their differential coefficients bore some resemblance to those of the
inverse trig, functions.
Anyway, let us see what we get. The method is very much as before.

(i) y= sinh"
1
x To find ^
ax
First express the inverse statement as a direct statement.

y = sinh"
1
x .'.
x = sinh y .".
dy
= cosh y ' -f =
dx cosh j'
We now need to express coshj in terms of x

We know that cosh 2 y - sinh


2
_y = 1 .'. cosh 2 y = sinh 2 ); + 1 = x2 + 1

2
cosh^ =y/(x + 1)

dy _ I d_( ,-i 1 = 1 .

&mh X
dx V(* 2 + 1)" dx \ j V(*
2
+ 1)

Let us obtain similar results for cosh" 1 * and tanh" 1 * and then we will
take a look at them.
So on to the next frame.

229
Differentiation Applications 2

We have just established \


l
sinh x = ,. 2 \ ) 15
dx I J + 1) VO ,

(ii) y= cosh"
1
x .'. x = coshy
dx dy = 1
- = sinhy ^- .
,
.. -r-T
dy dx sinhy
Now cosh
2
y - smb. 2 y = 1 smh 2 y = cosh 2 ^ -
.'. 1 = x2 - 1

2
.'. sinh y =\J{x ~ 1)

" dx
dy_
2
.'.
l =
" 1 )" d* cosh x V(x 2 - { \

VC* 1)

Now you can deal with the remaining one


_1
If v = tanh x,-f- =
dx
_1
Tackle it in much the same way as we did for tan x, remembering this
time, however, that sech x = 1 - tanh x. You will find that useful.
2 2

When you have finished, move to frame 16.

dy _ 1
y = tanh *x
dx 1 -x 2 16
for:
1
>' = tanh x .'. x = tanhj>

dy
>,= l-tanh2 ,= l-x 2 :.%-^
tanh-x U^
Now here are the results, all together, so that we can compare them.
1
Ijsinh-xj = (iv)
V(x2 + i}

d_ 1
COSh_lx 2
(v)
dx { j-V(x -l)

sK'+ri? (v

Make a note of these in your record book. You will need to remember
these results.

Now on to frame 1 7.

230
Programme 8

I f Here are one or two examples, using the last results

-1
Example 1. y= cosh j3-2x
. dy = 1 (-2) = -2
" dx 2
V((3 - - 7(9 - 1 2x + Ax -
2
2x) 1} 1)

-2 -2 -1
= =
V(8 - \2x + Ax )
2
V(* - 3x +
2
2
2y/(x - 3x + 2) 2)

Example 2. y= tanrf
1
l^)
, dy_ 1
2 = _! 1
" ^ ,_/3*\
1
2
4 _9^ 4
i

U / 16

= 16 1= 12
16 -9x 2 '
4 16-9jc 2
1
Example 3. y= sinrT {tan jc }

2
ty - l
2 _ sec *
dx -^(tan 2 * + 1)' VWc * 2

= secx

I
O Here are a few for you to do.

Exercise

Differentiate:
1
1. y= sinh" 3x

2. y= cosh '
(

2 J
1
3. 7 = tanh" (tanx)
-1 2
A.y = sinh V(* ~ 1)

1 2 *)
5. j= cosh" (e

Finish them all. Then turn on to frame 19 for the results.

231
Differentiation Applications 2

Results:
19
dy _ 1
v 3=
1 .

1. y= sinh" 3x
dx V{(3^) 2 + 1}' 2
V(9* +l)

'(?)- t^ 1

._
5
2-
5

(?) ir M ^_ l)

// 25x
2
-4 \ V(25x 2 -4)
2

1 2 S6CX
j-tanh" (tan*) ^= t
_ tan 2 ^ . sec x=
1 -tan"*
1 2
^=
/
sinh- { v (x -l)}
dy _ 1
J_, , ,ci
^V(x 2
-1+1)-2 (X 1}
^)=V(* 2 -1)

2X
1 2 2
2e
^ = cosh (e *) :. -j- =
2 2
,2e 4JC
dx V{(e *) -1} V(e -D-
All correct?

On then to frame 20.

Before we leave these inverse trig, and hyperbolic functions, let us


look at them all together.

Inverse Trig. Functions Inverse Hyperbolic Functions


20
dy dy
y dx y dx

1 1 1
1
sin" x 2
sinh" x 2
V0-* ) V(* + 1)

1
-1 1
1
cos" * cosh" *
V(l-* 2 ) 2
V(* - 1)

1
1 1
tan" x tanh"
1
*
1+* 2 l-* 2
Itwould be a good idea to copy down this combined table, so that you
compare and use the results. Do that: it will help you to remember them
and to distinguish clearly between them.

232
Programme 8

21 Before you do a revision exercise, cover up the table you have just copied
and see if you can complete the following correctly.

1.
_ -i dy ^
If^sin-*, ;

2. If, = co,-',,g =

3. If, = tan-*,g =

_1
4. y
If J = sinh A:,-r-=
dx

5.
1
If, = cosh" *, -7- =

-1 =
6. If, = tanh *, -r-

Now check your results with your table and make a special point of
brushing up any of which you are not really sure.

22
Revision Exercise
Differentiate the following with respect to x:
-1
1. tan (sinh;>c)

1
2. sinlT (tan x)
1
3. cosh" (sec x)
1
4. tanh" (sin x)

5 sin'
.

If)
Take care with these; we have mixed them up to some extent.

When you have finished them all - and you are sure you have done
what was required check your results with those on frame 23.

233
Differentiation Applications 2

Solutions 23
1. j^tan-Csinh*) jLjtan" 1 *} =
^
'
dy
-r =
dx
,

1 + sinn x
1
. , 7 .
,
cosh x =
coshx
rj- = seen x
cosh x
,

2. j,
l
= rinlf (tan*)
fj^ x =
} ^Ti)
.'.
dy
-f-
= ;
-.

2
1

dx ^(tan * + 1)
.. sec^x =
i
, *
yseCjc
2
sec 5
= sec x

1
cosh =
3. y= cosh" (sec x)
^( "^J ^^l)
dy
= ,- ,
1

dx V(sec 2 x -
, r; -sec x. tan x = ~r 5z
Vtan x
x
se c x tan

1)

secx

y=
1
tanlT (sin x) - |
tanlT
1
x =
y^j
J

:.
dy
-r =
dx
,

1
rr"
- sin x
1
cos x= 5xx
cos
cos
= sec x

5 =sin
1 x dT-,\
i^" .,}., 7 ^ I
5
-
^ i-i
a dx" * rvo )

"dx " 7rTT

If you have got those all correct or nearly all correct you now
know quite a lot about the differential coefficients of Inverse Trig, and
Hyperbolic Functions.

You are now ready to move on to the next topic of this programme, so
off you go to frame 24.

234
Programme ,

24 Maximum and minimum values (turning points)


You are already familiar with the basic techniques for finding
maximum and minimum values of a function. You have done this kind of
operation many times in the past, but just to refresh your memory, let us
consider some function,/ = f{x) whose graph is shown below.

y = fix)

At the point A, i.e. at x = Xi , a maximum value of y occurs since at A,


the y value is greater than the y values on either side of it and close to it.

Similarly, at B,y is a .'..., since the y value at the point B is

less than the y values on either side of it and close to it.

25
y = fix)

The point C is worth a second consideration. It looks like 'half a max.


and half a min.' The curve flattens out at C, but instead of dipping down,
it then goes on with an increasingly positive slope. Such a point is an

example of a point of inflexion, i.e. it is essentially a form of S-bend.


Points A, B and C, are called turning points on the graph, or
stationary values of y, and while you know how to find the positions of
A and B, you may know considerably less about points of inflexion. We
shall be taking a special look at these.

On to frame 26.

235
Differentiation Applications 2

If we consider the slope of the graph as


draw a graph to show how this slope varies. We have no actual values for
we travel left to right, we can
26
the slope, but we can see whether it is positive or negative, more or less
steep. The graph we obtain is the first derived curve of the function and

we are really plotting the values of ~- against values of x

y = f(x)
Y (max)
A
Point of S
^^^^/+
^ inflexion
y ^/S~ \ ^S. c
-
t + r '

\-
X (min)
y^*""
"^^
]
o

X^ B
!
i

|
^>f I

; o ]

1^1 ,JC 2 1^3 X

dec

^iX S^Z ^3 X

We see that at x = x t x 2 x 3 (corresponding


, , ,
to our three turning

points) the graph of -~ is at the a: -axis and at no other points.

Therefore, we obtain the first rule, which is that for turning points,

dx
Turn on to frame 27.

236
Programme

27 For turning points, A, B, C,


dx
If we now trace the slope of the first derived curve and plot this
against x, we obtain the second derived curve, which shows values of

-% against jr.
dx Y A
y = fix)

y = f'(oc)

y = f"(x)

From the first derived curve, we see that for turning points,

dx
From the second derived curve, we see that

y d2
for maximum y, r^ is negative

f
for minimum j',
*y
-7-5
.

is
.,.
positive

d2 y
for P-of-L 2 is zero
dx
Copy the diagram into your record book. It summarizes all the facts on
max. and min. values so far.

237
Differentiation Applications 2

From the results we have just established, we can now determine 28


(i) the values of x at which turning points occur, by differentiating

the function and then solving the equation -j- =

(ii) the corresponding values of y at these points by merely substitut-


ing the x values found, in y =f(x)
(iii) the type of each turning point (max., min., or P-of-I) by testing

in the expression for -^-^


2
dx

With this information, we can go a long way towards drawing a sketch


of the curve. So let us apply these results to a straightforward example in
the next frame.

Example. Find the turning points on the graph of the function 29


x3 x2
y= -T- zr~2x + 5 . Distinguish between them and sketch the graph of
the function.

There are, of course, two stages

(i) Turning points are given by -j- =

The type of each turning point is determined by


(ii) substituting the
dy d y
roots of the equation -j- = in the expression for -j-y
cue ctx
2
rf
d y .

If ls negative, then y is a maximum,


dP
>> 5
positive, " " " " minimum,
55 1 55
zero, " " " point of inflexion.

We shall need both the first and second differential coefficients, so find
x x
them ready. If y = - - 2x + 5, then -f =
dv
and
3 2 dx
d2 y
dx 2

238
Programme ,

30 dx dx*

DaDnDnDDnnDDDnDDnnnDnnDDDnnDnDDnDnaaaD
(i) Turning points occur at =
/. x2 -x-2 = :. (x-2)(x+l) = :. jc = 2andx=-l
i.e. turning points occur at x = 2 and x=l.
(ii) To determine the type of each turning point, substitute x = 2 and
cfy
then x = -1 in the expression for -j

At x - 2, -7^3 =4-1=3, i.e. positive /. x=2 gives mn


i .

At x = -1 , ^
dx 2
= -2 -1, i.e. negative /. x = -1 gives y mstx .

Substituting in y = /(x) gives x= 2, min = if and x - -1 , j> max - >\

Also, we can see at a glance from the function, that when x = 0,y = 5.

Fow can now sketch the graph of the function. Do it.

A
6V6
31 We know that (i) at x = -1 7 max = 65
,

B
2
1 /3
- -
5 x
(ii) atx = 2, ^m in = l

(iii) at x= 0, y = 5
Joining up with a smooth curve gives:
Y

X, -( \ 2 3 4 5 X
There is no point of inflexion like the point C on this graph. Move on.

239
Differentiation Applications 2

All that was just by way of refreshing your memory on work you have 32
done before. Now let us take a wider look at these

Points of Inflexion

The point C that we considered on our first diagram was rather a


special kind of point of inflexion. In general, it isnot necessary for the
curve at a P-of-I to have zero slope.
A point of inflexion is defined simply as a point on a curve at which
the direction of bending changes, i.e. from a right-hand bend to a left-

hand bend, or from a left-hand bend to a right-hand bend.

The point C we considered is, of course, a P-of-I, but it is not essential at


a P-of-I for the slope to be zero. Points P and Q are perfectly good points
of inflexion and in fact in these cases the slope is

('positive
"J

negative |
Which?
J
zero

At the points of inflexion, P and Q, the slope is in fact


33
positive

Correct. The slope can of course be positive, negative or zero in any one
case, but there is no restriction on its sign.

DnDDnDDDnnDanDDDDnQDnnnnDaDnDDDDDnDDaD
A point of inflexion, then, is simply a point on a curve at which there is a
change in the d of b

240
Programme 8

j(l Point of inflexion: a point at which there is a change in the

direction of bending

DODDDDQDDDDDnDDDDDDDDDDDDnnnDODDDnDDDD
If the slope at a P-of-I is not zero, it will not appear in our usual max.
dy
--
and min. routine, for will not be zero. How, then, are we going to

find where such points of inflexion occur? Let us sketch the graphs of the
slopes as we did before.

L
% -N\
LH

P and Q are points


of inflexion.
v\_ In curve 1 the slope is always
,

r.hA - positive, ++ indicating a greater


positive slope than +.
5 x Similarly in curve 2, the slope i;

always negative.
dy_

dx In curve 1 ,
-r reaches a minimi
dx
value but not zero.
x
In curve 2, -r- reaches a maxinr!
dx
value but not zero.
For both points of inflexion, i.J

x = X4 and x = x s J

d2 v
dx

We see that where points of inflexion occur, -5 =

So, is this the clue we have been seeking? If so, it simply means that to
find the points of inflexion we differentiate the function of the curve
d2 y
twice and solve the equation -72 ~ 0-

That sounds easy enough! But turn on to the next frame to see what is

involved.

241
Differentiation Applications 2

We have just found that


35
dry
where points of inflexion occur, ji =

This is perfectly true. Unfortunately, this is not the whole of the story,
cPy
for it is also possible for -7-^ to be zero at points other than points of

inflexion!
d2 y
So if we solve -7-5 = 0, we cannot as yet be sure whether the solution

x =a gives a point of inflexion or not. How can we decide?


Let us consider just one more set of graphs. This should clear the
matter up.

Let S be a true point of inflexion and T a point ony =f(x) as shown.


T is not a point of inflexion.
Clearly,
36

The first derived


curves could well
look like this.

dx2

Notice the difference between the two second derived curves.

Although Tj is zero for each (at x = x 6 and x = x 7 ), how do they differ?

When you have discovered the difference, turn on to frame 37.

242
Programme 8

d2 y
37 In the case of the real P-of-I the graph of
^ crosses the x-axis.
2
d y
In the case of no P-of-I, the graph of
^ only touches the x -axis

A*y
and k adoe s not change sign.
dx*

DDDnDDnnDDDnnDDnnnnDnnnnnDDDDnnDDnnnDn
This is the clue we have been after, and gives us our final rule.

y d 2
d2 y
For a point of inflexion, -pi - and there is a change of sign of -pi
as we go through the point.

(In the phoney case, there is no change of sign.)


So, to find where points of inflexion occur,
d2 y
(i) we differentiate y = f(x)
2
-d v
twice to get
^
(ii) we solve the equation'-r^ =
y d2
(iii) we test to see whether or not a change of sign occurs in -p\ as we
go through this value of x.
v d2
For points of inflexion, then, -H[ - 0, withe of s

try =
For a with change of sign
38 P-of-I,
dP
This last phrase is all-important.
DGnnnnDnDnnnanDnnDnnnnnDDDnnDDnnnnDDDD
Example 1. Find the points of inflexion, if any, on the graph of the function I

y-^-j-Tx + 5.
d
(i) Diff. twice. =x 2
-x-2, 4$-= 2x - 1

d2 y_
For P-of-I, = 0, with change of sign. .'. 2x - 1 = .'. x=
dx
1
If there is a P-of-I, it occurs at x=
(ii) Test for change

and a point
of sign. We take
just after x=
11
x-, i.e.
a point just before

x = + a, where a is
x=
1
-z, i.e.

a small positive
x = -r~ a,

dry
quantity, and investigate the sign of -pi at these two values of x.
Turn on.

243
Differentiation Applications 2

dx 2 ^ 1 39
Atx = --a, ^A = 2(-
(i)
dP~ 2( a)-l = l-2a-l 2
= -2a (negative)

(ii) At x = -+ a,-^ = 2(^-+ a) - = + 2a -


4 1 1 1

:
2a (positive)
2
^ d
change in sign of -H, as we go through x =
r
There is a

.'.
There is a point of inflexion at x=

If you look at the sketch graph of this function which you have
already drawn, you will see the point of inflexion where the right-hand
curve changes to the left-hand curve.

Example 2. Find the points of inflexion on the graph of the function ZL|]
y = 3x s - 5xA + x + 4
d2 v
First, differentiate twice and solve the equation j-^ = 0. This will give the

values of x at which there are possibly points of inflexion. We cannot be

sure until we have then tested for a change of sign in ^ We will do that
.

in due course.
d2 v
So start off by finding an expression for -Hj and solving the equation
dx
d2 y _
n

When you have done that, turn on to the next frame.

244
Programme 8

41 We have: y = 3x s - 5x 4 +x + 4

/. ^
dx
=15x 4 -20* 3 + 1

%\ = 60x 3 - 60x 2 = 6(k 2 (jc - 1)

d 2 y_.
For P-of-1, -r-j = 0, with change of sign.

:. 60x 2 (x-l) = :. x = 0or;t=l

If there is a point of inflexion, itoccurs at x = 0, x = 1 or both. Now ,

comes the test for a change of sign. For each of the two values of x we
have found, i.e. x = and x = 1 , take points on either side of it, differing
from it by a very small amount.

(i) Forx =

At jc = -a, %\2 = 60(-a) 2 (-a - 1)


'dx
:
(+)(+)(-) = negative
No sign change.
No P-of-I.
2
At x = +a, 60(+a) (a-l)
dx 2
= (+)(+)(-) = negative J

(ii) For x = 1

At x = - a, - 2 -a-
1
|^ = 60(1 a) (l 1)

= (+)(+)(-) = negative
Change in sign.

At x = 1 + a, 60(l+a) 2 (l +a-l) :. P-of-I.


dx 2
= (+)(+)(+) = positive

Therefore, the only point of inflexion occurs when x- 1 , i.e. at the point

x=\,y = Z

That is just about all to it. The functions with which we have
there is

to deal differ, of course, from problem to problem, but the method


remains the same.

Now turn on to the next frame and complete the Test Exercise awaiting
you. The questions are all very straightforward and should not cause you
any anxiety.

245
Differentiation Applications 2

Test Exercise VIII 42


Answer all the questions.
-1 -1
1. Evaluate (i) cos (-0-6428), (ii) tan (-0-7536).

2. Differentiate with respect to x:

y=

1
(i) sin" (3* + 2)
1
.... cos" *
(")/=

(iii) 7=x 2 tan" 1

(|j

(iv) y= cosh" (1
1
- 3x)
1
(v) y= sinlf (cos x)

(vi) y= tanh" 5x
1

3. Find the stationary values ofy and the points of inflexion on the
graph of each of the following functions, and in each case, draw a
sketch graph of the function.

y = x - 6x 2 + 9x
3
(i) + 6

(ii) y = x+
x
(iii) y =xe'

Well done. You are now ready for the next programme.

246
Programme 8

Further Problems VIII

-1 1 + tan x
1. Differentiate (i) tan {-
tanxj
2
(ii) jcV(1 -a: ) -sin" 1 y/(l-x 2 )
1
sin" *
2. If y =j(l _ x 2y prove that
d
(i) {\-x*) =xy+\

3. Find when w
(i) y
J = tan-1 '
-f-
dx \\-\x
(ii) ^ = tanh M (
2x
2;

4. Find the co-ordinates of the point of inflexion on the curves

(i).y = (x-2) 2 (x-7)


3 2
(ii) y = 4x +3x -18x-9

5. Find the values of x for which the function^ =f(x), defined by


2) = (3x - l) has maximum and minimum values and
2
y(3x -
distinguish between them. Sketch the graph of the function.

6. Find the values of x at which maximum and minimum values of y


2
and points of inflexion occur on the curves = 12 lnx + x - lOx

7. If Ax 2 + &xy + 9y 2 - 8x - 24y + 4 = 0, show that when = 0,


-f

x + Jy = 1 and
d y

dx
2

=f
= x t
&-5y
4 . Hence find the maximum and

minimum values of y.

8. Determine the smallest positive value of x at which a point of


2x
inflexion occurs on the graph of y = 3 e cos(2x - 3).

9. If y
3
= 6xy -x 3 - 1 ,
prove that -f-
= % _ ~ and that the maximum
3
value of y occurs where x = 8 + 2\/l4 and the minimum value
where x 3 =8-2Vl4.

247
.

Differentiation Applications 2

x
10. For the curve y = e sin x, express -j- in the form Ae x cos(x + a)

and show that the points of inflexion occur at x = -j + kit for any

integral value of k.

1 1 Find the turning points and points of inflexion on the following


curves, and, in each case, sketch the graph.

(i) y = 2x 3 - 5x 2 + Ax - 1

,... x(x-l)

(iii) y =x + sin x (Take x and y scales as multiples of 77.)

12. Find the values of x at which points of inflexion occur on the


following curves.
2
2x 2
(i) y= e~* (ii) y= z {2x + 2x + 1)

(iii) y=x* -\0x 2 +7jc + 4

13. The signalling range (x) of a submarine cable is proportional to


2
r In ( where -r is the ratio of the radii of the conductor and cable.
-J,
Find the value of/- for maximum range.

14. The power transmitted by a belt drive is proportional to Tv - ,

where v = speed of the belt, T = tension on the driving side, and


w = weight per unit length of belt. Find the speed at which the
transmitted power is a maximum.
15. A right circular cone has a given curved surface A. Show that, when
its volume is a maximum, the ratio of the height to the base radius
isV2: 1.

16. The motion of a particle performing damped vibrations is given by


f
y= e~ sin 2t,y being the displacement from its mean position at

time t . Show that y is a maximum when t = ^ 1


tan" (2) and determine

this maximum displacement to three significant figures.

17. The cross-section of an open channel is a trapezium with base 6 cm


and sloping sides each 10 cm wide. Calculate the width across the
open top so that the cross-sectional area of the channel shall be a
maximum.

248
.

Programme 8

18. The velocity (v) of a piston is related to the angular velocity (oj) of

the crank by the relationship v = cor \ sin 6 + sin 20 I where

r = length of crank and / = length of connecting rod. Find the first


positive value of for which v is a maximum, for the case when
l = 4r.

19. A right circular cone of base radius r, has a total surface area S

and volume V. Prove that 9V 2 = r2 (S


2
- 2tt/-
2
S). If S is constant,

prove that the vertical angle (0) of the cone for maximum volume
-1
is given by =2 sin (jj.

d x dx
20. Show that the equation 4tj + 4jjt- + y?x = is satisfied by

2
e" M A
''
x = (At + B) , where and B are arbitrary constants. If
dx
x= and
at
t = C when t = 0, find A and B and show that the

2
maximum value of x is and that
2C
this occurs when t =
lie li

249
Programme 9

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION

PART1
Programme 9

Partial differentiation
1

The volume V of a cylinder of radius


rand height h is given by
V = nr2 h
i.e. V depends on two quantities, the
values of r and ft.

If we keep and increase the height h, the volume V will


r constant
increase. In these circumstances, we can consider the differential coef-
ficient of with respect to h - but only if r is kept constant.
V
dV is written
3V
i.e.
dh r constant
dh

Notice the new type of 'delta'. We already know the meaning of

By dy 9V 3V
= and -j Now we have a new one, r-is called the ^partial differential
.
J
r-.
Bx dx dh dh
coefficient of V with respect to h and implies that for our present
purpose, the value of r is considered as being kept

constant

DDDaDnaDDnnDannunDDnaDnDnnnnDDDDDnnnnn
V = nr2,,h. To find
'

.3V
ov
we differentiate the given expression, taking all

3V
K

symbols except V and h as being constant .'. ^- = 7ir


i
\ :
AT"
ah
Of course, we could have considered h as being kept constant, in which
case, a change in r would also produce a change in V. We can therefore

talk about ~ which


dr
simply means that we now differentiate V = -nr2 h
with respect to r, taking all symbols except V and r as being constant for
the time being. ^ v
:.
Y- =Tr2rh = 2nrh
dr
In the statement, V = irr2 h, V is expressed as a function of two
variables, r and h. It therefore has two partial differential coefficients,

one with respect to and one with respect to

251
Partial Differentiation 1

One with respect to r\ one with respect to h

DDnnDDDDDDDDDDDDQDnODnDQaDDDDDDDDDDnDO
Another Example
r- Let us consider the area of the curved
surface of the cylinder.

7 A = 2-nrh

A is a function of r and A, so we can


~
nnd , dA
dr
and
,

9A
dh

3A
To find-^ we differentiate the expression for A with respect to r, keep-
ing all other symbols constant.

To find we
9A
differentiate the expression for A with respect to h, keep-

ing all other symbols constant.

So, if A= 2irrh, then-r


dr
= and -tt-
dh
=

JjA = 9A =
A= 2irrh 2irh and 2irr
dr dh

ODDDDnUDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDUDDDDDDDDnnDDO
Of course, we are not restricted to-the mensuration of the cylinder.
The same happen with any function which is a function of two
will
independent variables. For example, consider z = x 2 y 3 .

Here z is a function of x and v. We can therefore find-r- and-r-


bx hy
dz
(i) To find ^- , differentiate w.r.t. x, regarding^ as a constant.

'i =2^ ^l
3=
dz
(ii) To find^-, differentiate w.r.t. y, regarding x as a constant.

~=x
dy
2 2 2 2
3y = 3x y

Partial differentiation is easy! For we regard every independent

variable, except the one with respect to which we are differentiating,


as being for the time being

252
Programme 9

constant

DnonnnnnnnnooQannDDnnonQaaoaQnonoon
Here are one or two examples:

Example 1. u=x 2 +xy+y


du
(i) To find ^
dx
, we regards as being constant.

2
Partial diff. w.r.t. x oix = 2x
" " " " xy = a constant factor)
''-
y (y is
2
" " " y 2 =0 (y is a constant term)

= 2x+y
du ,

(ii) To find - we regard x


,
as being constant.

2
Partial diff. w.r.t. y of x
2
=0 (x is a constant term)
" " " " " xy = x (x is a constant factor)

=x + 2y
by
Another example on frame 6.

Example 2. z=x 3 +y 3 ~2xy


= 3x 2
+ - 4xy = 3x 2 - Axy
dx

-= + 3v 2 - 2x 2 = 3y 2 - 2x 2
by
And it is all just as easy as that.
i

Example 3. z = (2x - y) (x + 3j))

This is a product, and the usual product rule applies except that we

keep y constant when finding , and x constant when finding


5 + + - 0)
fdx = (2x -y) (1 + 0) {x 3y) (2
-Ix-y + 2x + 6y - 4x + 5y
f=(2x-y)(0 + 3) + (x + 3y)(0-l)
= 6x-3y - x-3y = 5x-6y
Here is one for you to do.
= {Ax - 2y) (3x + Sy), find -^ and
If z
^
Find the results and then turn on to frame 7.

253
Partial Differentiation 1

Results:
| = 24x + 14y
bx
^
^
= 14jc-20j

For z = (4x- 2y) (3x + 5y), i.e. product

9z
.
= (4x - 2y) (3 + 0) + (3x + Sy) (4 - 0)
bx
= 1 2x - 6y + \2x + 20y = 24a: + 14y
9z
= (4* - 2y) (0 + 5) + (3x + Sy) (0 - 2)
9>>
= 20x - lQy - 6x - lOy = 14x-20y
There we are. Now what about this one?

Example* U z=^LZZ t
find |^ and ^
x +y bx by
Applying the quotient rule, we have
az_ fr+jO(2-0)-(2x-jQ(l+0) .
3y
bx (x+y) 2 (x+yf
aM ~(x+y) 2
by~ (x+yf
That was not difficult. Now you do this one:

T
-
=
5x +y _ 9z 9z
If z find -5- and -*-
x - jf-,
ly ox dy
When you have finished, on to the next frame.

bz -lly bz _ llx
bx (x - 2y) 2 3y (x-2^) 2 8
Here is the working:

(i) To find , we regard jy as being constant.

9z ,
(x-2y)(S+0)-(Sx+y)(l-0)
bx
5s- 10y-5s-j;_ 1 !>
(x-2y? - Oi,^
(*-2y) :

9z
(ii) To find-^ we , regard x as being constant.
y
. 9z (s-2y)(0 + l)-(5s+>Q(0-2)
" by (x - 2yf

_ x-2y + \0x + 2y 1 Ijc

(s-2>>) 2 (s-2y) a
In practice, we do not write down the zeros that occur in the working,
but that is how we think.
Let us do one more example, so turn on to the next frame.

254
Programme 9

Example 5. If z = sin(3x + 2y) find t- and r-

Here we have what is clearly a 'function of a function'. So we apply


the usual procedure, except to remember that when we are finding

dz
(i) -^- , we treaty as constant, and

(ii) -r- , we treat x as constant.


dy

Here goes then.


9z
|[
= cos(3x + 2y) X
^ (3x + 2y)
= cos(3x + 2y) X 3 = 3 cos(3x + 2y)

2 = cos(3x + 2y) X ^- (3x + 2y)


Idy dy
= cos (3* + 2^X2 = 2 cos (3x + 2y)
There So in partial differentiation, we can apply all the ordinary
it is.

rules of normal differentiation, except that we regard the independent


variables other than the one we are using, as being for the time
being

10 constant

DaanDnnnnnDDDnDnnDnannDannaaDDDnaDnann
Fine. Now here is a short exercise for you to do by way of revision

Exercise

In each of the following cases, find ^- and ^-

1 2 = 4x 2 + 3xy + Sy 2
2. z = (3jc + 2y) (4x - 5y)
3. z = tan(3* + 4y)

4. z =
sin(3x + 2y)
-
xy

Finish them all, then turn to frame 11 for the results.

255
..

Partial Differentiation 1

Here are the answers:


1
2
z = Ax + 3xy + Sy
2 11

^~=8x
dx
+ 3y
L.
^=3x
by
+ lOy

2. z = (3x + 2y) (Ax - 5y)

^=24x-7y ^=-7x-20y
Ox ay

3. z = tan(3x + Ay)


dx
= 3 sec 2
(3x + Ay) ^
ay
= 4 sec 2
(3x + Ay)

_ sin(3x +
=
4. z
xy
bz 3x cos(3x + 2v)- sin(3x + 2v)
bx x 2y
bz 2y_ cos(3x + 2v>- sin (3.x + 2y)
by xy 2
DDnDnDDnnnaanQaDDDnnaDDnnnnDaDaDnDnana
If you have got all the answers correct, turn straight on to frame 15.
If you have not got all these answers, or are at all uncertain, move to

frame 12.

Let us work through these examples in detail.

= Ax 2 + 3xy + 5y 2
1 z
|2
To find
bz
, regard y as a constant.

.'. ~ = 8x + 3y + 0, i.e. 8jc + 3y :.


j = 8x + 3y

Similarly, regarding x as constant,

r2 = 3x +
Y= + 3x + 10y, i.e. 3x + lOy .*. 10)>

2. z = (3x + 2j>) (4x - 5>0 Product rule.

= (3x + 2^)(4) + (4x-5^)(3)


||
= 12x + 8.y + 12* - \5y = 2Ax-ly

^=(3x + 2y)(-5) + (4*-5j/)(2)


= -15* - 10y + 8* - 10>- = -lx - 20)'
Turn o/i /or ?fte solutions to Nos. 3 and 4.

256
Programme 9

13 3. z = tan(3x + Ay)

2 2
Y = sec (3x + Ay) (3) = 3 sec (3x + Ay)
2
+ Ay) (4) = 4 sec 2 (3x + Ay)
Y= sec (3x

sin(3x + 2y )
4 2 =
xy
dz _ xy cos(3x + 2y) (3) -- sin(3x + 2y) (y)
bx x 2y 2
_ 3x cos(3x + 2y) - sin(3x + 2y)
x 2y
dz
Now have another go at finding r- in the same way.

Then check it with frame 14.

14 Here it is:

_ sin(3x + 2y)
=
z
xy

dz -xy cos(3x + 2y).{2) - sin (3* + 2y).(x)


by x y2
2

-2y cos(3x + 2y)-sin(3x + 2y)


xy

That should have cleared up any troubles. This business of partial


differentiation is perfectly straightforward. All you have to remember is

that for the time being, all the independent variables except the one you
are using are kept, constant and behave like constant factors or constant
terms according to their positions.

On you go now to frame 15 and continue the programme.

257
,

Partial Differentiation 1

Right. Now let us move on a step.


2
Consider z = 3x + Axy - Sy 1 15
Then
dx
= 6x + Ay and
dy
= Ax - lOj

The expression = 6x + Ay
bz
is itself a function of x and y. We could

therefore find its partial differential coefficients with respect to x or to y.

(i) If we differentiate it partially w.r.t. x, we get:


3/2 l ^2
r- I
-^ and this is written r-j (much like an ordinary second
J

differential coefficient, but with the partial 9)


2
. 9 z 9 ,, ,
. , ,

This is called the second partial differential coefficient of z with respect


tox.
(ii) If we differentiate partially w.r.t. y, we get:
*
9
-r {fi
z\
tt- }
a
and *u-
this is written r

3 z
r-
by \bx) by. ox

Note that the operation now being performed is given by the left-hand
of the two symbols in the denominator.
2
b z 9 (3z\ i)L A , 1 .

So we have this:
= 3x 2 + Axy - Sy 2
z
16

dx
= 6x + Ay = Ax-10y
by

2=6
bx
^-
by.bx
A

Of course, we could carry out similar steps with the expression for -^- on
the right. This would give us:

2 - - 10
dy

bx.by
2
KT
Note !, Z
that ^ ;-
ay. ax
oy\ox)

means ^- -r so - \
0Z \
means }
Z
ox. by

258
Programme 9

2
a z
rr- means
a Ldz
-r-{
17
DDDnDDDnDnnnDnDDnnnDnDDnnnnnDDnnDDnnDD
Collecting our previous results together then, we have
z = 3x\ + 4xy - 5y
2

, = 6x + 4y 4 *- 1 *
; dx SfTy'
'^ 2 z
f
9.T

*>= 4 a =4
dy.dx a.x.a.y

We as, that .
see, in this case, ^ .
ay. ax
= .
dx.dy
2
a z
.

There are then, two first differential coefficients, and

four second differential coefficients, though the last two


seem to have the same value.

Here is one for you to do.


2 2 2 2
If z = 5x 3 + 3x y
' + 4y
3
find ,

3z

dx by
,
Bz
,
3 z
t-t
tor' dy
,
3 z
-r-j ,
9 z
r-
tdx.dy ,
3
r
dy.dx
z
r-

When you have completed all that, turn to frame 18.

Here are the results:


= 5x 3 + 3x 2y + Ay 3
18 z

/
,'f^T = \5x
; dx
2
+6xy ^=3x
dy
'.'
2
+12y 2
2
i, a z
= 30x + 6y = 24y
^2
a*
2 ti
oy
2
* J!* = 6x a z
= 6x
dy.dx dx.dy
2 2
3 z 3 z
Again in this example also, we see that . Now do this one.
dy.dx dx.dy
It looks more complicated, but is done in just the same way. Do not rush

your time and all will be well. Here it is. Find all the first
at it; take
and second partial differential coefficients of z =x.cosyy.cosx.
Then to frame 19.

259
Partial Differentiation 1

Check your results with these. 1


z = x cosy-y.cosx
When differentiating w.r.t. x,y is constant (and therefore cos.y also)
"
" y,x""
y,x
"
(
" " COS*
cos. " )

So we get

dx =
bz
cos v + y.smx
. 3z
-r =
by
x.sin y cos

2 2
b z d z
-^^-x.cosy
2 2
z

- a r-
z
by. ox
= -sin v A
+
. .

sin x -b
bx.dy
. - sin
.

v +
+
.

sin a:

A A
And again, =r
2Z
by.bx
2Z
bx.by
-

In fact this will always be so for the functions you are likely to meet, so
that there are really three different second partial diff. coeffts. (and not
~2
four). In practice, if you have found -r ^ it is a useful check to find
-\2
'

?r separately. They should give the same result, of course.

What about this one?


If V = ln(x 2 + y 2 ), prove that-|J
+-|J
2
= 20
This merely entails finding the two second partial diff. coeffts. and sub-
stituting them in the left-hand side of the statement. So here goes :

V = \n(x 2 +y 2 )
3V 1 2x
2x = -

bx (jc
2
+ y2 ) x 2 +y 2

3
2
V = {x 2 +y 2 )2-2x.2x
2
bx
2
(x +y 2 ) 2

= 2x
2
+2y 2 -4x 2 = 2y 2 - 2x 2 (i)
2 2 2 2 2 2
(x +y ) (x +y )

a v
2
Now you find-7y in the same way and hence prove the given identity.
by

When you are ready, turn on to frame 21.

260
Programme 9

01
I We had found that
9
r-rz =
2
V 2y
;*V~;
2
~2x 2
5^
9x (x + .y )

2
So making a fresh start from V = ln(x +y 2
), we get

9y = _i_, 2v= 2y
9j
2
x +j
2
^ x 2 +/

9
2
V^(* 2 +y 2 )2-2y.2y
2 2
by (x +y 2 ) 2

_ 2x
2
+ 2y 2 - 4y 2 _ 2x 2 - 2y 2 (ii)
2 2 2
(x
2
+J ) (x +/) 2
Substituting now the two results in the identity, gives

2
JlY 3
2
V= 2y -2x 2 2x
2
- 2y 2
2 2
9x by* (x +y 2 )2 (x
2
+y 2 ) 2
z
2y - 2x + 2x - 2y
2 z 2
_
"^
(x
2
+j 2 ) 2
Afew o to frame 22.

OO Here is another kind of example that you should see.

Example 1. If V =/(x 2 +y 2 ), show that x -y =

2 2
Here we are told that Visa function of (x + y ) but the precise nature
of the function is not given. However, we