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GLOSSARY

Achal Nagar Eternal abode of residence that remains constantly permanent in one
place, without shifting, like the Pole Star.
Adi First, original.
Ajapa-jap Breath-by-breath meditation, Svas-svas meditation.
Akal Timeless.
Akal Purukh The timeless being. God. Also Akal Purakh.
Akali Literally, a worshipper of the Eternal God. Presently the term denotes a
member of the Shiromani Akali Dal, the major Sikh political party whose
headquarters are in Amritsar.
Akash Ether.
Akhand Absolute, whole.
Akhand Path A continuous recitation that takes 48 hours of the entire Guru Granth
Sahib.
Amar Immortal, Eternal, Forever.
Amrit Literally, the elixir of life. Nectar of immortality.
Amrit Sarowar The reservoir around the Harmandir Sahib.
Anand Bliss, joy.
Angad Anay : limb, ad : First, First 'men' created out of limb, Guru Angadji.
Ardas Prayer.
Arti Worship using oil lamps.
Asa di war A section of the Adi Granth.
Asan Posture, mode of sitting.
Asha Desire, hope, yearning.
Avatar Incarnation, manifestation of God-Head.
Baba A learned person; term also used for the aged and in respect, savant.
Baisakhi The harvest season, observed on April 13 each year. It is also the day on
which Guru Gobind Singh batised the Sikhs as the Khalsa.
Bani The original scriptural; Satguru's Anahad Roop.
Bedi The clan to which Guru Nanak belonged.
Ber Fruit of the jujube tree.
Bhai Brother; in popular wage it also applies to those who perform religious
services.
Bhai Maharaj Singh A Sikh of Baba Bir Singh (Norangabad), real name Nihal
Singh.
Bhai Maha Singh Father of Thakur Singh.

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Brahm The Cosmos.
Bunga Rest house, a place of dwelling.
Chakra A circular steel weapon; one of the symbols of Sikhism.
Charan Feet.
Dal Khalsa Army of the Sikhs.
Darbar Sahib Used as a synonym for the Golden Temple.
Daswandh Voluntary donation of one-tenth of one's income.
Deg A large pot, usually the Langar, daily bread.
Deg-teg-fateh A slogan used fo positive-attitube of life meaning : a well-nourished
body can hold and use the mighty sword to destroy evil and bring victory.
Desh Nation, country.
Dev God, demi-god, Devte.
Dharam Faith.
Dharam-sala Temple, Church, place of worship.
Diwan Sikh religious assembly.
Fateh Victory.
Gaddi Throne or seat of the Gurus.
Granth A complation of the sacred scriptures.
Granthi Priest.
Gurbani The scriptures compiled by the Gurus.
Gurdwara A Sikh Temple, abode of the Guru.
Gurmata The intension, resolution or will of the Guru expressed in a formal
decision.
Gurmukhi Alphabets come out of Gurus Mukh (mouth). Sikh Aplhabets.
Gurpurb A Sikh festival connected with any one of the Gurus.
Guru Literally a teacher; O spiritual teacher and guide made by a representative
assembly of Sikhs.
Guru Granth The sacred scriptures of the Sikhs, originally compiled and edited by
Guru Arjan Dev in 1604 AD.
Harimandier Literally, 'the house of God'; the central Sikh shrine in Amritsar.
Hazra Hazur Alway present, Omni-present.
Hukam Order, will.
Hukamname An edict of the Guru.
Janamsakhi A traditional biography, especially of Guru Nanak.
Jathedar Leader of a jatha.
Jhoot Lies, falsehood.

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Kacch Short breeches; one of the five K's.
Kanga Comb, one of the five K's.
Kara A loose steel wristband; one of the five K's.
Karah-Prasad A sacramental food offered to God, then distributed to all present at
Sikh religious gatherings.
Karam Karma, actions, deeds, our daily doings.
Kar-sewa The voluntary operation of cleansing and desilting the holy pool at the
Golden Temple.
Kesh Unshorn hairs, one of the five K's.
Khalsa Baptised Sikh. Khal-Shah, originally cloned out of the Khalsa.
Khalsa Panth The Sikh community.
Khanda A double edged straight sword.
Kirpan Sword. Sword worn by the Khalsa as one of the five K's.
Kirtan Singing of holy hymns, songs of Bani.
Krodh Anger, wrath.
Kudrat Entire created manifestation.
Lalach Greed, desries and longings.
Langar Community Kitchen.
Mahal House, abode of residence.
Maharaja Literally, "the great king" or 'Supreme sovereign".
Manji Ecclesiastical district; 22 manjis were established by Guru Amar Das.
Manji Sahib The low seat, somewhat similar to a cot, on which the Guru Granth
Sahib is placed in a gurdwara.
Marg Path.
Maryada Constitution, Rehatnama.
Mata Mother.
Maya Illusion, materialism.
Meeri Temporal authority in the Sikh religion.
Mela A fair or festival.
Misl Misl A Sikh confederacy in the eighteenth century.
Modikhana Store, a general shop.
Moh-mamta Material attachment.
Nam Name, The True World, Simran-Meditation the Name (Mantra).
Nath Ascetic, a sect of yogis.
Nigara A large drum.
Nihang Historically, a soldier-devotee and protector of gurdwara.

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Nirankar Formless. God.
Nirgun Formless, a description of God.
Nishan Emblem.
Nishan Sahib Flag. The National Flag of Khalsa.
Nit-nem Daily at a set and fixed time.
Palki A palangquin derived from the 'path' taken by the followers of the faith.
Pandit Priest.
Panja Palm.
Panjab Land of five rivers (in North India) : Vitsata (Jhelum), Chandra-bhaga
(Chenab), Airravti (Ravi), Vipas (Beas) and Satdraya (Sutlej) also called Sat-
ludar : from Sevan Peaks.
Panth Literally, Path, today widely used to describe the Sikh community.
Parkarma A circumambulatory walkway around a holy shrine.
Parsad Grace, divine regenerating and inspiring influence. Also on offering.
Patshah King.
Patshahi Reign, kingdom, realm.
Peeri Spiritual authority in the Sikh religion.
Puja Worship.
Pyas Thirst
Quila Fort.
Rabab Rebeck.
Ragi A musician who sings the ragas.
Rahras The evening prayer of the Sikhs
Ram Rauni Originally, a mud fortress near Amritsar, later strengthened and
renamed Ramgarh after the fourth guru Ram Das.
Rehatnama Constitution, Khalsa code of conduct.
Sach Truth.
Sacha Pathshah The True king.
Sacha-sauda A true bargain.
Sachkhand Abode of Truth.
Sadh Sadhu, a holy person.
Sadh Sangat Congregation of the holy persons.
Sahaj In spontaneous way, spontaneity. Simple and natural way.
Sahibzada Prince, son.
Samadhi Transcendental sleep, trance.
Samvat Indian era, started 57 B.C.

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Sangat Congregation.
Sant Saint.
Sanyasi Ascetic, renouncer of everything.
Sarbat Khalsa Widely attened gathering of the Sikhs, which accord collective
sanesion to all major initiatives.
Sardar A chieftain or headman, presently used as a title for all Sikh men.
Sargun The temporal realm of huma existence.
Sarowar A pool or lake.
Sarvans-dani Sacrificer of family lineage.
Sat Truth.
Sat Sri Akal Truth Conquers Always, the Universal way of Divine Order.
Satguru The True Guru.
Sati Self-immolation of Hindu widows on their husband's funeral pyres.
Satnam The True Name (Nam)
Sewa Service (also spelled 'seva').
Sewadar Caretaker.
Shabad The word.
Shabad Kirtan The vocal and musical renidtions from the sacred verses of the Adi
Granth.
Shaheed Martyr.
Shastars Weapons, arms.
Shastras Holy books, scriptures.
Shiromani The supreme committee for the admin. of the gurdwaras in Punjab.
Shish Mahal A palace or building studded with mirrors or glass-work.
Sidhas Ascetics, yogis.
Sikh Desciple, one who follows the teachings of the Guru. Guru Nanak's disciples.
Simran Meditation.
Singh Lion. Babbar Lion. Baptised Sikh.
Singh Sabha A movement comperising several Sikh societies dedicated to religious,
social and educational reforms within the Sikh community.
Singhason Thrown of the Shah Singh, Throne.
Sipahi Soldier, warriors.
Sri Sahib The sword.
Sudi Bright side of the moon, crescendo.
Takhat The Throne of Authority.
Teg Sword.

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Tilak Saffron mark put on the forehead.
Udassi Odyssey.
Upasana Congregation.
Vairagi Ascetic, renouncer of everything.
Vace The Lord's message.
Waheguru Wonderful Lord, God.
Waqf Religious properties.
Yug Yuga, age, era, period.
Yajna Oblation.
Zamburah A small gun.
Zamindar A land lord.

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